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Fuse Technology






Introduction to Low Voltage Fuse Technology

of circuit protection solutions, producing and marketing over 30,000 product variants for use within most industries - Electrical Distribution, Electronics, Telecommunications, Automotive, Space and Military.

Bussmann is one of the world's leading manufacturers

personnel world - wide, working together to provide the high level of service and product quality for which the company is renowned. Over one billion Fuses are produced per year in production facilities in the U.K. Denmark, Mexico, Brazil and the USA.

Established in 1914 Bussmann now employs over 2,500

on value added activities, reducing wasted resource and encouraging involvement at all levels. All our products are approved by the leading regulatory authorities and reflect a high level of quality. our people, processes and products we at Bussmann aim to provide Total Customer Satisfaction.

Striving for continual improvement, Bussmann focus


Circuit Protection Solutions




Selecting, specifying or recommending a Fuse Link for a particular application

can be critical and carries with it a great deal of responsibility. It is reassuring to know that the Fuse Link selected is the result of over 100 years of experience and cumulative knowledge gained in the invention, design, development and manufacture of Fuse Links.

Information recorded in a letter from a W H Preece to the Society of Telegraph

Engineers in 1887, stated that Fuses had been used to protect cables since 1864. The earliest enclosed Fuse Links were patented by Edison in 1880, but these were air-filled. The primary purpose of the glass envelope in which the Fuse Link elements were enclosed was to prevent molten droplets falling from the element, and to relieve the tensile strain on the element. In 1890, W M Mordy, chief engineer of the Brush Electrical Engineering Company, patented the first cartridge Fuse Link filled with arc-quenching materials. This device comprised a copper foil or wire conductor enclosed in a glass tube filled with a granular material. The filler could be chalk, sand, marble or any number of substances. Development in Fuse Technology has come a long way since the early days of Edison and Mordy. More recent developments have been incremental, with evolutionary improvements in design offering better performance. However the phenomena that occurs during the fusing of the elements is still shrouded in some mystery. When a Fuse conductor (or element) melts and interrupts the current, a very powerful "ARC" bridges the gap. This "ARC" is nearly as hot as the surface of the sun and although small in size it contains a tremendous amount of energy. Computer modelling of Fuse Link behaviour is now helping designers to better understand these mysterious processes that occur when a Fuse Link operates.

The majority of Fuse Links are designed and tested for compliance with one or

other of the recognised standards, and whereas a section of these notes will cover "Standards and Approvals" frequent reference will be made to the terms; Fuse Link and Fuse, and therefore we should define the difference. A Fuse Link is a device with a strip or element of easily melted metal placed in an electric circuit so as to interrupt an excessive current by melting. The term Fuse is referred to when a Fuse Link is fitted into a Fuse Holder, or when mounted onto a Fuse Block, therefore the Fuse comprises all the parts that form the complete device. Links are an important component used in almost every electrical installation, protecting both equipment and personal safety. Bussmann Fuse Links are manufactured under Quality Systems independently assessed to BS5750 Part 2 ( ISO 9002 ) and many ratings carry the ASTA 20 endorsement. You can be assured that at Bussmann we offer the customer the highest level of quality and integrity across every product line.





Few things are more annoying to a user than a Fuse Link operating needlessly when there is no actual fault.THE WEAKEST LINK electrical equipment that we use.. the elements get much hotter and the excess heat cannot be carried away quickly enough. Spurious operating is inherent in alternative protective devices dependent on mechanical operation such as miniature circuit breakers. The element therefore reaches melting temperature and breaks. or across live terminals. For this reason. are designed to operate safely provided that only the normal current flows. These wires or strips of metal are called the elements. the element ) inside the Fuse Link melt and form a gap so that the current is safely interrupted and the rest of the system is saved from the consequence of the fault. instead we use several thinner ones running alongside each other or in parallel. The immediate effect of any such incident is for the current to rise to a value far above what is safe for the rest of the system to carry. react quickly in the event of a fault and interrupt the current without damage to the system. The consequence is usually overheating which can lead to fire or even explosion. heaters etc. b) If the current flow rises above the rated current of the Fuse Link. All sand filler packed around the element helps to carry away the heat generated due to the resistance of the elements. motors. lighting. together with the cables connecting them. In practice a 1 Amp Fuse Link might have a single thin wire element. The heart of the Fuse Link is the wires or strips of metal which Link rated to carry 1 Amp of current will obviously have far thinner elements than a 100 Amp Fuse Link. motors suffer overloads. Occasionally things can go wrong: the cable insulation wears away. one of the largest ones we manufacture. not only must they carry the current. The Fuse Link Operation: a) When normal load current flows. This is when the Fuse Link comes to the rescue it is the specially designed weak link in the chain. Fuse Links are complex devices to design. while the metal caps and fixing tags lead the current into and out of the Fuse Link. Thin elements carry less current than fat ones. When the current in the system rises above a prescribed danger level the conductors ( thin wires or strips of metal. The current is then interrupted and the Fuse Link has done its job. For larger current ratings we do not have to use a very fat element. while a 1000 Amp Fuse Link. Fuse Links of high current rating have much larger bodies than small ratings. the elements get quite hot but the heat is carried away by the sand a n d t h e m e t a l connections so the elements don't reach their melting temperature. and people drop a spanner in the works. could have many thick strip elements. These must be designed to melt and break the current flow when the current rises above a certain value. The ceramic body forms the outer housing. they are also expected to have a long service life when carrying normal current. therefore a Fuse two . domestic appliances.

Hot Ionised gas carries current between broken element ends. B .like mass called ‘Fulgurite’.Fuse Body G . E .Sand grains are molten to form glass ‘tube’.Arc burning away ends of element. D . F .Element wire or strip.Sand grains stick together to form pumice stone .INSIDE A FUSE WHEN IT IS OPERATIVE A .Sand Filler three . C .

