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Bryan Mann - The Apre. The Scientifically Proven Fastest Way To Get Strong

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THE APRE

The Scientifically Proven Fastest Way to Get Strong
DR. BRYAN MANN

THE APRE
The Scientifically Proven Fastest Way to Get Strong









Dr. Bryan Mann


















Copyright: © 2011 by Dr. Bryan Mann. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system without permission in writing from the author.

For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book,
contact Dr. Bryan Mann at [email protected]
Contents

Preface ............................................................................................................. i
Foreword ....................................................................................................... ii

Introduction ............................................................................................... 1

Section I .............................................................................................. 3
History ..................................................................................................... 3
Research ................................................................................................. 7

Section II .......................................................................................... 10
APRE Set Up ....................................................................................... 10
Different Protocols and Their Uses .......................................... 13
Magic of APRE ................................................................................... 14
Science Behind APRE ..................................................................... 16
Finer Points ........................................................................................ 18
APRE with Training ........................................................................ 21

Section III ........................................................................................ 27
APRE with Groups ........................................................................... 27
Training Cycles ................................................................................. 29

Appendix: Projected Max Chart .............................................. 37

[The APRE] | Preface i

Preface
I receive many questions on the autoregulatory progressive
resistance exercise (APRE) protocol, including how and when to use
it. This introductory manual will give some insight into these basic
questions and help you make the protocol your own.

The APRE protocol is an excellent and sound program that comes
from decades of examination and testing. For me, it has done
wonders to increase strength in the athletes I train. I hope this
manual will provide you with enough background to feel
comfortable trying it for yourself and your athletes. There are many
programs out there. Some work and some don’t, but this one works
better than most.

[The APRE] | Foreword ii

Foreword
Having been in the field of strength and conditioning for twenty
years, I am always looking to learn new things and continually
increase my knowledge of different training systems. I have known
Bryan Mann for several years. He has always impressed me with not
only his knowledge of the field but his excitement to share that
knowledge with whoever is willing to listen. I have spent countless
hours picking his brain on different topics over the past several
years, and each time, I come away from the conversation feeling
good about the things I learn from him.

I was very happy when Bryan decided to write a book about APRE
training because I knew that he had used it with much success and
knew the system well. I was even happier when he decided to share
with me his draft of the book early on. Bryan does a great job of
laying out the system step by step so that it is easy to follow. I used
the guidelines presented in the book and saw some tremendous
results in our off-season training. It gave me an understanding of
what protocol would work best with my athletes and how to set it up
along with the assistance exercises. I recommend this book to
anyone who wants to see their athletes make some great strength
gains using the APRE training system.
— Scott Bird MSCC, CSCS


[The APRE] | Introduction 1

Introduction
The question of the best way to get strong can be traced all the way
back to the great Greek wrestler Milo of Croton, who hoisted a calf on
his shoulder and walked with it every day. The calf grew into a bull
over time and so did Milo’s legend. He became so strong that no
other wrestler could pin him. Legend has it he was never beaten.

Since Milo’s practice of bull walking, many different methods for
getting strong have been introduced, including high intensity
training, linear periodization, block training, dinosaur training, the
conjugate system, Westside, power factor training, bodybuilding, Jim
Wendler’s 5/3/1 program, and different variations of each of these.
Enough books have been written on these different training methods
to more than fill a personal library.

In this book, I’ll discuss a very specific means—the best way to get
strong in the quickest amount of time possible. In my work as a
researcher, educator, and strength and conditioning coach, I‘ve
examined the different training methodologies and have sought the
best way to get beginners strong quickly. My 12-year career working
with athletes at the Division I level has served as my laboratory and
has given me plenty of opportunities to explore them. For a long
time, I used a percentage-based linear periodization program with
four- to eight-week cycles, depending on the time of year, to make


[The APRE] | Introduction 2

my athletes stronger. It worked and, over an eight-week cycle,
athletes increased the weight in their lifts by 5–50 lbs. However,
over the years, I stumbled across the autoregulatory progressive
resistance exercise (APRE) protocol in Mel Siff’s Supertraining. I
started using it with my athletes. In a short period of time, they were
performing repetitions with the weight from their previous one rep
maxes and increasing their maxes by 100 lbs. These results were
incredible, and at the time, seemed unfathomable even for me.

In the first section of this book, I’ll briefly discuss the training
evolutions that led to the APRE protocol. In the second section, I’ll
discuss the set up for the APRE, describe how adjustments are made,
and discuss the purpose of the various protocols used. In the third
section, I’ll discuss how to use the APRE with small and large groups
and in a different number of training cycles (i.e. four-, eight-, 12-
weeks). I’ll also discuss how to increase volume for hypertrophy or
technique work.


[The APRE] | Section I 3

Section I
History
The history of the autoregulatory progressive resistance exercise
(APRE) protocol begins with Captain Thomas DeLorme, a military
surgeon. During DeLorme’s tenure, it was commonplace for
individuals with femoral fractures (broken thigh bones) to be casted.
When the bone was healed, the cast was removed, and the soldier
returned to active duty. Today, the absence of rehabilitation
following a broken bone may seem ludicrous, but, at the time, this
wasn’t unusual. DeLorme noticed the soldiers were having a difficult
time keeping up and that the muscles in their healed legs were
noticeably smaller. He had the idea to strap some simple weights to
the bottom of their feet and have them do leg extensions with the
broken leg.

Delorme found that the injured leg and the uninjured leg were closer
in muscular size (meaning less hypertrophy of the injured leg) when
the cast was removed in soldiers who performed the leg extensions
compared to the soldiers who didn’t perform the leg extensions. He
also observed that the exercise-rehabilitated patients were able to
return to normal activities more successfully (DeLorme, 1945). The
rehabilitation exercise programs began with a light warm-up set at
50 percent of the main set for ten repetitions followed by a second


[The APRE] | Section I 4

set at 75 percent of the main set for ten repetitions. Then the
soldiers performed the main set for as many repetitions as possible
with a goal of ten repetitions (DeLorme, Ferris, & Gallagher, 1952;
Delorme, West, & Schriber, 1950; Delorme, West, Francis, Schriber, &
William, 1958). The following workout adjusted the weights based
on this third set.

If this seems familiar, it is. Count the sets and repetitions. Yes, that’s
correct—it’s three sets of ten repetitions. Surprisingly, this is where
the three sets of ten repetitions approach became popular—from a
surgeon performing rehabilitation on injured soldiers. DeLorme’s
methods drew great reviews because it was unheard of to use
weights to do anything in those days. People who trained with
weights were outcasts, so there wasn’t much that existed in the form
of training information.

