The lost Tudor queen
REVENGE OF THESAMURAI
WOMEN WHO WON SPACE RACE THE
From child hostage to Japan’s supreme shogun
HITLER racism & repression in his quest to restore German “greatness”
PLUS: THE SILK ROAD ROMAN MEDICAL SCHOOL COSMETICS THROUGH THE AGES BATTLE OF COLENSO FLYING HOSPITALS
How a student strike spiralled out of control
Inside the feud that changed the world
PROTESTS IN PARIS
Delve into the mysteries of Henry VIII’s warship
The Earl of Rochester’s life of wit, wine & women
EDISON VERSUS TESLA
Secrets of the Mary Rose
LONDON’S REAL LIBERTINE
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Discover the story of Japan’s most powerful shogun on page 42
We know all too well how the story ended, but how did Germany go from Weimar to Führer? On page 30, we explore the maelstrom of events that led to Hitler’s rise to power, and look at what led TIME magazine to declare him Person Of The Year in 1938, the man or woman who “had the greatest influence, for better or worse, on the events of the year.” Two men who certainly made a positive impact on the world were Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla. These brilliant scientific minds nonetheless warred over who would power the world’s future, sparking one of history’s most infamous feuds – find out more on page 58.
Editor’s picks Of course, there are many forgotten heroes throughout history, whose contributions have been overlooked. Take, for example, the women of NASA who helped put man into orbit. In a period of shameful segregation, this story is perhaps all the more compelling. On page 68, discover how these brilliant women changed the world.
Be part of history
The Earl of Rochester
Edison versus Tesla
Depraved and desired, London’s Restoration rogue led an extraordinary life. Discover why he was kicked out of King Charles II’s court on more than one occasion. Find out what happened when two geniuses collided in the War of the Currents: the feud that sent sparks flying and changed the world forever. Did you know that everyone in Ancient Egypt wore eyeliner? It wasn’t just for aesthetics, either. We reveal the unusual origins of beauty products and trends.
Jodie Tyley Editor
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HITLER 30 Uncover the tricks, lies and treachery of the Nazi leader
16 Timeline See how medicine and techniques have evolved over the centuries
18 A day in the life Follow a MASH doctor on the front line in Korea, from pitching tents to treating patients
20 Anatomy of A Crimean war nurse
22 Inside history Take a tour around a flying hospital
24 How to
Find out what it takes to become a Roman doctor
26 5 shocking facts Discover the psychological effects of war and how they were treated
28 Hall of fame Meet the heroes of medicine who saved countless lives and limbs
42 Revenge of the samurai warlord
68 NASA’s forgotten geniuses
From child hostage to the most powerful shogun in Japan: how one man claimed the ultimate prize
The story of the women computers who helped win the Space Race and put man on the Moon
58 Edison vs Tesla Inside the War of the Currents: the feud between two genius inventors that changed the world
80 Secrets of the Mary Rose
4 Be part of history
Delve into the mysteries of Henry VIII’s favourite warship
EVERY ISSUE 06 History in pictures
Four incredible photos with equally amazing stories
40 Time traveller’s handbook
68 66 What if
Your guide to getting by in Samarkand in the late-14th century
52 Bluffer’s guide How student strikes in 1960s Paris spiralled out of control
54 Hero or villain?
Discover what might have happened had Lady Jane Grey kept the throne
Read about the X-rated Restoration poet who dared to mock the king
64 Through history From the deadly to the medicinal, make-up has been a staple of societies for centuries
76 Greatest battles A blow-by-blow account of the Battle of Colenso in 1899 – the third British defeat by Boers in five days
89 How to make… The fermented fish sauce Garum was the ketchup of the ancient world
90 Reviews Our verdict on the latest reference books, novels and films
94 History answers
What were universities like in the Middle Ages? Experts answer your curious questions about the past
98 History vs Hollywood How accurate is The Book Thief’s depiction of Nazi Germany?
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HISTORY IN PICTURES FREE NELSON MANDELA A band of demonstrators gather outside the Johannesburg City Hall, where Nelson Mandela appeared on a charge of enticement. He had eluded capture for 15 months, but a tip-off from a CIA agent reportedly led to his arrest. Mandela, aged 44, had been at the top of the South African police’s most wanted list for protesting apartheid and resisting white minority rule. His wife was in the crowd outside.
THE REAL ‘ROSIE RIVETER’ As men were called away to fight in WWII, women filled the factories and shipyards. They became engineers, electricians, and built weapons and vehicles. The woman pictured here, working on an aircraft motor at the North American Aviation plant in California, could easily be mistaken for Rosie the Riveter. The star of the government campaign represented the American women who served their country.
HISTORY IN PICTURES IN THE LIVE LOUNGE Ethnographer Frances Densmore worked to preserve American Indian music. She is shown here with Mountain Chief of the Blackfoot tribe during a phonograph recording session. During her career, Densmore collected thousands of recordings in a bid to preserve Native American culture at a time when the US government was encouraging indigenous people to adopt Western customs.
OH! YOU PRETTY THING Backstage at Lewisham Odeon, London, David Bowie prepares for a Ziggy Stardust concert on 24 May. The tour began in February 1972 and travelled all around the UK, North America and Japan. Bowie told Music Scene that he bought his make-up from a shop in Rome that imported shockingly bright colours from India. Here, guitarist Mick Ronson can also be seen reflected behind him.
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War often serves as a catalyst for change, especially when it comes to medicine. Discover the tried and tested techniques from the front line
Battleﬁeld medicine across history With the progression of weaponry comes the advancement of medicine that helps save life and limb
ROMAN MILITARY MEDICINE Roman legions are sent to war with specialist military physicians. Field hospitals are constructed, with surgeons able to complete numerous procedures, and physicians carry herbs to make poultices and treat wounds.
BATTLE AT CASTLE VILLAINE
French military surgeon Ambroise Paré revolutionises amputation. Instead of cauterising with hot oil, he ties arteries with ligatures and uses tinctures of turpentine, rose oil and egg yolk to seal wounds.
Vaccinations have been in development since the 1700s, but now soldiers are routinely vaccinated against diseases such as tetanus, typhoid and tuberculosis, further reducing the chances of disease spreading through ranks.
Scottish biologist and pharmacologist Alexander Fleming develops the first true antibiotic – this is the drug that will revolutionise the treatment of wounds received in battle and greatly diminish the amount of deaths caused by disease following injury.
20 TIMES 17,000 MEN 12 HOURS
Supported by helicopter evacuations, US Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) units bring skilled surgeons closer to the front lines. A casualty at a MASH unit has a 97 per cent chance of survival.
COMBAT SUPPORT HOSPITALS Replacing the MASH units, US Army Combat Support Hospitals (CSHs) and Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) are swiftly set up, better equipped, more durable and have links to fixed medical facilities.
Thanks to immunisation, of the
wounded at Dunkirk, NOT ONE gets tetanus
Motorised, mobile surgical units mean that many casualties can be seen within
The British Army uses blood transfusions to treat wounded soldiers. US Army medics stockpile and properly store blood; the first blood bank is set up on the Western Front in 1917.
WORLD WAR II The demand for penicillin sees developers create a strain
French military medic Dominique Jean Larrey implements the ‘triage’ process – the critically wounded are seen first without regard to rank or distinction, followed by those who are less in need of medical help.
DISCOVERY WORLD WAR I OF PENICILLIN
SPANISH CIVIL WAR
FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS
THE EARLY AMBULANCES
SIEGE OF SEVASTOPOL
125 MEN 10 BATTALIONS Napoleon is recommended to set up the first army nurses – a group of
run by the ‘centenier’.
