Legal Bases of Education
By: Christian Mespher A. Hernandez
Philippine Normal University M.A. Educational Management EdM 514 School Legislation
Article II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES PRINCIPLES • Section 17. The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total t otal human liberation and development.
Article xiv EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS EDUCATION Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels , and shall take appropriate steps to make education accessible to all .
Section 2. The State shall: 1. Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; 2. Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age;
3. Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the under-privileged; 4. Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and 5. Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-ofschool youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills.
Section 3. 1. All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. 2. They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
3. At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government.
Section 4. 1. The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. 2. Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines.
No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this sub section shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
3. All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions, subject to the limitations provided by law, including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment. 4. Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
1. The State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. 2. Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. 3. Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements.
4. The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State. 5. The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.
Overview of Philippine Educational System
1987 Philippine Constitution
DECS is the principal government agency responsible for education and manpower development. “The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all." (Art. XIV, Sec. 1)
State of Education is in a decline... Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report of 1991 Due to four main factors: a) mismanagement of the educational system b) not investing wisely in education c) lack of management competencies, and d) „systemic corruption'.
• “On completing any of the (non-formal education) programs, a person may either reenter the formal school system or get employed after taking the Philippine Educational Placement Test (PEPT). • More ways to accredit or certify education obtained through NFE programs need to be developed. ”On the reports embodied in the EDCOM report is enhancement and equalization of opportunities in basic education by encouraging alternative modes through equivalency and certification mechanisms.
The Birth of Tri-focalized System of Education in the Philippines • The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report of 1991 recommended the division of DECS into three parts. On 18 May 1994, Congress passed Republic Act 7722 , the Higher Education Act of 1994 , creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), which assumed the functions of the Bureau of Higher Education, and supervises tertiary degree programs. • On 25 August 1994, Congress passed Republic Act 7796 , the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994 , creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), which absorbed the Bureau of Technical-Vocational Education plus the National Manpower and Youth Council, and supervises non-degree technical-vocational programs. DECS retained responsibility for all elementary and secondary education.
Overview of Philippine Educational System
Tri-focalization of Education
RA 7722 and RA 7796 created: DECS for basic education CHED for higher education TESDA for post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development
In August 2001, Republic Act 9155 , otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act , was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools). RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens
Overview of Philippine Educational System
“Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001”
RA 9155: Formally renamed DECS as the Department of Education and transferred “culture” and “sports” to the National Commission for the Culture and the Arts and the Philippine Sports Commission
Vision: Functionally Literate Filipinos
• ICT in Education • Partnerships with Private Sector/Industry • Increase spending for Basic Education
s r e h Critical c learning a e resources T
• SBM •
• Pre-school • Feeding
B A S I C Elementary ECE
Teacher Development and Supply
Grade 1 Readiness Test
• Hiring and deployment
• Food for school
• Certification Program
• English, Science, Math • Every Child a • NAT Reader • NCAE • Multi-Grade •A&E
• Teachers benefits and Welfare
• Distance and alternative learning
E D U C AT I O N
Special Education College/ University
Public Schools Private Schools
DSWD DOH LGUs
• Tech Voc
Accreditation & Equivalency
Basic Education Framework