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Hse - Ship Mooring Operations




OC 730/17::HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIP'S MOORING OPERATIONS Health and Safety Executive Page 1 of 7 Operational Circular OC 730/17 Review Date 05/07/2014 Open Government Status Fully Open Version No & Date 1: 05/07/2004 Author Unit/Section CACTUS Transportation Section Target Audience: FOD Inspectors HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIPS’ MOORING OPERATIONS This OC advises inspectors on the risks and precautions associated with ships’ mooring, which may occur at factory wharfs and quays, as well as in commercial docks. docks. Mooring may take place at unsocial hours and involve peripatetic ‘mooring gangs’. As such, it may not be adequately controlled by client companies (for example, shipping agents or wharf operators). Inspectors should bear bear in mind the content content of this OC if they encounter mooring operations or investigate complaints or incidents. INTRODUCTION 1 The mooring and unmooring of vessels is an integral integral part of the operation of a working port, berth, wharf or quay, including those serving individual companies, such as larger factories. 2 Mooring is a ‘dock operation’ operation’ as defined by the Docks Docks Regulations 1988 and the Regulations will apply, particularly Regulation 5, Planning. 3 There have been serious accidents during mooring operations (including fatalities). MOORING – THE PROCESS 4 ‘Mooring’ describes the operation of securing a vessel to a fixed quay, or berth berth by means of mooring lines and/or cables. 5 It requires the shore mooring team to be adequately trained, experienced experienced and supervised. They will need to have sufficient understanding of the requirements of the vessel. The vessel’s Master Master and/or Pilot has the responsibility for the mooring operation and the safety of the vessel. The mooring team will also need to understand understand the hazards associated with the time, location, prevailing weather and tidal conditions at the berth. 6 The lines and and cables belong to the vessel and remain with the vessel vessel when it is on passage. As the vessel approaches the berth, one end of each of the lines/cables is sent ashore by mooring boat or heaving (throwing) line so that it can be secured onto the bollard or hook on the berth. Once secured, the vessel will then use the lines to help manoeuvre into position, using a combination of engine movements, ship’s winches pulling on lines and using secured lines to check the movement of the vessel. 7 Some new vessels are secured by automatic docking systems for which specialised specialised file://J:\dev\operational\Ocs%20TYP(pdf)\700-799\730_17\index.htm 30/11/2004 OC 730/17::HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIP'S MOORING OPERATIONS Page 2 of 7 training may be required. Such systems are not covered in this OC. 8 Most vessels use shore based mooring gangs to attach the lines to the shore with or without boatmen in line boats. In some instances some vessels will self-moor using the vessel’s crew without shore-side support or assistance. Enforcement of standards for such crew-only operations falls to the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA). HSE’s interests will normally be limited to the workplace issues outlined in paragraph 13. 9 Inspectors can take action if they encounter crew-only operations that are placing shore side personnel at risk, in line with our Memorandum of Understanding with the MCA. 10 Some ships have tension winches set at what may be a very high pre-determined setting. Loads on ropes, especially during mooring or unmooring operations, can fluctuate rapidly and winches can automatically pay out or heave up ropes without warning. This is most likely to happen to ropes close to ones being handled by the mooring team, but attention must also be paid to ropes from ships on adjacent berths using the same or close–by bollards. MOORING LINES 11 The following terminology is used to describe mooring lines/cables RISK ASSESSMENT 12 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 require duty holders to carry out risk assessments. This will be the employer where a shore-based mooring gang is involved. Merchant shipping regulations (enforced by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency [MCA]) have similar requirements relating to the ship’s crew. Chapter 4.10 of the Memorandum discusses responsibilities for mooring. 13 Mooring gangs are likely to be contractors employed either by the shipping agent, port/wharf/quay operator or vessel operator. As with other contractors, they should be assessed on their health and safety competence, as well cost/quality etc. HSE guidance Managing Health and Safety in Dockwork (HSG177) discusses this in more detail. As part of its risk assessment, the client must consider the risks it creates for the workers in the mooring gang, and ensure that their employer has adequate information. 14 The workplace for mooring gangs could be under the control of another party (usually the dock/wharf/quay operator). Consequently, these duty holders need to assess the risks and take steps to ensure the safety of a mooring gang using their facilities (e.g. by providing proper lighting and a surface free from slipping and tripping hazards). 