Much of DeLorme’s research came in the 1940s, with articles
appearing in journals in the 1950s. DeLorme named his method the
progressive resistance exercise (PRE). He had unknowingly made a
significant contribution to weight training by inventing a simple
progressive overload program.

In the 1970s, another medical researcher by the name of Dr. K.L.
Knight took the PRE and put a spin on it. He added a fourth set and
made a set adjustment chart. He named this adjustment the daily
adjustable progressive resistance exercise (DAPRE) protocol. Knight


[The APRE] | Section I 5

decided to keep the “PRE” part of the name because he felt the spirit
of DeLorme’s PRE program was still there. Knight just added his own
special twist to improve on it.

The DAPRE protocol was very reproducible and understandable. In
fact, this method is still used by many athletic trainers and physical
therapists today. It allowed a researcher or practitioner to know that
if the individual did X number of repetitions, he would increase his
next set or week by Y amount of weight.

Throughout the 1970s, Knight’s DAPRE protocol remained at ten
repetitions, the same as DeLorme’s PRE protocol (Knight, 1979). By
1985, Knight had developed a DAPRE protocol using heavier weights
Pat Ivey deadlifting 700 lbs at the Showme State games.


[The APRE] | Section I 6

for six repetitions. He noticed that the increase in weight used during
this protocol didn’t equate to increased hypertrophy, so he
suspected there must be a high level of neurological activation in
play (Knight, 1985).

He concluded that the reason for the lack of muscle mass gain was
because the neuromuscular system was learning how to turn on and
use previously dormant muscles (Knight, 1985). Because the body
was able to use a greater percentage of its muscle than it had before,
more force was produced by already existing muscle fibers, even in
the absence of hypertrophy. This is a major reason why beginning
lifters are often able to add 50 lbs on a lift very rapidly. The body is
simply learning how to use more of the existing muscle and perform
the movement more efficiently.

Mel Siff first introduced the APRE protocol in his book Supertraining,
which is where I first found it and became familiar with it. It was
introduced to me as three different protocols—the APRE3, APRE6,
and APRE10. It is believed that Mel Siff changed Knight’s DAPRE to
APRE, dropping the ‘D’ because it was no longer a “daily” protocol.
Siff is also believed to have added the three-rep protocol, as it hasn’t
been found anywhere in the written literature other than in Siff’s
publications. It is unknown what happened between Knight’s DAPRE
and Siff’s APRE.


[The APRE] | Section I 7

Research
In most of the literature, researchers have examined long-term
cycles. In fact, some refer to a 16-week cycle as a short training cycle.
I don’t know any coaches who have ever had 16 uninterrupted
weeks to train an athlete, and most strength athletes don’t have 16
uninterrupted weeks to train either. Regardless, Dr. Stone and
researchers at Arizona State University examined women in a
progressive overload program versus a linear periodization program
over a 16-week period. They found that in the beginning, progressive
overload was more effective.

However, in the long run, the linear periodization program showed
better results by the sixteenth week. The details of the programs
weren’t available, so it’s unknown whether or not the APRE is
similar to the progressive overload used in Stone’s study (Stone,
1996). This is an example of the literature admitting that an APRE or
similar type of program is more effective than linear periodization
for quickly building strength.

I’ll discuss later how to set up the APRE with its various protocols to
train for a full spectrum of program lengths from four weeks to the
full 16 weeks without a decrease in results.

A comparison between undulating periodization and linear
periodization performed at Arizona State University found that


[The APRE] | Section I 8

undulating
periodization was more
effective than linear
periodization in all
cases at improving
strength (Rhea, Ball,
Phillips, & Burkett,
2002; Rhea, et al.,
2003).

With undulating
periodization, a lifter
simply went into the
weight room and chose
a repetition max (RM)
to perform on that day.
The RM changed every
day. For instance, one day it might be a 3RM. The next day it might
be a 7RM, and yet another day, it might be a 12RM.

At the 2005 Collegiate Strength and Conditioning Coaches
Association national conference in Salt Lake City, Utah, presenter
Buddy Morris proposed a theory as to why this is more effective.
Morris said that the first thing the body adapts to is repetitions
followed by movements. Varying the repetitions in each workout
keeps the body from adapting to the stimulus. This could be a factor
2008 Olympic silver medalist Christian
Cantwell performing a dumbbell incline
press with 200-lb dumbbells.


[The APRE] | Section I 9

in the effectiveness of
the APRE because not
only is there a
different repetition
max in each workout,
but it varies by set as
well.

In 2007, at the Central
States Meeting of the
American College of
Sports Medicine, I
presented a poster on the results of a comparison of the APRE
protocol versus a standard percentage-based linear periodization
model. I examined the results over a short, off-season program and
found that the APRE was significantly better at improving strength in
NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players. The
results were so intriguing that further examination of this
programming was done in a dissertation. I found that for a six-week
or less training cycle, the APRE was significantly better than a
traditional, percentage-based linear periodization program.

On the bench press, the APRE group went up an average of 25 lbs
over six weeks while the linear periodization group averaged nearly
zero gains (1.6 lbs) over the six-week period.
Powerlifter Keith Caton preparing to deadlift.


[The APRE] | Section II 10

Section II
APRE Set Up
The set up for the autoregulatory progressive resistance exercise
(APRE) protocol is simple. There are three protocols—the APRE3,
APRE6, and APRE10. Choosing the most appropriate one to use
depends on what type of strength you’re trying to develop. The
APRE3 is based on an estimated three rep max (RM) and is used for
strength/power. The APRE6 is based on an estimated 6RM and is
used for strength/hypertrophy. The APRE10 is based on an
estimated 10RM and is used for hypertrophy.

The tables below summarize the different routines.

Table 1. The APRE routines.
Set 3RM routine 6RM routine 10RM routine
0 Warm up Warm up Warm up
1 6 reps at 50% 3RM 10 reps at 50% 6RM 12 Reps at 50% 10RM
2 3 reps at 75% 3RM 6 reps at 75% 6RM 10 reps at 75% 10RM
3
Reps to failure at
3RM
Reps to failure at 6RM Reps to failure at 10RM
4
Adjusted reps to
failure
Adjusted reps to
failure
Adjusted reps to failure



[The APRE] | Section II 11


Table 2. The adjustment table for APRE.
3RM routine 6RM routine 10RM routine
Repetitions Set 4 Repetitions Set 4 Repetitions Set 4
1–2
Decrease
5–10
0–2
Decrease
5–10
4–6
Decrease
5–10
3–4 Same 3–4
Decrease
0–5
7–8
Decrease
0–5
5–6
Increase
+ 5–10
5–7 Same 9–11 Same
7+
Increase
+10–15
8–12
Increase
5–10
12–16
Increase
5–10
13+
Increase
10–15
17+
Increase
10–15


As you can see from table 1, the set up is the same for each of the
routines. There is a light set of 50 percent of the RM, a second set
with 75 percent of the RM, and a third set with repetitions to failure
at the RM. The fourth and final sets are adjusted based on the third
set. They are performed to failure again, which sets the RM for the
following week.

