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List Of Psicoactive Plants | Psychoactive Drugs | Plants

List of psychoactive plants [16] NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa (http:/ / doi. herbotecnia. html) [55] Partial List of Alkaloids in ...... ( € (Italian) Sandro Pignatti, Flora d'Italia, Edagricole, Bologna 1982.


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list of psicoactive plants PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See for more information. PDF generated at: Wed, 29 Jan 2014 05:00:28 UTC Contents List of psychoactive plants 1 Tryptamine 30 Dimethyltryptamine 34 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor 45 Acanthaceae 52 Fittonia albivenis 60 Justicia pectoralis 62 Aceraceae 64 Acer saccharinum 65 Aizoaceae 69 Delosperma cooperi 76 Apocynaceae 78 Prestonia amazonica 86 Voacanga africana 87 Fabaceae 89 Acacia acuminata 97 Acacia alpina 99 Acaciella angustissima 100 Vachellia aroma 105 Acacia auriculiformis 107 Acacia baileyana 110 Acacia beauverdiana 113 Senegalia berlandieri 114 Senegalia catechu 117 Vachellia caven 121 Senegalia chundra 123 Acacia colei 125 Acacia complanata 127 Acacia confusa 128 Vachellia cornigera 131 Acacia cultriformis 133 Acacia cuthbertsonii 135 Acacia decurrens 137 Acacia delibrata 141 Acacia falcata 142 Vachellia farnesiana 144 Acacia flavescens 148 Acacia floribunda 149 Acacia georginae 151 Vachellia horrida 153 Acacia implexa 155 Mimosa tenuiflora 156 Vachellia karroo 161 Senegalia laeta 165 Acacia longifolia 167 Acacia sophorae 171 Acacia macradenia 172 Acacia maidenii 175 Acacia mangium 178 Acacia melanoxylon 181 Senegalia mellifera 185 Vachellia nilotica 187 Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens 191 Acacia obtusifolia 192 Vachellia oerfota 194 Acacia penninervis 195 Acacia phlebophylla 197 Acacia podalyriifolia 199 Senegalia polyacantha 201 Vachellia rigidula 203 Acacia sassa 206 Acacia schaffneri 207 Senegalia senegal 210 Vachellia seyal 214 Vachellia sieberiana 217 Acacia simplex 220 Vachellia tortilis 222 Acacia vestita 225 Acacia victoriae 226 Albizia inundata 228 Anadenanthera colubrina 230 Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil 235 Anadenanthera peregrina 238 Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina 244 Bufotenin 245 Desmanthus illinoensis 250 Desmanthus leptolobus 252 Desmodium caudatum 254 Codariocalyx motorius 255 Desmodium triflorum 257 Leonurus sibiricus 259 Lespedeza capitata 261 Lespedeza bicolor 263 Mimosa ophthalmocentra 265 Mimosa scabrella 266 Mimosa somnians 268 Mimosa verrucosa 270 Mucuna pruriens 272 Phyllodium pulchellum 279 Caesalpinioideae 280 Lauraceae 282 Malpighiaceae 289 Diplopterys cabrerana 291 Myristicaceae 292 Horsfieldia superba 295 Virola calophylla 296 Virola callophylloidea 297 Virola carinata 298 Virola cuspidata 299 Virola divergens 300 Virola elongata 301 Virola melinonii 303 Virola multinervia 304 Virola pavonis 305 Virola peruviana 307 Virola rufula 308 Virola sebifera 309 Virola surinamensis 312 Virola venosa 314 Ochnaceae 315 Testulea gabonensis 318 Pandanus 319 Poaceae 324 Arundo donax 332 Phalaris aquatica 341 Phalaris arundinacea 343 Phalaris brachystachys 346 Phragmites 348 Polygonaceae 353 Punica 356 Pomegranate 358 Rubiaceae 373 Mitragyna speciosa 379 Psychotria carthagenensis 385 Psychotria expansa 387 Psychotria forsteriana 388 Psychotria insularum 389 Psychotria poeppigiana 390 Psychotria rostrata 393 Psychotria rufipilis 394 Psychotria viridis 395 Rutaceae 399 Limonia acidissima 402 Zanthoxylum procerum 406 Urticaceae 407 References Article Sources and Contributors 410 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 417 Article Licenses License 429 List of psychoactive plants 1 List of psychoactive plants A list of plants that are used as hallucinogens. Some of them have been used for thousands of years for religious purposes. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain. Salvia divinorum, a psychedelic sage THC Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychoactive plant that is often used recreationally. Cannabis is also unique in that it contains a psychoactive substance, THC, which contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, tryptamine, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a dissociative drug. Cannabis plants tend to vary, with different strains producing dynamic balances of psychoactive cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc.) that cause different strains to produce markedly different effects, popular strains often being hybrids of both Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Some universities and research firms currently study the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many jurisdictions have laws regulating (or outright prohibiting) the sale and use of medical cannabis to treat pain, insomnia, and stimulate appetite. Cannabis plant Tryptamines Many of the psychedelic plants contain dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It cannot simply be eaten as it is not orally active without an MAOI and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be smokable. DMT Molecule in 2D List of psychoactive plants 2 Acanthaceae Species, Alkaloid content, where given, refers to dried material • Fittonia albivenis, a common ornamental plant from South America. It is useful in the treatment of headaches, etc. • Justicia pectoralis, DMT in leaves DMT Molecule in 3D Aceraceae • Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple Tree) was found to contain the indole alkaloid gramine (not active and extremely toxic) 0.05% in the leaves, so it is possible that other members of this plant family contain active compounds.[1] Aizoaceae • Delosperma acuminatum, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2] • Delosperma cooperi, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT • Delosperma ecklonis, DMT • Delosperma esterhuyseniae, DMT • Delosperma hallii, 5-MEO-DMT • Delosperma harazianum, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT Delosperma harazianum Shibam, DMT • Delosperma hirtum, DMT Delosperma hallii aff. litorale • Delosperma lydenbergense, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT • Delosperma nubigenum, 5-MEO-DMT • Delosperma pageanum, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT • Delosperma pergamentaceum, Traces of DMT • Delosperma tradescantioides, DMT List of psychoactive plants 3 Apocynaceae • Prestonia amazonica: DMT • Voacanga africana: Iboga alkaloids Fabaceae (Leguminosae) • Acacia acuminata, Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of dimethyltryptamine in bark & leaf Also, Harman, Tryptamine, NMT, other alkaloids in leaf. • Acacia alpina, Active principles in leaf[3] • Acacia angustissima, β-methyl-phenethylamine, NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)[4] • Acacia aroma, Tryptamine alkaloids.[5] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.[6] • Acacia auriculiformis, 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark[7] • Acacia baileyana, 0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman • Acacia beauverdiana, Psychoactive[8] Ash used in Pituri.[9] • Acacia berlandieri, DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine[10] List of psychoactive plants 4 • Acacia catechu, DMT[2] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark • Acacia caven, Psychoactive[11] • Acacia chundra, DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark • Acacia colei, DMT[12] • Acacia complanata, 0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine[13][14][15] • Acacia confusa, DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem. Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[16] • Acacia cornigera, Psychoactive, Tryptamines[17] DMT according to C. Rastch. • Acacia cultriformis, Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem and seeds. Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds • Acacia cuthbertsonii, Psychoactive • Acacia decurrens, Psychoactive, but less than 0.02% alkaloids[] List of psychoactive plants 5 • Acacia delibrata, Psychoactive • Acacia falcata, Psychoactive, but less than 0.02% alkaloids Psychoactive 0.2-0.3% alkaloids • Acacia farnesiana, Traces of 5-MeO-DMT[18] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower.[19] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[20] Alkaloids are present in the bark[21] and leaves.[22] Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree. • Acacia flavescens, Strongly Psychoactive, Bark. • Acacia floribunda, Tryptamine, phenethylamine, in flowers other tryptamines, DMT,tryptamine,NMT 0.3-0.4% phyllodes.[23] • Acacia georginae, Psychoactive, plus deadly toxins • Acacia horrida, Psychoactive • Acacia implexa, Psychoactive[24] • Acacia jurema, DMT, NMT • Acacia karroo, Psychoactive • Acacia laeta, DMT, in the leaf • Acacia longifolia, 0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers, 0.2% DMT in plant. Histamine alkaloids. Acacia sophorae, Tryptamine in leaves, bark • Acacia macradenia, Tryptamine • Acacia maidenii, 0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves List of psychoactive plants 6 • Acacia mangium, Psychoactive • Acacia melanoxylon, DMT, in the bark and leaf,[25] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids • Acacia mellifera, DMT, in the leaf • Acacia nilotica, DMT, in the leaf • Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens, Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf • Acacia neurophylla DMT in bark, Harman in leaf.[26] • Acacia obtusifolia, Tryptamine, DMT, NMT, other tryptamines,[24] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark,0.15-0.2% in leaf, 0.07% in branch tips.[27] • Acacia oerfota, Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[28] NMT • Acacia penninervis, Psychoactive • Acacia phlebophylla, 0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT List of psychoactive plants 7 • Acacia podalyriaefolia, Tryptamine in the leaf, 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts. Although this species is claimed to contain 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark the reference for this is invalid as there is no reference to Acacia Podalyriffolia anywhere in the reference article. Additionally, well known and proven extraction techniques for DMT have failed to produce any DMT or alkaloids from fresh bark or the leaves on multiple sample taken at various seasons. Should DMT actually exist in this species of Acacia then it exists in extremely small amounts and have failed to produce any alkaloids with Acid/Base extraction techniques using HCl/Na(OH)2. On the same note, more academic research is definitely required into the DMT content of this and other Australian Acacia species with proper chemical analysis of sample.[citation needed] • Acacia polyacantha, DMT in leaf and other tryptamines in leaf, bark • Acacia polyacantha ssp. campylacantha, Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark • Acacia rigidula, DMT, NMT, tryptamine, traces of amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others • Acacia sassa, Psychoactive • Acacia schaffneri, β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine[29] Amphetamines and mescaline also found. • Acacia senegal, Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant, DMT in bark. • Acacia seyal, DMT, in the leaf. Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass. • Acacia sieberiana, DMT, in the leaf List of psychoactive plants 8 • Acacia simplex , DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT[30] • Acacia tortilis, DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines • Acacia vestita, Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem, but less than 0.02% total alkaloids • Acacia victoriae, Tryptamines, 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine • List of Acacia Species Having Little or No Alkaloids in the Material Sampled: (0% C 0.02%, Concentration of Alkaloids) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acacia acinacea Acacia baileyana Acacia decurrens Acacia dealbata Acacia mearnsii Acacia drummondii Acacia elata Acacia falcata Acacia leprosa Acacia linearis Acacia melanoxylon Acacia pycnantha Acacia retinodes Acacia saligna Acacia stricta Acacia verticillata Acacia vestita • Albizia inundata leaves contain DMT. • Anadenanthera colubrina, Bufotenin, Beans,[31][32] Bufotenin oxide, Beans, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Beans, pods, List of psychoactive plants 9 • Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil - Bufotenin and Dimethyltryptamine have been isolated from the seeds and seed pods, 5-MeO-DMT from the bark of the stems.