Element: The very heart of the Fuse Link. 550 and 660. as they control the action of the Fuse Link under operating conditions.FUSE LINK CONSTRUCTION must permit full flow of energy to the equipment or installation which it serves without contributing in any way to potential weakness during normal function. The Bussmann range of Filler: They are interference fitted to the ends of the ceramic body and the outer caps are then pressed on to them ensuring a good mechanical fit and sound electrical connection. is compacted into the ceramic body. A number of tag forms exist including those preferred by BS88. The whole component is electrotinned. its presence in an electrical circuit The Fuse Link Body: and Outer Caps: These are of copper or brass. To achieve such exacting characteristics the choice of element material is a very important factor. 415. Inner Caps: These are made of copper or brass and electro-tinned. the link must still maintain the ability to react when a fault condition occurs within the circuit. Discs: four . free from organic and metallic impurities and in a moisture free form. Current rating or reference numbers are stamped on either the cap or the tag. the connectors (tags) being fixed to the end caps by welding and soldering or by riveting and soldering. The Bussmann range of Industrial Fuse Links meet the requirements of BS88 Parts 1. Specific parameters are usually based on the current surge over a measured period of time (referred to as I t) as on graphs. the configuration of these being designed with the aid of a computer to provide the required operating characteristics. Construction and characteristics are therefore the key features in the Fuse Link design and operation. On each strip element there are accurately machined restrictions. A Fuse Link is a safety valve. Conditions of small overloads are controlled by the use of special alloy melted onto the elements. Let us now consider how the fault energy is contained within the Fuse Link by examining the construction of a typical Fuse Link. This is produced to very precise dimensions from high grade ceramic or fibre material which must be able to withstand the high thermal and mechanical stresses which occur when the Fuse Link operates. Silver plated copper or silver elements manufactured to close limits are constructed. Connectors The Industrial Fuse Links is manufactured in eleven body sizes covering ratings from 2 to 1250 Amps. However. and consequently its prospective capability in an over-current situation. Operating characteristics are the key feature of every Fuse Link. containing the fault energy within the body of the Fuse Link. These are known as the ‘M’ effect. These are used to provide resilience between the inner and outer caps and act as an arc barrier. 2 and 6 and IEC269 Parts 1 and 2 in voltages of 240. A quartz filler of controlled size.

Connector and Outer Cap Disc Inner Cap Body Fuse Elements Inner Cap Disc Connector and Outer Cap Filler five .

It is.Current graph.. may require specially designed Fuse Links. The calculation of this current let through is more commonly referred to as the I t formula (current let through by the Fuse Link. It is necessary to design Fuse Links specially for different applications. When a Fuse Link interrupts a high value of fault current. A characteristic of all Fuse Links is that the speed at which they operate is directly linked to the level of the fault current. The rate at which the Fuse Link chops off the potential fault current is shown on the cut-off current graph. motors. possible to meet many different applications with the same basic design. transformers and other equipment are protected from the potentially catastrophic effects of many thousands of amps of fault current which could otherwise flow. heavy overload or short circuit conditions. A graph plotting the operating time of a Fuse Link against fault current is called a Time . Time . however certain circuits. This average allows for manufacturing tolerances on a given type of Fuse Link. etc. such as motor starting. protection of semiconductor devices. in other words the Fuse Link current . Cut-Off Characteristics: It six .limits. the operating characteristics are the most important consideration. each having its the Fuse Link under onerous conditions of maximum arc energy. Example: a 100 Amp Fuse Link might take 10 minutes to operate at 200 Amps but would operate in one tenth of a second at 1000 Amps. The Time-Current Characteristic: first represents the amount of energy let through by the Fuse Link from the start of the fault up until the time the Fuse Link actually begins to operate. which are termed average curves. small sustained overload conditions.FUSE LINK CHARACTERISTICS own special requirements. Time Current curves according to North American Standards are plotted differently with each Fuse Link design having two curves. or Joule-Integrated Data: A calculation of energy which is controlled or cuts off through the Fuse Link. normal running conditions. The second plots the slowest time that the same Fuse Link would operate at the same currents. Therefore when designing and selecting a Fuse Link for a particular application. it chops off the current before it has time to reach its full value. The second represents the total package of energy let through by the Fuse Link until the instant when the Fuse Link finally interrupts the fault current. squared multiplied by the time in seconds for which the current flows) These values represent the total operating and pre-arcing times of Fuse Links are used in a variety of applications. by convention this energy is sometimes referred to as the Joule-integral. Two values or curves are always given for each Fuse Link: 1)minimum pre-melting I t and 2)maximum clearing I t. of course. Fuse Link operation must be considered under three different conditions. These represent the fastest time that the Fuse Link would operate for given values of current. Current limiting is the most important feature of Fuse Link operation as it ensures that cables. dc operation.Current curves are produced according to BS or IEC Standards.

Examples 1. Cut-off Current Characteristics Fuse cut-off current Time Current Current 3 (a) I t Characteristics 3 (b) I t ‘Bull Rushes’ Amp Seconds Current Amp Seconds Current seven . Time-current characteristics 2.

DEFINITIONS or HBC: High Rupturing Capacity or High Breaking Capacity denotes the ability of the Fuse Link to interrupt extremely high fault currents. The power loss values relate to a maximum test ambient temperature of 25 degrees C. and above. The 240V ac.g. designs have a breaking capacity of 50kA. applications. These zones have the minimum pre-arcing time and maximum total operating time at 415 volts as their limiting values. They can however be used satisfactorily in circuits at lower voltages. The value of current that a Fuse Link will carry continuously without deterioration under specified conditions. Fuse Links are voltagesensitive devices. dc or both. The standard values of breaking capacity are 80kA for voltages of 415V ac. 80 kA. and it is important to note that satisfactory operation of a Fuse Link under fault conditions is dependent upon the applied voltage. The continuous current rating of the Fuse Link should not be less than the full load current of the circuit. They must not therefore be applied in circuits above their voltage capability. HRC Rated Voltage: The maximum voltage that the Fuse Link is designed to Current Rating: Minimum Fusing Current: The minimum value of current to cause Link has been tested to interrupt e. Rated voltage may be in volts ac. (or other relevant standard) the time/current characteristics must lie within specified zones. Power Dissipation: Discrimination: Time/Current Characteristics: To comply with the requirements of BS88 Ambient Temperature: eight . A derating in terms of current of 0.5% per degree centigrade above an ambient of 35 degrees C is recommended. Fuse Links are thermal devices and as such may require some de-rating when used at elevated ambient temperatures. the minor Fuse Link should operate and leave the major Fuse Link unimpaired. interrupt. melting of the fusible elements. All the Bussmann standard current ratings fall within the limiting values of the time / current zones. The quoted power dissipation of a Fuse Link must be the maximum value at the extremity of the tags. In determining if discrimination occurs between two Fuse Links in a circuit with a fault. Rated Breaking Capacity: The highest value of fault current that the Fuse The power released in a Fuse Link carrying rated current under specified conditions. 40kA for dc.

or Fuses to make a composite device. mounted on the moving contact system of a specially designed switch. Current Limiting Fuse Link: Back-up Fuse Link: nine . Switching: Ability to make and break defined load and overload currents at a rated operational voltage. A Fuse Link which during its operation limits the circuit current to a value much lower than the peak value of the prospective current. or a number of Fuses. A Fuse comprises all the parts that form the complete device. Short time current capability and/or through fault and/or fault making capability. A Fuse. the terms HRC and current limiting are synonymous. Full Range Fuse Link: A Fuse Link with a full range breaking capability. A mechanical device capable of making. for the useful life of the device. A Fuse Link with partial range breaking capability having a minimum breaking current greater than the minimum fusing current. Fuse Base: The fixed part of a Fuse including terminals. In practice. carrying and breaking current under circuit conditions. designed to carry the Fuse Link. Isolation: Ensures disconnection of the supply for safe working. Fuse Carrier: The moveable part of a Fuse. Switch: Switch Fuse: Fuse Switch: Short Circuit: Protection: Overload and short circuit interruption. capable of interrupting all currents from rated breaking current generally down to the minimum fusing current.A device which by the fusing of one or more of its components opens the circuit it is inserted in by breaking the current when this current exceeds a given value for sufficient time. Fuse: Fuse Holder: The combination of the Fuse-Base with its Fuse-Carrier. A switch connected in series with the Fuse. contacts and covers.