As an example, I’ll use the 3RM routine for an athlete with an
estimated 3RM of 300 lbs on the bench press. The athlete warms up
for his first set of 150 lbs for six repetitions (150 lbs is 50 percent of
300 lbs). He then completes a set of three repetitions with 225 lbs
(225 lbs is 75 percent of 300 lbs). This is followed by the completion
of a set to failure with 300 lbs (which is the estimated 3RM) with
seven repetitions.



[The APRE] | Section II 12

Using the adjustment chart shown in table 2, find the number of
repetitions performed under the 3RM routine in the left-hand
column, which in this case is seven. In the right-hand column, across
from this, we see that the athlete should increase the weight by 10–
15 lbs. For set four, the athlete will perform six repetitions with 315
lbs. Again, by referring to the adjustment table (table 2), we see that
six repetitions is an increase of 5–10 lbs, which changes the
estimated 3RM to 320–325 lbs. The athlete likes throwing weight on
the bar, so he makes it 325 lbs.

Let’s move out another week to show how things progress. The
athlete warms up to his first set, which is technically 162.5 lbs. He
does 165 lbs for six repetitions (50 percent of an estimated 3RM).
For the second set, which is technically 243 lbs, the athlete does 245
lbs for three repetitions (75 percent of an estimated 3RM). His third
set is 325 lbs for repetitions performed until failure. He’s feeling
strong, so the athlete performs seven repetitions. Looking at the
adjustment chart (table 2) again under the 3RM protocol, the
recommendation is an increase of 15 lbs. So the athlete performs
340 lbs to failure and gets four repetitions for his fourth set.

Referring once again to the adjustment chart (table 2), the
recommendation is to keep the weight the same. For the next week,
the athlete’s estimated 3RM is 340 lbs and his workout would be
based on this.



[The APRE] | Section II 13

Any of the protocols can be used this way. The number of repetitions
completed in the third set determines the weight used in the fourth
set, and the number of repetitions completed in the fourth set
determines the amount of weight used in the third set the following
week.

Different Protocols and Their Uses
There are advantages and disadvantages to using the various APRE
protocols for different aspects of training. They should be used
appropriately to obtain the desired results. The APRE10, APRE6, and
APRE3 all have different goals.

The APRE10 is best utilized for hypertrophy. We know that volume,
total workload, and hypertrophy are related. If an athlete lifts a
heavier weight for more repetitions, additional muscle mass will be
produced in order to adapt to this greater imposed demand
(National Strength & Conditioning Association, 2000; Kurz, 2001;
Siff, 2000).

Another appropriate use of the APRE10 is with athletes who are just
beginning to learn technique. When beginners are learning
technique on lifts that aren’t as technical, such as squats, a high
volume is typically employed. This is the perfect time to use APRE10.
However, it is important to notice if the athlete’s form is breaking
down with the light weight. If fatigue has set in, end the set.


[The APRE] | Section II 14

The APRE6 is used for increasing both strength and hypertrophy.
Submaximal loads of 75–87 percent are ideal for improving absolute
strength (National Strength & Conditioning Association, 2000; Kurz,
2001; Siff, 2000; Zatsiorsky, 1995). The APRE6 is in this percentage
range. By performing maximal number of repetitions at this range,
maximal strength gains can be made. Hypertrophy will be achieved
when the lifter is at the higher end of the volume for the adjustment
chart.

The APRE3 is best suited for developing strength and power. Using
greater than 90 percent of a 1RM causes recruitment of high
threshold motor units and results in the greatest number of
neurological adaptations (National Strength & Conditioning
Association, 2000; Kurz, 2001; Siff, 2000; Zatsiorsky, 1995). These
neurological adaptations lead to great increases in strength. The
power part comes from the use of Olympic lifts. Due to the technical
nature of Olympic lifts, the APRE3 should be used. However, if
fatigue sets in, muscles will no longer be recruited in the proper
sequencing at the proper speed and time, and the power benefit of
the Olympic lift will be virtually eliminated.

Magic of APRE
The magic of the APRE protocol lies in its reproducibility. The APRE
has adjustment charts that state that if you perform this number of
repetitions, you are to increase or decrease a certain amount of


[The APRE] | Section II 15

weight. This ensures that all coaches are on the same page, gives
athletes a goal, and decreases the time spent in workouts.
In an athletic program with multiple coaches working together,
using the APRE protocol ensures coordination and uniform
adjustments to an athlete’s training program. In facilities with large
coaching staffs, opinions vary among coaches regarding weight
increases. Some may think that for every repetition over the goal
weight, the athlete should increase the weight by 10 lbs while others
may think the weight should only increase by 5 lbs per repetition.
Through the use of standardized adjustment charts, the APRE allows
all coaches to change the weights without introducing inconsistency
into the training program. This will help produce homogenous
results.

The APRE protocol is useful for encouraging individual goal setting.
If athletes learn the adjustment chart, they’ll know how many
repetitions are needed for an increase in weight. Thus, they can set
goals. For example, if my athletes are using APRE6, they know they
need to get thirteen repetitions in order to increase the weight by 15
lbs. They want to get as strong as possible. So by having a standard
protocol, they know what they need to achieve to get there. The
APRE protocol encourages intrinsic motivation in athletes.

If the athlete understands the inner workings of the APRE protocol,
specifically the adjustment charts, the amount of time required for a
workout will decrease. Once an athlete learns and understands the


[The APRE] | Section II 16

ins and outs of the APRE, coaches won’t need to make as many
adjustments in weight for subsequent sets. The athletes will spend
less time standing around waiting on the coach and will instead be
able to make adjustments on their own. However, it’s best to only
allow athletes to make their own adjustments on exercises that are
less coaching intensive such as bench presses, inclines, pull-ups, and
other similar exercises. Coaches should closely monitor exercises
such as the squat or Olympic lifts that require more technique to
ensure proper technique is used. If the athlete is allowed to move up
in weight using improper form, the chances for injury increase.