[33] The seeds were found to contain 12.4% bufotenine, 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.06% DMT. • Anadenanthera peregrina, 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[32] 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2-methyl-beta-carboline, Plant, 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Bark, 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine, Bark, Bufotenin, plant, beans, Bufotenin N-oxide, Fruit, beans, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine-oxide, Fruit[34] • Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina, Bufotenine is in the seeds.[35] • Desmanthus illinoensis, 0% - 0.34% DMT in root bark, highly variable.[36] Also NMT, N-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, 2-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, and gramine (toxic). • Desmanthus leptolobus, 0.14% DMT in root bark, more reliable than D. illinoensis • Desmodium caudatum (syn. Ohwia caudata ), Roots: 0.087% DMT, • Desmodium intortum, Bufotentine, DMT[37] • Codariocalyx motorius(syn. Desmodium gyrans), DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, leaves, roots • Desmodium racemosum, 5-MEO-DMT • Desmodium triflorum, 0.0004% DMT-N-oxide, roots,[38] less in stems and trace in leaves. • Leonurus sibiricus', Alkaloids • Lespedeza capitata, List of psychoactive plants 10 • Lespedeza bicolor, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and roots • Lespedeza bicolor var. japonica, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and root bark • Mimosa ophthalmocentra, Dried root: DMT 1.6%, NMT 0.0012% and hordenine 0.0065% • Mimosa scabrella, Tryptamine, NMT, DMT and N-methyltetrahydrocarboline in bark • Mimosa somnians, Trytamines and MMT • Mimosa tenuiflora (syn. "Mimosa hostilis"), 0.31-0.57% DMT (dry root bark).[39] mimosa hostilis contains dmt and 5-meo-dmt. Mimosa verrucosa, DMT in root bark • Mucuna pruriens, "The leaves, seeds, stems and roots contain L-Dopa, Serotonin, 5-HTP, and Nicotine, as well as N,N-DMT, Bufotenine, and 5-MeO-DMT."[40] • Petalostylis casseoides, 0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems • Petalostylis labicheoides var. casseoides, DMT in leaves and stems • Phyllodium pulchellum(syn. Desmodium pulchellum), 0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT DMT (dominates in seedlings and young plants), 5-MEO-DMT (dominates in mature plant), whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, flowers • Erythrina flabelliformis, other Erythrina species, seeds contain the alkaloids Erysodin and Erysovin List of psychoactive plants 11 Caesalpinioideae subfamily • Petalostylis cassioides [41]: 0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems[41] • Petalostylis labicheoides [43], Tryptamines in leaves and stems, MAO's up to 0.5%[42] • Lauraceae • Nectandra megapotamica, NMT[42] Malpighiaceae • Diplopterys cabrerana: DMT 0.17-1.74%, average of 0.47% DMT[43] Myristicaceae • • • • • • Horsfieldia superba: 5-MeO-DMT and beta-carbolines Iryanthera macrophylla: 5-MeO-DMT in bark Iryanthera ulei: 5-MeO-DMT in bark Osteophloem platyspermum: DMT, 5-MeO-DMT in bark Virola calophylla, Leaves 0.149% DMT, leaves 0.006% MMT 5-MeO-DMT in bark Virola callophylloidea, DMT • • • • Virola carinata, DMT in leaves Virola cuspidata, DMT Virola divergens, DMT in leaves Virola elongata(syn. Virola theiodora), DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark, roots, leaves and flowers • Virola melinonii, DMT in bark • Virola multinervia, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and roots • Virola pavonis, DMT in leaves • Virola peruviana, 5-MEO-DMT, traces of DMT and 5-MeO-tryptamine in bark • Virola rufula, Alkaloids in bark and root, 95% of which is MeO-DMT[44] 0.190% 5-MeO-DMT in bark, 0.135% 5-MeO-DMT in root, 0.092% DMT in leaves. • Virola sebifera, The bark contains 0.065% to 0.25% alkaloids, most of which are DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.[45] • Virola surinamensis, DMT in bark • Virola venosa, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in roots, leaves DMT Ochnaceae • Testulea gabonensis: 0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT, DMT in bark and root bark, NMT Ochnaceae • Genus Pandanus (Screw Pine): DMT in nuts Poaceae (Gramineae) Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep. • Arundo donax, 0.0057% DMT in dried rhizome, no stem, 0.026% bufotenine, 0.0023% 5-MeO-MMT[46] List of psychoactive plants 12 • Phalaris aquatica, 0.0007-0.18% Total alkaloids, 0.100% DMT,[47] 0.022% 5-MeO-DMT, 0.005% 5-OH-DMT • Phalaris arundinacea, 0.0004-0.121% Total alkaloids[] • Phalaris brachystachys, Aerial parts up to 3% total alkaloids, DMT present[citation needed] • Phragmites australis, DMT in roots. None of the above alkaloids are said to have been found in Phalaris californica, Phalaris canariensis, Phalaris minor and hybrids of P. arundinacea together with P. aquatica. Polygonaceae • Erigonum sp.: DMT Punicaceae • Punica granatum "DMT in root cortex;" The dried stem and root bark of the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.[48] Rubiaceae • • • • • • Mitragyna speciosa, 7-hydroxymitragynine Psychotria carthagenensis, 0.2% average DMT in dried leaves Psychotria expansa, DMT Psychotria forsteriana, DMT Psychotria insularum, DMT Psychotria poeppigiana, DMT List of psychoactive plants 13 • Psychotria rostrata, DMT • Psychotria rufipilis, DMT • Psychotria viridis, DMT 0.1-0.61% dried mass.[49] Rutaceae • Dictyoloma incanescens, 5-MeO-DMT in leaves, 0.04% 5-MeO-DMT in bark[] • Dutaillyea drupacea, > 0.4% 5-MeO-DMT in leaves • Dutaillyea oreophila, 5-MeO-DMT in leaves • Tetradium ruticarpum(syn. Evodia rutaecarpa), 5-MeO-DMT in leaves, fruit and roots • Limonia acidissima, 5-MeO-DMT in stems • Euodia leptococca (formerly Melicope), 0.2% total alkaloids, 0.07% 5-MeO-DMT; 5-MeO-DMT in leaves and stems, also "5-MeO-DMT-Oxide and a beta-carboline" • Pilocarpus organensis, 5-MeO-DMT in leaves • Vepris ampody, Up to 0.2% DMT in leaves and branches • Zanthoxylum arborescens, DMT in leaves • Zanthoxylum procerum, DMT in leaves List of psychoactive plants 14 Urticaceae • Urtica pilulifera: Bufotenin Phenethylamines Species, Alkaloid Content (Fresh) - Alkaloid Content (Dried) Echinopsis lageniformis (syn. Trichocereus bridgesii), Mescaline > 0.025%, also 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine < 1%, 3-methoxytyramine < 1%, tyramine < 1% Mescaline 2%[50] Echinopsis scopulicola (syn. Trichocereus scopulicola), Mescaline[51] • Echinopsis pachanoi (syn. Trichocereus pachanoi), Mescaline 0.006-0.12%, 0.05% Average - Mescaline 0.01%-2.375% • Echinopsis spachiana (syn. Trichocereus spachianus), Mescaline[52] - Mescaline • Lophophora williamsii (Peyote), 0.4% Mescaline[51] - 3-6% Mescaline • Opuntia acanthocarpa Mescaline[52] • Opuntia basilaris List of psychoactive plants 15 Mescaline 0.01%, plus 4-hydroxy-3-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine • Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (syn. Opuntia cylindrica),[53] Mescaline • Cylindropuntia echinocarpa (syn. Opuntia echinocarpa), Mescaline 0.01%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%, 4-hydroxy-3-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01% • Cylindropuntia spinosior (syn. Opuntia spinosior),[54] Mescaline 0.00004%, 3-methoxytyramine 0.001%, tyramine 0.002%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine. • Echinopsis macrogona (syn. Trichocereus macrogonus), > 0.01-0.05% Mescaline[55] • Echinopsis peruviana (syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), Mescaline 0.0005%-0.12%[] - Mescaline • Echinopsis tacaquirensis subsp. taquimbalensis (syn. Trichocereus taquimbalensis),[56] > 0.005-0.025% Mescaline • Echinopsis terscheckii (syn. Trichocereus terscheckii, Trichocereus werdemannianus)[57] > 0.005-0.025% Mescaline - Mescaline 0.01%-2.375% • Echinopsis valida, 0.025% Mescaline[51] • Pelecyphora aselliformis, Mescaline[51] List of psychoactive plants 16 Beta-carbolines Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own. Harmaline, a Beta-carboline Apocynaceae • Amsonia tabernaemontana, Harmine • Aspidosperma exalatum, Beta-carbolines[58] • Aspidosperma polyneuron, Beta-carbolines • Apocynum cannabinum, Harmalol • Ochrosia nakaiana, Harman • Pleicarpa mutica, Beta-carbolines Bignoniaceae • Newbouldia laevis, Harman Calycanthaceae • Calycanthus occidentalis, Harmine Chenopodiaceae • Hammada leptoclada, Tetrahydroharman, etc. • Kochia scoparia, Harmine, etc. Combretaceae • Guiera senegalensis, Harman, etc. Cyperaceae • Carex brevicollis, Harmine, etc. • Carex parva, Beta-carbolines Elaeagnaceae • Elaeagnus angustifolia, Harman, etc. • Elaeagnus commutata, Beta-carbolines List of psychoactive plants 17 • Elaeagnus hortensis, Tetrahydroharman, etc. • Elaeagnus orientalis, Tetrahydroharman • Elaeagnus spinosa, Tetrahydroharman • Hippophae rhamnoides, Harman, etc. • Shepherdia argentea, Tetrahydroharmol • Shepherdia canadensis, Tetrahydroharmol Gramineae • Arundo donax, Tetrahydroharman • Festuca arundinacea, Harman, etc. • Lolium perenne, (Perennial Ryegrass), Harman, etc. • Phalaris aquatica, Beta-carbolines • Phalaris arundinacea, Beta-carbolines Lauraceae • Nectandra megapotamica, Beta-carbolines List of psychoactive plants 18 Leguminosae • • • • • • • • • • Acacia baileyana, Tetrahydroharman Acacia complanata, Tetrahydroharman, etc. Burkea africana, Harman, etc. Desmodium gangeticum, Beta-carbolines Desmodium gyrans, Beta-carbolines Desmodium pulchellum, Harman, etc. Mucuna pruriens, 6-Methoxy-Harman Petalostylis labicheoides, Tetrahydroharman; MAO's up to 0.5% Prosopis nigra, Harman, etc. Shepherdia pulchellum, Beta-carbolines Loganiaceae • Strychnos melinoniana, Beta-carbolines Strychnos usambarensis, Harman Malpighiaceae • Banisteriopsis argentia, 5-methoxytetrahydroharman, (-)-N(6)-methoxytetrahydroharman, dimethyltryptamine-N(6)-oxide • Banisteriopsis caapi, Harmine 0.31-0.84%,[59] tetrahydroharmine, telepathine, dihydroshihunine,[60] 5-MeO-DMT in bark • Banisteriopsis inebrians, Beta-carbolines • Banisteriopsis lutea, Harmine, telepathine • Banisteriopsis metallicolor, Harmine, telepathine • Banisteriopsis muricata, Harmine up to 6%, harmaline up to 4%, plus DMT • Diplopterys cabrerana, Beta-carbolines • Cabi pratensis, Beta-carbolines • Callaeum antifebrile(syn. Cabi paraensis), Harmine • Tetrapterys methystica(syn. Tetrapteris methystica), Harmine[61] Myristicaceae • • • • • Gymnacranthera paniculata, Beta-carbolines Horsfieldia superba Beta-carbolines Virola cuspidata, 6-Methoxy-Harman Virola rufula, Beta-carbolines Virola theiodora, Beta-carbolines List of psychoactive plants 19 Ochnaceae • Testulea gabonensis, Beta-carbolines Palmae • Plectocomiopsis geminiflora, Beta-carbolines Papaveraceae • Meconopsis horridula, Beta-carbolines • Meconopsis napaulensis, Beta-carbolines • Meconopsis paniculata, Beta-carbolines • Meconopsis robusta, Beta-carbolines • Meconopsis rudis, Beta-carbolines • Papaver rhoeas, Beta-carbolines Passifloraceae • Passiflora actinia, Harman • Passiflora alata, Harman • Passiflora alba, Harman • Passiflora bryonoides, Harman • Passiflora caerulea, Harman • Passiflora capsularis, Harman • Passiflora decaisneana, Harman • Passiflora edulis, Harman, 0-7001 ppm in fruit • Passiflora eichleriana, Harman List of psychoactive plants 20 Passiflora foetida, Harman • Passiflora incarnata (with bee), Harmine, Harmaline, Harman, etc. 0.03%.