Ambulances are stretchers, or carts, pulled by
2 OR 4 HORSES
THE SIEGE OF PARIS
Total German deaths:
The first air-ambulance is created as military medical evacuations by air take place by hot air balloon. About 160 trauma-victim soldiers are moved from the battlefield to military hospitals.
British surgeon Joseph Lister publishes his work on aseptic technique – using carbolic acid to sterilise wounds and instruments. He also devises a field dressing for use in war zones to keep wounds sterile.
The German side uses Lister’s aseptic techniques in their field hospitals
WAR IN AFGHANISTAN Medics can get a helicopter from Camp Bastion to a casualty in under
19 MINUTES 87.9% 265 TROOPS
and back to the UK in
Building on previous models, UH-60 Blackhawk helicopters are configured with state-of-the art medical technology, providing fast and efficient evacuation and allowing doctors to begin treating patients from the moment they arrive.
The future of battlefield medicine is a wearable device to monitor troops’ vital signs, relaying data to nerve centres before, after Robotics and during is a key field for development to injury to protect life, prevent help medics injury and streamline tailor the surgical procedure care that patients need.
of all injuries from this conflict are caused by explosions
Medical care improves so much that
survive injuries that would have been fatal at the beginning of the war.
© Alamy, Getty Images
A turning point: more soldiers die of their actual war wounds than of the onset of disease following injury
Deaths from war wounds:
Deaths from disease:
Jonathan Letterman helps to win the war for the Union by implementing an efficient medical supply-distribution strategy and setting up a tiered system of field hospitals to clear battlefields of casualties in just 24 hours.
Russian surgeon Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov is the first to bring ether as surgical anaesthesia Of the to a battlefield 620,000 soldiers killed, during the Siege of two-thirds died from Sevastopol. Later disease and not a he also pioneers result of enemy the use of plaster fire casts to set bones.
They are organised into
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Day in the life
SAVING SOLDIERS’ LIVES ON THE FRONT LINE, KOREA, 1950-53 During World War II, soldiers who had been wounded in battle had to be evacuated to fixed field hospitals to receive treatment, but these were often so far away from the front lines that the patient would die en route. By the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the need for mobile medical aid was evident, and so the US Army established the first mobile army surgical hospital (MASH). These units could be set up close to the front line relatively quickly and move with it, ensuring soldiers urgently received the medical care they needed to greatly increase their chances of survival. MASH units continued to be used throughout several conflicts, including the Vietnam War, until being decommissioned in 2006.
After travelling through the night over tough mountain terrain in hostile territory, trucks loaded with tents, medical supplies and medical personnel would offload their cargo in a suitable setting between six and 16 kilometres from the front line. Here the tents were pitched, and up to 200 hospital beds were set up inside. The entire process took no more than four hours.
Wounded soldiers were initially taken to battle aide stations, small medical units with limited capabilities located on the front line. At these stations they would receive basic emergency care from general medical officers, before either being returned to duty or evacuated by helicopter to the nearest MASH unit for further treatment. Some units received as many as 1,000 casualties a day.
Various countries operated their own MASH units. Here a Norwegian nurse tends to a Canadian soldier
Doctors and nurses at the MASH would assess each new patient using the triage system, determining the priority of treatment based on the severity of their condition. The adopted principle was: “Life takes precedence over limb, function over anatomical defects.” Due to the sheer number of patients, the seriously injured were sometimes left to die so that others could be saved.
MASH surgery was often crude but effective, with an impressive patient survival rate
MASH units were equipped with laboratories and X-ray machines to help with patient diagnosis, but unfortunately they did not have heating or air conditioning. The extremes of temperature experienced near the front lines meant that the staff and patients had to deal with freezing and sweltering conditions, which often made operations difficult and hindered patient recovery times.
Each MASH unit typically had five operating tables – often just stretchers balanced on trestle tables – and was staffed by ten doctors, ten nurses and a few dozen enlisted men. The doctors were usually drafted as residents or interns, and given only three days of formal army medical training before having to perform their first surgery. Most of their training was on the job.
Although some days were non-stop, with staff working 12-hour shifts to get through the backlog of patients, others were relatively quiet. During their downtime, the doctors and nurses could retreat to their living quarters to rest, read, socialise and even dance. Sometimes more senior doctors took this time to train others in new procedures and treatments.
95 per cent of the patients treated by MASH units left them alive. As soon as their condition was considered stable, they would either be returned to duty or evacuated to a permanent hospital for further treatment. Each MASH unit was assigned four helicopters for transporting patients to and from the tents, as well as delivering medical supplies and blood for transfusions.
As the front line shifted, so did the MASH units. When the order to ‘bug out’ came, the remaining patients were evacuated, the tents were taken down, the supplies were packed up and everything was loaded onto the trucks, all within six hours. Some hospitals moved once a week on average, while others were able to stay put for around a month at a time.
ility, With both air and road mob MASH units could extract men from almost any situaion
ACRIMEAN WARNURSE CRIMEA, 1853-56
NURSING WITH FRILLS
Women were expected to keep their heads covered at all times, but nurses’ caps also served the purpose of keeping their hair out of their faces while they worked. The more senior the nurse, the longer and frillier her cap, helping others to identify her rank.
FOR THE LATE NIGHT ROUNDS
Although not common practice, famous Crimean War nurse Florence Nightingale would check on her patients after the medical officers had retired for the night. She would roam the dark hospital wards using a candle lantern to light her way, earning her the nickname ‘the lady with the lamp’.
MINIMAL PROTECTION BEFORE HEALTH AND SAFETY
Little was known about sanitation and the spread of infection, and so wearing gloves or masks was thought to be unnecessary. Because of this, and the dirty conditions of the hospitals, more patients died from diseases such as typhus and cholera than from their war injuries.
NIGHTINGALE’S NURSES POST-WAR CHANGES TO THE NURSES’ UNIFORM
ter returning from the Crimean ar, Florence Nightingale established e first professional training school r nurses, and one of her students lped her to design a more practical iform. It consisted of a simple and ht-coloured ankle-length dress, l-length apron and short, squareaped cap.
KEEPING IT CLEAN
Nurses were issued their uniforms by the government, but very few of the garments provided were practical. Aprons and rubber galoshes were considered enough to help keep the nurses’ clothes clean, while the rest of the outfit simply provided modesty and warmth.
© Kevin McGivern
IN THE HABIT
As nuns had typically been the ones to provide care to the sick, early nursing uniforms were modelled on a nun’s habit. The dark, heavy gowns made of linen, cotton and wool covered as much of the body as possible, as they were thought to act as a shield from infection.
NURSE S OWN
Beneath their governmentissued uniform, nurses were expected to wear their own undergarments, including a smock, petticoat, stockings and corset stiffened with flat strips of steel or plastic. Although not very easy to move around in, this was considered the only acceptable mode of dress for a working woman.
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BATTLEFIELD MEDICINE Patient care The C-54M flying hospital accommodated up to 32 patients in anti-vibration litter slings with 47 centimetres of clearance between each stretcher, providing a stable ride across many kilometres to medical facilities. Adjustable brackets allowed the slings to be spaced further apart for more room in the event fewer patients were aboard, while an electrical stretcher lift loaded and unloaded patients from their berths.