Science Behind APRE
The APRE protocol is the epitome of progressive overload and the
specific adaptations to imposed demands (SAID) principle.
The progressive overload principle is the foundation of all strength
training programs. It simply calls for the progressive lifter to lift
progressively heavier and heavier loads over time. With the APRE
protocol, a chart tells you how much to lift for subsequent sets as
well as subsequent workouts.

Recall the example of Milo of Croton carrying the bull on his
shoulders. Milo would never have been able to lift a full grown bull at
the start, but he began lifting the animal as a calf, so his strength
grew progressively as the weight he lifted increased progressively as
the calf grew into a bull.


[The APRE] | Section II 17

Another principle that is heavily drawn upon by the APRE protocol
as well as all strength training is the SAID principle. With the SAID
principle, whatever demand you impose upon the body, the body
will specifically adapt to it.

For instance, if you’ve ever worked construction and swung a 6-lb
sledgehammer all day long, you probably couldn’t do anything more
than lay on the couch when you arrived home after your first day on
the job. You were most likely much too tired from the demands
imposed upon the body. After a couple weeks, the soreness and
fatigue disappeared and you were able to live a normal life outside of
work because your body specifically adapted to the imposed demand
of swinging a 6-lb sledgehammer all day. If you changed to a 10-lb
sledgehammer, you would once again find yourself lying on the
couch as soon as you got home because that would be a new demand
imposed on the body that it hadn’t specifically adapted to yet.

The SAID principle is the reason why there are different adaptations
to the different protocols. If you make a demand on a muscle that is
of long duration and moderate intensity tension, the muscle will
increase in size to adapt to the demand (increased hypertrophy). If
you make a demand that is high in intensity and of short duration in
tension, the muscle will increase in cross bridges to adapt to the
demand (increased strength without increased hypertrophy).


[The APRE] | Section II 18

Finer Points
The APRE is a very good protocol in and of itself, but there are three
points I’ve found to be useful in improving upon its effectiveness—
technical failure, psychological momentum, and modification to the
adjustment chart for weaker athletes.

The first finer point is technical failure. While you want the athletes
to grind out the maximal number of repetitions possible, they must
maintain good form. For example, an athlete isn’t performing a back
squat any longer if he no longer achieves full depth and instead leans
forward to perform a good morning to get the weight up and goes
“knock kneed” (valgus with the knees). Instead, he’s performing a
high back squat valgus good morning. When the athlete’s form
breaks down, stop the set. While it may seem to halt the athlete’s
gains in the present, preventing him from lifting with bad form will
improve him in the long run.

It’s particularly important to maintain good form for exercises such
as the Olympic lifts. The Olympic lifts are very technical, and when
they’re executed, it’s of the utmost important to maintain good form.
An athlete might be able to achieve a greater number of repetitions
by shifting in form from hip extension to back extension and landing
with the feet out wide while doing the limbo, but because of this
alteration in form, the lift isn’t achieving the gain in explosive
strength that is desired with the Olympic lifts so the set should be


[The APRE] | Section II 19

discontinued. The technical lifts shouldn’t be performed for higher
repetitions because fatigue will lead to alterations in form to achieve
the repetitions. The Olympic lifts are extremely technical, so they are
best used with lower repetition protocols. I recommend using them
with only the APRE3 protocol. Power is the main goal of the Olympic
lifts, so the goal should be to increase power, not conditioning.
Psychological momentum can be a big advantage with the APRE,
especially when there are six or more weeks to train.

Psychological momentum occurs when the athlete is continually set
up for success in the form of increases in weight for each session.
During the first two weeks, the weights are light enough for the
athlete to achieve the top repetitions required to move up the APRE
adjustment chart to the maximal weight for both sets. By the third
week, the athlete should be close to his protocol repetitions, but he’s
used to succeeding. He is used to getting all his sets for the maximal
repetitions, which motivates him to push a little harder in order to
continue moving up and succeeding. He will get six repetitions
instead of three, eight instead of six, or 13 instead of ten.

Many athletes achieve greater gains when this type of psychological
momentum is created. Again, only use psychological momentum
when there are six or more weeks available for training. The gains
achieved as a result of psychological momentum may be possible
because of the higher total training loads during the first few weeks
of the program or from the feeling of succeeding week after week.


[The APRE] | Section II 20

However, it doesn’t really matter why the gains are achieved. If the
end result is rapidly increased strength for the athlete, that’s all that
matters. If the coach wants to find out why the psychological
momentum is working, figure it out later. As Dave Tate once said,
“Try everything. If something works, figure out why it works later
while you’re making the gains.”

Alterations to the APRE adjustment chart will need to be made for
the top and bottom ends of the spectrum. For example, if a female
athlete achieves 13 repetitions with the bar on a bench press for the
APRE6, the APRE protocol prescribes a weight increase of 15 lbs.
However, if you were to put 15 lbs on the bar, you’d be taking the
athlete from 45 lbs to 60 lbs, which is a 33 percent increase! That’s
too much! That’s like taking someone who got 13 reps on a squat
with 500 lbs up to 670 lbs. When coaches do this, they’re setting the
athlete up for failure. It’s important to take into account who you’re
working with. The female athlete only needs to increase the weight
by 5 lbs and even that seemingly small increase in weight may result
in her being unable to achieve all the repetitions.

Likewise, if an athlete is in the third week or beyond of the APRE6
and performed 500 lbs for 13 repetitions easily on the squat, the
coach doesn’t have to only increase the weight by 15 lbs. The coach
can increase the weight by 25 lbs or more if appropriate. However, if
the athlete performed 13 repetitions on the squat and barely got the
last one, only move him up the recommended 15 lbs. Use discretion


[The APRE] | Section II 21

and make modifications, accommodations, or alterations in special
cases. However, for the majority of athletes, use the standard APRE
adjustment charts.

APRE with Training
Implementing the APRE protocol into training is simple. It isn’t
necessary to go through the entire cycle with one protocol, but
always move from the higher repetition protocol to the lower
repetition protocol. For instance, use APRE10 before APRE6 and
APRE6 before APRE3. Not all APRE protocols have to be used in
order. A coach could use APRE10 followed by APRE6 or APRE6 and
APRE3 in succession. However, because of the different training
factors and amounts of weight used, it isn’t a good idea to
immediately jump from APRE10 to APRE3. The protocols used
should be determined by the athletes’ needs. For example, if a coach
has a young, physically undersized football team, he should use the
APRE10 protocol and the APRE6 protocol because of the increased
volume that leads to hypertrophy. On the other hand, the coach of a
large, older football team that needs to get stronger should use the
APRE6 and APRE3 protocols because of the increased weight, which
leads to improvements in strength.