[62] Alkaloids in rind of fruit 0.25% • Passiflora quadrangularis, Harman • Passiflora ruberosa, Harman • Passiflora subpeltata, Harman • Passiflora warmingii, Harman Polygonaceae • Calligonum minimum, Beta-carbolines • Leptactinia densiflora, Leptaflorine, etc. • • • • • • • Ophiorrhiza japonica, Harman Pauridiantha callicarpoides, Harman Pauridiantha dewevrei, Harman Pauridiantha lyalli, Harman Pauridiantha viridiflora, Harman Simira klugei, Harman Simira rubra, Harman Rubiaceae • • • • • • • • • • • • Borreria verticillata, Beta-carbolines Leptactinia densiflora, Beta-carbolines Nauclea diderrichii, Beta-carbolines Ophiorrhiza japonica, Beta-carbolines Pauridiantha callicarpoides, Beta-carbolines Pauridiantha dewevrei, Beta-carbolines Pauridiantha yalli, Beta-carbolines Pauridiantha viridiflora, Beta-carbolines Pavetta lanceolata, Beta-carbolines Psychotria carthagenensis, Beta-carbolines Psychotria viridis, Beta-carbolines Simira klugei, Beta-carbolines List of psychoactive plants • • • • 21 Simira rubra, Beta-carbolines Uncaria attenuata, Beta-carbolines Uncaria canescens, Beta-carbolines Uncaria orientalis, Beta-carbolines Rutaceae • • • • • Tetradium (syn. Evodia) species: Some contain carbolines Euodia leptococca Beta-carboline Araliopsis tabouensis, Beta-carbolines Flindersia laevicarpa, Beta-carbolines Xanthoxylum rhetsa, Beta-carbolines Sapotaceae • Chrysophyllum lacourtianum, Norharman etc. • Scutellaria • Scutellaria nana Simaroubaceae • • • • • • Ailanthus malabarica, Beta-carbolines. See also Nag Champa. Perriera madagascariensis, Beta-carbolines Picrasma ailanthoides, Beta-carbolines Picrasma crenata, Beta-carbolines Picrasma excelsa, Beta-carbolines Picrasma javanica, Beta-carbolines Solanaceae • Vestia foetida, (Syn V. lycioides) Beta-carbolines Symplocaceae • Symplocos racemosa, Harman Tiliaceae • Grewia mollis, Beta-carbolines Zygophyllaceae Vestia foetida • Fagonia cretica, Harman • Nitraria schoberi, Beta-carbolines • Peganum harmala, (Syrian Rue), The seeds contain about 2-6% alkaloids, most of which is harmaline.[63] Peganum harmala is also an abortifacient. List of psychoactive plants 22 • Peganum nigellastrum, Harmine • Tribulus terrestris, Harman • Zygophyllum fabago, Harman, harmine Plants containing other psychoactive substances Acoraceae: • Acorus calamus, asarone Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and [64] Salvinorin C Salvia divinorum Salvinorin A Khat Cathinone Catha edulis Unknown Unknown Foeniculum vulgare Justicia pectoralis Unknown Unknown List of psychoactive plants 23 Pukateine Laurelia novae-zelandiae Pukateine Thujone Thujone Artemisia vulgaris Damianin Damianin Turnera diffusa The leaves or bark have been placed in cupped hands over the nose and inhaled as a mild hallucinogen Magnolia unknown virginiana Bulbocapnine, Nantenine, Tetrahydropalmatine Corydalis solida, Bulbocapnine Corydalis cava Kavalactones Kavalactones Piper methysticum List of psychoactive plants 24 Lagochilin is thought to be responsible for the sedative, hypotensive and hemostatic effects of this plant. Lagochilus Lagochilin inebrians Anethole, Chavicol, Coumarin, Estragole, Isorhamnetin, Methyleugenol, Quercitin Unknown Tagetes lucida Lactucarium Lactucarium Lactuca virosa Glaucine Glaucium flavum Glaucine Galbulimima belgraveana Muscarinic Zornia latifolia Galbulimima belgraveana is rich in alkaloids and twenty-eight alkaloids have been isolated. Himbacine, himbeline, himandravine, himgravine, himbosine, himandridine, himandrine, G.B. 1, G. B. 2, G. B. 3, G. B. 4, G. B. 5, G. B. 6, G. B. 7, G. B. 8, G. B. 9, G. B. 10, G. B. 11, G. B. 12, himgaline, himbadine, G. B. 13, himgrine, G. B. 14, G. B. 15, G. B. 16, G. B. 17 and G. B. 18. Zornia latifolia, is mentioned in Food of the Gods as "an hallucinogenic substitute for cannabis". It's nicknamed Maconha brava because locals use it as a cannabis substitute. Unknown Used by Chinese residents of Mexico during the early 20th century as a legal substitute for opium and currently smoked as a marijuana substitute. Argemone mexicana Unknown Seeds contain high amounts of LSA (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea. Argyreia nervosa Ergine (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose) List of psychoactive plants 25 [65] Ibogaine in root bark Ibogaine Tabernanthe iboga Tabernanthe orientalis Ibogaine in root leaves Tabernanthe pubescens Ibogaine and similar alkaloids Tabernaemontana sp. Ibogaine Ibogaine Ibogaine Ibogaine [66] Ibogaine Ibogaine Trachelospermum jasminoides Aporphine Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the Nymphaea caerulea alkaloids nuciferine and apomorphine, which have been recently isolated by independent labs.[citation needed] These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer's Odyssey. Used in aromatherapy, Nymphaea caerulea is purported to have a "divine" essence, bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility.[citation needed] Other sources cite anti-spasmodic and sedative, purifying and calming properties. List of psychoactive plants 26 Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana) Leonurine Leonotis leonurus Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana) Leonurine Leonotis nepetifolia Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent. Its psychedelic properties do not become apparent until the user is asleep. Active Chemical Unknown Calea zacatechichi Produces vivid dreams after smoking. Unknown Silene capensis Convolvulaceae: List of psychoactive plants 27 D-lysergic acid amide and lysergic acid amides in the seeds; up to 0.12% total Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea Rivea corymbosa Seeds contain D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and turbicoryn; lysergic acid alkaloids up to 0.03% Some Mirabilis sp. (Actually in Nyctaginaceae family) LSA[citation needed] Apocynaceae family: • Catharanthus roseus is (perhaps unpleasantly) "hallucinogenic."[67] • Vinca minor Aquifoliaceae family: • Ilex guayusa, which is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca. According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities. Euphorbiaceae family: • Alchornea floribunda, Yohimbine Loganaceae family: • Desfontainia spinosa, causes visions[68] Lythraceae family: • Heimia myrtifolia, auditory[69] • Heimia salicifolia, auditory References [1] IJ PACHTER, DE ZACHARIAS, O RIBEIRO - The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1959 - (http:/ / pubs. acs. org/ cgi-bin/ abstract. cgi/ joceah/ 1959/ 24/ i09/ f-pdf/ f_jo01091a032. pdf?sessid=6006l3) [2] Trouts Notes on Sacred Cacti (http:/ / www. entheogen. com/ component/ option,com_docman/ task,doc_download/ gid,6/ Itemid,42/ ) [3] Shaman Australis (http:/ / shaman-australis. com. au/ shop/ index. php?cPath=21_26_72) [4] Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: anti-nutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility. Personal Authors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D. O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L., Hegarty, M. P.Author Affiliation: CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia. Document Title: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No. 1/2) 175-190 [5] Maya Ethnobotanicals (http:/ / www. maya-ethnobotanicals. com/ product_info. phtml/ herbid_340/ category_ayahuasca) [6] Acacia (Polish) (http:/ / herbarium. 0-700. pl/ Akacje. html) [7] Lycaeum (http:/ / leda. lycaeum. org/ ?ID=15931) [8] (http:/ / www. bushfood. net/ viewtopic. php?p=3443) [9] Duboisia hopwoodii - Pituri Bush - Solanaceae - Central America (http:/ / www. entheology. org/ edoto/ anmviewer. asp?a=47) [10] Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine (http:/ / www. cognitiveliberty. org/ shulgin/ adsarchive/ acacia. htm) [11] Index of Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 3-85502-570-3 at (http:/ / www. deutschesfachbuch. de/ info/ detail. php?isbn=3855025703& part=4& word=) [12] (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ science/ k2/ stn/ q& a/ notes/ 051027-9. htm) [13] Acacia Complanata Phytochemical Studies (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ comphy. html) [14] Lycaeum -- Acacias and Entheogens (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ entheo. html) [15] Lycaeum (http:/ / leda. lycaeum. org/ ?ID=15796) List of psychoactive plants [16] NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa (http:/ / doi. wiley. com/ 10. 1002/ mrc. 1959) Malcolm S. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, David Pass, Ronald J. Quinn Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Volume 45, Issue 4 , Pages359 - 361. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [17] Naturheilpraxis Fachforum (German) (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080626102405/ http:/ / www. naturheilpraxis. de/ exclusiv/ nh-online/ 2005/ nhp05/ a_nh-ff02. html) [18] Lycaeum (http:/ / leda. lycaeum. org/ ?ID=15965) [19] Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ duke/ plants. html) [20] Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06 (http:/ / www. rirdc. gov. au/ reports/ AFT/ 03-024. pdf) [21] (http:/ / www. bpi. da. gov. ph/ Publications/ mp/ pdf/ a/ aroma. pdf) [22] Purdue University (http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ duke_energy/ Acacia_farnesiana. html) [23] Voogelbreinder, S. "Garden Of Eden" 2009 [24] (Swedish) (http:/ / wiki. magiskamolekyler. org/ index. php?title=Lista_över_hallucinogena_växter,_svampar_och_djur) [25] (http:/ / extentech. sheetster. com/ knowledgebase/ wiki_search. jsp?search=acacia) [26] S. Voogelbreinder "Garden Of Eden" 2009 [27] Acacia obtusifolia Phytochemical Studies (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ obtuphy. html) [28] Plants Containing DMT (German) (http:/ / www. drogen-forum. com/ wiki/ index. php/ DMT-haltige_Pflanzen) [29] Chemistry of Acacias from South Texas (http:/ / uvalde. tamu. edu/ pdf/ chemtdaf. pdf) [30] Arbeitsstelle für praktische Biologie (APB) (http:/ / www. factorey. ch/ Eins. htm) [31] UNO (http:/ / www. unodc. org/ unodc/ en/ bulletin/ bulletin_1965-01-01_2_page006. html?print=yes) [32] Dr. Duke's (http:/ / sun. ars-grin. gov:8080/ npgspub/ xsql/ duke/ plantdisp. xsql?taxon=71) Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases [33] Herbotechnica (Spanish) (http:/ / www. herbotecnia. com. ar/ aut-curupay. html) [34] Psychedelics Encyclopedia By Peter G. Stafford, p. 313. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Ec5hNgYWHtkC& pg=RA2-PA313& lpg=RA2-PA313& dq="dmt+ n+ oxide"& source=web& ots=BqP13bWy2d& sig=YDxzS2LNTLuBTLU8F3bPdEX0oWY) [35] PubMed (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ entrez/ query. fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=PubMed& list_uids=11718320& dopt=Citation) [36] Desmanthus (Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs) (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ library/ books_online/ ayahuasca_apa/ aya_sec3_part2_desmanthus. shtml) [37] Pharmaceutical-Neutraceutical Bulletin, Final (http:/ / www. crcsalinity. com/ documents/ key_publications/ Pharma-neutra bull final. pdf) [38] Trout's Notes on Desmodium (http:/ / trout. yage. net/ sc/ D2_2004_Trout. pdf) [39] Ask Erowid ID 75 (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ ask/ ask. php?ID=75) [40] Erowid entry(2002) (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ mucuna_pruriens/ ) [41] Bluezoo Tryptamines (http:/ / bluezoo. org/ tryptamines/ plants. html) [42] Plants Containing DMT (http:/ / www. dmt-nexus. com/ phpBB2/ viewtopic. php?t=26) [43] DMT Plants List (http:/ / www. psychonaut. com/ index. php?Itemid=11& option=com_forum& page=viewtopic& t=25189& lang=nl) [44] (http:/ / www. tryptamines. com/ ) [45] Committee for veterinary medicinal products virola sebifera summary report (http:/ / www. emea. europa. eu/ pdfs/ vet/ mrls/ 060499en. pdf) [46] Erowid Arundo Donax Info Page 1 (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ arundo_donax/ arundo_donax_info1. shtml) [47] Erowid Phalaris FAQ (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ phalaris/ phalaris_faq. shtml) [48] Pomegranate (Herbdata New Zealand) (http:/ / www. herbdatanz. com/ pomeganate. htm) [49] Amazing Nature (http:/ / www. amazing-nature. com/ -i-36. html?osCsid=38ad41e62a454589a0afd2d17ae0fa40) [50] Trichocereus (http:/ / www. a1b2c3. com/ drugs/ var014. htm) [51] Lycaeum [52] Visionary Cactus Guide (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~iamklaus/ botany. htm#) [53] Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (http:/ / www. desert-tropicals. com/ Plants/ Cactaceae/ Opuntia_cylindrica. html) [54] Cylindropuntia spinosior ( (http:/ / www. desert-tropicals. com/ Plants/ Cactaceae/ Opuntia_spinosior. html) [55] Partial List of Alkaloids in Trichocereus Cacti (http:/ / www. thenook. org/ archives/ tek/ alklist. htm) [56] Echinopsis tacaquirensis ssp. taquimbalensis (http:/ / www. desert-tropicals. com/ Plants/ Cactaceae/ Echinopsis_taquimb. html) [57] (http:/ / www. desert-tropicals. com/ Plants/ Cactaceae/ Echinopsis_terscheckii. html) [58] Angiosperm Families Containing Beta-Carbolines (http:/ / www. ansci. cornell. edu/ plants/ toxicagents/ betacarbolines/ bcarbfams. html) [59] Callaway JC, Brito GS & Neves ES (2005). Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37(2): 145-150. [60] John Stephen Glasby, Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites, Published by CRC Press (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=te53VV5u8YMC& pg=RA1-PA124& lpg=RA1-PA124& dq=erythrina+ alkaloids& source=web& ots=e5SBqn4GS7& sig=JdEQoIKcYwAM7N_cTUtCQNhl6Hc) [61] Erowid - Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs 28 List of psychoactive plants [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] (http:/ / www. drugs. com/ npp/ passion-flower. html) (http:/ / www. amazing-nature. com/ -i-43. html) Clones of Salvia divinorum (http:/ / www. sagewisdom. org/ clones. html) Tihkal (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ library/ books_online/ tihkal/ tihkal25. shtml) Trachelospermum jasminoides ( (http:/ / www. giftpflanzen. com/ trachelospermum_jasminoides. html) Catharanthus roseus (http:/ / sliceoftheday. wordpress. com/ 2007/ 05/ 13/ madagascar-periwinkle-catharanthus-roseus/ ) Schultes, Richard Evans, Iconography of New World Plant Hallucinogens. p. 101 Sinicuichi FAQ (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ sinicuichi/ sinicuichi_faq. shtml) External links • The Salvia Divinorum Blog Research And Information ( • The Salvia Divinorum Mass Distribution Project ( • Descriptions of psychoactive Cacti. Lycaeum Visionary Cactus Guide ( botany.htm#) • "Herbal Highs – Legal Buds Reviews" ( Components of street drug alternatives sold and used legally. • Erowid Tryptamine FAQ – More Plants Containing Tryptamines ( faqs_tryptamine.shtml) • John Stephen Glasby, Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites, Published by CRC Press (http:// alkaloids&source=web&ots=e5SBqn4GS7&sig=JdEQoIKcYwAM7N_cTUtCQNhl6Hc) • Golden Guide to Hallucinogenic Plants ( shtml) • Hallucinogens on the Internet: A Vast New Source of Underground Drug Information John H. Halpern, M.D. and Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D. ( • – Peter L. Katavic, Chemical Investigations of the Alkaloids From the Plants Of The Family [[Elaeocarpaceae ( pdf)]], School of Science/Natural Product Discovery (NPD), Faculty of Science, Griffith University • Alexander T. Shulgin, Psychotomimetic Drugs: Structure-Activity Relationships ( archive/rhodium/chemistry/shulgin.pea.sar.hop.html) • UNODC The plant kingdom and hallucinogens (part II) ( bulletin_1969-01-01_4_page004.html) • UNODC The plant kingdom and hallucinogens (part III) ( bulletin_1970-01-01_1_page005.html?print=yes) • Virola – Dried Herbarium Specimens ( index.html) • Virola Species Pictures – USGS ( • Desmanthus illinoensis – USDA ( • A General Introduction to Ayahuasca ( • Psychedelic Reader (Google Books) ( lpg=PA93&dq="Prestonia+amazonica"&source=web&ots=WWANl44f-H& sig=7EuWEQsMW3yVHi56Ks0BfjJhf44&hl=en#PPA92,M1) 29 Tryptamine 30 Tryptamine Tryptamine Identifiers [1] CAS number 61-54-1 PubChem 1150 ChEMBL CHEMBL6640 IUPHAR ligand 125 Jmol-3D images Image 1   [2] [3]   [4] [5] Properties Molecular formula C10H12N2 Molar mass 160.22 g mol Appearance white to orange crystalline powder Melting point 113-116˚C Boiling point 137˚C Solubility in water negligible solubility in water −1 [1] Hazards Flash point 185˚C   (verify) [7]  (what is:  / ?) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa) Infobox references Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in plants, fungi, and animals. It contains an indole ring structure, and is structurally similar to the amino acid tryptophan, from which it derives its name. Tryptamine is found in trace amounts in the brains of mammals and is believed to play a role as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. The tryptamine chemical structure is the backbone for a group of compounds termed collectively tryptamines. This group includes many biologically active compounds, including neurotransmitters and psychedelic drugs. The concentration of tryptamine in rat brains is about 3.5 pmol/g. Tryptamine 31 Plants containing tryptamine Many plants contain small amounts of tryptamine, for example, as a possible intermediate in one biosynthetic pathway to the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid. Higher concentrations can be found in many Acacia species. Role in vertebrates Tryptamine acts as a serotonin releasing agent and a serotonergic activity enhancer. It is metabolised by MAO-A and MAO-B. Tryptamine derivatives Well-known tryptamines include serotonin, an important neurotransmitter, and melatonin, a hormone involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. Tryptamine alkaloids found in fungi, plants and animals are sometimes used by humans and other animals, notably, the Jaguar, for their psychotropic effects. A Jaguar is seen eating yage (banisteriopsis caapi), a plant with high concentrations of the tryptamines harmine and harmaline, in an interesting clip borrowed from the "Peculiar Potions" episode of BBC's series "Weird Nature". Prominent examples of tryptamines include psilocybin (from "Psilocybin mushrooms") and DMT (from numerous plant sources, e.g. chacruna, often used in ayahuasca brews). Many synthetic tryptamines have also been made, including the migraine drug sumatriptan and its relatives. The tables below list some tryptamines. The tryptamine structure, in particular its indole ring, may be part of the structure of some more complex compounds, for example: LSD, ibogaine and yohimbine. A thorough investigation of dozens of tryptamine compounds was published by Ann and Alexander Shulgin under the title TiHKAL. General structure of substituted tryptamines Short Name Origin Rα R4 R5 RN1 Full Name RN2 Tryptamine Natural H H H H H 3-(2-aminoethyl)indole / 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine Bufotenin Natural H H OH CH3 CH3 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Nω-methylserotonin Natural (norbufotenin) H H OH CH3 H 5-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine Serotonin Natural H H OH H H 5-hydroxytryptamine DMT Natural H H H CH3 CH3 N,N-dimethyltryptamine Melatonin Natural H H OCH3 O=C-CH3 H 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine 5-Bromo-DMT Natural H H Br CH3 CH3 5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine 5-MeO-DMT Natural H H OCH3 CH3 CH3 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine 5-MeO-NMT Natural H H OCH3 CH3 H 5-methoxy-N-methyltryptamine NMT Natural H H H H CH3 N-methyltryptamine Norbaeocystin Natural H OPO3H2 H H H 4-phosphoryloxy-tryptamine Baeocystin Natural H OPO3H2 H CH3 H 4-phosphoryloxy-N-methyl-tryptamine Tryptamine 32 Psilocybin Natural H PO4 H CH3 CH3 4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Psilocin Natural H OH H CH3 CH3 4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Tryptophan Natural COOH H H H H α-carboxyltryptamine αET artificial CH2CH3 H H H H α-ethyltryptamine αMT artificial CH3 H H H H α-methyltryptamine DALT artificial H H H H2C=CH-CH2 H2C=CH-CH2 N,N-diallyltryptamine DET artificial H H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 N,N-diethyltryptamine DiPT artificial H H H CH(CH3)2 CH(CH3)2 N,N-diisopropyltryptamine DPT artificial H H H CH2CH2CH3 CH2CH2CH3 N,N-dipropyltryptamine 5-MeO-αMT artificial CH3 H OCH3 H H 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine 5-MeO-DALT artificial H H OCH3 H2C=CH-CH2 H2C=CH-CH2 5-methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine 4-HO-DET artificial H OH H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 4-hydroxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine 4-AcO-DMT artificial H OCOCH3 H CH3 CH3 4-acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine 4-HO-MET artificial H OH H CH3 CH2CH3 4-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine 4-HO-DIPT artificial H OH H CH(CH3)2 CH(CH3)2 4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine 5-MeO-DIPT artificial H H OCH3 CH(CH3)2 CH(CH3)2 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine 4-HO-MiPT artificial H OH H CH(CH3)2 CH3 4-hydroxy-N-isopropyl-N-methyltryptamine Sumatriptan artificial H H CH2SO2NHCH3 CH3 CH3 5-(methylaminosulfonylmethylene)-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Zolmitriptan artificial H H -(CHNHC=OOCH2) CH3 CH3 5-( 4-(S)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one)-N,N-dimethyltryptamine Short Name Origin Rα R4 R5 RN1 RN2 Full Name |+ Selected tryptamines |+ (see also Table of naturally occurring tryptamines) Synthesis The Abramovitch–Shapiro tryptamine synthesis is an organic reaction for the synthesis of tryptamines starting from a β-carboline. Tryptamine References [1] "http:/ / www. chemicalbook. com/ ProductChemicalPropertiesCB8192006_EN. htm" External links • Tryptamine FAQ ( • Tryptamine Hallucinogens and Consciousness ( • Tryptamind Psychoactives (, reference site on tryptamine and other psychoactives. • Tryptamine (T) entry in TiHKAL • info ( 33 Dimethyltryptamine 34 Dimethyltryptamine Dimethyltryptamine Systematic (IUPAC) name 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine Clinical data Legal status Routes Prohibited (S9) (AU) Schedule III (CA) CD Lic (UK) Schedule I (US) Oral (with an MAOI), Insufflated, Rectal, vaporized, IM, IV Identifiers CAS number [1] 61-50-7 ATC code None PubChem CID 6089   [2] IUPHAR ligand 141 [3] DrugBank ChemSpider UNII DB01488 5864 [4] [5]   WUB601BHAA [7] KEGG C08302 ChEBI CHEBI:28969 ChEMBL [6]     [8] CHEMBL12420   [9]   Chemical data Formula Mol. mass C12H16N2 188.269 g/mol Physical data Density 1.099g/ml g/cm³ Dimethyltryptamine 35 Melt. point Boiling point 40 °C (104 °F) 160 °C (320 °F) @ 0.6 Torr (80 Pa) also reported as 80–135 °C (176–275 °F) @ 0.03 Torr (4.0 Pa)  (what is this?)   (verify) [10] N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a compound of the tryptamine family. Its presence is widespread throughout the plant kingdom. DMT occurs in trace amounts in mammals, including humans, where it putatively functions as a trace amine neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. It is originally derived from the essential amino acid tryptophan and ultimately produced by the enzyme INMT during normal metabolism. The significance of its widespread natural presence remains undetermined. DMT is structurally analogous to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and the hormone melatonin, and furthermore functionally analogous to other psychedelic tryptamines, such as 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin, psilocin, and psilocybin. When ingested, DMT acts as a psychedelic drug. Depending on the dose and method of administration, its subjective effects can range from short-lived milder psychedelic states to powerful immersive experiences; these are often described as a total loss of connection to external reality and an experience of encountering indescribable spiritual/alien realms. Indigenous Amazonian Amerindian cultures consume DMT as the primary psychoactive in ayahuasca, a shamanistic brew used for divinatory and healing purposes. Pharmacologically, ayahuasca combines DMT with an MAOI, an enzyme inhibitor that allows DMT to be orally active. History DMT was first synthesized in 1931 by Canadian chemist Richard Helmuth Fredrick Manske (1901–1977). Its discovery as a natural product is generally credited to Brazilian chemist and microbiologist Oswaldo Gonçalves de Lima (1908–1989) who, in 1946, isolated an alkaloid he named nigerina (nigerine) from the root bark of jurema preta, that is, Mimosa tenuiflora.