A FLYING HOSPITAL
KOREAN WAR, KOREAN PENINSULA, 1950-53 Aeromedical evacuation saved thousands of lives during the Korean War. The doctrine was developed during World War II, reducing the time it took to get from the battlefield to care facilities from days to mere hours. US Army and Air Force procedures evolved rapidly from 1950 to 1953, particularly with the introduction of helicopters in large numbers and the modification of cargo and transport planes for medical purposes. Major General Matthew Ridgway, commander of United Nations forces in Korea, praised medical airlift personnel involved in lifesaving efforts that stretched across thousands of kilometres to hospitals in Japan and eventually the United States. The wounded soldier in Korea had a significantly better chance of recovery, he said, “…in large measure because of his ready accessibility to major medical installations provided by rapid medical evacuation.” Typically, aeromedical evacuation during the Korean War involved rescue transport by modified helicopters or light aircraft, including the Bell H-13 Sioux and Stinson L-5 Sentinel, to mobile surgical hospitals or other facilities in the country. From there, Douglas C-47 Skytrain or C-54 Skymaster aircraft, specially modified to carry casualties, flew seriously wounded personnel to hospitals elsewhere in Korea or Japan. The modified C-54 and Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter further transported patients across the expanse of the Pacific Ocean to Travis Air Force Base, California. A fleet of 30 converted C-54s, designated the C-54M, entered service in the spring of 1951 and, along with the modified C-97C, actually served as flying hospitals accommodating dozens of stretchers, nurses’ stations, medical supplies, and even a galley to prepare food during long flights. By the end of the Korean War, US medical evacuation troop carrier squadrons had made 12,000 flights, transporting more than 280,000 patients. More than 41,000 wounded soldiers received in-flight medical care en route from Japan to the United States.
Cargo space During return flights from the United States or Japan, the C-54M was readily adapted to carry shipments of cargo to Korea. The electrically operated patient lift doubled as a cargo loading apparatus with a weight capacity of up to 225 kilograms. Prior to its use as a flying hospital, the C-54M was originally modified as a coal-carrying aircraft during the Berlin Airlift of 1948-49.
Engines The C-54M flying hospital was powered by four potent Pratt & Whitney R-2000-9 radial engines, each of which delivered 1,450 horsepower. In contrast to twin-engine aircraft, the C-54M and the C-97C were more reliable and comfortable as well as capable of completing the long-distance flights that returned casualties from Korea and Japan to medical facilities in the United States. The range of the C-54M was 6,400 kilometres, limiting necessary refuelling stops along the way.
Galley A galley was available for the preparation of hot meals for patients, medical personnel and aircrews during long flights across the Pacific Ocean. The efficiency of such on-board services not only made these flights more comfortable but also helped to shorten their duration. The configuration of the C-54M facilitated in-flight patient care on a level that exceeded expectations.
Nurses’ station A fully equipped nurses’ station allowed medical personnel aboard the C-54M to provide the best care possible to the sick and wounded. The availability of supplies and medicines was critical to the well-being of the patients, particularly during the hours-long flights from Asia to the United States. Nurses were able to chart patients’ conditions, dispense medications and perform other aspects of basic care while in flight.
The exterior of the C-54M flying hospital was painted primarily in a white colour scheme to reflect the rays of the Sun, while thick insulation of bulkheads and other surfaces along with specially treated glass also prevented the build-up of heat in the aircraft interior. During long flights, patient comfort was among the primary concerns of the medical personnel and aircrews aboard the flying hospitals.
Air circulation An air-conditioning system was installed aboard the C-54M with controls that could be manipulated by individual patients, providing the circulation of cool or warm air throughout the aircraft. The C-54M was the first aircraft to provide air conditioning that was controlled by the patients, and the system operated efficiently in the air and on the ground.
Wide exit Already adapted for the loading and unloading of substantial cargo, the exit from the C-54M flying hospital was ideal for the easy movement of patients into and out of the aircraft. At times patients were transported with oxygen and intravenous fluids that were problematic during ingress and egress. However, the wide exit and other design adaptations of the C-54M effectively managed the issue.
To prevent the transportation and introduction from Asia to the United States of insects or pests that might endanger native species or destroy crops, the C-54M was equipped with an ingenious insect control system. Operated by exterior controls and a pilot’s button, the system sprayed insecticide from 15 nozzles positioned about the aircraft to thoroughly treat it against infestation.
Critically wounded or sick patients often required oxygen, and the C-54M was equipped with a system that supplied it to individual litter sling positions aboard the aircraft. Without a centrally supplied oxygen system, medical personnel would have been required to operate heavy tanks aboard the plane, taking up valuable space, increasing the in-flight weight of the aircraft and presenting a substantial safety hazard.
The C-131 Samaritan was an American twin-engined military transport produced from 1954
© Adrian Mann
BECOMEAROMANDOCTOR A STRONG STOMACH AND A SKILLED HAND ARE REQUIRED TO TREAT THE LEGIONS ROMAN EMPIRE, C.27 BCE – 476 Roman battlefield medicine was the best in the ancient world. Drawing inspiration from older Greek practices, the Romans introduced their own additions that saved many lives. In everyday Roman life, medicine was a rather private event, with some households retaining staff with medical knowledge. This was in contrast to military medicine, which was practiced publicly. The first emperor, Augustus, established the medical corps to deal with the ailments that might afflict a soldier in the field. These doctors, known as medici, brought cutting-edge expertise to soldiers around the empire, and many of their practices are still used in modern medicine.
WHAT YOU’LL NEED…
Experience Under Emperor Augustus, Roman Medical Corps were created with specialist knowledge of treating wounds.
Supplies It’s said that ‘an army marches on its stomach’, and Roman doctors knew the importance of a healthy diet for soldiers.
Hygiene Roman doctors used vinegar or boiling water to sterilise their tools, helping to keep wounds free from infection.
Pharmacology Knowing the medicinal properties of plants was essential. A field hospital would have had a dedicated garden for medicinal herbs.
Instruments A skilled hand was needed to use the bronze or silver tools like scalpels, forceps, tweezers, lancers and needles.
LEATHER BIT LEATHER STRAPS
Starting with Greek texts, you will spend months studying the medical field before going on campaign. With proficiency in cutting, drilling and hacking, the job description might make you sound more like a carpenter than a doctor. When you have a high enough level of skill, you might be able to accept bribes for providing preferential treatment.
Pick the right spot
It may seem an unusual job for a doctor, but selecting the placement of the Roman military camp could mean defeat or victory. You must ensure that the latrines (toilets) are dug away from fresh water and make sure other camp conditions are sanitary to greatly reduce the risk of disease. The wounded travel with the army in the baggage train.
How not to… do as the Romans did While in many ways Roman medical knowledge was far ahead of its time, they would still borrow quack remedies from the Greeks, and create a few of their own. Some practices like blood-letting were common throughout history, and the Romans were known to use this now-abandoned technique. The Roman medical writer Cornelius Celsus recorded and analysed traditional Greek remedies that would have a modern doctor slapping their forehead. Having a scented steam bath to revitalise the body or using snakes to get rid of troublesome abscesses
were just two of his outlandish findings. The strangest is perhaps the cannibalistic ritual of drinking the blood of a dead gladiator in an attempt to cure epilepsy. Most Romans subscribed to the miasmastyle theory that diseases were caused by bad air, as they did not have an understanding of germ theory. Before proper camp hygiene was accepted, illness was rife and could severely hinder a legions’ ability to fight. Experience taught the Romans to adapt, although they may not have fully understood why the changes helped.
4 FAMOUS… ANCIENT DOCTORS
HIPPOCRATES C.460-C.370 BCE
The Ancient Greek understood the importance of battlefield experience: “He who desires to practice surgery must go to war.”
Ready the equipment
In preparation to receive the wounded, you will need to ready your supplies and tools. Plants like St Johns Wort will help to tackle inflammations. While it is not certain that the Romans had an in-depth knowledge of germs, experience taught them the merit of keeping medical instruments clean and sterilised, which helped to limit the risk of infection.