Moving from one protocol to another
To adjust the weights from one protocol to the next, simply use the
weight and repetitions from set four and look up the next protocol


[The APRE] | Section II 22

on the adjustment chart. For example, a coach has a basketball
player who is progressing from APRE6 to APRE3. In set four of his
final APRE6 workout on the bench press, the athlete got 210 lbs for
seven repetitions. Because he is moving to the APRE3 the following
week, he will use 225 lbs as his weight, according to the adjustment
chart which shows that seven repetitions call for a 10–15-lb increase
in weight. Always look at the next adjustment chart when moving
from protocol to protocol to maximize training and smooth out the
process. It will prevent the athlete from having to start over.

If the athlete is moving from a higher repetition protocol, use the
adjustment chart to select the appropriate weight. For example, if an
athlete is progressing from APRE3 to APRE6, take his fourth set from
the APRE3 and adjust it by using the APRE6 adjustment chart. To be
more specific, let’s say an athlete has 300 lbs on the bar for his fourth
set using the APRE3 protocol, and he performs six repetitions, which
would normally equal an increase of 5–10 lbs. However, this athlete
won’t be using the APRE3 protocol in the following week. Instead,
he’ll be moving to APRE6. To determine his workout parameters, he
should turn to the adjustment chart, which shows that if 5–7
repetitions are performed, the weight on the bar remains the same.
Thus, 300 lbs will be the basis for his weights in the following week.

Applications of the APRE
The APRE can be used to develop strength on nearly any exercise. It
is often used with great success on core lifts such as the bench press,


[The APRE] | Section II 23

squat, incline press, hang clean, snatch, and push press. If a throwing
athlete needs to improve the strength in his lats, the APRE can
determine when and by how much to increase the weight on his pull-
ups.

Although the APRE’s versatility means it can be used on nearly
everything, it isn’t a good idea to use it on every exercise in a
workout. This would be far too taxing on the body to make any
specific gains and may cause overtraining. With the APRE protocol, a
little of a good thing goes quite a long way. It’s best to use it for the
core lifts or anything else needing a major overhaul while using a
normal scheme for all other movements. Please note that this
reference to core exercises doesn’t refer to exercises used to develop
the abdominal and lower back muscles. Rather, core refers to the
exercises central to a training program.

The APRE can be applied to any exercise, though not every exercise
needs the development that the APRE provides. A good analogy is a
car’s gas tank. Let’s say I want to go on a road trip driving as far as I
can on a single tank of gas. If I hop in the car and go 85 miles per
hour (mph), I will go somewhere fast, but I won’t go very far because
by going at such a high speed, I will burn up all the fuel quickly. If I
back off and only go 55 or 60 mph, I won’t get where I’m going
nearly as fast, but I’ll be able to go much further on a single tank of
gas. In training, if you try to use the APRE protocol on everything,
you will burn out rather quickly. Instead, it is best to train most


[The APRE] | Section II 24

exercises at a moderate pace. Save the APRE for developing the
muscles that need it most and train everything else normally. All
assistance exercises should be trained as normal using typical
accessory type volume. This means keep the repetitions at 5–20 and
the sets at 2–6 per exercise.

The APRE will require much energy. To make sure you have the
steam to make it through the APRE exercise, always place it as the
first or second movement in a workout. It should only be the second
movement when the first one is highly technical. For instance, if an
athlete is performing Olympic lifts such as the snatch or clean and
jerk, the Olympic lift should be performed first because of the degree
of technical complexity followed by the APRE exercise. “Fluff”
exercises shouldn’t be performed prior to APRE exercises. If all the
assistance exercises are performed before the APRE movement, the
body won’t have enough energy to make it through the routine.
Likewise, if the APRE exercise is performed before the assistance
exercises, more rest can be taken between sets and the athlete will
have the energy to complete the workout.

The APRE protocol should never be used for more than two
exercises, preferably only one, in one day. If it is necessary to
perform the APRE on two exercises over the course of a week, no
more than half the workouts can contain the two APRE exercises. For
example, if an athlete has four workouts in one week, no more than
two of those workouts should have two APRE exercises. If the athlete


[The APRE] | Section II 25

has three workouts in one week, no more than one workout should
have two APRE exercises. When multiple APRE exercises are
performed, the first one should be the most technically complex. For
instance, if an athlete is squatting and cleaning using the APRE
protocol on one day, the clean should be performed first followed by
the squat due to the complexity of the clean movement.

Estimating a 1RM
With the different protocols, it can be difficult to track an athlete’s
progress. For this reason, it may be helpful to estimate with a one
repetition max (RM). Divide the weight lifted in a particular set by a
percentage applied to a repetition. For instance, if an athlete has a
5RM of 200 lbs on the bench press and a 5RM is equal to 85 percent
of a 1RM, divide 200 lbs by 0.85 to get an estimated 1RM of 235 lbs.
The estimated 1RM isn’t perfect, so there may be a significant
difference between the actual 1RM and the estimate. However, this
calculation is a good way to track strength and know whether or not
the athlete is in fact getting stronger. See the appendix for a chart
that can be used to estimate a 1RM. In the left column, find the
weight lifted. Follow straight across the chart to find the number of
repetitions performed. The 1RM lies at that intersection. It is also
good to know what the estimated 1RM is to determine what weights
should be used during a deload week.

It may be easier and more accurate to just record the RM and use
that as the personal record. For instance, if an athlete’s personal


[The APRE] | Section II 26

record (PR) on the bench press is 300 lbs at a 5RM, the 5RM bench
press PR is 300 lbs. Because some lifters don’t have a linear
relationship between how many repetitions they can do at a given
percentage, repetition maxes can be skewed. Perhaps a lifter’s 10RM
PR is 275 lbs, his 6RM PR is 300 lbs, and his 3RM is 310 lbs. By using
a projected max chart, his 10RM equals out to a 382-lb max, his 6RM
comes out to a 362-lb max, and his 3RM comes out to a 337-lb max.
That’s a variation of 45 lbs, so the numbers may be inaccurate.

The real key for a lifter is to learn his body and how it responds
rather than rely on numbers. This may prevent overtraining or
overestimating a 1RM and prevent injury down the line. In addition,
if a lifter is better at one protocol over another, it will help to see
what gains are actually being made.

For instance, let’s say an athlete is really good at repetitions and his
best APRE10 set is 300 lbs. However, he’s poor at APRE3 with only a
best of 330 lbs. His estimated maxes would be very different for
these two protocols. He would be better off tracking his progress in
just the RM (3RM or 10RM) rather than looking at the projected
numbers.


