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Designation: A 31 – 00 Standard Specification for Steel Rivets and Bars for Rivets, Pressure Vessels1 This standard is issued under the fixed fixed designation A 31; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption adoption or, in the case of revision, revision, the year of last revision. revision. A number number in parentheses parentheses indicates indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. 1. Scope Scope * 3. Ordering Ordering Information Information 1.1 This specificati specification on2 covers steel rivets for use in boilers and pressure vessels and steel bars for use in the manufacture of rivets. 1.2 Two grades are covered: covered: 1.2.1   Grade A—Bars —Bars having having a yield yield point of 23 000 psi (160 MPa) minimum with no controls on carbon content. 1.2.2   Grade B—Bars —Bars having having a yield yield point of 29 000 psi (200 MPa) minimum with carbon 0.28 % maximum. 1.2.3 1.2.3 Rivets Rivets are manufa manufactu ctured red from from the applic applicabl ablee bar grade. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound inch-pound units are to to be regarded as the the stan standa dard rd.. The The valu values es give given n in pare parent nthe hese sess are are for for information only. 3.1 Orders Orders for rivets rivets and bars under this specificat specification ion shall include: 3.1.1 ASTM designati designation on and date of issue, issue, 3.1.2   Quantity—Number of pieces for rivets and weight for bars, 3.1.3 Name of product product and grade (A or B), 3.1.4 Size (diameter (diameter and length), length), 3.1.5 Rivet head head type, 3.1.6 If inspection inspection at point point of manufactu manufacture re is required, required, 3.1.7 Certificat Certification, ion, if required required (Section (Section 14), and 3.1.8 Additional testing or special special requirements, requirements, if required. 3.1.9 For establish establishment ment of a part identifyin identifying g system, system, see ASME B18.24.1. 2. Referenced Documents NOTE   1—A typical ordering description is: ASTM A 31 – 82, 10 000 pieces, steel rivets Grade A, 1 ⁄ 2  by 2 in., button head, test reports required. required. 2.1   ASTM Standards: A 29/A29M Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Alloy, Hot-Wrough Hot-Wroughtt and Cold-Fini Cold-Finished, shed, General General Requireme Requirements nts 3 for A 370 Test Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing Testing 4 of Steel Products A 751 Test Test Methods Methods,, Practi Practices ces,, and Termino erminolog logy y for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products 4 F 1470 Guide for Fastener Sampling for Specified Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection 5 Standards: 2.2 ANSI/ASME Standards: B18.1.1 B18.1.1 Small Solid Solid Rivets 7 ⁄ 16 16  Inch Nominal Diameter and 6 Smaller B18.1.2 B18.1.2 Large Rivets Rivets 1 ⁄ 2   Inch Inch Nomin Nominal al Diame Diamete terr and and 6 Larger B18.24.1 B18.24.1 Part Identifyin Identifying g Number Number (PIN) Code System7 4. Materials Materials and Manufacture Manufacture 4.1 4.1 The stee steell shal shalll be made made by any any of the the foll follow owin ing g processes: open-hearth, electric-furnace, or basic-oxygen. 4.2 Rivets Rivets shall be manufactur manufactured ed from rivet rivet bars conformconforming to the applicable grade ordered. 4.3 Rivets Rivets shall be manufactur manufactured ed by hot- or cold-heading. cold-heading. 4.4 Bars shall be furnished furnished as rolled rolled and not pickled, pickled, blast cleaned, or oiled. At producer’s option, bars may may be cleaned for inspection or cold drawn. 5. Chemical Composition Composition 5.1 The steel shall conform to chemical chemical composition composition prescribed in Table 1. 