Form an orderly queue
When the battle has been fought, the wounded men will come flooding to your hospital tents. You need to decide which men to see first based on the seriousness of their wounds. Use wine and opiates as painkillers, but make sure not give the patient too much as they could faint. These remedies will often just dull the pain rather than get rid of it altogether.
AULUS CORNELIUS CELSUS C.25 BCE – C.50 CE The author of an expansive medical manual, Celsus outlines many practices such as how to amputate and apply a tourniquet.
? ARCHAGATHUS OF SPARTA 3RD CENTURY BCE
Archagathus is credited with bringing Greek medical practices to Rome in 219 BCE. He specialised in healing battlefield wounds.
While some wounds, like punctures, can be tended to without much harm coming to the patient, others are risky. If you need to amputate, you must restrain the soldier – and try giving him a leather bit to bite down on – before you saw off a limb. Your knowledge of tourniquets and clean dressings should mean this operation won’t be fatal.
Look after the troops
Wounds need to be checked and cleaned every three to five days to ensure they are healing. As a doctor, you should also look out for the physical health of the men by ensuring they exercise and eat a proper diet. Your knowledge of the kind of balanced diet the troops need on campaign will see supplies like corn, cheese, wine, fresh fruit and vegetables on the menu.
PLINY THE ELDER 23-79 CE
Pliny did not trust doctors and criticised their high fees. He preferred traditional medicine.
© Ed Crooks
Save some lives
5 shocking facts about…
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTSOFWAR WORLDWIDE, 1300 BCE – PRESENT DAY
AT A GLANCE
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder caused by a very traumatic, frightening or distressing event, such as those experienced by soldiers in military combat. It is a common condition suffered by those who have witnessed the horrors of war throughout history, but only became officially recognised as a mental disorder in 1980.
The first It’s been Some thought Treatment recorded given more it was a was varied 01 02 03 04 sufferers saw ghosts than 80 names cardiac problem
Sufferers received 05 little sympathy
Translations from Mesopotamia in 1300 BCE contain accounts of soldiers seeing the ghosts of the people they had killed in battle. Other early descriptions of PTSD include Greek historian Herodotus’s 490 BCE account of a soldier going blind after witnessing a man be killed, despite not being physically injured himself.
Soldiers diagnosed with ‘stress response syndrome’ after the Vietnam War only received compensation from the US Department of Veterans Affairs if their condition had improved within six months. After that, it was believed that they must be suffering from a preexisting condition and would therefore not be covered.
In 1761, Austrian physician Josef Leopold Auenbrugger noted that soldiers “become sad, taciturn, listless, solitary,” and diagnosed them with ‘nostalgia’. In WWI, the term used was ‘shellshock’, and during WWII it became known as ‘combat exhaustion’. Other historic names include ‘homesickness’ and ‘hysteria’.
While studying Civil War soldiers, US doctor Jacob Mendez Da Costa believed their rapid pulse, anxiety and trouble breathing was caused by overstimulation of the heart’s nervous system. The condition became known as ‘Da Costa’s Syndrome’ and sufferers were returned to battle after receiving drugs.
While those suffering from ‘nostalgia’ were prescribed cures such as “listening to music, regular exercise, and useful instruction,” shellshocked soldiers from WWI were recommended massage, rest, dietary regimens and electric shock treatment to treat “paralysis of the nerves”, which was believed to be the cause of the condition.
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Hall of Fame
The heroes of medicine who saved countless lives throughout history’s bloody battles, and advanced the profession in unprecedented ways
MARY SEACOLE JAMAICAN 1805-81
After being refused a place on Florence Nightingale’s nursing team, Mary Seacole sailed to Crimea at her own expense, determined to help the war’s wounded any way she could. She opened the British Hotel near Balaclava, providing hot food and a comfortable place to stay for sick and injured soldiers, and even risked her life travelling to the battlefield on horseback to nurse them there too. Her patients affectionately nicknamed her Mother Seacole, and when she returned from the war penniless, they helped to organise a benefit concert to raise money for her as a thank you for her service.
Paré developed a num ber of medical instruments and artificial limbs
AMBROISE PARÉ FRENCH 1510-90
In his job as a military surgeon following the 1536 Battle of Milan, Ambroise Paré reinvented several treatments that revolutionised battlefield medicine. The first was discovered almost by accident, when the boiling oil normally used to cauterise open wounds had run out. Instead, Paré mixed up a concoction of egg yolk, turpentine and oil of roses, and was amazed to discover the wounds healing more effectively the next day. Cauterisation was also used to seal off amputated limbs, but Paré opted to tie off the blood vessels instead. Although often complicated by infection, the procedure was much less painful and heralded as a medical breakthrough.
JONATHAN LETTERMAN AMERICAN 1824-72
Mary’s autobiography, Wonderful Adventures Of Mrs Seacole In Many Lands, became a bestseller
At the beginning of the Civil War, wounded soldiers were often left for days on the battlefield George Washington ordered without medical Letterman’s system to be attention. To solve forces military US adopted by all the problem, US army medical director Jonathan Letterman organised the first Ambulance Corps, a team of men trained to use stretchers and wagons to transport the wounded to field dressing stations. During the Battle of Antietam, all 23,000 wounded casualties were removed from the battlefield within 24 hours
Nig gifted and b fem the R So
FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE BRITISH 1820-1910
Seeing rats crawling across the floor and patie bread, Florence Nightingale was appalled by t she encountered at the army hospital in Scuta Crimean War. Leading a team of 38 nurses, sh to help clean up the wards and ensure the sol healthy diet, reducing the number of deaths f returning to Britain, she began campaigning f hygiene, setting up a nursing school in Londo book Notes On Nursing to pass on her knowled nursing into a profession.
DOMINIQUE JEAN LARREY FRENCH 1766-1842
Watching horses speed across the battlefield dragging carts of ammunition to Napoleon’s army, Larrey was struck with an idea. He needed a way to get wounded soldiers to field hospitals from the front line, and the horse-drawn carts were the perfect solution. Once the soldiers arrived at the hospital by the cartload, Larrey then needed a way to help doctors decide During who to treat first. His triage system saw them prioritised the Battle of by the seriousness of their Waterloo, the Duke injuries, rather than their rank of Wellington ordered or which side they were on.
Dominique Larrey was surgeonin-chief of the Napoleo nic armies from 1797 to 1815
troops to hold fire when Larrey and his medics were collecting the wounded RUSSIAN 1810-81 AMERICAN 1832-1919
Wounded soldiers undergoing surgery during Pirogov tested his the Crimean War were usually ether as an anaesthetic on himself before only given rum, wine, opium using it on patients or a musket ball to bite down on to help them deal with the excruciating pain. However, during the Siege of Sevastopol, operations became much less traumatic when Nikolay Pirogov introduced ether as an anaesthetic for the first time in field medicine. He also helped to improve triage techniques in battle, and pioneered the use of l ster casts to heal broken bones.
MARY EDWARDS WALKER
Von Esmarch’s handbooks on military first aid were widely used
FRIEDRICH VON ESMARCH GERMAN 1823-1908
Until 1873, operations on soldiers’ limbs were bloody affairs, and often resulted in the patient bleeding to death. To solve the problem, military surgeon Friedrich von Esmarch came up with the ‘bloodless technique The only woman in of surgery’, which involved wrapping a her class, Mary Edwards rubber bandage tightly around the limb Walker graduated from medical to constrict blood flow. Once pale, the school in 1855, but when the arm or leg could be operated on with Civil War broke out, she was no loss of blood. His invention became denied a position as an army known as the Esmarch bandage, which is medical officer. She volunteered Mary Edwards Walker was still in use today, and was followed by the regardless, and worked her way up a fierce campaigner for creation of a military first aid kit, resulting to the position of assistant surgeon. women’s rights After the war, she was awarded the Medal of Honor, and is the only wo to have ever received it.