[The APRE] | Section III 27

Section III
APRE with Groups
The APRE protocol is easy to use in one-on-one situations. A coach
watches his client or athlete perform every set, helps him with form,
stops him when he reaches technical failure, and makes adjustments
for subsequent sets or weeks. In one-on-one situations, a coach can
watch the third and fourth sets and the warm up for flaws, which
ensures the accuracy and efficacy of the APRE protocol. Using the
APRE protocol in small or large groups requires a bit more effort up
front for the practitioner but allows for much greater ease in the long
term.

For small groups, using the APRE protocol will require constant
movement between racks or platforms. Make sure form issues are
caught early to help correct the individual. Because time is of the
essence for everyone, make adjustments efficiently. When working
with small groups, I’ve found it easier for athletes to see me for
adjustments. Once they complete their set, they tell me the weight
and repetitions performed. In turn, I tell them the adjustments to
make for their subsequent set. When making adjustments, take their
strength levels into account and adjust accordingly, especially for
weaker individuals. This is in line with the alterations to the
adjustment chart discussed earlier and ensures that an individual


[The APRE] | Section III 28

isn’t being set up for failure. It isn’t always a good idea to go from 45
to 60 lbs simply because the adjustment chart says to increase the
weight by 15 lbs. There may be times when a 5-lb increase instead of
a 15-lb increase is sufficient. The coach needs to make that call. All
weights should be recorded on either a workout sheet or a master
sheet to track progress. Use past performance as a guide to make the
most accurate adjustments.

For large groups, it is acceptable and often necessary to type up and
print off adjustment charts for each person to have so that
individuals can adjust their own weights. This will speed up the
training time and prevent athletes from having to find the coach and
wait in line for their adjustments. This may require that multiple
coaches constantly check form. Try to make sure everyone has a
coach observing at least some repetitions. When using the APRE
with large groups, it’s imperative that the athletes know the
importance of maintaining proper form. Individuals in large groups
need to understand what good form looks like, what the good
coaching cues for form are, and what the reasons are for the specific
forms of each lift.

With my athletes, I emphasize that in order for everyone to be
successful, every member of the team must be an athlete and a
coach. When they understand this and the reasoning for it, the group
becomes a large number of coaches giving individual attention to
every repetition and set instead of a large number of athletes with a


[The APRE] | Section III 29

single coach. I’ve taken trips to many different gyms to expand my
perspective and knowledge in the strength field. One common
element between all the great gyms and barbell clubs is that
everyone coaches his fellow lifters on all repetitions. At no point
during any set is someone not corrected or positively reinforced on
form. This attention to detail by the entire group of lifters ensures
that everyone performs the workout properly. It also gives them
ownership of the program.

Whether the group is small or large, make sure the final set is
watched and recorded. This ensures that there aren’t any mistakes
that could lead to either too large or too small of an increase.
Watching the last set will also serve as an additional technique check
to make sure the athlete isn’t sacrificing form for increased weight
on the bar. Even if a coach has succeeded in creating an atmosphere
where everyone feels responsible to act as both athlete and coach,
that coach, as the strength and conditioning professional, is in charge
and ultimately responsible. It is his job to make sure everything is
done properly and watching that final set is a good way to ensure
that.

Training Cycles
Hypertrophy
For just hypertrophy, use only APRE10. If the cycle is longer than six
weeks, a deload should occur every fourth week.


[The APRE] | Section III 30

Four-week hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE10
Week 4: APRE10

Six-week hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE10
Week 4: 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated 1RM
Week 5: APRE10
Week 6: APRE10

Eight-week hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE10
Week 4: 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated 1RM
Week 5: APRE10
Week 6: APRE10
Week 7: APRE10
Week 8: APRE10 or 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated
1RM



[The APRE] | Section III 31

Ten-week hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE10
Week 4: 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated 1RM
Week 5: APRE10
Week 6: APRE10
Week 7: APRE10
Week 8: 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated 1RM
Week 9: APRE10
Week 10: APRE10

Twelve-week hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE10
Week 4: 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated 1RM
Week 5: APRE10
Week 6: APRE10
Week 7: APRE10
Week 8: 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated 1RM
Week 9: APRE10
Week 10: APRE10
Week 11: APRE10
Week12: APRE10 or 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated
1RM


[The APRE] | Section III 32

Hypertrophy and strength
Some hypertrophy will be achieved using the APRE6 protocol.
However, it is greatest with APRE10. Because of this, only use APRE6
when a short amount of time is available for training and both
protocols are needed. When six weeks or more are available for
training, use both APRE10 and APRE6 protocols to maximize
hypertrophy and strength. Deload every fourth week if using APRE6
for more than four weeks.

Four-week strength and hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE6
Week 2: APRE6
Week 3: APRE6
Week 4: APRE6

Six-week strength and hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE6
Week 4: APRE6
Week 5: APRE6
Week 6: APRE6

Ten-week strength and hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10


[The APRE] | Section III 33

Week 3: APRE6
Week 4: APRE6
Week 5: APRE6
Week 6: APRE6
Week 7: 3 sets of 12 repetitions at 65% estimated 1RM
Week 8: APRE6
Week 9: APRE6
Week 10: APRE6

Twelve-week strength and hypertrophy cycle
Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE6
Week 4: APRE6
Week 5: APRE6
Week 6: APRE6
Week 7: 3 sets of 12 repetitions at 65% estimated 1RM
Week 8: APRE6
Week 9: APRE6
Week 10: APRE6
Week 11: 3 sets of 12 repetitions at 65% estimated 1RM
Week 12: APRE6

Strength and strength/power
Strength and strength/power routines use APRE6 and APRE3. Only
use APRE3 if five weeks or less are available for training. If six weeks


[The APRE] | Section III 34

or more are available, use APRE6 and APRE3. Be sure to deload if
using APRE3 for more than four weeks.