15 Detailed discussion of the risks and precautions, based on marine experience, is given in the appendix. As an overview, any risk assessment of mooring operations must be comprehensive and consider the local mooring arrangements (i.e. the use of line boats, hazards created by the positioning of bollards on Dolphins [stand alone mooring platform], safe access, lighting, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) etc.). It should also consider the number of workers required to conduct the operation safely. 16 In short, mooring operations must be properly planned (Regulation 5 Docks Regulations 1988). 17 Mooring gangs need adequate training in understanding the task in a step-by-step way file://J:\dev\operational\Ocs%20TYP(pdf)\700-799\730_17\index.htm 30/11/2004 OC 730/17::HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIP'S MOORING OPERATIONS Page 3 of 7 so that they are able to identify the hazards and necessary precautions, explain all the terminology likely to be used by the vessel’s crew (and others) with whom communication and co-operation will be essential. 18 It is probable that since both wind and tide states will vary independently, the sequence of mooring line deployment will need to be changed accordingly. These and other variable factors should be considered at the assessment and training stages. 19 Inspectors should remember that, as well as the ‘usual’ risks at docks/wharfs/quays (e.g. falls from height and into water, workplace transport, musculoskeletal disorders), mooring operations include the possibility of ‘snapback’ where the mooring line(s) breaks or snaps with immense force. There have been a number of fatalities and serious injuries worldwide during snapback incidents. The need to escape from snapback may mitigate against precautions intended to control other risks, such as PPE to prevent falls into water. FURTHER GUIDANCE 20 Further information is available in Chapter 25 of The Code of Safe Working Practice for Merchant Seamen, available on the MCA website. Date first issued: 05 July 2004 file://J:\dev\operational\Ocs%20TYP(pdf)\700-799\730_17\index.htm 30/11/2004 OC 730/17::HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIP'S MOORING OPERATIONS Page 4 of 7 APPENDIX (para 15) HAZARDS AND RISKS At the berth: o Access and egress to working areas: many may be remote with difficult and unsafe access routes. o Lighting: A minimum measured luminance of 20 lux is required for mooring operations. 50 lux is preferable. o Slips, trips and falls, especially at bollards which should be kept free from obstruction and free from oil and ice etc. Wooden surfaces may become slippery if not cleaned/maintained. o Other vehicle/crane movements in area: Vehicle control points should be notified of the location and time of mooring operations. o Emergency recovery plan/equipment should be in place to deal with emergencies. Precautions During Mooring Manual Handling o Lifting of mooring lines can cause injury. Mechanical assistance may be required in some situations (some suggest these include where mooring lines have to be lifted more than 5 metres vertically, or brought more than 10 metres over land). o When heaving a mooring line ashore, haul sufficient slack straight onto the quay and then, with one or more persons holding the weight of the line, walk the slack line along the quay to the bollard. o When the eye of the line has been placed on the bollard, tell the person(s) holding the weight to ‘let go’. Do not throw the slack of the line over the quay edge until the others are clear. o When accepting a mooring line, beware, particularly with large ropes, of any sudden release on board the vessel or of any sudden check of the mooring line. Lines should be paid out steadily, but a sudden surge of weight could pull you over. o When handling a line, if excessive load comes onto the line as it is being handled, let it go, do not attempt to hold it back. o Never hold any mooring line by the crown of the eye. When placing the eye on a bollard, always hold the rope by the side of the eye or the standing part and throw the eye over the bollard. Never let hands or fingers get trapped between the line and the bollard. o Always ‘dip’ the second line onto a bollard when placing the eye of a second mooring line over a bollard. The eye of the second line is brought up through the eye of the first line. This prevents the lines becoming jammed. When doing so always make sure that there is plenty of slack and that the weight between ship and quay is held by another person. file://J:\dev\operational\Ocs%20TYP(pdf)\700-799\730_17\index.htm 30/11/2004 OC 730/17::HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIP'S MOORING OPERATIONS Page 5 of 7 Laceration hazards o Wire ropes are notorious for ‘spragging’ (broken lines or strands) anywhere along its length, but in particular at the eye and splice. These sprags can inflict very painful injuries, even through leather gloves. o Never let a wire rope slip through your hand and never slide your hand along the line. The wearing of rings can be a hazard. Serious hand injuries have been caused by rings being caught on sprags. o When making fast to trip hooks make sure that the hook lock is secure before placing the eye. o When using sunken bollards, rings or hooks, which are normally covered when not in use, move the cover plates to a safe position. This will usually be behind the line so that the line will not foul it and also that others and yourself will not trip over it. Danger from Breaking lines o Never stand in the ‘Snap back danger zone’ behind the bollard when a vessel is heaving/manoeuvring alongside. If the line parts it will fly back towards the bollard, or ship. Wire ropes are particularly hazardous as they tend to snake when they part. This is a greater risk than that of someone