5.2   Heat Analysis—An analysis of each heat of steel shall be made by the the bar manufacturer manufacturer to determine determine for Grades Grades A and B the percen percentag tages es of carbon carbon,, mangan manganese ese,, phosph phosphoru orus, s, and sulfur sulfur.. This This analys analysis is shall shall be made made from from a test test ingot ingot taken taken during the pouring of the heat. The chemical composition thus determined shall be reported to the purchaser or his representative and shall conform to the requirements for heat analysis in accordance with Table 1. 5.3   Product —An anal analys ysis is may may be made made by the the Product Analysis—An purchaser from finished materials representing each heat. The chemical chemical composition composition thus determined determined shall conform to the requirements for product analysis prescribed in Table 1. 1 This This specific specificatio ation n is under under the jurisdi jurisdictio ction n of ASTM Committ Committee ee F16 on Fasteners and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F 16.02 on Steel Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, and Washers. Washers. Current Current editio edition n approv approved ed May 10, 2000. 2000. Publish Published ed July July 2000. 2000. Origin Originally ally published as A 31 – 01. Last previous edition A 31 – 95. 2 For  For   ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code  applications see related Specification SA-31 in Section II of that Code. 3   Vol 01.05.  Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Standards, Vol 4   Vol 01.03.  Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Standards, Vol 5  Annual Book of ASTM Standards Standards,, Vol 01.08. 6 Available from American National Standards Institute , 11 W. W. 42nd St., 13th Fl., New York, NY 10036. 7 Available vailable from from America American n Society Society of Mechani Mechanical cal Enginee Engineers, rs, Three Three Park  Park  Avenue, New York, NY 10016–5990. *A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard. Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. 1 A 31 TABLE 1 Chem Chemical ical Requirem Requirements ents Grade A Carbon, max, % Mang Ma nga ane nese se,, % Phosphorus, max, % Sulfur, max, % TABLE TABLE 2 Bend Requirem Requirements, ents, Rivets Rivets Grade B Heat Analysis Product Analysis Heat Analysis Product Analysis ... 0.3 .30– 0–0. 0.60 60 0.040 0.050 ... 0.27 0. 27–0 –0.6 .63 3 0.048 0.058 0.28 0.30 0. 30– –0. 0.80 80 0 .0 4 0 0.050 0.31 0.2 0. 27– 7–0 0.8 .83 3 0.048 0.058 Diameter of Rivet Shank, in. Ratio of Bend Diameter to Diameter of River Shank Grade A  ⁄ 4  and under Over 3 ⁄ 4 Grade B flat flat 3 1 11 ⁄ 2 5.4 App Applic licati ation on of hea heats ts of ste steel el to whi which ch bis bismut muth, h, sel seleenium, tellurium, or lead has been intentionally added shall not be permitted. 5.5 Chemi Chemical cal analyses shall be perf performed ormed in accor accordance dance with Test Methods A 751. 6. Mechanical Properties Properties 6.1   Rivet Bend Tests: 6.1.1 The rivet rivet shank shank of Grade A stee steell shall stand stand being being bent cold through 180° flat on itself, as shown in Fig. 1, without cracking on the outside of the bent portion. 6.1.2 The rivet shank of Grade B steel shall stand stand being bent cold through 180° without cracking on the outside of the bent portion in accordance with Table 2. 6.2  Rivet Flattening Tests —The rivet head shall stand being flattened, while hot, to a diameter 2 1 ⁄ 2 times the diameter of the shank, as shown in Fig. 2, without cracking at the edges. 6.3   Bar Tensi —Bar arss sh shal alll co conf nfor orm m to th thee ensile le Pro Propert perties ies—B tensile requirements in accordance with Table 3. 6.4   Bar Bend Tests: 6.4.1 The test specimen specimen for Grade A steel bars shall stand being bent cold through 180° flat on itself without cracking on the outside of the bent portion. 