Four-week strength and strength/power routine
Week 1: APRE3
Week 2: APRE3
Week 3: APRE3
Week 4: APRE3

Six-week strength and strength/power routine
Week 1: APRE6
Week 2: APRE6
Week 3: APRE3
Week 4: APRE3
Week5: APRE3
Week6: APRE3

Eight-week strength and strength/power routine
Week 1: APRE6
Week 2: APRE6
Week 3: APRE6
Week 4: APRE6
Week 5: APRE3
Week 6: APRE3
Week 7: APRE3
Week 8: APRE3


[The APRE] | Section III 35

Ten-week strength and strength/power routine
Week1: APRE6
Week 2: APRE6
Week 3: APRE6
Week 4: APRE3
Week 5: APRE3
Week 6: APRE3
Week 7: 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% estimated 1RM
Week 8: APRE3
Week 9: APRE3
Week 10: APRE3

Twelve-week strength and strength/power routine
Week1: APRE6
Week 2: APRE6
Week 3: APRE3
Week 4: APRE3
Week 5: APRE3
Week 6: 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% estimated 1RM
Week 7: APRE3
Week 8: APRE3
Week 9: APRE3
Week 10: 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% estimated 1RM
Week 11: APRE3
Week 12: APRE3



[The APRE] | Section III 36

All-encompassing routine
This routine should be used when a long period of time, such as 16
weeks, is available for training athletes.

Week 1: APRE10
Week 2: APRE10
Week 3: APRE10
Week 4: 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 60% estimated 1RM
Week 5: APRE6
Week 6: APRE6
Week 7: APRE6
Week 8: 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 65% estimated 1RM
Week 9: APRE6
Week 10: APRE6
Week 11: APRE 6
Week 12: 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 65% estimated 1RM
Week 13: APRE3
Week 14: APRE3
Week 15: APRE3
Week 16: APRE3
[The APRE] | Appendix 37

Appendix: Projected Max Chart

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7
10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14
15 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21
20 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 27 28
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 33 34 35
30 32 33 34 35 36 38 38 39 40 41 42
35 37 38 40 41 42 44 45 46 47 48 49
40 42 43 45 47 48 50 51 52 53 55 56
45 47 49 51 53 54 56 58 59 60 62 63
50 53 54 57 59 60 63 64 66 67 69 70
55 58 60 62 65 66 69 70 72 73 75 76
60 63 65 68 71 72 75 77 79 80 82 83
65 69 71 74 76 78 81 83 85 87 89 90
70 74 76 80 82 84 88 90 92 93 96 97
75 79 81 85 88 90 94 96 98 100 103 104
80 84 87 91 94 96 100 102 105 107 110 111
85 90 92 97 100 102 106 109 111 113 116 118
90 95 98 102 106 108 113 115 118 120 123 125
95 100 103 108 112 114 119 122 124 127 130 132
100 105 109 114 118 121 125 128 131 134 137 139
105 111 114 119 123 127 131 134 138 140 144 146
110 116 119 125 129 133 138 141 144 147 151 153
115 121 125 131 135 139 144 147 151 154 158 160
120 126 130 136 141 145 150 154 157 160 164 167
125 132 136 142 147 151 156 160 164 167 171 174
130 137 141 148 153 157 163 166 170 174 178 181
135 142 147 153 159 163 169 173 177 180 185 188
140 148 152 159 165 169 175 179 183 187 192 195
145 153 157 165 171 175 181 186 190 194 199 202
150 158 163 170 176 181 188 192 197 200 206 209
155 163 168 176 182 187 194 198 203 207 212 215
160 169 174 182 188 193 200 205 210 214 219 222
165 174 179 187 194 199 206 211 216 220 226 229
170 179 185 193 200 205 213 218 223 227 233 236
175 184 190 199 206 211 219 224 229 234 240 243
180 190 195 204 212 217 225 230 236 240 247 250
185 195 201 210 218 223 231 237 242 247 253 257
190 200 206 216 223 229 238 243 249 254 260 264
195 206 212 222 229 235 244 250 255 260 267 271
200 211 217 227 235 241 250 256 262 267 274 278
205 216 223 233 241 247 256 262 269 274 281 285
210 221 228 239 247 253 263 269 275 280 288 292
215 227 233 244 253 259 269 275 282 287 295 299
220 232 239 250 259 265 275 282 288 294 301 306
225 237 244 256 265 271 281 288 295 300 308 313
230 242 250 261 270 277 288 294 301 307 315 320
235 248 255 267 276 283 294 301 308 314 322 327
240 253 261 273 282 289 300 307 314 320 329 334
245 258 266 278 288 295 306 314 321 327 336 341
250 264 272 284 294 301 313 320 328 334 343 348
255 269 277 290 300 307 319 326 334 340 349 354
260 274 282 295 306 313 325 333 341 347 356 361
265 279 288 301 312 319 331 339 347 354 363 368
270 285 293 307 318 325 338 346 354 360 370 375
275 290 299 312 323 331 344 352 360 367 377 382
280 295 304 318 329 337 350 358 367 374 384 389
285 300 310 324 335 343 356 365 373 380 390 396
290 306 315 329 341 349 363 371 380 387 397 403
295 311 320 335 347 355 369 378 386 394 404 410
300 316 326 341 353 362 375 384 393 401 411 417
[The APRE] | Appendix 38

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
305 321 331 346 359 368 381 390 400 407 418 424
310 327 337 352 365 374 388 397 406 414 425 431
315 332 342 358 370 380 394 403 413 421 432 438
320 337 348 364 376 386 400 410 419 427 438 445
325 343 353 369 382 392 406 416 426 434 445 452
330 348 358 375 388 398 413 422 432 441 452 459
335 353 364 381 394 404 419 429 439 447 459 466
340 358 369 386 400 410 425 435 445 454 466 473
345 364 375 392 406 416 431 442 452 461 473 480
350 369 380 398 412 422 438 448 459 467 480 487
355 374 386 403 417 428 444 454 465 474 486 493
360 379 391 409 423 434 450 461 472 481 493 500
365 385 396 415 429 440 456 467 478 487 500 507
370 390 402 420 435 446 463 474 485 494 507 514
375 395 407 426 441 452 469 480 491 501 514 521
380 401 413 432 447 458 475 486 498 507 521 528
385 406 418 437 453 464 481 493 504 514 527 535
390 411 424 443 459 470 488 499 511 521 534 542
395 416 429 449 465 476 494 506 517 527 541 549
400 422 434 454 470 482 500 512 524 534 548 556
405 427 440 460 476 488 506 518 531 541 555 563
410 432 445 466 482 494 513 525 537 547 562 570
415 437 451 471 488 500 519 531 544 554 569 577
420 443 456 477 494 506 525 538 550 561 575 584
425 448 462 483 500 512 531 544 557 567 582 591
430 453 467 488 506 518 538 550 563 574 589 598
435 458 472 494 512 524 544 557 570 581 596 605
440 464 478 500 517 530 550 563 576 587 603 612
445 469 483 506 523 536 556 570 583 594 610 619
450 474 489 511 529 542 563 576 590 601 617 626
455 480 494 517 535 548 569 582 596 607 623 632
460 485 500 523 541 554 575 589 603 614 630 639
465 490 505 528 547 560 581 595 609 621 637 646
470 495 510 534 553 566 588 602 616 627 644 653
475 501 516 540 559 572 594 608 622 634 651 660
480 506 521 545 564 578 600 614 629 641 658 667
485 511 527 551 570 584 606 621 635 647 664 674
490 516 532 557 576 590 613 627 642 654 671 681
495 522 538 562 582 596 619 634 648 661 678 688
500 527 543 568 588 603 625 640 655 668 685 695
505 532 548 574 594 609 631 646 662 674 692 702
510 538 554 579 600 615 638 653 668 681 699 709
515 543 559 585 606 621 644 659 675 688 706 716
520 548 565 591 612 627 650 666 681 694 712 723
525 553 570 596 617 633 656 672 688 701 719 730
530 559 576 602 623 639 663 678 694 708 726 737
535 564 581 608 629 645 669 685 701 714 733 744
540 569 586 613 635 651 675 691 707 721 740 751
545 574 592 619 641 657 681 698 714 728 747 758
550 580 597 625 647 663 688 704 721 734 754 765
555 585 603 630 653 669 694 710 727 741 760 771
560 590 608 636 659 675 700 717 734 748 767 778
565 596 614 642 664 681 706 723 740 754 774 785
570 601 619 648 670 687 713 730 747 761 781 792
575 606 624 653 676 693 719 736 753 768 788 799
580 611 630 659 682 699 725 742 760 774 795 806
585 617 635 665 688 705 731 749 766 781 801 813
590 622 641 670 694 711 738 755 773 788 808 820
595 627 646 676 700 717 744 762 779 794 815 827
600 632 652 682 706 723 750 768 786 801 822 834
605 638 657 687 711 729 756 774 793 808 829 841
610 643 662 693 717 735 763 781 799 814 836 848
615 648 668 699 723 741 769 787 806 821 843 855
[The APRE] | Appendix 39