“Let the generations know that women in uniform also guaranteed their freedom.”
Roman surgeons used forceps, scalpels, tourniquets and catheters
Doss braved enemy shelling to treat his fellow soldiers
Refusing to kill due to his religious beliefs, Desmond Doss enlisted as an army medic during WWII. While stationed in Okinawa, his unit was forced to retreat from a 120-metre scarpment by Japanese artillery, motor and machine-gun fire, but Doss stayed back to tend o his injured comrades. He then used ropes to ower them down the escarpment, saving 75 ves. He was the first conscientious objector to win the Medal of Honor.
Friedrich von Esmarch advised every male citizen to wear special suspenders that could be used as tourniquets in the field Mary Edwards Walker
EMPEROR AUGUSTUS ITALIAN 63 BCE – 14 CE
The first ever military medical school was set up by Roman Emperor Augustus to improve the health of his army. The techniques taught at the academy were surprisingly advanced, and the importance of cleanliness was understood. Surgical equipment was boiled before every use, and acetum (made from vinegar) was used as an antiseptic to treat wounds. However, much of this knowledge was lost following the decline of Rome, leading to the more primitive medicine of the Medieval period.
THE RISE OF EVIL How the demagogue used riots, racism & repression in his quest to restore German “greatness” Written by Emily Turner-Graham and Michael Haskew
o hear Hitler tell the story in his 1924 autobiography Mein Kampf (My Struggle), the course of his entire life – right from birth – had led to his dictatorship of Germany from 1933-45. The forces of destiny had carefully planned it all – he was a man marked by fate to lead the nation of Germany. But, in truth, history is rarely as neat as that, and Hitler’s extraordinary rise to rule the totalitarian Nazi state in the 1930s and then lead the German people to war and almost total destruction is far more complex. Instead it is a story that grew from the human tragedy of World War I and the social, economic and political chaos of its aftermath, a nation drawn to extremes in its pursuit of a new beginning, and the capacity of a broken man and his circle of followers to sell a myth of national rebirth to an intelligent, cultured but equally warscarred nation. The years from 1924, when Hitler was released from a short stint in prison, up to 1934 and the infamous bloodletting of the Night of the Long Knives mark the key period in Hitler’s rise to power.
When he emerged from Landsberg Prison in the south-western Bavarian town of Landsberg am Lech on 20 December 1924, he had served only nine months of a five-year sentence for treason for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch (revolt) on 8-9 November 1923. It was an attempt by the fledgling Nazi Party (which had only formed in 1919) and a handful of fellow right-wing travellers to overthrow the hated Weimar government. Hitler’s court trial, presided over by a pro-Nazi judge, had served only to provide him with a farreaching public platform from which to broadcast his views, especially since the trial was being eagerly reported in the national newspapers. He not only admitted his guilt in the Putsch but in fact relished in it. “I have resolved to be the destroyer of Marxism,” he proclaimed confidently from the dock, appointing himself the ‘strong man’ who many on the right believed Germany needed in order to emerge from the chaos and misery of its wartime years. Post-Putsch, he no longer saw himself as the ‘drummer’, preparing the path for the coming leader. Instead, he was the Führer (leader) himself.
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler
itler, along with Rudolf Hess (who would become Deputy Führer in 1933), passed his prison sentence quite comfortably. He was able to receive guests, and a number of his political colleagues who would later become prominent figures in the Third Reich – such as Ernst Röhm, Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg – paid numerous visits. This allowed for a like-minded group to develop, for Hitler to continue to expound and hone his views, and for him to consolidate his role as party leader – all while behind prison walls. On top of this, Hitler also used the time to put together his political manifesto. In fact, he described prison as his “university paid for by the State.” The book was called Mein Kampf and in it he detailed a set of ideas that, at their core, changed little over the course of his life and formed the essential nucleus of National Socialist (Nazi) ideology. In Mein Kampf, Hitler also reshaped his own history in order to reinforce the idea that destiny had called him to lead Germany. He and many of his followers began to believe that he was on a, “…near-messianic [mission]… to become the ‘Great Leader’ the nation awaited, who would expunge the ‘criminal betrayal of 1918’, restore Germany’s might and power, and create a reborn ‘Germanic State of the German nation’.” His autobiography saw the beginning of ‘the Führer Myth’ that would last for some Germans until the bitter end of the Nazi period in 1945. One sympathetic writer said in 1924, “What lies dormant in the soul of the German people has taken shape in full living features… That has appeared in Adolf Hitler: the living incarnation of the nation’s yearning.”
Hitler sits beside his new appointed propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, at a rally in Stuttgart, 1933
“It seemed that Hitler had tapped into a number of common beliefs in Mein Kampf – he had just taken them to their extremes”
The opening of the new Reichstag symbolised unity between the Nazi Party and the old Prussian military elite
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler
THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC: DOOMED TO FAILURE When the kaiser fled, a new democratic government was declared in the small town of Weimar
The Weimar Republic refers to the German state from 1919 to 1933. Many Germans on the right believed the Republic had allowed Germany to lose World War I by conceding defeat too soon. Many nationalists also espoused the ‘stab in the back’ theory, believing that Bolsheviks and Jews had weakened the home front with damaging modern ideas such as feminism. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles, which the Weimar government accepted, took territory from Germany, called for colossal reparations and laid the blame for igniting the war squarely at the feet
of the Central Powers – Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. Added to this, in 1923 the French occupied the Ruhr in Germany, commandeering the district’s rich raw materials. This was another mark against the Weimar government in the eyes of the right, along with the many black French colonial soldiers who were allowed as part of the Ruhr occupation force. During the same period, Germany suffered from devastating hyperinflation. A large number of Germans lost their social status and were reduced to poverty.
My struggle Mein Kampf depicted a world characterised by constant struggle. All existence could be reduced to a battle between the strong and the weak. “Those that want to live, let them fight, and those who do not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle do not deserve to live.” Hitler argued for Social Darwinism, an interpretation of Darwin’s theory of evolution applied to humanity and best summed up as ‘survival of the fittest’. The foremost means of defining the strong and the weak was through the lens of race. As Hitler said in Mein Kampf, “The racial question gives the key not only to world history but to all human culture.” The Aryan was the greatest expression of humanity and the German ideal was characterised as being tall, well-built and healthy with blonde hair and blue eyes. The physical vitality of the Aryan was also expressed in their richly creative culture. For Hitler, Aryans were “the founders of culture”. Their total opposite was the Jew. The Nazis depicted Jewry as a race not a religion that was unhealthy physically, mentally and spiritually. Hitler argued that Jewry also lacked an original culture. While Aryans created culture, Jews invaded, imitated, corrupted and ultimately destroyed it. The Nazis argued this was what had recently happened in Germany. During World War I, while German men were away fighting, Jews undermined traditional German culture at home by introducing damaging modern ideas like Bolshevism and feminism. As a result, the home front collapsed and the war was lost. Here was the extreme right’s infamous Dolchstosslegende, or ‘stab in the back’ theory. Jews, therefore, were the enemies of Germany and had to be eliminated from society. There
A solution came in the form of the Dawes Plan in 1924, but the German economy was left dependent on loans from the USA. This would have serious ramifications when the Great Depression struck in 1929. Finally, there were inherent problems within Germany’s system of government. Germany had only become a unified country in 1871 and since that time had been a monarchy. Germany was governed by coalitions with no overall majority. This resulted in a series of weak, unstable governments and a lack of public confidence in the political system.