[1] However, in a careful review of the case Jonathan Ott shows that the empirical formula for nigerine determined by Gonçalves de Lima, which notably contains an atom of oxygen, can only match a partial, "impure" or "contaminated" form of DMT. It was only in 1959, when Gonçalves de Lima provided American chemists a sample of Mimosa tenuiflora roots, that DMT was unequivocally identified in this plant material. Less ambiguous is the case of isolation and formal identification of DMT in 1955 in seeds and pods of Anadenanthera peregrina by a team of American chemists led by Evan Horning (1916–1993). Since 1955 DMT has been found in a host of organisms: in at least fifty plant species belonging to ten families, and in at least four animal species, including one gorgonian and three mammalian species. Another historical milestone is the discovery of DMT in plants frequently used by Amazonian natives as additive to the vine Banisteriopsis caapi to make ayahuasca decoctions. In 1957, American chemists Francis Hochstein and Anita Paradies identified DMT in an "aqueous extract" of leaves of a plant they named Prestonia amazonicum (sic) and described as "commonly mixed" with B. caapi. The lack of a proper botanical identification of Prestonia amazonica in this study led American ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes (1915–2001) and other scientists to raise serious doubts about the claimed plant identity. A better evidence is produced in 1965 by French pharmacologist Jacques Poisson who isolated DMT as sole alkaloid from leaves, provided and used by Aguaruna Indians, identified as pertaining to the vine Diplopterys cabrerana (then known as Banisteriopsis rusbyana). Published in 1970, the first identification of DMT in the other commonly used additiveWikipedia:Please clarify plant Psychotria viridis was made by a team of American researchers led by pharmacologist Ara der Marderosian. Not only did they detect DMT in leaves of P. viridis obtained from Cashinahua Indians, but they also were the first to identify it in a sample of an ayahuasca decoction, prepared by the same Indians. Dimethyltryptamine 36 Biosynthesis Dimethyltryptamine is an indole alkaloid derived from the shikimate pathway. Its biosynthesis is relatively simple and summarized in the picture to the left. In plants, the parent amino acid L-tryptophan is produced endogenously where in animals L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid coming from diet. No matter the source of L-tryptophan, the biosynthesis begins with its decarboxylation by an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzyme (step 1). The resulting decarboxylated tryptophan analog is tryptamine. Tryptamine then undergoes a transmethylation (step 2): the enzyme indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase (INMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from cofactor S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), via nucleophilic attack, to tryptamine. This reaction transforms SAM into S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and gives the intermediate product N-methyltryptamine (NMT). NMT is in turn transmethylated by the same process (step 3) to form the end product N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Tryptamine transmethylation is regulated by two products of the reaction: SAH, and DMT were shown ex vivo to be among the most potent inhibitors of rabbit INMT activity. This transmethylation mechanism has been repeatedly and consistently proven by radiolabeling of SAM methyl group with carbon-14 (14C-CH3)SAM). Evidence in mammals Published in Science in 1961, Julius Axelrod found an N-methyltransferase enzyme capable of mediating biotransformation of tryptamine into DMT in a rabbit's lung. This finding initiated a still ongoing scientific interest in endogenous DMT Biosynthetic pathway for production in humans and other mammals. From then on, two major complementary N,N-dimethyltryptamine lines of evidence have been investigated: localization and further characterization of the N-methyltransferase enzyme, and analytical studies looking for endogenously produced DMT in body fluids and tissues. In 2013, researchers first reported DMT in the pineal gland microdialysate of rodents. INMT Before techniques of molecular biology were used to localize indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), characterization and localization went on a par: samples of the biological material where INMT is hypothesized to be active are subject to enzyme assay. Those enzyme assays are performed either with a radiolabeled methyl donor like (14C-CH3)SAM to which known amounts of unlabeled substrates like tryptamine are added, or with addition of a radiolabeled substrate like (14C)NMT to demonstrate in vivo formation. As qualitative determination of the radioactively tagged product of the enzymatic reaction is sufficient to characterize INMT existence and activity (or lack of), analytical methods used in INMT assays aren't required to be as sensitive as those needed to directly detect and quantify the minute amounts of endogenously formed DMT (see DMT subsection below). The essentially qualitative method thin layer chromatography (TLC) was thus used in a vast majority of studies. Also, robust evidence that INMT can catalyze transmethylation of tryptamine into NMT and DMT could be provided with reverse isotope dilution analysis coupled to mass spectrometry for rabbit and human lung during the early 1970s. Selectivity rather than sensitivity proved to be an Achilles’ heel for some TLC methods with the discovery in 1974–1975 that incubating rat blood cells or brain tissue with (14C-CH3)SAM and NMT as substrate mostly yields tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives, and negligible amounts of DMT in brain tissue. It is indeed simultaneously realized that the TLC methods used thus far in almost all published studies on INMT and DMT biosynthesis are Dimethyltryptamine 37 incapable to resolve DMT from those tetrahydro-β-carbolines. These findings are a blow for all previous claims of evidence of INMT activity and DMT biosynthesis in avian and mammalian brain, including in vivo, as they all relied upon use of the problematic TLC methods: their validity is doubted in replication studies that make use of improved TLC methods, and fail to evidence DMT-producing INMT activity in rat and human brain tissues. Published in 1978, the last study attempting to evidence in vivo INMT activity and DMT production in brain (rat) with TLC methods finds biotransformation of radiolabeled tryptamine into DMT to be real but "insignificant". Capability of the method used in this latter study to resolve DMT from tetrahydro-β-carbolines is questioned later. To localize INMT, a qualitative leap is accomplished with use of modern techniques of molecular biology, and of immunohistochemistry. In humans, a gene encoding INMT is determined to be located on chromosome 7. Northern blot analyses reveal INMT messenger RNA (mRNA) to be highly expressed in rabbit lung, and in human thyroid, adrenal gland, and lung.[2] Intermediate levels of expression are found in human heart, skeletal muscle, trachea, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, testis, prostate, placenta, lymph node, and spinal cord. Low to very low levels of expression are noted in rabbit brain, and human thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, colon, ovary, and bone marrow. INMT mRNA expression is absent in human peripheral blood leukocytes, whole brain, and in tissue from 7 specific brain regions (thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra, and corpus callosum). Immunohistochemistry showed INMT to be present in large amounts in glandular epithelial cells of small and large intestines, and to be absent in neurons. Endogenous DMT The first claimed detection of mammalian endogenous DMT was published in June 1965: German researchers F. Franzen and H. Gross report to have evidenced and quantified DMT, along with its structural analog bufotenin (5-OH-DMT), in human blood and urine. In an article published four months later, the method used in their study is strongly criticized, and credibility of their results challenged. A 2013 study found DMT in microdialysate obtained from a rat's pineal gland, providing evidence of endogenous DMT in the mammalian brain. In 2001, surveys, made in research articles, point that few of the analytical methods previously used to measure levels of endogenously formed DMT had enough sensitivity and selectivity to produce reliable results. Gas chromatography, preferably coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is considered a minimum requirement. A study published in 2005 implements the most sensitive and selective method ever used to measure endogenous DMT: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) allows to reach limits of detection (LODs) 12 to 200 fold lower (that is, better) than those attained by the best methods employed in the 1970s. The data summarized in the table below are from studies conforming to the abovementioned requirements (abbreviations used: CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; LOD = limit of detection; n = number of samples; ng/L and ng/kg = nanograms (10−9 g) per litre, and nanograms per kilogram, respectively): DMT in body fluids and tissues (NB: units have been harmonized) Species Sample Human Blood serum Results < LOD (n = 66) Blood plasma < LOD (n = 71)  ♦  < LOD (n = 38); 1,000 & 10,600 ng/L (n = 2) Whole blood < LOD (n = 20); 50–790 ng/L (n = 20) Urine < 100 ng/L (n = 9)  ♦  < LOD (n = 60); 160–540 ng/L (n = 5)  ♦  Detected in n = 10 by GC-MS Feces < 50 ng/kg (n = 12); 130 ng/kg (n = 1) Kidney 15 ng/kg (n = 1) Lung 14 ng/kg (n = 1) Lumbar CSF 100,370 ng/L (n = 1); 2,330–7,210 ng/L (n = 3); 350 & 850 ng/L (n = 2) Dimethyltryptamine Rat 38 Kidney 12 &16 ng/kg (n = 2) Lung 22 & 12 ng/kg (n = 2) Liver 6 & 10 ng/kg (n = 2) Brain 10 &15 ng/kg (n = 2)  ♦  Measured in synaptic vesicular fraction Rabbit Liver < 10 ng/kg (n = 1) Physical and chemical properties DMT is commonly handled and stored as a fumarate,[citation needed] as other DMT acid salts are generally very hygroscopic and will not readily crystallize. Its freebase form, although less stable than DMT fumarate, is favored by recreational users choosing to vaporize the chemical because it has a lower boiling point.[citation needed] In contrast to DMT's base, its salts are water-soluble. DMT in solution degrades relatively quickly and should be stored protected from air, light, and heat in a freezer.[citation needed] DMT crystals Pharmacology Pharmacokinetics DMT peak level concentrations (Cmax) measured in whole blood after intramuscular (IM) injection (0.7 mg/kg, n = 11) and in plasma following intravenous (IV) administration (0.4 mg/kg, n = 10) of fully psychedelic doses are in the range of ≈14 to 154 μg/L and 32 to 204 μg/L, respectively. The corresponding molar concentrations of DMT are therefore in the range of 0.074–0.818 µM in whole blood and 0.170–1.08 µM in plasma. However, several studies have described active transport and accumulation of DMT into rat and dog brain following peripheral administration. Similar active transport, and accumulation processes likely occur in human brain and may concentrate DMT in brain by several-fold or more (relatively to blood), resulting in local concentrations in the micromolar or higher range. Such concentrations would be commensurate with serotonin brain tissue concentrations which have been consistently determined to be in the 1.5-4 μM range. Closely coextending with peak psychedelic effects, mean time to reach peak concentrations (Tmax) was determined to be 10–15 minutes in whole blood after IM injection, and 2 minutes in plasma after IV administration. When taken orally mixed in an ayahuasca decoction, and in freeze-dried ayahuasca gel caps, DMT Tmax is considerably delayed: 107.59 ± 32.5 minutes, and 90–120 minutes, respectively. The pharmacokinetics for vaporizing DMT have not been studied or reported. Pharmacodynamics DMT binds non-selectively with affinities < 0.6 μM to the following serotonin receptors: 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7. An agonist action has been determined at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C. Its efficacies at other serotonin receptors remain to be determined. Of special interest will be the determination of its efficacy at human 5-HT2B receptor as two in vitro assays evidenced DMT high affinity for this receptor: 0.108 μM and 0.184 μM. This may be of importance because chronic or frequent uses of serotonergic drugs showing preferential high affinity and clear agonism at 5-HT2B receptor have been causally linked to valvular heart Dimethyltryptamine 39 disease. It has also been shown to possess affinity for the dopamine D1, α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, imidazoline-1, sigma-1 (σ1), and trace amine-associated receptors. Agonism was demonstrated at 1 μM at