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
620 653 673 704 729 747 775 794 812 828 849 862
625 659 679 710 735 753 781 800 819 834 856 869
630 664 684 716 741 759 788 806 825 841 863 876
635 669 690 721 747 765 794 813 832 848 870 883
640 675 695 727 753 771 800 819 838 854 877 890
645 680 700 733 759 777 806 826 845 861 884 897
650 685 706 738 764 783 813 832 852 868 891 904
655 690 711 744 770 789 819 838 858 874 897 910
660 696 717 750 776 795 825 845 865 881 904 917
665 701 722 755 782 801 831 851 871 888 911 924
670 706 728 761 788 807 838 858 878 894 918 931
675 711 733 767 794 813 844 864 884 901 925 938
680 717 738 772 800 819 850 870 891 908 932 945
685 722 744 778 806 825 856 877 897 914 938 952
690 727 749 784 811 831 863 883 904 921 945 959
695 733 755 790 817 837 869 890 910 928 952 966
700 738 760 795 823 844 875 896 917 935 959 973
705 743 766 801 829 850 881 902 924 941 966 980
710 748 771 807 835 856 888 909 930 948 973 987
715 754 776 812 841 862 894 915 937 955 980 994
720 759 782 818 847 868 900 922 943 961 986 1001
725 764 787 824 853 874 906 928 950 968 993 1008
730 769 793 829 858 880 913 934 956 975 1000 1015
735 775 798 835 864 886 919 941 963 981 1007 1022
740 780 804 841 870 892 925 947 969 988 1014 1029
745 785 809 846 876 898 931 954 976 995 1021 1036
750 791 815 852 882 904 938 960 983 1001 1028 1043
755 796 820 858 888 910 944 966 989 1008 1034 1049
760 801 825 863 894 916 950 973 996 1015 1041 1056
765 806 831 869 900 922 956 979 1002 1021 1048 1063
770 812 836 875 906 928 963 986 1009 1028 1055 1070
775 817 842 880 911 934 969 992 1015 1035 1062 1077
780 822 847 886 917 940 975 998 1022 1041 1069 1084
785 827 853 892 923 946 981 1005 1028 1048 1075 1091
790 833 858 897 929 952 988 1011 1035 1055 1082 1098
795 838 863 903 935 958 994 1018 1041 1061 1089 1105
800 843 869 909 941 964 1000 1024 1048 1068 1096 1112
805 848 874 914 947 970 1006 1030 1055 1075 1103 1119
810 854 880 920 953 976 1013 1037 1061 1081 1110 1126
815 859 885 926 958 982 1019 1043 1068 1088 1117 1133
820 864 891 932 964 988 1025 1050 1074 1095 1123 1140
825 870 896 937 970 994 1031 1056 1081 1101 1130 1147
830 875 901 943 976 1000 1038 1062 1087 1108 1137 1154
835 880 907 949 982 1006 1044 1069 1094 1115 1144 1161
840 885 912 954 988 1012 1050 1075 1100 1121 1151 1168
845 891 918 960 994 1018 1056 1082 1107 1128 1158 1175
850 896 923 966 1000 1024 1063 1088 1114 1135 1165 1182
855 901 929 971 1005 1030 1069 1094 1120 1141 1171 1188
860 906 934 977 1011 1036 1075 1101 1127 1148 1178 1195
865 912 939 983 1017 1042 1081 1107 1133 1155 1185 1202
870 917 945 988 1023 1048 1088 1114 1140 1161 1192 1209
875 922 950 994 1029 1054 1094 1120 1146 1168 1199 1216
880 928 956 1000 1035 1060 1100 1126 1153 1175 1206 1223
885 933 961 1005 1041 1066 1106 1133 1159 1181 1212 1230
890 938 967 1011 1047 1072 1113 1139 1166 1188 1219 1237
895 943 972 1017 1053 1078 1119 1146 1172 1195 1226 1244
900 949 977 1022 1058 1085 1125 1152 1179 1202 1233 1251
905 954 983 1028 1064 1091 1131 1158 1186 1208 1240 1258
910 959 988 1034 1070 1097 1138 1165 1192 1215 1247 1265
915 964 994 1039 1076 1103 1144 1171 1199 1222 1254 1272
920 970 999 1045 1082 1109 1150 1178 1205 1228 1260 1279
925 975 1005 1051 1088 1115 1156 1184 1212 1235 1267 1286
930 980 1010 1056 1094 1121 1163 1190 1218 1242 1274 1293


[The APRE] | References 40

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[The APRE] | About the Author 42

About the Author
Dr. Bryan Mann is currently the assistant director of strength and
conditioning at the University of Missouri. He has been in the
profession for eight years and can be reached at
[email protected]