were varying suggestions as to what extent this ‘elimination’ should take place. So too, all German peoples throughout Europe needed to be united in a greater German state and in order to do this, more Lebensraum (living space) had to be acquired. As well as all this, the ‘treachery’ of the Treaty of Versailles needed to be redressed. Hitler’s long-term goals were set. There were conflicting views about Mein Kampf and Hitler’s objectives. Economist Johannes Zahn said: “Reading Mein Kampf was exactly like belief in the demands of the Bible. These are demands but nobody believed they would be fulfilled one hundred per cent.” Diplomat anfred von Schröder said that, Nobody took it really seriously.” Yet Johannes Zahn argued that ewish influence “had gone too far” n Germany and Herbert Richter, ho said that Mein Kampf was “too azy” to even finish reading, also lt that the German territories lost World War I should be returned. seemed that Hitler had tapped to a number of common beliefs Mein Kampf – he had just taken em to their extremes. The book d poorly initially but by 1939 in rmany, it was selling second only to the Bible, and by 1945, 10 million copies had been purchased. The Beer Hall Putsch and Hitler’s spell in prison also taught the Nazi Party that the only route to power was through the ballot box. Armed revolution was not the answer. Instead they would beat the system from within, by becoming a part of Germany’s democratic system before gaining power and pulling democracy apart. As Hitler said, “If outvoting them takes longer than outshooting them, at least the results will be guaranteed by their own Constitution.”
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler
Nazi Party The birth of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party 1919
O World War I ends O Beer Hall Putsch O O German Workers’ O Hitler joins German O Becoming the Nazis O Hitler on the rise The end of the Great The name of the group Using his gift for The first Nazi Party Day Party forms Workers’ Party War gives rise to the is formally changed to oratory, Hitler is held. Several Nazi Anton Drexler, along Ordered by the army ‘stab in the back’ the National Socialist addresses a crowd cohorts are killed, and with other anti-Semitic to infiltrate the German theory that the German and nationalist activists, Workers’ Party, Hitler German Workers’ of 6,000 people in Hitler is arrested and army was betrayed. Party, abbreviated as Munich. Later this year, imprisoned following is a prime mover in instead joins the group An ultra-right element Nazi, and its first public he’s elected chairman the abortive Beer Hall the formation of the as its 55th member, emerges on the meeting is held. of the Nazi Party. Putsch in Munich. forerunner of the Nazi and begins his rapid German political scene. Party in Munich on 5 rise to leadership. January 1919.
A political O Mein Kampf platform While in prison, Hitler Hitler utilises his receives regular visitors, trial for treason as a enjoys remarkable platform to denounce freedom, and dictates the current political his manifesto, Mein situation in Germany. Kampf, to his secretary, He receives a fiveRudolf Hess. year sentence in Landsberg Prison.
Adolf Hitler’s membership card
German citizens riot in the port city of Kiel
Hitler’s book Mein Kampf became a bestseller in Germany
German National People’s Party The national conservative party gave Hitler a narrow voting majority 1918
O Conservative concentration The German National People’s Party (DNVP) – a conservative organisation including several right-wing factions opposed to the Weimar government – is formed after WWI. It becomes the largest such party in Germany prior to expansion of the Nazis.
Emblem of the German National People’s Party
EVOLUTION OF THE NAZI PARTY
O Electing the old general The DNVP counts more than 20 per cent of German voters among its supporters and campaigns for the election of General Paul von Hindenburg as president of Germany.
Hindenburg’s swearing-in ceremony, 1925
O Hard right turn Alfred Hugenberg assumes leadership of the DNVP and turns sharply to the political right, increasing resistance to the Weimar government. The popularity of the Nazis begins to erode the DNVP power base.
Alfred Hugenberg, leader of the DNVP
Freikorps How these German volunteer units became embroiled in the Nazi Party 1919
1918 O Up from defeat Late in the year, the first paramilitary Freikorps units organise. Composed largely of former soldiers, the right-wing Freikorps oppose the Weimar Republic and leftist groups.
O Continuing unrest At least 65 Freikorps units are organised across Germany. They engage in street violence and the suppression of communist and left-wing uprisings, often resorting to terror and murder.
O Reach for power The Freikorps is supposedly disbanded but continues to operate for years to come. Some Freikorps leaders participate in the failed Kapp Putsch. Right-wing nationalist Wolfgang Kapp
Hitler’s relationship with Germany’s military was key to the Nazis’ success
O Military reorganisation Following the defeat of Germany in World War I, the armed forces of the Weimar Republic, the Reichswehr, are created from the Provisional National Army and Navy.
O State within a state The leadership of the army refuses to fully support the Weimar government, and General Hans von Seeckt, appointed chief of army command, begins to operate in a virtually autonomous manner. Reichswehr soldiers during a training exercise
1920 O Clandestine rebuilding Although the Treaty of Versailles limits the size of the German army to 100,000, General von Seeckt conducts a clandestine campaign to build and maintain a “shadow army”. General von Seeckt stands with Reichswehr officers
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler
O Birth of the SS O A landmark election O A force in the O Nazi presidential The Schutzstaffel, or During Reichstag Reichstag aspirations SS, is founded as a elections, the Nazi During the national Paul von Hindenburg, bodyguard for Hitler Party receives nearly election, the Nazis a hero of World War I, but evolves into a three per cent of the receive 6 million votes soundly defeats Hitler sizeable force with vote, gaining them and increase their in the presidential security, administrative, attention from other representation in the election, although the and military political groups and Reichstag from 12 seats Nazi candidate receives responsibilities. arousing interest in the to 107. 37 per cent of the vote. party across Germany.
Germans with campaign posters
One of Hitler’s election posters
A Nazi Party election poster
O Terror on the march Chancellor Franz von Papen lifts the ban on the SS and paramilitary Sturmabteilung, or SA. The Nazis receive 13.7 million votes during election, achieving a Reichstag majority with 230 seats.
O Chancellor of Germany Convinced that the Nazis can be controlled if their leader is included in a coalition government, President Hindenburg appoints Hitler as the chancellor of Germany.
Members of the SA stand at attention prior to a parade
This propaganda poster depicts Hindenburg and Hitler as leaders of government
O The Blood Purge To appease the army and eliminate a perceived threat to his power, Hitler purges the SA leadership and settles old scores during the Night of the Long Knives.
O Co-operation and O DNVP end game coalition Hugenberg advocates The DNVP begins changing the DNVP co-operating with the name to the German Nazis, forming coalition National Front (DNF) to governments, which leads to be more representative Hugenberg’s appointment as of the country’s political minister of economics and landscape. However, its agriculture under Chancellor influence wanes and many Hitler two years later. members join the Nazis.
Chancellor Hitler sits with members of the Reich cabinet
1922 O Assassination as a political tool Ex-members of a Freikorps unit assassinate Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau, whom they believe is sympathetic to the political left. Rathenau is also Jewish.
Nazi propaganda election poster, “Women! Save the German Family! Vote for Adolf Hitler!” c.1930
1933 O Allegiance to the Nazis During a solemn ceremony, old Freikorps flags are handed to the leaders of the SA and SS in a symbolic union with the Nazi Party. Rathenau was killed by a former Freikorps unit
1933 O Armed rivalry After Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany, the Reichswehr continues its expansion. However, senior officers raise concerns about the growing power of the Sturmabteilung (SA), many times larger with approximately 3 million men.