Additional Requirements for Compact Fuse Links (bladed tag). Additional Requirements for Household Fuse Links (domestic).2 (IEC269-2) BS88: Part 3 . Standards: BS88: Part 1 ( IEC269 . These are primarily for use by Electricity Supply Industries in distribution pillars. fast acting. Additional Requirements for Industrial Fuse Links (bolted tag). however in British practice the dimensions of these Fuse Links are quite different to those for normal Industrial use so there is no possibility of fitting the wrong type.1 & 2. 240V ac / 150V dc (6 to 900Amps ) and 660V ac / 450V dc (6 to 700Amps ) . The Bussmann range of Low Voltage Feeder Pillar Fuse Links are designed for use with wedge type fuse carriers with fixing centres of 82mm and 92mm. Additional Requirements for Electricity Supply Network (Feeder Pillar) Fuse Links. or for semiconductor protection. Additional Requirements for Semiconductor Protection Fuse Links. heavy duty service cut-outs and underground disconnecting boxes. open type substations boards. Unfortunately there is no universally recognised term. Supplementary ranges cover applications up to 660 Volt ac and 500 Volt dc including those with non-standard tag fixings.4 ) BS88: Part 5 BS88: Part 6 General Requirements. Bussmann offer two voltage ranges. Manufacturer's literature will refer to these Fuse Links as high speed.1 ( IEC269 .LOW VOLTAGE FUSE LINKS TO BS88 & IEC269 The Bussmann range of high breaking capacity Fuse Links for Low Voltage industrial and General Purpose applications meet the requirements of BS88 and IEC269.1 ) BS88: Section 2. By using advanced Fuse technology the current ratings up to 400 Amps have compact dimensions but are still within the standardised dimensional and performance requirements. The standard range of Fuse Links are available from 2 to 1250 Amp in the following tag forms: Offset Blade Offset Bolted Centre Bolted. These designs have been optimised for 415 / 240 Volt systems. The Bussmann range of Fuse Links for the protection of Semiconductor Devices were introduced in 1965. .3 ) BS88: Part 4 ( IEC269 .

for example Fuse Links tested to BS/IEC269 will in future be approved to BSEN60269. standards are quite different from those adopted in Europe. (International Electrotechnical Commission) is now accepted by most countries world-wide. Australia. Note: Din (Deutsche Industrie Norm) is a dimensional standard only. this will usually be acceptable. IEC Standard VDE Standard UL Standard CSA Standard The harmonisation of standards developed from the International Electrical Certificate ( IEC ) is being adopted for use in Europe with European Norm ( EN ) under a slightly different name. France. The majority of our Fuse Devices are designed and tested for compliance with one or more of the recognised fuse standards. eleven . ( Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker ) In Germany. Low Voltage Fuse Links have dimensions according to NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) ( Canadian Standards Authority ) In Canada. The dimensions of German Fuse Links (now widely adopted in many parts of the world) are specified to Din 43620 for Low Voltage Fuse Links. India etc. VDE 0660 for Low Voltage Fuses has been aligned with the relevant IEC Standard.UTILISATION CATEGORIES gG gM aM aR / gR gTr Full Range breaking capability. Therefore. which is a mixture of UK and USA practice. Motor Application Partial Range breaking capability. Fast Acting ( Superflink ) Transformer Protection FUSE STANDARDS: Most electrical equipment is sold as complying with some relevant standard or specification. General Application Full Range breaking capability. Low Voltage Fuses have to comply with CSA. Germany. and many countries such as UK. (Underwriters Laboratories) In the USA. Electrical tests are specified in standards written by UL. Motor Application Semiconductor Protection. have altered their own National Standards to comply with IEC. The familiar Kitemark and British Standard number is familiar on most domestic appliances and is the only guarantee of quality that the user has. if we confirm to the user that our Fuse equipment complies with the relevant IEC Standard.

This Fuse Link protects the entire length of underground cable from the sub-station to our domestic meter. although it is common practice to install miniature circuit breakers into the domestic consumer unit. These Fuse Links are designed to ensure minimum temperature rise within their sealed box ( commonly referred to as cut-outs ) but at the same time to chop the fault current down Protecting the supply at the front end of our domestic meter. ring mains. Reassuring to know that our domestic consumer units incorporating miniature circuit breakers are backed up by the tried and tested Fuse.000 volts. Protecting each 11. receive power via KR85 or LR85).FROM SUB-STATION TO TABLE LAMP cables at 11. Each outlet on the distribution frame is protected by a Fuse Link known as a Feeder Pillar or J-type. using what is known as a distribution frame. is the House Service Fuse Link (Types Feeder Pillar (typical) 315MJ30 to a low enough value to save any miniature circuit breaker in the consumer unit (miniature circuit breakers cannot stand high fault currents as well as Fuse Links). From the House Service Fuse Link. cooker etc).000 V supply Plug top PTC13 of these circuits could be a Consumer Unit Fuse Link. which began with the Feeder Pillar Fuse. C15 C45 The Plug Top Fuse Consumer Unit KR85 (typical) House Service Link is the final link in this protective chain. current flows via the Transformer meter to a consumer unit where the supply is split up as required (lighting. Plug Top Fuse Links are rated at 240 volt with current ratings 1 to 13 Amps. The supply is broken up into several separate 240 volt outlets which run via cables under the adjacent streets to our homes. Consumer Unit Fuse Links are rated at 240 volt and are available in current ratings 5 to 45 Amps. Electricity sub-stations which we can see in our neighbourhood securely fenced. twelve . This supply is transformed down to 415 volts.