6.4.2 The test specimen specimen for Grade B stee steell bars shall stand being bent cold through 180° without cracking on the outside of the bent portion to an inside diameter which shall have a relation to the diameter of the specimen in accordance with Table 4. FIG. 2 Flattening Test of Rivet TABLE TABLE 3 Tensile Tensile Requirem Requirements, ents, Bars Bars Tensi ensile le stre streng ngth th,, psi psi (MPa (MPa)) Yield point, min, psi (MPA) Elongation in 8 in. or 200 mm, min, % Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, % Grade A Grade B 45 000 000–5 –55 5 000 000 (310–380) 23 000 (160) 27 58 000–68 000 (400–470) 29 000 (200) 22 33 25 TABLE TABLE 4 Bend Requirem Requirements, ents, Bars Bars Specimen Diameter, in. Ratio of Bend Diameter to Diameter of Specimen Grade A  ⁄ 4  and under Over 3 ⁄ 4 Grade B flat flat 3 1  ⁄ 2 1 7.2   Bars—The diameter of hot-finished rivet bars shall not vary fro vary from m the size specified specified by mor moree tha than n the amounts amounts in accordance with Table 5. 7. Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variations Variations 7.1   Rivets: 7.1.1 7.1 .1 The dim dimens ension ionss of riv rivets ets sha shall ll con confor form m to ANS ANSII B18.1.2 for nominal diameters in. and larger and B18.1.1 for nominal diameters 7 ⁄ 16 16  in. and less. 7.1.2 Snap gage measurem measurement ent shall be made at the point of  minimum diameter, but it is not required that the rivet shall turn completely in the gage. Measurements of the maximum tolerance shall be made with a ring gage, all rivets to slip full to the head in the gage of the required size for the various diameters. 8. Wo Workmanship, rkmanship, Finish, and Appearance 8.1   Rivets—The finished rivets shall be true to form, concentric, and free of injurious defects. TABLE 5 Permissible Permissible Variat Variations ions in the Size of Hot-Rolled Hot-Rolled Rounds Variations, from Size, in. Over Under Out-ofRound,A in. 5 16 and under  ⁄ 16 7 Over 5 ⁄ 16 16  to  ⁄ 16 16, incl 5 Over 7 ⁄ 16 16  to  ⁄ 8, incl 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 Over 5 ⁄ 8  to 7 ⁄ 8, incl Over 7 ⁄ 8 to 1, incl Over 1 to 11 ⁄ 8, incl 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.012 0.013 0.015 Over 11 ⁄ 8  to 11 ⁄ 4, incl Over 11 ⁄ 4  to 13 ⁄ 8, incl Over 13 ⁄ 8  to 11 ⁄ 2, incl 0.011 0.012 0.014 0.011 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.021 Specified Size, in. A Out-of-round is the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters of the bar, measured at the same cross section. FIG. 1 Bend Test of Rivet 2 A 31 8.2   Bars: 8.2.1 Bars shall be free of visi visible ble pipe, undue segregation, segregation, and injurious surface imperfections. Finish sh—Th 8.2.2   Surface Fini —Thee bar barss sha shall ll hav havee a com commer mercia ciall hot-wrought finish obtained by conventional hot rolling. See 4.4 for producer’s descaling option. 12.2 The inspe inspector ctor representin representing g the purchaser shall have free fr ee en entr try y at al alll ti time mes, s, wh whil ilee wo work rk on th thee co cont ntra ract ct of th thee purchaser is being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer’s works that concern the manufacture of the material ordered. The manuf manufactur acturer er shall afford afford the inspe inspector ctor all reas reasonabl onablee facilities, without charge, to satisfy him that the material is being furnished in accordance with this specification. All tests (except product analysis) and inspection shall be made at the place pla ce of ma manuf nufact acture ure pri prior or to shi shipme pment, nt, unl unless ess oth otherw erwise ise spec sp ecifi ified ed,, an and d sh shal alll be so co cond nduc ucte ted d as no nott to in inte terf rfer eree unnecessarily with the operation of the works. 9. Numb Number er of Tests Tests and Rete Retests sts 9.1   Rivets—Sa —Sampl mpling ing for riv rivet et ben bend d and riv rivet et flat flatten tening ing tests tes ts sha shall ll be in acc accord ordanc ancee wit with h Gui Guide de F 147 1470, 0, det detect ection ion process. 9.2   Bars: 9.2.1 Two tension tests shall be made made from each heat, unless the finished material from a heat is less than 50 tons (45 Mg), when one tension test will be sufficient. However, for material 2 in. (51 mm) and under in thickness, when the material from one heat dif differs fers 3 ⁄ 8   in. (9.5 mm) or more in thi thickn ckness ess,, one tensio ten sion n tes testt sha shall ll be mad madee fro from m bot both h the thickest thickest and the thinnest material rolled regardless of the weight represented. Each test shall conform to the specified requirements. 