1934 O A question of loyalty Gaining the co-operation of the army, Hitler purges the SA during the Night of the Long Knives. German soldiers are later required to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler.
Hitler poses with SA troops in 1928
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler
“After some initial concerns about Nazi ideology, Goebbels became a classic example of those who believed that if Hitler said it, then it must be right” Flanked by banner-carrying SS, Hitler takes part in the harvest festival at Bückeburg
Hitler’s faithful followers During this period, Hitler had also begun to surround himself with the men who would be crucial to the development of the Nazi movement and within the Nazi government. Joseph Goebbels, who would be devoted to Hitler right through to the apocalyptic, suicidal days inside the Führerbunker in 1945, was an intellectual radical who had a doctorate in German literature. After some initial concerns about Nazi ideology, Goebbels became a classic example of those who believed that if Hitler said it, then it must be right. Hitler, therefore,
became a sort of religious figure in whom his followers had faith. Emotional devotion was valued over rationality and reason, and this tendency characterised Hitler’s entire rule. In 1927, Hitler said: “[We] put faith in the first place and not cognition. One has to believe in a cause. Only faith creates a state. What motivates people to go and do battle for religious ideas? Not cognition but blind faith.” This was certainly a characteristic seen in Goebbels, for upon reading Mein Kampf, he declared: “I love him… such a sparkling mind can be my leader. I bow to the greater one, the political genius… Adolf Hitler, I love you because you are great and simple at the same time. What one calls a genius.” Similar attitudes of blind devotion were expressed by Rudolf Hess, who had joined the Nazi Party in 1920 after already having spent time in Germany’s right-wing movement, and Hermann Göring, the World War I flying ace who joined the Nazi Party in 1922. He later became one of the most important men in the Third Reich, initially heading the SA (Stormtroopers), then founding the Gestapo (the Nazi secret police) and heading the Luftwaffe (air force). Ernst Röhm represented a different type of Nazi. Like Hess and Göring, he had been an early supporter of the movement. He joined the Nazi Party in 1919 and played a key role in the Beer Hall Putsch. He held an important position in the
leadership and the establishment of the SA but he saw the journey of the Nazi Party very much as a revolution, even beyond the Putsch, when Hitler had decided to gain power through the political mainstream. To this end, Röhm said, “…since I am an immature and wicked man, war and unrest appeal to me more than good bourgeois order. Brutality is respected, the people need wholesome fear.” While he was one of Hitler’s closest friends in the early days of the Nazi movement, he did not see Hitler as a divine leader to whom he had to submit himself. He wanted to pursue his own objectives and power within the party and it was this lack of obedience that ultimately led to his demise in 1934. Gregor Strasser, who, with his brother Otto, wanted to emphasise the Socialist element of National Socialism above all else, similarly tried to strike his own path within the movement and lost out.
Economic crisis While the profound distress caused by the loss of World War I and the social and economic chaos that followed had inspired a number of Germans to at least give the Nazi Party a hearing, by the mid-1920s conditions had improved and most people had turned away from the extreme fringes of politics. By the late 1920s, however, the instability and turmoil needed by the Nazi Party to present themselves as a viable alternative government had returned.
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler
AXIS OF THE WEIMAR RIGHT
The German government’s key players had different approaches to healing the nation
FRANZ VON PAPEN
PAUL VON HINDENBURG KURT VON SCHLEICHER
Adolf Hitler addresses massed ranks of soldiers at a Nazi rally held in Dortmund, c.1933
In 1928, food prices on the world market were beginning to drop and German agricultural workers were suffering. Germany’s recovery from the disastrous hyperinflation of 1923, itself brought on by Germany’s attempts to pay French and British war reparations imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, had been based upon loans from the United States. As the world economy began a downturn, so Germany’s already fragile economy was threatened. When the financial markets of Wall Street crashed in 1929, heralding the beginning of the Great Depression, the USA called in its loans and the German economy, like so many economies around the world, went into a major downturn. The mainstream parties in Germany seemed to offer little hope or constructive help to the general populace as major banks folded and unemployment spiralled out of control. By the end of 1929, about 1.5 million Germans were out of work. Within a year this figure had more than doubled. By early 1933, unemployment in Germany had reached a staggering 6 million. Governmental response had been to cut expenditure, wages and unemployment benefits – a disastrous move. As well as affecting the working class, the economic pain spread to the
Leader of the Nazi Party since the 1920s, Hitler believed in the totalitarian state, preeminent in every way above the individual. Pragmatic in his politics, he was compelled to work together with German industrialists and financiers to consolidate power. However, he loathed capitalism, and promoted the state control of economic and social institutions.
HEINRICH BRÜNING As chancellor of Weimar Germany from March 1930 to May 1932, Brüning’s negotiations with the Nazis failed to produce a coalition government. In his memoirs he claimed to have advocated the restoration of the Hohenzollern monarchy to prevent Hitler from taking control if Hindenburg died in office.
PAUL VON HINDENBURG The hero of World War I, elderly Hindenburg served two terms as the president of Germany. Considered
the conservative choice, Hindenburg became embroiled in the country’s post-war political upheaval. In 1933, he signed the Enabling Act, vesting near-dictatorial power in Hitler and becoming complicit in the rise of the Nazi Party.
ERNST RÖHM A radical socialist, Röhm led the Sturmabteilung, or SA. His ruffians brawled with anti-Nazi factions in the streets. As the SA grew to outnumber the German Army, Hitler perceived it as a threat. Röhm was assassinated and the SA leadership purged during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
FRANZ VON PAPEN A conservative and monarchist who served as chancellor of Weimar Germany in the Weimar Republic from June to November 1932, Papen was largely responsible for convincing Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor of Germany in 1933, believing that a post in government
would keep Hitler and the Nazis under control. He was sadly mistaken.
KURT VON SCHLEICHER The last chancellor of Weimar Germany, Schleicher was instrumental in rebuilding the German Army in contravention of the Treaty of Versailles. Politically moderate, he attempted to form a centrist coalition government, opposing burgeoning Nazi influence. This move earned Hitler’s enmity, resulting in his assassination in 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives.
ERICH LUDENDORFF An influential army general during World War I, a disillusioned Ludendorff became associated with right-wing political activism during the 1920s and participated in failed coup attempts in 1920 and 1923. Ludendorff served as a National Socialist member of the Reichstag but later warned of the dangers posed by a Nazi government.
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler middle-class, too. People looked desperately for answers, assistance and hope. The extreme parties seemed to provide answers for extreme times, and the communists and Nazis fought it out on the streets for supremacy. Hitler was in his element. Nazi party membership rose from 120,000 in 1929 to over 1 million by 1930. In the frequent elections brought about by ongoing instability, the Nazis rose from 2.5 per cent of the vote in 1928 to over 18 per cent in 1930. By 1932, the Nazi Party polled almost 40 per cent of the vote. Hitler’s message was for unity for ‘true’ Germans. He called for a return to the comradeship of the war years. Jutta Rüdiger, who would later lead the League of German Girls, recalled, “I was told that this frontline soldier (Hitler) had said… the only thing that matters is comradeship, the willingness to help and stand by one another.”