falling in the water. o Once a line has been placed on the bollard, move well away from the bollard whether the strain has been taken on the line by the vessel or not. When considering what distance to retreat, one must think in terms of 20 or 30 feet. A Nylon rope parting under tension 30 feet from a bollard will fly back 20 to 25 feet; a sisal rope will probably not fly back at all, but steel wire will fly and snake unpredictably, depending on the angle of the line and how it parted. o Always listen and watch for any signs to indicate that the lines are being over strained. This can easily happen when the vessel is heaving alongside or making adjustments to her position. Different types of rope give different alarm signals. i. Sisals, manilas or coir will creak and squeak. ii. Terylene, polypropylene or any man-made fibres will creak. iii. Wire rope will ‘sing’ or crack. iv. Nylon may make no noise at all, except for a very loud “crack” when it parts. o Sudden tension applied to a line either by ship’s winches, or movement of the vessel by surging or listing, can cause the line to snake without parting. Anyone in the near vicinity, i.e. putting another line on the same bollard, can be dealt a severe blow. o At all isolated mooring platforms providing no means of escape from such events, a safe place of shelter should be provided to afford protection from breaking mooring lines. General file://J:\dev\operational\Ocs%20TYP(pdf)\700-799\730_17\index.htm 30/11/2004 OC 730/17::HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIP'S MOORING OPERATIONS Page 6 of 7 o Never stand in a loop or ‘bight’, or eye of a mooring line. If the line tightens rapidly people may be caught or hit by the line. o Beware of weighted heaving (throwing) lines being thrown from the vessel. Many have a knot (monkey’s fist) on the end that acts as a weight to enable the line to be thrown. Some may have an additional weight added such as a large metal nut. o When accepting a heaving line or ships line never stand on the edge of the quay. Stand at least one metre back. o Never stand between the quay edge and a mooring line. o Never walk over a slack mooring line between bollard and vessel – if the vessel heaves or moves the line will become taught rapidly. o Never stand astride, stand on or walk over taught mooring lines. o Be aware of the extreme danger to someone in the water from ships thrusters, propellers and being crushed between the vessel and quay. o Stand clear of bollards when waiting. Do not sit on the bollard or the quay edge. Be alert to what the ship’s crew is doing and what your colleagues are doing. Precautions During Unmooring: o Go to the bollard only when the line to be released is slack; release the line and stand well clear. o When the vessel has ‘singled up’ (one line forward and one aft) and making ready to depart, extra strain may be put on the spring lines when ‘springing off’ i.e. to spring off the bow the vessel will require the stern line to be heaved in which will place extra strain on the after backspring. If the stern is to be sprung off the strain will be placed on the headline and fore headspring. o Invariably when a ship is ‘springing off’ the ship will be using its engines and propeller to obtain extra leverage. This means extra strain on lines. o If tugs are used to pull the ship off, then greater strain may be placed on the lines even if the tug is only taking sufficient strain to hold itself in position. o An off shore wind will increase the loading on mooring lines, particularly on a large vessel with deck cargo which acts as a sail. o As with mooring when releasing any line from a bollard, the line should be grasped by the side of the eye. Never slide your hand along the line and never let your hand or fingers get between the line and the bollard. o When releasing a dipped line always pull sufficient slack through the eye(s) of the other line(s) and then turn the dipped line eye over the bollard. If it is jammed by one of the other lines, pull the clear part right over the top of the bollard so that it can be pulled free; then signal to the crew on the vessel to haul it free. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) file://J:\dev\operational\Ocs%20TYP(pdf)\700-799\730_17\index.htm 30/11/2004 OC 730/17::HEALTH AND SAFETY DURING SHIP'S MOORING OPERATIONS Page 7 of 7 o Employers will have to carry out a risk assessment for mooring operations which will have to consider areas such as: o Night or day operations. o Weather conditions. o Slippery surfaces in wet, ice or snow conditions. o How exposed the area is. o Availability of help etc. o As with any PPE it is important that it is properly selected. Consideration should be given to factors such as: o frequency of use o size and weight of wearer o ability to swim o other high visibility/protective clothing to be worn o use of tool belts or other loads worn o should a light be fitted for use at night etc. o Lifejackets may not be required in every mooring operation. Where lifejackets are required, systems will need to be put in place to ensure that they are properly maintained, inspected and tested. o All workers who use the lifejackets should be trained in their care and use including pre-wear checks. o An emergency recovery plan should be put in place in the event that someone falls in. file://J:\dev\operational\Ocs%20TYP(pdf)\700-799\730_17\index.htm 30/11/2004 A) Headline A B) Fore breast line C) Fore backspring D) Fore headspring B Forward E) After backspring F) After headspring C G) After breastline H) Sternline D E Figure 1 F G H Aft