9.2.2 9.2 .2 Retests Retests on bar barss may be mad madee in acc accord ordanc ancee wit with h Specification A 29/A 29M. 13. Reje Rejectio ction n and Rehea Rehearing ring 13.1   Rivets—Rivets that fail to conform to the requirements of thi thiss spe specifi cificat cation ion may be rej reject ected. ed. Rej Reject ection ion sho should uld be reported to the producer or supplier promptly and in writing. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the test, the producer or supplier may make claim for a rehearing. 13.2   Bars—Rejection and rehearing shall be in accordance with Specification A 29/A 29M. 14. Certification 14.1 When specified specified on the purchase purchase orde order, r, the manufacturer shall furnish certification that the material was manufactured and tested in accordance with this specification together with a report of the heat analysis (5.2) and mechanical property test results (Section 6) as applicable to the product ordered. The report shall include the manufacturer’s name, ASTM designation, grade, heat number (bars only), and authorized signature. 10. Specimen Preparation Preparation 10.1   Rivets—Rivets shall be tested in their full-size finished condition. 10.2   Bars: 10.2.1 Test specimen specimen selec selection tion and prepa preparati ration on shal shalll be in accordance with Specification A 29/A 29M and Test Methods A 370. 10.2.2 Ten Tension sion and bend test specimens for rivet rivet bars which have been cold drawn shall be normalized before testing. 15. Responsibilit Responsibility y 15.1 15. 1 The par party ty res respon ponsib sible le for the fas fasten tener er sha shall ll be the organization organiza tion that suppl supplies ies the fast fastener ener to the purchaser and certifies that the fastener was manufactured, sampled, tested, and inspected in accordance with this specification and meets all of its requirements. 11. Test Methods 11.1   Rivets—Ri —Rivet vet ben bend d and flat flatten tening ing tes tests ts sha shall ll be in accordance with the manufacturers standard test procedures. 11.2   Bars—T —Tensi ension on and bend test testss shall be condu conducted cted in accordance with Test Methods A 370, and especially Supplement I thereof, on steel bar products. 16. Packa Packaging ging and Package Marking Marking 16.1   Rivets—Rivets shall be properly packed and marked to prevent damage and loss during shipment. 16.2   Bars—Bars shall be packed and marked in accordance with Specification A 29/A 29M. 12. Inspe Inspection ction 12.1 If the testing testing described described in Section 9 is requi required red by the purchaser, it shall be specified in the inquiry and contract or order. 17. Keyw Keywords ords 17.1 bars; carbon steel; pressure pressure vess vessel el rive rivets; ts; rivets; steel 3 A 31 SUMMARY OF CHANGES This section identifies the location of selected changes to this specification that have been incorporated since the –95 issue. For the convenience of the user, Committee F16 has highlighted those changes that may impact the use of this specification. This section may also include descriptions of the changes or reasons for the changes, or both. (1) Added 3.1.9, providing providing for optional optional use of ASME B18.24.1, Part Identifying Number (PIN) Code System. The American Society for Testing Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection  with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such  patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and  if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards  and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible  technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your  views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at  610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or [email protected] (e-mail); or through the ASTM website ( 4