Power Station Industrial Site 10 9 Commercial Site 5 7 8 11 18 12 17 13 1 2 3 4 6 14 15 Diagram courtesy of Electrical Review. Power Semiconductor (standby power supply). Fuses play a vital part in protecting electrical circuits. LV (Office Equipment). House Service. 4. Extended dual ratings of motor protection Fuse Links with gM characteristics are available in most popular sizes of Fuse Links. Estate 9. Consumer Unit. In motor circuits the Fuse Link has to withstand the starting current of the motor. Housing 7. 16. from the large hand made version used in power distribution systems to the tiny. Street Lighting. 8. 13. 1. typically 7 x full load thirteen . Fuses are probably the most common of all electrical components used in electrical circuits. 18. 15 Feeder Pillar. LV Fuse in Holder (lighting). LV Fuse in Holder (Air Conditioning plant). Plug Top (electric fire). 12. LV Motor Rated (AC Motor). 14. Main Fuse Combination Switch (distribution board). 16 11. Bussmann manufacture a wide range of Fuse Links. Main Incomer. 3. 5 Distribution Fuse Board. and provide back up protection with the motor starter and associated cables. 10. 2.LOW VOLTAGE FUSE APPLICATIONS From Power Station to the Home. 17. LV Motor Rated (Air Conditioning plant). 6. surface-mount chips on the circuit boards inside electronic equipment. MOTOR CIRCUIT PROTECTION current (FLC) for the run-up period in the case of direct on line (DOL) start motor. The following chart gives just a few of the many applications utilising the Low Voltage Fuse. Switch Fuse.

additional bonding agents are added to improve the sand compaction around the element. the complete device changes from being an insulator (a material that does not pass electric current) to a conductor (a material that does pass electric current). the semiconductor is sensitive to excesses in both current and voltage. To limit this over-voltage. Like many other circuit components. When an over-current is evident the wafer thin sections of the device over-heat and are damaged. Semiconductors were first marketed in 1953. The term semiconductor in electrical circuits can best be described as a switch. Fuse Links designed to protect semiconductors incorporate elements machined to finer tolerances and rarely employ the M-effect as used in the Industrial range. there are no moving parts. A Fuse Link element with finer tolerances will reduce the ability of the Fuse to provide low over-current protection. and will therefore provide increased protection to the semiconductor. The Fuse Link body material may also be of a higher grade material. reducing the energy of the arc on operation. Similarly. however devices had very limited overload capacities and. the Fuse manufacturers attempted to produce Fuse Links which were more sensitive to overloads and which would operate more quickly than their conventional designs. and it was realised from the outset that these Element for Industrial Applications M Effect Alloy Element for Semiconductor Applications fourteen . an over-voltage is produced by the Fuse Link. the construction of the device will again be damaged. As a consequence of interrupting the current flow more quickly. When a small amount of electricity is applied to one part of the semiconductor. but a high circuit voltage is present. as they were expensive. when the current is not flowing through the device. This voltage must be limited or other circuit components (including the semiconductor) could be damaged. and the end connections may employ a solid metal construction or be assembled using higher temperature solders.FUSE LINKS FOR THE PROTECTION OF SEMICONDUCTORS unlike the domestic light switch.

They are also available for use in three-phase circuits operating at 660V in current ratings up to 710 Amps. with inherent inertia. or. End terminations suitable for bolted connection with fixing centres at 80 or 110mm are widely used. Fuse Links do not depend upon any mechanical system. The Fuse Link is the only device available at an economic price. This gives the Fuse Link the important property of current limitation in clearing fault currents.e. Fuse Links are dimensionally standardised to comply with BS 88: Part 4. The square-ceramic NH' dimensioned designs are very popular. will refer to these Fuse Links as Protection of expensive three-phase and single-phase circuits operating at 240V per phase. This therefore. As well as giving local indication as to the status of the Fuse Link. and 700. 250. in their mode of operation and therefore Fuse Links are able to respond immediately to the thermal state of semiconductors. The standard dimensions are as small as practicable because many Fuse Links are used in applications where space is at a premium. Europe incorporate indicators. 'for semiconductor protection'. Range of Semiconductor Devices fifteen . the Fuse Link element melts before the first peak of the fault current is reached. The overall dimensions of Fuse Links for semiconductor protection are specified in DIN 43653.'high speed'.. the majority of power semiconductors are used in the body lengths being much shorter than those used for Industrial applications. which is fast enough in operation to protect semiconductors. Fuse Link operation depends upon the heat generated by the passage of excess currents in specially designed elements. but alternative versions with tapped holes in the ends are available. Many Fuse Links for the protection of semiconductors used in Fuse semiconductors can only be achieved by devices having an extremely rapid circuit breaking action coupled with cur rent and energy limitation. so there is no possibility of fitting the wrong type. these devices may be adopted to operate microswitches so that remote indication of the Fuse operation may be provided. The latter design has the advantage of being more compact and it is normally used for ratings above 1000 Amps. i. These are similar to those used in Industrial Fuse Links and they may be either positioned at one of the ends or in the central regions of the Fuse Link body. Manufacturers and users alike. Unfortunately there is no universally recognised term. limits the magnitude and duration of the fault current. 500. the special performance requirements have been obtained by using suitable materials and element construction. However. In the UK. The dimensions of these Fuse Links have not been standardised by any national body but industry standards have evolved by usage in the voltage ratings of 130. 'fast acting'. Links provided in North American circuits containing semiconductors are similar in construction to those used in Industrial applications. as in the UK. and are available for single-phase applications with ratings up to 900Amp at 240Volts. though in British practice the dimensions of the Fuse Link are quite different to those for the normal Industrial use.

circuits of voltages up to 440v. cicuits operating at levels up to 500v. 500v ac. 660 / 690v ac. M (aM) = 100NH00M + G (gL-660V) = 100NH00-660 Maximum Current Rating (Amps) 100 Amps 160 Amps 160 Amps 250 Amps 400 Amps 630 Amps 1600 Amps sixteen . systems. NH' Fuse Links are generally available for applications up to and including 1600 Amps. for ac. NH Din VDE NIEDERSPANNUNGS HOCHLEITUNGS ( Low Voltage High Breaking Capacity ) DEUTSCHE INDUSTRIE NORM ( German Industry Norm ) VERBAND DEUTSCHER ELEKTROTECHNIKER (German Electrotechnical Association) The NH' Fuse Link designs ( blade type ) are used in factory distribution systems and in the Construction of Part No: AMP + NH + BODY SIZE + CHARACTERISTIC Example: 100 + NH + C00 + G ( gL ) = 100NHC00G 100 + NH + 00 + 100 + NH + 00 Body Sizes: C00 00 0 1 2 3 4a / 4 Voltages: 400v ac.NH' FUSE SYSTEM distribution cabinets of the electricity. Note: System Voltage must be less than rated voltage of theFuse industry protecting power-distribution networks. a feature which is not normally provided on low voltage Fuse Links to British Standard. and dc. Designs with restricted current ratings are available for 660v ac. NH' Fuse Links incorporate indicators. 800v ac.

seventeen .