Vote Hitler In 1932, Hitler challenged the ageing World War I general Paul von Hindenburg for the German presidency. In the chaos of ineffectual government, revolving-door chancellors, economic pain and social upheaval, Hitler ran two impressive presidential campaigns due in large part to the work of his propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels. Hitler became the first politician to travel widely throughout the country by aircraft. Seeming to descend from the heavens as he travelled to as many as five cities a day to speak, the ‘Hitler over Germany’ campaign was an enormous success. Striking and effective election posters were put to good use. “Hitler – our last hope,” read one. “Workers – the Brow, the Fist – vote for the Front Soldier Hitler!” read another, showing two burly working men gazing fiercely at the viewer. “German women, think of your children – vote Hitler,” appealed another, as a fearful female figure clutched her children. One claimed, “Marxism is the guardian angel of Capitalism – vote National Socialist,” with capitalism depicted as a smartly dressed, overweight Jewish man, holding a bag of money. These simple posters spoke to everyone – men, women, the population at large – and they zeroed in on a common enemy: the Jew. However, Germany’s political elite was unconvinced that the working-class corporal, as
Newly elected German Chancellor Adolf Hitler being cheered by deputies during the first Reichstag session, 21 May 1933
Hitler strikes a pose for a photographer while rehearsing a speech. Hitler reviewed each pose to maximise the effect his words would have on the German people
they saw him, was the man for the job. With the country’s social, political and economic chaos continuing to press in though, steps had to be taken. Believing they could control Hitler and the excesses of the Nazis if they were contained within government rather than agitating from outside, Hindenburg consented to Hitler becoming chancellor of Germany with Franz von Papen, a conservative, as vice chancellor. The error of their ways was swiftly realised. Less than a month after Hitler’s appointment as German chancellor on 30 January 1933, Berlin’s Reichstag building caught fire. A Dutch communist, Marinus van der Lubbe, was blamed but there were rumours of Nazi involvement. It was the final sign of total national emergency according to Hitler. The Enabling Act was passed on 24 March 1933. It allowed for the power to make laws without parliamentary passage through the Reichstag. Hitler proclaimed the Nazi
Party was the only political party permitted in Germany. All other parties and trade unions were disbanded. Individual German states lost any autonomous powers, and Nazi officials became state governors. Jews were declared ‘non-Aryans’ and as such were banned from teaching, the civil service, the military and owning businesses. The first concentration camp at Dachau, near Munich, was opened on 21 March 1933. Hitler was now effectively dictator of Germany, and the nation a totalitarian police state. With his external enemies under control, Hitler turned his attention to the enemies within his own ranks. Hitler decided to act against Ernst Röhm, who had continued to agitate for a greater slice of power. He would not be subservient to the Führer and he believed the Stormtroopers should be merged with the German Army and fall under his command. Himmler and Göring concocted false evidence that Röhm was planning a coup. Hindenburg demanded that Hitler react. On 30 June 1934, Röhm and the SA leadership were executed along with anyone who Hitler felt had crossed him on his rise to power; Gregor Strasser was included on that list. Hitler’s blood-soaked Third Reich had begun.
The Rise Of Evil: Hitler
INSIDE THE NAZI TERROR STATE
Hitler sought to control every aspect of German life to maintain his grip on power
Hitler as a commanding presence during a Nazi rally, c.1933
“Hitler’s message was for unity for ‘true’ Germans. He called for a return to the comradeship of the war years”
The Nazis utilised a systematic campaign to promote their ideology and persecute perceived enemies of the German people. Propaganda effectively engendered loyalty to the Nazi state, embodied by Hitler. “One Reich, one people, one Führer!”
ONSOLIDATION F GOVERNMENT As chancellor, Hitler abolished the office of president and declared himself Führer. He effectively assumed the role of dictator as he suspended personal liberties, eliminated enemies and silenced opposition.
Realising religion was significant in the lives of many Germans, the Nazis were careful not to risk open hostility against the mainstream church. However, they utilised nationalism and the figure of Hitler as ‘saviour’ to conjure ‘religious’ fervour.
Young people belonged to greater Germany. The Führer once told a gathering of Hitler Youth that they were Germany’s future, required to be “hard as Krupp steel.” From classrooms and into the fabric of family, the state held sway.
EIGN OF TERROR
A pillar of Nazi rule, terror gripped Germany. Threats of imprisonment, torture, or death were real for those who dared to dissent. The Nazi secret police, or Gestapo, seemed everywhere. Neighbours turned against neighbours.
THE WORKING MASSES The Nazis abolished trade unions, absorbing their memberships into the Reich Labour Front. They also capitalised on mass unemployment to generate work projects and statecontrolled jobs to create the illusion of long-term prosperity.
A caricature of Hitler after the Night of the Long Knives showing his shooting abilities on both sides, featured in the Evening Standard, 1934
Art, literature, music, or any form of expression deemed decadent or subversive was consigned to the flaming pyre. Every aspect of German culture, from sculpture to architecture, science and social interaction, reflected the Nazi world view.
Central Asia, Late-14th century
or thousands of years the city of Samarkand has stood at the crossroads of world cultures. Thanks to its abundance of natural resources, humans have been able to live in the region since 1500 BCE. Samarkand has long been established as a centre of trade and commerce, renowned for its production of luxurious exotic crafts and attracting artisans across Asia who wish to make a living. Due to its diversity of peoples, Samarkand became a cornucopia of religions
This all came to an end when the land was invaded, destroyed and burned to the ground by the warlord Genghis Khan. With its stunning architecture in ruins, those who had loved the city were forced to flee it. Now, in 1370, Timur, the founder of the Timurid Dynasty, has grand plans to rebuild Samarkand and re-live its former glory. Still situated at a crucial point on the profitable Silk Road trade route, Samarkand is rising from the ashes to become a culture of trade, commerce, culture
Feel welcome, no matter your ethnicity or faith. Timur’s armies welcome soldiers based on skill rather than ethnicity, and it is the same in his capital city, which flourishes due to trade with a range of people. Keep an eye out for many famous faces of the era. The Arab traveller Ibn Battuta will visit the city, and Henry III’s ambassador, Ruy González de Clavijo, is stationed there. Check out the beautiful architecture. Most notably the Shah-i Zinda necropolis, which includes breathtaking mausoleums and, as the legend goes, houses the body of the cousin of the prophet Muhammad. Find the central street through the city. There you can buy anything in the shops, which have every kind of merchandise.
Did you know? The current Samarkand is in a new location, south of its previous site.
WHERE TO STAY No matter where you stay in the city there is a chance you can be uprooted at any moment. Samarkand is in a constant state of construction due to Timur’s grand vision for his capital city, ordering some buildings to be immediately torn down and rebuilt if they do not meet his exceptionally high standards. He is also not afraid to clear out his citizens’ houses if they get in the way of his plans. Of particular note is the mosque built in memory of his wife. Almost as soon as it was built, he declared the entrance archway was too low, and immediately ordered it be pulled down and started again.
Forget to brush up on your Persian. Although Timur is a Turco-Mongol, Persian culture has been fully embraced, and the primary language used by his scribes is Persian. Worry about invasion. The city is only accessible by roads and is separated from its neighbours by deep ditches and walls that run eight kilometres in circumference. Assume the Khans have power. Although officially Genghis’s descendants are in charge, in reality they are puppet rulers. Timur is the one in control. Argue against Timur’s re-building. Those who had their houses torn down were sent away with no warning, taking with them only what they could carry.
Time Traveller’s Handbook SAMARKAND WHO TO BEFRIEND
WHO TO AVOID
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The essential skills to help you succeed on one of the most profitable trade ro in history Painting
This era is the golden age of Persian painting. Chinese artists have heavily influenced Persians resulting in a unique and stunning craft combining calligraphy, illustration and binding to produce stunningly colourful books.
Samarkand is in the midst of rapid expansion and rebuilding. The old houses are being torn down to create a new street that extends from one side of the city to the other with shops all along it.
Commerce skills Samarkand is known most of all city of commerce; you will do we you know how to sell goods. The is especially renowned for its ma full of leather, linen, silk, spices a exotic fruit like melon and grape
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