the rat trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and converging lines of evidence established activation of the σ1 receptor at concentrations of 50–100 μM. Its efficacies at the other receptor binding sites are unclear. It has also been shown in vitro to be a substrate for the cell-surface serotonin transporter (SERT) and the intracellular vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), inhibiting SERT-mediated serotonin uptake in human platelets at an average concentration of 4.00 ± 0.70 μM and VMAT2-mediated serotonin uptake in vesicles (of army worm Sf9 cells) expressing rat VMAT-2 at an average concentration of 93 ± 6.8 μM. As with other so-called "classical hallucinogens", a large part of DMT psychedelic effects can be attributed to a functionally selective activation of the 5-HT2A receptor. DMT concentrations eliciting 50% of its maximal effect (half maximal effective concentration = EC50 or Kact) at the human 5-HT2A receptor in vitro are in the 0.118–0.983 μM range. This range of values coincides well with the range of concentrations measured in blood and plasma after administration of a fully psychedelic dose (see Pharmacokinetics). As DMT has been shown to have slightly better efficacy (EC50) at human serotonin 2C receptor than at 2A receptor, 5-HT2C highly likely also is implicated in DMT's overall effects. Other receptors, such as 5-HT1A σ1, and TAAR1 may also play a role. In 2009 it was hypothesized that DMT may be an endogenous ligand for the σ1 receptor. The concentration of DMT needed for σ1 activation in vitro (50–100 μM) is similar to the behaviorally active concentration measured in mouse brain of approximately 106 μM This is minimally 4 orders of magnitude (104) higher than the average concentrations measured in rat brain tissue or human plasma under basal conditions (see Endogenous DMT), so σ1 receptors are likely to be activated only under conditions of high local DMT concentrations. If DMT is stored in synaptic vesicles, such concentrations might occur during vesicular release. To illustrate, while the average concentration of serotonin in brain tissue is in the 1.5-4 μM range, the concentration of serotonin in synaptic vesicles was measured at 270 mM. Following vesicular release, the resulting concentration of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, to which serotonin receptors are exposed, is estimated to be about 300 μM. Thus, while in vitro receptor binding affinities, efficacies, and average concentrations in tissue or plasma are useful, they are not likely to predict DMT concentrations in the vesicles or at synaptic or intracellular receptors. Under these conditions, notions of receptor selectivity are moot, and it seems probable that most of the receptors identified as targets for DMT (see above) participate in producing its psychedelic effects. Psychedelic properties "So I did it and...there was a something, like a flower, like a chrysanthemum in orange and yellow that was sort of spinning, spinning, and then it was like I was pushed from behind and I fell through the chrysanthemum into another place that didn't seem like a state of mind, it seemed like another place. And what was going on in this place aside from the tastefully soffited indirect lighting, and the crawling geometric hallucinations along the domed walls, what was happening was that there were a lot of beings in there, what I call self-transforming machine elves. Sort of like jewelled basketballs all dribbling their way toward me. And if they'd had faces they would have been grinning, but they didn't have faces. And they assured me that they loved me and they told me not to be amazed; not to give way to astonishment." [3] — Terence McKenna, on his first experience with DMT DMT is produced naturally in many species of plants often in conjunction with its close chemical relatives 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin (5-OH-DMT). DMT-containing plants are commonly used in South American Shamanic practices. It is usually one of the main active constituents of the drink ayahuasca, however ayahuasca is sometimes brewed with plants which don't produce DMT. It occurs as the primary psychoactive alkaloid in several plants including Mimosa tenuiflora, Diplopterys cabrerana, and Psychotria viridis. DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in snuff made from Virola bark resin in which 5-MeO-DMT is the main active alkaloid. DMT is also found as a minor Dimethyltryptamine alkaloid in bark, pods, and beans of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina used to make Yopo and Vilca snuff in which bufotenin is the main active alkaloid. Psilocin, an active chemical in many psychedelic mushrooms, is structurally similar to DMT. The psychotropic effects of DMT were first studied scientifically by the Hungarian chemist and psychologist Dr. Stephen Szára who performed research with volunteers in the mid-1950s. Szára, who later worked for the US National Institutes of Health, had turned his attention to DMT after his order for LSD from the Swiss company Sandoz Laboratories was rejected on the grounds that the powerful psychotropic could be dangerous in the hands of a communist country. DMT can produce powerful psychedelic experiences including intense visuals, euphoria and hallucinations. DMT is generally not active orally unless it is combined with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA), for example, harmaline. Without an MAOI, the body quickly metabolizes orally administered DMT, and it therefore has no hallucinogenic effect unless the dose exceeds monoamine oxidase's metabolic capacity. Other means of ingestion such as vaporizing, injecting, or insufflating the drug can produce powerful hallucinations and entheogenic activity for a short time (usually less than half an hour), as the DMT reaches the brain before it can be metabolized by the body's natural monoamine oxidase. Taking a MAOI prior to vaporizing or injecting DMT prolongs and potentiates the effects. Inhalation A standard dose for vaporized DMT is between 15–60 mg. This is generally DMT during various stages of purification inhaled in a few successive breaths. The effects last for a short period of time, usually 5 to 15 minutes, dependent on the dose. The onset after inhalation is very fast (less than 45 seconds) and peak effects are reached within a minute. In the 1960s, DMT was known as a "businessman's lunch" in the US because of the relatively short duration (and rapid onset) of action when inhaled. Insufflation Insufflating DMT (commonly as a freebase or fumarate) requires a higher dose than inhalation. The duration is markedly increased, and some users report diminished euphoria but an intensified otherworldly experience. A dose of approximately 70 to 120 mg of insufflated DMT will induce medium to strong effects. If successful in containing this pain-inducing insufflation, the trip can last anywhere from 20 to 50 minutes, with undefinable peak(s). Injection Injected DMT produces an experience that is similar to inhalation in duration, intensity, and characteristics. In a study conducted from 1990 through 1995, University of New Mexico psychiatrist Rick Strassman found that some volunteers injected with high doses of DMT reported experiences with perceived alien entities. Usually, the reported entities were experienced as the inhabitants of a perceived independent reality the subjects reported visiting while under the influence of DMT.[1] In a September 2009 interview with, Strassman described the effects on participants in the study: "Subjectively, the most interesting results were that high doses of DMT seemed to allow the consciousness of our volunteers to enter into non-corporeal, free-standing, independent realms of existence inhabited by beings of light who oftentimes were expecting the volunteers, and with whom the volunteers interacted. While 'typical' near-death and mystical states occurred, they were relatively rare." 40 Dimethyltryptamine Oral ingestion DMT is broken down by the digestive enzyme monoamine oxidase through a process called deamination, and is therefore inactive if taken orally unless combined with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). The traditional South American beverage ayahuasca, or yage, is derived by boiling the ayahuasca vine (Banisteriopsis caapi) with leaves of one or more plants containing DMT, such as Psychotria viridis, Psychotria carthagenensis, or Diplopterys cabrerana. The Ayahuasca vine contains harmala alkaloids, highly active reversible inihibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs), rendering the DMT orally active by protecting it from deamination. A variety of different recipes are used to make the brew depending on the purpose of the ayahuasca session, or local availability of ingredients. Two common sources of DMT in the western US are reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) and Harding grass (Phalaris aquatica). These invasive grasses contain low levels of DMT and other alkaloids. In addition, Jurema (Mimosa tenuiflora) shows evidence of DMT content: the pink layer in the inner rootbark of this small tree contains a high concentration of N,N-DMT.[citation needed] Taken orally with an RIMA, DMT produces a long lasting (over 3 hour), slow, deep metaphysical experience similar to that of psilocybin mushrooms, but more intense. RIMAs should be used with caution as they can have lethal complications with some prescription drugs such as SSRI antidepressants, and some over-the-counter drugs. Induced DMT experiences can include profound time-dilation, visual and auditory illusions, and other experiences that, by most firsthand accounts, defy verbal or visual description. Some users report intense erotic imagery and sensations and utilize the drug in a ritual sexual context. Distinguish from 5-MeO-DMT 5-MeO-DMT, a psychedelic drug structurally similar to N,N-DMT, is sometimes referred to as DMT through abbreviation. As a white, crystalline solid, it is also similar in appearance to DMT. However, it is considerably more potent (5-MeO-DMT typical vaporized dose: 5–20 mg), and care should be taken to clearly differentiate between the two drugs to avoid accidental overdose. Detection in body fluids DMT may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine using chromatographic techniques as a diagnostic tool in clinical poisoning situations or to aid in the medicolegal investigation of suspicious deaths. Blood or plasma DMT levels in recreational users of the drug are generally in the 10–30 μg/L range during the first several hours post-ingestion.[citation needed] Less than 0.1% of an oral dose is eliminated unchanged in the 24-hour urine of humans.