the 'D' (Diazed) and the 'DO' (Neozed). Tested to IEC 269 . This is an old type of Fuse System. quick acting or ultra quick acting characteristics.63 amps. performance and reliability are considered to be the successor to the 'D' type.1 specification and this design is approved by Lloyds Register of Shipping. generally take the form of a button head which is pushed out through the end contact by a weak spring when the Fuse Link operates. giving advantages in space saving. clearly stemming from the D' Type Fuse Links are manufactured to Din Specification 49365 and 49360 and have delayed. Gauge rings are supplied to ensure that the correct Fuse Link is installed to protect the selected circuit. The gauge rings are colour coded for ease of identification.Type) characteristic shape of the Fuse Link. 'DO' Fuse Links are suitable for 440 volt ac with 10% excess capability. They conform to VDE regulations 0635 for line Fuse Fittings with totally enclosed Fuse Links rated 500 volts. The ratings available range from 2 . There are two designs. Ratings range from 2 .Contact or Screw . eighteen A . often referred to as Bottle type. These Fuse Links are fitted with operation indicators which 'DO' Type Fuse Links with advanced compact design features of a cooler running Fuse Link.D' /'DO' TYPE FUSES (End . standard range of ceramic Fuse Bases is available to accommodate the range of both 'D' and 'DO' Fuse Links.100 amps.

Fuse Links with ratings up to 125 amps are produced for use in circuits in which the voltages do not exceed 500V.5mm has a breaking capacity of 50 kA. in ratings 0.5 x 31. The 10 x 38.125 amps. in ratings 1 . We can also claim that Cylindrical designs are now beginning to replace the BS 88 small dimensioned designs with bladed tags up to 63 amps. in ratings 6 . (500V ac up to 100 amp/400V ac at 125 amp) Cylindrical Fuse Links are approved to IEC 269.32 amps. (500V ac up to 20 amp/400V ac at 25 amp) 10. and 22 x 58mm Fuse Links have a breaking capacity of 100 kA. Ratings up to 45 Amps for use in 240 volt ac are available for domestic circuits. available for protecting industrial circuits.25 amps.3 x 38mm. Fuse Links with cylindrical bodies and ferrule end caps are now widely used for both The more popular sizes of Cylindrical Fuse Links for industrial applications are: 8.CYLINDRICAL FUSE LINKS domestic and industrial applications. The Cylindrical types. nineteen . replacing the 'D' and 'DO' types in new and refurbished installations. are becoming more popular. (500V ac up to 25 amp/400V ac at 32 amp) 14 x 51mm.5 .50 amps. (500V ac up to 32 amp/400V ac at 40 & 50 amp) 22 x 58mm.5mm. 14 x 51. For industrial applications. in ratings 2 . We are all familiar with the tried and tested designs of the Plug Top and Consumer Unit Fuse Links which have been protecting our domestic appliances for many years. The 8 x 31. and are available in gL and aM categories.

whereas the Class H has a low breaking capacity of 10 kA) Class J . Ceramic bodies are used.from 600 amps to 6000 amps.NORTH AMERICAN FUSE LINKS USA that Fuse Links unique to the home market have been developed. Fuse The twenty . dual element Fuse Link employs a centre section which does not require any sand filling material. This is because the metal parts slow the temperature rise and allow free movement of these metal parts when clearing an overload. These standards have culminated in the establishment of distinct classes of Low Voltage Fuse Links. 600 V Class L . the main classes being: Class R . 600 V In order to develop safety test procedures.up to 600 amps.up to 600 amps. with the ability to operate at voltages of 250V or 600V.up to 600 amps. 250V and 600V Class H . however the Class R Fuse Link bodies are usually made of materials ranging from vulcanised fibre. and higher ratings are fitted with blade type tags for mounting in spring contacts. to pultruded thermoset polyester. 250V and 600V (The Class R Fuse Link has a high breaking capacity of 200 kA. and either bolted or slotted tags which allow for bolted connection. Several types of Low Voltage Fuse Links are available with current ratings up to 6000 amps. The elements are generally made of copper but silver is used when the let-through energies under high faults are to be kept to a low level. agencies regulating Links to North American designs are not dissimilar in appearance to BS/IEC designs in that ratings up to 60 amps are generally Cylindrical. The internal demand for electrical equipment is so great in the the test procedures have developed basic performance and physical specifications or standards for a product.

They are available from 0. They are intended to be bolted into their mountings and are not normally used in clips. These are fuse links listed as k-1. Class H Fuse Links 250V and 600V. 200.000 amperes AC. All are marked ‘current limiting’ on their label and all have a minimum of 200. The Fuse Links’ Diameter is !/! inch while the length varies from #/ $ to 2¼ inches. However they are not marked ‘current limiting’ on their label since they do not have a rejection feature.000 Amps RMS. These are available in ampere ratings from 1 amp to 600 amps. are rated for 600 Volts AC and are not interchangeable with other Class K fuse Links. They are labeled as ‘Current Limiting’. These fuse links are current limiting. Class R Fuse Links These are high performance fuse links rated at / to 600 amps in 250 volt and 600 volt ratings.000 Amp interrupting rating.000 amps. 100. They are labeled ‘current limiting’ and are rated at 600 Volts AC. However. 100.000.01 amps to 30 amps.000 amperes AC. F Class L Fuse Links These fuse links are rated for 601 to 6000 amperes and are rated to interrupt a minimum of 200.000 ampere interrupting rating. Class K Fuse Links These are fuse links listed as K-1.000 ampere interrupting rating branch circuit fuses that may be renewable or non-renewable.000 amps.000 and 200.000. Class R fuse links will fit into either rejection or non-rejection clips. Class T Fuse Links  A industrial class of fuse links in 300 and 600 volt. These are dimensionally the same as Class H fuse links and they can have interrupting ratings of 50.Class CC Fuse Links 600V. K-5 or K-9. They have identical outline dimensions with the Class H fuse links. These fuse links are current limiting. K-5 or K-9. Class J Fuse Links These fuse links are rated to interrupt a minimum 200.000 ampere interrupting rating branch circuit fuse links that are size rejecting to eliminate over fusing. with ratings from 1 Amp to 1200 Amps. Each subclass has designated I t and I F maximums. These are available in ampere ratings of 1 amp to 600 amps. These are dimensionally the same as Class H fuse links and they can have interrupting ratings of 50. 10. They are physically very small and can be applied where space is at a premium. but have a rejection feature which prevents the user from mounting a fuse of lesser capabilities (lower interrupting capacity) when used with special Class R Clips. branch circuit fuse links with overall dimensions of ! /! x 1½ inches. they are not marked ‘current limiting’ on their label since they do not have a rejection feature. They are fast acting and time-lag fuse links. Their design incorporates a rejection feature that allows them to be inserted into rejection fuse holders and fuse blocks that reject all lower voltage.000 or 200. with an interrupting rating of 200. twenty-one . Some Class L fuse links have designed-in time delay features for all purpose use. Class G Fuse Links 480V. 100. Each subclass has designated I t and I maximums. lower interrupting rating ! /! x 1½ inch fuse links.

25. 5. Part 4. at 240V ac. 2. IEC 127. The letters and corresponding categories are as follows: F FF M T TT Quick-acting Super-quick-acting Medium-time-lag Time-lag or Anti-surge Super-time-lag DOMESTIC PLUG FUSES Fused plugs and sockets have provided a level of safety in the home since 1947. most have cylindrical type bodies and ferrule-type end caps. Many different types are available with current ratings from 32mA to 20A.4mm in length. . The two preferred ratings of 3A and 13A also conform with IEC 269. 3. 10. The Fuse Links used are commonly referred to as 'plug-top cartridge' (PTC) and are available in a range of current ratings up to 13A. Cylindrical in design. Part 1. Part 3. catalogue reference TDC180 are available in ratings of 1.35mm and complying with the requirements of BS 1362. with a diameter of 6. Covers the definitions and general requirements Covers Cartridge type Fuse Links Covers Sub-Miniature type Fuse Links Covers Universal Modular Fuse Links The category of speed of operation are also signified by internationally accepted letters that are marked on the Fuse Link. 4. 1. though an increasing number are produced for ease of fitting on to printed circuit boards (PCBs) Miniature Fuse Links are covered by the IEC standard (IEC127) Parts. 3. IEC 127.. The Bussmann range of PTC Fuse Links. domestic plug-top and other small dimensioned Fuse Links are physically similar. IEC 127.MINIATURE FUSE LINKS Although miniature. twenty-two The UK plug and socket system is so familiar that we take it for granted. Part 2. They are ASTA Certified and have the BSI Kite Mark Licence. IEC 127. 2. they are grouped into several different application categories and must comply with different specification standards. 7. and 13Amp.

TYPE 2 CO-ORDINATION Motor starter manufacturers undertake evaluation and certification tests for the protection of their motor starters with Fuse Links and recommend the maximum Fuse Link that can be used for protection. twenty-three . a recent IEC Working Group Applications Guide concludes that modern gG Fuse Links to BS88-2. protect modern IEC contactors. VDE 0636/21 or UL requirements. BS88-6 and IEC269-2 will generally be quite suitable for the protection of compact IEC motor starters. This includes an evaluation of test information supplied by Fuse and motor starter manufacturers. BS88: Part 2. The equivalent category of duty to the old 'Class C' in the new IEC standard 947-4-1 is 'Type 2'. since a Fuse Link selected in accordance with manufacturers recommendations to withstand inrush currents will normally give adequate short circuit protection to the motor starter. A working group of the IEC Low Voltage Fuse Committee has been studying the co-ordination of Fuse Links with modern motor starters and have concluded that Fuse Links with pre-arcing I²t characteristics towards the lower end of the gG characteristics of modern IEC269 Fuse Links. This gives a simple and effective means of co-ordination. In addition. Bussmann offers a wide range of Fuse Solutions for the protection of motor circuits and as a leading manufacturer is appreciative of the need to endorse Type 2 Co-ordination requirements when advising on Fuse applications.g. These recommendations usually do not state any specific Fuse Link manufacturers type number and they often refer to gG Fuse Links in accordance with IEC269 or the equivalent national standard e.

BS88: Part 2. and 63 amps. twenty-four The patented Safeloc Fuse Holders provide a simple safe range . a more cost effective solution is to install a Fuse Switch Disconnect. 32. The present day Fuse Holder has many features. and double back stud connected with the use of a unique back stud accessory and a screw driver. which accommodates offset bolted tag Fuse Links. The Bussmann Camaster range. The standard front connected Camaster Fuse Holder can be readily converted from front connected to front/back stud connected. 63. accommodate offset blade tag Fuse Links to BS 88: Part 6. Safeloc offers significant savings in volume and cost as well as a reduction in fitting time. BS88: Part 6. A 125 amp is available (GEC only). Safeloc Fuse Holders provide a safe and easy method of protecting a wide range of electrical equipment such as lighting. 1988. There are two distinct designs of British Standard Fuse Holder. A 200 and 400 amp version is available. This design overcomes the major problem of all other manufactures of British Standard Fuse Holders world-wide who have to compromise between difficulties of Fuse Carrier removal from the Base and achievable contact pressure. one being that live metal cannot be touched when designed to accommodate the compact range of offset blade tag Fuse Links. motor and control circuits. however at ratings above 100 amps.1 & 2 1986). These Fuse Holders incorporate a unique slide/snap action Carrier which eliminates the need for Fuse Carrier contacts. This provides positive. is fitted with a Cam for ease of removal from the Fuse Base allowing significantly improved contact pressure between the Fuse Carrier contacts and Base contacts. The cable terminals within the Fuse Base must also be fitted with barriers or shutters so that live metal is not exposed when the Fuse Carrier is removed. 1988 (IEC 269. These Fuse Holders accommodate offset bolted tag Fuse Links to BS88: Parts 1 & 2. with popular ratings the Fuse Carrier is being removed from or inserted into the Fuse Base. with an enhanced electrical performance level.FUSE HOLDERS: BRITISH STANDARD TYPES of 20. and power loss. with popular ratings of 32. heating. stress free fitting of the Fuse Link and locks the Fuse Link in position ensuring safe insertion and withdrawal from the Base. and 100 amp.

Modular Fuse Holders accommodate Cylindrical type Fuse Links. The 10 x 38mm designs are manufactured to European IEC. The need for a comparable Fuse package. control panels. and therefore global acceptability can be achieved using the one 10 x 38mm design incorporating Fuse Link ratings 0. Dovetail design provides maximum flexibility in the assembly of multi .05 . twenty-five Bussmann Modular Fuse Holders are excellent for switchboards. Din rail mounted ( 35mm ) Optional open Fuse indication lights. transformer protection. North American UL. and many more industrial applications. protection of small motors. offering Fuse protection in three popular sizes up to a maximum Fuse Link rating of 125 amps: Size 10 x 38mm Accommodating Fuse Links 0. . Available in single pole or multi-pole configurations.32 amps.FUSE HOLDERS: MODULAR TYPES circuit breaker (mcb) frame design. and Canadian CSA Standards.32 amps Size 14 x 51mm Accommodating Fuse Links 2-50 amps Size 22 x 58mm Accommodating Fuse Links 16 .125 amps Modular Fuse Holders are the most Features of the Bussmann 10 x 38mm Modular Fuse Holder: Touchsafe design IP20 . This design of Fuse Holder is a definite spin-off from the miniature versatile of all Fuse Holders available.poles.No exposed metal parts. similar in overall dimensions to the MCB was needed.05 . but with improved performance.

E. Where this is not the case adequate marking of the line / load terminals is essential for safe use.LOW VOLTAGE SWITCH AND FUSEGEAR A definitive description is difficult as both Switch and Fusegear products are perceived as being part of the same family of equipment. The word 'Fuse' at the end indicates a static Fuse. The use of one or more of these terms in the description of a device defines and identifies the function of the device. It is important to note that the definitions do not indicate whether the device is capable of being isolated at both ends of the Fuse.7. each device has its own specific features and functions. the subject of isolation has been prominent and the Industry Standard now calls up the requirement of BS 60947 . which is now BS 7671: 1995. One distinction that can be made is that finished Switchgear cubicles tend to be custom designed and therefore can require heavy investment in both financial and human resource.I. all intended to carry out the function of controlling and protecting electrical circuits so that the electricity supply can be safely utilised.A. Diagram courtesy of E. Fusegear is usually described as a range of stand alone enclosed Fuse components which can be installed as individual units or stacked into a modular distribution system. The following symbols have been agreed internationally and are based on IEC 617 . and there is logic to the terminology.M. twenty-six Following the introduction of the 16th Edition of the IEE (Institute of . In addition the position of the word 'Fuse' at the beginning of the description identifies that the Fuse forms part of the moving contact system. Whilst at first sight these definitions appear complex and confusing.3 for all disconnects (isolators). Switch / Fusegear covers quite a variety of devices. Electrical Engineers) Regulations for Electrical Installations.

The position of the word 'Fuse' in the description is important. A Fuse Switch is generally regarded as safer because the circuit cannot be in the live state when a fuse is being replaced and. everything from the accepted symbol for the simple switch right up to the more complex fuse switch disconnector. Without confusing the issue. or actually gaining access to live circuits. at the beginning of the description it identifies that the fuse forms part of the moving contact system. that you don't want unauthorised persons tampering with the supply. A good reference to the new terminology can be found in diagrammatic format on the previous page. usually sheet steel. look for enclosures that offer features like lockable handles locking in the ON or OFF position. Incoming switch in the consumer unit. a Switch Fuse is a combination of Isolator Switch (usually rotary type) and Fuse or Fuses connected in series to make a composite device. The descriptive terminology used for many years has now been changed. twenty-seven . either turning it on or off. Given The Bussmann Compact range of Switch Fuse tends to be a Switch stand alone unit housed in an enclosure. switching. And is a tried and tested approach to distribution networks. The word 'Fuse' at the end indicates a static fuse. A Fuse Switch is commonly found being used on urban secondary distribution networks up to 22Kv. It is not to be used to isolate a circuit under load. either device should have the ability to carry rated current either continuously or for a period of eight hours under defined conditions. offering the busy engineer a high level of quality and appropriate test approvals. what then is a Switch Isolator? Basically view the Switch Isolator as a simple switch that is used to isolate a circuit after the load has been turned off. The European norm (BSEN 60947) now refers to the simple switch as a switch disconnector.SWITCH FUSE OR FUSE SWITCH? Quite simply. isolating and for protecting individual loads. even though the Wiring Regulations (BS7671) class the neutral as a live conductor. Although selection and specification really depend upon the application. Basically under IEC 6177 the terms 'switch' 'disconnector' and 'fuse' are used together in such a way as to describe the actual function of the device. Often the question is raised in respect of the neutral. on the other hand. unlike a Switch Fuse it cannot be closed on a fault between the switch and the fuse. is when the Fuse or Fuses are mounted on the moving contact system of a specially designed switch. Fuses and Fuse Switches are still the most reliable and easy to install approach. For applications where the neutral should be switched simultaneously with the phase(s) or alternatively may be arranged to make before and break after the phase(s). Where the neutral is reliably earthed it is accepted that the neutral need not be switched except in defined circumstances ie. A Fuse Switch.

The Switches are ASTA certified up to 50 kA at 415V ac with the appropriate BS88 Fuse Link. Bussmann Switchfuses: 20. 32.3:1990. harmonisation of the electrical industry is being pole units are available with ratings from 63 to 630 amps. and FUSE COMBINATION SWITCHES tested in accordance with BS EN 60947. 315. and un-enclosed triple Within Europe. 400. Switch Isolator complies with the definitions in IEC947. 32. 63. achieved by CENELEC (Comite Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique) which produces.- twenty-eight . for example BS EN . and 125 amp units at 415 volts ac Triple Pole.5419:1977 and IEC947.COMPACT SWITCHFUSES AND SWITCH ISOLATORS offers a versatile range of reliable and easy to install surface/wall mounting Compact Switchfuse and Switch Isolator units for distribution and motor circuit protection applications.3.. 1992 complying with the definitions for 'Fuse Switch Disconnector' The Bussmann range of Fuse Combination Switches is designed and A range of enclosed triple pole and neutral.3 for 'Switch Disconnector . whenever possible. European Standards based on the work of the IEC. These Switch Disconnects can be specified as enclosed or un-enclosed units. 63.Fuse' Switch Isolators: 20. Triple Pole & Neutral. Switchfuse complies with the definitions in IEC947.3 for 'Switch Disconnector‘ 630 amp. Triple Pole & Neutral. Designed and tested in accordance with the requirements of BS. Additional ratings available in British designs are: 200. and 100 amp units at 415 volts ac Single Pole & Neutral. Adoption of the European Standard within the EEC is mandatory. In the UK such standards are further endorsed with the additional BS prefix.

Mixed rating capability can therefore be achieved. The Fuse Holders rated at 16. Neutral Bar and Earth Bar Safeloc Distribution Fuseboards are available in 32 amp and 63 amp outgoing ways utilising the Safeloc Fuse Banks which accommodate offset blade tag Fuse Links to BS 88: Part 6. A range of accessories complete the package. 4 to 8 outgoing ways. components. The Fuse Holders have special Z stab connectors so that they can be plugged in directly onto the central busbar. Single pole and neutral or triple pole and neutral Fuseboards can be ordered as factory built assemblies. comprising a family of innovative twenty-nine .HRC DISTRIBUTION FUSE BOARDS available in 32 amps. centrally mounted busbar arrangement fully rated at 200 amps. This is designed for plug in Fuse Holders which take the offset blade tag Fuse Links to BS88:Part 6. They are also available to higher specification of IP55. The range is complemented with the innovative 32 amp Distribution Fuseboard packaged into the traditional 20 amp dimensions offering the end user economies in size and cost. Camloc is a unique Distribution Fuseboard System. 1988. The system has a fully shrouded. 32. The Fuseboards fully comply with the requirements of BS5486:Part11. 4 to 12 outgoing ways and 100 amps. The Camloc Distribution Fuseboard System has all the flexibility of the miniature circuit Distribution Board but with an increased breaking capacity of 50 kA. The degree of enclosure protection is IP42. 1988. 1989 and can be ordered as factory built assemblies in single pole and neutral or triple pole and neutral. however an IP55 level of protection is also available. and 63 amp are of uniform size. Fully insulated and shrouded busbars and Fuse Holder base terminals provide complete personnel protection against direct contact of live parts. Camaster Distribution Fuseboards feature 3 phase Fuse Banks. The fully insulated busbars and shielded Fuse Holder bases contacts provide complete internal personnel protection against direct contact electric shock. The main Pan Assembly is fitted with either an integral on-load isolator or direct connection facility. 1988. The Fuseboards fully comply with the requirements of BS5486: Part 11: 1989 with a protection standard of IP42 to BS EN 60947-1. Camaster Distribution Fuseboards accommodate bolted tag Fuse Links to BS88:Part 1 and 2. 63 amps.

In the OFF position the switch door can be removed to change the fuse links. NH Fuse Switch Disconnector is approved to the following standards: IEC408. the metal parts of the fuse switch disconnector are corrosion resistant. VDE0660. ÖVE. is snapped into the switch base. The windows are equipped with pierceable testing holes to check the switching condition of the fuse links. (Size 00 to size 2). KEMA3104-90 . The protection cover. The switch door and the hinges consist of The thirty .N H ( H R C . Large windows placed in the switch door allow a view of the label and indicator of the fuse links. the copper contacts are either silver or nickel galvanised with stainless steel springs. There are no metal parts except the current carrying contact system. 2 and 3) NH Fuse Switch Disconnector (part reference LBS) is completely insulated and touch protected. The contact system is torsion resistant. OVE etc). 1.3106-90. In the ON position a flexible lock arrests the retractable switch door. IEC947. VDE. produced as one-piece Upper impact resistant synthetic material.LV ) F U S E S W I T C H DISCONNECTOR (for fuse links sizes: C00. depending on size. 00. It consists of thermically stable self extinguishing synthetic material. The requirements exceed those demanded in applicable standards (IEC. as well as lower touch protection cover can be sealed and protected against unauthorised opening. SEV1089. The or two-piece. SN40.

The switch door can be sealed in closed position. free of halogen. The copper contacts are nickel galvanised or. the thirty-one . is corrosion resistant as well as torsion resistant. Low Voltage Vertical Load Break Fuse Switch Disconnector to take NH style fuse links in size 00 Acc. Contact System: the one-piece contact system with Protection Switch Door: in ON position a flexible lock arrests In OFF position the door can be removed to change the fuse links. These approved to IEC947-3. A Assembly. After withdrawing the test leads the front degree of protection IP3Lx is again re-established.NH VERTICAL FUSE SWITCH DISCONNECTOR. Switch Base: is isolated and touch protected (degree Base Body: consists of glass-fibre. through large windows placed in the switch door. switch door can be parked (parking position). DIN43620/1 and IEC269-2-1. stainless steel springs. of protection IP2Lx). which is strengthened thermically. Cover: the one-piece protection cover consists of a glass fibre strengthened. silver coated. has high-stability with self-extinguishing properties. Label and indicator of the fuse links can be seen The shiftable windows are equiped with testing holes to check switching condition of the fuse links or voltage. There are no metal parts except the current carrying contact system. on special order. thermically high stable and self extinguishing thermoplastic. It is snapped into the base body and does not have to be removed for mounting. the attachable door of the vertical fuse switch.

originally designed simply to isolate circuits and to protect equipment and personnel against the dangers of high overloads.Notes ASSURANCE: Since the initial conception of the idea. thirty-two . both available from EIEMA (Electrical Installation Equipment Manufacturers Association) or alternatively Bussmann. construction or maintenance of any electrical installation. so keeping in step with the ever-changing requirements for circuit protection. We also acknowledge the work of Mr D.Whitaker for writing and compiling this training manual. The application of Fuses is detailed in the book "Electric Fuses" written by A Wright and P G Additional publications: Guide to Fuse Link Application and Guide to Switch & Fusegear Devices. Bussmanns' policy is one of continuing improvement. the HRC Fuse Link has undergone considerable evolution and sophistication. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Newbery. Copies can be obtained from The Institute of Electrical Engineers or alternatively from Bussmann. This is a continuous process and there is no doubt that in the years to come there will be further improvements in the design and manufacture of Fuse and Fusegear equipment. Wright and Newbery's classic guide to the world of electric Fuses has now been substantially revised and remains the comprehensive reference work on the subject. we reserve the right to supply Fuse Data/Catalogue information and Product which may differ from that described and illustrated in this publication. from plug-top to nuclear power station. from television to space research. The device. today finds an application in almost every electrical installation. The information contained in this publication is intended to introduce the reader to the basics of Fuse T echnology and should not be used to assist in the design.

Our team includes experienced engineers in Europe.engineers who can provide expert advice about the best way to protect specific circuits and applications. Denmark.many of which can be obtained through an automated fax response system.bussmann. Contact our Applications Engineers on: Telephone +44 (0)1509 882760 or 766 Facsimile +44 (0)1509 882768 As part of our commitment to Customer satisfaction. Bussmann provides extensive. Worldwide Web http://www. (Bussmann Information Fax: 001 314 527 1450) Contact Marketing Communications on: Telephone +44 (0)1509 882715 Facsimile +44 (0)1509 882794 Contact Customer Services on: Telephone +44 (0)1509 882600 Facsimile +44 (0)1509 882786 Bussmann has manufacturing operations in the Bussmann ® . Bussmann customers are assured of only the highest possible level of service and quality across every product line. data sheets and technical bulletins . Bussmann produce and distributes a wide range of product catalogues.Bussmann ® ADDING VALUE THROUGH TECHNICAL SUPPORT knowledgeable technical support for all major product lines. and the USA which have earned ISO 9000 certification. North America and Asia .

Our goal is to provide circuit protection solutions ® Circuit Protection Solutions Bussmann Division. Bussmann is committed to a programme of product provides extensive technical support and can offer expert advice on the best way to protect specific circuits and applications. for a broad range of applications. Technical support capabilities also include high power testing in the Paul P. Gubany Centre. Bussmann anywhere in the world. The Gubany Centre makes it possible for Bussmann and Customers to evaluate the reliability and performance of new products under the most extreme fault conditions.of today's industrial markets recognise no international boundaries. Most development. Cooper (UK) Limited.bussmann. Leicestershire LE12 5TH UK Tel: 44 (0)1509 882600 Fax: 44 (0)1509 882786 A Industries Company   !" # % "# . ensuring that we remain the first fuse company to offer and support a truly world-wide product line.000 ampere fault current. which is the only test centre capable of generating 300. Burton-on-the-Wolds. they are driven by global companies and influenced by international standards and product designs.