[4] 41 Dimethyltryptamine Side effects According to a "Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans" by Rick Strassman, "Dimethyltryptamine dose slightly elevated blood pressure, heart rate, pupil diameter, and rectal temperature, in addition to elevating blood concentrations of beta-endorphin, corticotropin, cortisol, and prolactin. Growth hormone blood levels rose equally in response to all doses of DMT, and melatonin levels were unaffected." Conjecture Several speculative and yet untested hypotheses suggest that endogenous DMT is produced in the human brain and is involved in certain psychological and neurological states. DMT is naturally occurring in small amounts in rat brain, human cerebrospinal fluid, and other tissues of humans and other mammals. A biochemical mechanism for this was proposed by the medical researcher J. C. Callaway, who suggested in 1988 that DMT might be connected with visual dream phenomena: brain DMT levels would be periodically elevated to induce visual dreaming and possibly other natural states of mind. A new hypothesis proposed is that in addition to being involved DMT crystal at 400x magnification in altered states of consciousness, endogenous DMT may be involved in the creation of normal waking states of consciousness. It is proposed that DMT and other endogenous hallucinogens mediate their neurological abilities by acting as neurotransmitters at a sub class of the trace amine receptors; a group of receptors found in the CNS where DMT and other hallucinogens have been shown to have activity. Wallach further proposes that in this way waking consciousness can be thought of as a controlled psychedelic experience. It is when the control of these systems becomes loosened and their behavior no longer correlates with the external world that the altered states arise. Dr. Rick Strassman, while conducting DMT research in the 1990s at the University of New Mexico, advanced the controversial hypothesis that a massive release of DMT from the pineal gland prior to death or near death was the cause of the near death experience (NDE) phenomenon. Several of his test subjects reported NDE-like audio or visual hallucinations. His explanation for this was the possible lack of panic involved in the clinical setting and possible dosage differences between those administered and those encountered in actual NDE cases. Several subjects also reported contact with "other beings", alien like, insectoid or reptilian in nature, in highly advanced technological environments where the subjects were "carried", "probed", "tested", "manipulated", "dismembered", "taught", "loved" and even "raped" by these "beings". Basing his reasoning on his belief that all the enzymatic material needed to produce DMT is found in the pineal gland (see evidence in mammals), and moreover in substantially greater concentrations than in any other part of the body, Strassman ( p. 69) has speculated that DMT is made in the pineal gland. Currently there was no published reliable scientific evidence supporting this hypothesis. Until Rick Strassman published his data showing DMT found in the pineal glands of live mice. In the 1950s, the endogenous production of psychoactive agents was considered to be a potential explanation for the hallucinatory symptoms of some psychiatric diseases as the transmethylation hypothesis (see also adrenochrome), though this hypothesis does not account for the natural presence of endogenous DMT in otherwise normal humans, rats and other laboratory animals. In 2011, Nicholas V. Cozzi, of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, concluded that INMT, an enzyme that may be associated with the biosynthesis of DMT and endogenous hallucinogens, is present in the primate (rhesus macaque) pineal gland, retinal ganglion neurons, and spinal cord.[5] In August 2012, Steven Barker, Ethan McIlHenny, and Rick Strassman, developed a new method to measure the three known endogenous hallucinogens and their major N-oxide metabolites in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, ocular fluid and/or other 42 Dimethyltryptamine tissues by using state-of-the-art liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) equipment. For the first time in history, they were able to detect the DMT-N-oxide metabolite in blood and urine. Legal status International law DMT is classified as a Schedule I drug under the UN 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, meaning that use of DMT is supposed to be restricted to scientific research and medical use and international trade in DMT is supposed to be closely monitored. Natural materials containing DMT, including ayahuasca, are explicitly not regulated under the 1971 Psychotropic Convention. Australia Between 2011 and 2012, the Australian Federal Government was considering changes to the Australian Criminal Code that would classify any plants containing any amount of DMT as "controlled plants". DMT itself was already controlled under current laws. The proposed changes included other similar blanket bans for other substances, such as a ban on any and all plants containing Mescaline or Ephedrine. The proposal was not pursued after political embarrassment on realisation that this would make Australia's national flower, Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle), illegal. The Therapeutic Goods Administration and federal authority had considered a motion to ban the same, but this was withdrawn in May 2012 (as DMT may still hold potential entheogenic value to native and/or religious peoples).[6] Canada DMT is classified in Canada as a Schedule III drug. France DMT, along with most of its plant sources, is classified in France as a stupéfiant (narcotic). New Zealand DMT is classified in New Zealand as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. United Kingdom DMT is classified in the United Kingdom as a Class A drug. United States DMT is classified in the United States as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In December 2004, the Supreme Court lifted a stay, thereby allowing the Brazil-based União do Vegetal (UDV) church to use a decoction containing DMT in their Christmas services that year. This decoction is a tea made from boiled leaves and vines, known as hoasca within the UDV, and ayahuasca in different cultures. In Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, the Supreme Court heard arguments on November 1, 2005, and unanimously ruled in February 2006 that the U.S. federal government must allow the UDV to import and consume the tea for religious ceremonies under the 1993 Religious Freedom Restoration Act. In September 2008, the three Santo Daime churches filed suit in federal court to gain legal status to import DMT-containing ayahuasca tea. The case, Church of the Holy Light of the Queen v. Mukasey,[7] presided over by Judge Owen M. Panner, was ruled in favor of the Santo Daime church. As of March 21, 2009, a federal judge says members of the church in Ashland can import, distribute and brew ayahuasca. U.S. District Judge Owen Panner 43 Dimethyltryptamine issued a permanent injunction barring the government from prohibiting or penalizing the sacramental use of "Daime tea". Panner's order said activities of The Church of the Holy Light of the Queen are legal and protected under freedom of religion. His order prohibits the federal government from interfering with and prosecuting church members who follow a list of regulations set out in his order. Culture In South America, there are a number of indigenous traditions and more recent religious movements based on the use of ayahuasca, usually in an animistic context that may be mixed with Christian imagery. There are three main groups using DMT-MAOI based sacraments in South America. The Amazon Basin's indigenous population There are many indigenous cultures in South America, mostly in the Upper Amazon Basin whose traditional religious practices include the use of ayahuasca. These are the oldest cultures in the whole of South America that continue to use ayahuasca or analogue brews, such as the ones made from Jurema in the Pernambuco, near Recife or Iquitos in Peru. Santo Daime ("Holy Give Unto Me") and Barquinha ("Little Boat") A syncretic religion from Brazil. The former was founded by Raimundo Irineu Serra in the early 1930s, as an esoteric Christian religion with shamanic tendencies. The Barquinha was derived from this one. The Santo Daime also includes children in their Entheogenic rituals; studies done by the Brazilian government concluded that there were no physical or mental damage caused by this practice, so it is allowed. União do Vegetal ("Union of the Plants" or UDV) Another Christian ayahuasca religion from Brazil, a single unified organization with a structure resembling Freemasonry. Popular culture DMT was the subject of a 2010 American documentary titled DMT: The Spirit Molecule.[8] DMT was one of the psychedelic drugs used in the 2009 French movie, titled Enter The Void. In 2012, electronic producer Flying Lotus released the song DMT on his album Until the Quiet Comes., featuring Thundercat. DMT is also mentioned in an episode of Adventure Time. [9] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] () General annotation of Human INMT (O95050) entry in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot (http:/ / www. uniprot. org/ uniprot/ O95050) Alien Dreamtime a multimedia event recorded live. (27 February 1993) R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 9th edition, Biomedical Publications, Seal Beach, CA, 2011, pp. 525–526. http:/ / www. neurophys. wisc. edu/ ~cozzi/ Indolethylamine%20N-methyltransferase%20expression%20in%20primate%20nervous%20tissue. pdf http:/ / connection. ebscohost. com/ c/ articles/ 79564875/ aussie-dmt-ban Church of the Holy Light of the Queen v. Mukasey (http:/ / csp. org/ society/ docs/ SantoDaimeAshland20090318. pdf) http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1340425/ http:/ / www. dosenation. com/ listing. php?id=8252 44 Dimethyltryptamine External links • Identifying Spiritual Content in First-Person Reports from Ayahuasca Sessions (http://www.neuroquantology. com/index.php/journal/article/view/410) • DMT Vault ( – Erowid • DMT ( – • DMT chapter from TiHKAL ( • DMT: The Spirit Molecule ( id=54&Itemid=54), an overview by its author, Rick Strassman • DMT: The Spirit Molecule ( at the Internet Movie Database • CRFDL (, a database of scientific research on psychedelics Monoamine oxidase inhibitor Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are chemicals which inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family. They have a long history of use as medications prescribed for the treatment of depression. They are particularly effective in treating atypical depression. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease and several other disorders. Because of potentially lethal dietary and drug interactions, monoamine oxidase inhibitors have historically been reserved as a last line of treatment, used only when other classes of antidepressant drugs (for example selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic Monoamine oxidase antidepressants) have failed.[1] New research into MAOIs indicate that much of the concern over their dangerous dietary side effects stems from misconceptions and misinformation, and that despite proven effectiveness of this class of drugs, it is underutilized and misunderstood in the medical profession. New research also questions the validity of the perceived severity of dietary reactions, which has historically been based on outdated research. Indications Newer MAOIs such as selegiline (typically used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease) and the reversible MAOI moclobemide provide a safer alternative and are now sometimes used as first-line therapy. MAOIs have been found to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia,[2] social phobia,[3][4][5] atypical depression[6][7] or mixed anxiety and depression, bulimia,[8][9][10][11] and post-traumatic stress disorder,[12] as well as borderline personality disorder.[13] MAOIs appear to be particularly effective in the management of bipolar depression according to a recent retrospective-analysis.[14] There are reports of MAOI efficacy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trichotillomania, dysmorphophobia, and avoidant personality disorder, but these reports are from uncontrolled case reports. MAOIs can also be used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease by targeting MAO-B in particular (therefore affecting dopaminergic neurons), as well as providing an alternative for migraine prophylaxis. Inhibition of both MAO-A and MAO-B is used in the treatment of clinical depression and anxiety. MAOIs appear to be particularly indicated for outpatients with "neurotic depression" complicated by panic disorder or hysteroid dysphoria, which involves repeated episodes of depressed mood in response to feeling rejected.[15] 45 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor Mechanism of action MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, thus preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters and thereby increasing their availability. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO-A preferentially deaminates serotonin, melatonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. MAO-B preferentially deaminates phenylethylamine and trace amines. Dopamine is equally deaminated by both types. Reversibility The early MAOIs inhibited monoamine oxidase irreversibly. When they react with monoamine oxidase, they permanently deactivate it, and the enzyme cannot function until it has been replaced by the body, which can take about two weeks. A few newer MAOIs, a notable one being moclobemide, are reversible, meaning that they are able to detach from the enzyme to facilitate usual catabolism of the substrate. The level of inhibition in this way is governed by the concentrations of the substrate and the MAOI. Harmaline found in Peganum harmala, as well as the Ayahuasca vine, Banisteriopsis caapi, and Passiflora incarnata is a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA).[16] Selectivity In addition to reversibility, MAOIs differ by their selectivity of the MAO receptor. Some MAOIs inhibit both MAO-A and MAO-B equally, other MAOIs have been developed to target one over the other. MAO-A inhibition reduces the breakdown of primarily serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine; selective inhibition of MAO-A allows for tyramine to be metabolised via MAO-B. Agents that act on serotonin if taken with another serotonin-enhancing agent may result in a potentially fatal interaction called serotonin syndrome or with irreversible and unselective inhibitors (such as older MAOIs), of MAO a hypertensive crisis as a result of tyramine food interactions is particularly problematic with older MAOIs. Tyramine is broken down by MAO-A and MAO-B, therefore inhibiting this action may result in its excessive build-up, so diet must be monitored for tyramine intake. MAO-B inhibition reduces the breakdown mainly of dopamine and phenethylamine so there are no dietary restrictions associated with this. MAO-B would also metabolize tyramine, as the only differences between dopamine, phenethylamine, and tyramine are two phenylhydroxyl groups on carbons 3 and 4. The 4-OH would not be a steric hindrance to MAO-B on tyramine.[17] Two MAO-Bi drugs, selegiline and rasagiline have been approved by the FDA without dietary restrictions, except in high-dosage treatment, wherein they lose their selectivity. Dangers When ingested orally, MAOIs inhibit the catabolism of dietary amines. When foods containing tyramine are consumed (so-called "cheese effect"), the individual may suffer from hypertensive crisis. The amount required to cause a reaction varies greatly from individual to individual, and depends on the degree of inhibition, which in turn depends on dosage and selectivity[citation needed]. The exact mechanism by which tyramine causes a hypertensive reaction is not well-understood, but it is assumed that tyramine displaces norepinephrine from the storage vesicles. This may trigger a cascade in which excessive amounts of norepinephrine can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Another theory suggests that proliferation and accumulation of catecholamines causes hypertensive crisis[18] Tyrosine, not tyramine, is the precursor to catecholamines. Tyramine is a breakdown product of tyrosine. In the gut and during fermentation, tyrosine, an amino acid, is decarboxylated to tyramine. Under ordinary circumstances, tyramine is deaminated in the liver to an inactive metabolite, but, when the hepatic MAO (primarily MAO-A) is inhibited, the "first-pass" clearance of tyramine is blocked and circulating tyramine levels can climb. Elevated tyramine competes with tyrosine for transport across the blood–brain barrier (via aromatic amino acid transport) where it can then enter adrenergic nerve terminals. Once in the cytoplasmic space, tyramine will be transported via 46 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) into synaptic vesicles, thereby displacing norepinephrine. The mass transfer of norepinephrine from its vesicular storage space into the extracellular space via mass action can precipitate the hypertensive crisis. Hypertensive crises can sometimes result in stroke or cardiac arrhythmia if not treated. In general, this risk is not present with RIMAs. Both kinds of intestinal MAO inhibition can cause hyperpyrexia, nausea, and psychosis if foods high in levodopa are consumed. Examples of foods and drinks with potentially high levels of tyramine include liver and fermented substances, such as alcoholic beverages and aged cheeses.[19] (See a List of foods containing tyramine). Examples of levodopa-containing foods include broad beans. These diet restrictions are not necessary for those taking selective MAO-B inhibitors, unless these are being taken in high dosages, as mentioned above. It deserves separate mention that some meat extracts and yeast extracts (Bovril, Marmite, Vegemite) contain extremely high levels of tyramine, and should not be used with these medications. When MAOIs were first introduced, these risks were not known, and, over the following four decades, fewer than 100 people have died from hypertensive crisis.[citation needed] Presumedly due to the sudden onset and violent appearance of the reaction, MAOIs gained a reputation for being so dangerous that, for a while, they were taken off the market in America entirely. However, it is now believed that, used as directed under the care of a qualified psychiatrist, this class of drugs is a viable alternative treatment for intermediate- to long-term use. The most significant risk associated with the use of MAOIs is the potential for interactions with over-the-counter and prescription medicines, illicit drugs or medications, and some supplements (e.g., St. John's Wort, tryptophan). It is vital that a doctor supervise such combinations to avoid adverse reactions. For this reason, many users carry an MAOI-card, which lets emergency medical personnel know what drugs to avoid. (E.g., adrenaline dosage should be reduced by 75%, and duration is extended.) The risk of the interaction of MAOI medications with other drugs or certain foods is particularly dangerous because those on the medication who would have to restrict their diets often are depressed patients who "don't care if they live or die."[20] Tryptophan supplements should not be consumed with MAOIs as the potentially fatal serotonin syndrome may result. MAOIs should not be combined with other psychoactive substances (antidepressants, painkillers, stimulants, both legal and illegal etc.) except under expert care. Certain combinations can cause lethal reactions, common examples including SSRIs, tricyclics, MDMA, meperidine,[21] tramadol, and dextromethorphan[citation needed]. Agents with actions on epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dopamine must be administered at much lower doses due to potentiation and prolonged effect. Nicotine, a substance frequently implicated in tobacco addiction, has been shown to have "relatively weak" addictive properties when administered alone. The addictive potential increases dramatically after co-administration of an MAOI, which specifically causes sensitization of the locomotor response in rats, a measure of addictive potential. This may be reflected in the difficulty of smoking cessation, as tobacco contains naturally-occurring MAOI compounds in addition to the nicotine. Withdrawal Antidepressants including MAOIs have some dependence-producing effects, the most notable one being a withdrawal syndrome, which may be severe especially if MAOIs are discontinued abruptly or over-rapidly. However, the dependence-producing potential of MAOIs or antidepressants in general is not as significant as benzodiazepines. Withdrawal symptoms can be managed by a gradual reduction in dosage over a period of weeks, months or years to minimize or prevent withdrawal symptoms. MAOIs, as with any antidepressant medications, do not alter the course of the disorder, so it is possible that discontinuation can return the patient to the pre-treatment state. 47 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor This consideration greatly complicates switching a patient between a MAOI and a SSRI, because it is necessary to clear the system completely of one drug before starting another. If one also tapers dosage gradually, the result is that for weeks a depressed patient will have to bear the depression without chemical help during the drug-free interval. This may be preferable to risking the effects of an interaction between the two drugs, but it is often not easy for the patient[citation needed]. Interactions The MAOIs are infamous for their numerous drug interactions, including the following kinds of substances: • Substances that are metabolized by monoamine oxidase, as they can be boosted by up to several-fold. • Substances that increase serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine activity, as too much of any of these neurochemicals can result in severe acute consequences, including serotonin syndrome, hypertensive crisis, and psychosis, respectively. Such substances include: • Phenethylamines: 2C-B, Mescaline, Phenethylamine (PEA), etc. • Amphetamines: Amphetamine, MDMA, Dextroamphetamine, Methamphetamine, DOM, etc. • Tryptamines: DMT, Psilocin/Psilocybin ("Magic Mushrooms"), etc. • Lysergamides: Ergolines/LSA, LSD ("Acid"), etc. • Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and/or Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors: • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): Citalopram, Dapoxetine, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline. • Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): Desvenlafaxine, Duloxetine, Milnacipran, Venlafaxine. • Norepinephrine-Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs): Amineptine, Bupropion, Methylphenidate, Nomifensine. • Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (NRIs): Atomoxetine, Mazindol, Reboxetine. • Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs): Amitriptyline, Butriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Dosulepin, Doxepin, Imipramine, Lofepramine, Nortriptyline, Protriptyline, Trimipramine. • Tetracyclic Antidepressants (TeCAs): Amoxapine, Maprotiline. • Phenylpiperidine derivative Opioids: Meperidine/Pethidine, Tramadol, Methadone, Fentanyl, Dextropropoxyphene, Propoxyphene. • Others: Brompheniramine, Chlorpheniramine, Cocaine, Cyclobenzaprine, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Ketamine, MDPV, Nefazodone, Phencyclidine (PCP), Pheniramine, Sibutramine, Trazodone. • Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and/or Dopamine Releasers: 4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR), Amphetamine, Benzphetamine, Cathine, Cathinone, Diethylcathinone, Ephedrine, Levmetamfetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, MDMA ("Ecstasy"), Methamphetamine, Pemoline, Phendimetrazine, Phenethylamine (PEA), Phentermine, Propylhexedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine, Tyramine. • Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and/or Dopamine Supplemental Precursors: 5-HTP, L-DOPA, L-Phenylalanine, L-Tryptophan, L-Tyrosine. • Local and General anesthetic in surgery and dentistry in particular those containing Epinephrine. There is no universally taught or accepted practice regarding dentistry and use of MAOIs such as Phenelzine and it is, therefore, vital to inform all clinicians especially dentists of the potential effect of MAOIs and Local Anesthesia. In preparation for dental work, withdrawal from Phenelzine is specifically advised, however since this takes two weeks it is not always a desirable or practical option. Dentists using Local Anesthesia are advised to use a non-epinephrine anesthetic such as Carbocaine at a level of 3%. Specific attention should be paid to blood pressure during the procedure and the level of the anesthetic should be regularly and appropriately topped up since non-epinephrine anestetics take longer to come into effect and wear off faster. Patients taking Phenelzine 48 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor are advised to notify their Psychiatrist prior to any dental treatment. • Certain other supplements: Hypericum perforatum ("St John's Wort"), Inositol, Rhodiola rosea, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), L-Theanine. • Other Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. History MAOIs started off due to the serendipitous discovery that iproniazid was a weak MAO inhibitor (MAOI). Originally intended for the treatment of tuberculosis, in 1952, iproniazid antidepressant properties were discovered when researchers noted that the patients given iproniazid became "inappropriately happy" which led to the development and widespread use of MAOIs as antidepressants in the early 1950s. The discovery of the 2 isoenzymes of MAO has led to the development of selective MAOIs that may have a more favorable side-effect profile. The older MAOIs' heyday was mostly between the years 1957 and 1970. The initial popularity of the 'classic' non-selective irreversible MAO inhibitors began to wane due to their serious interactions with sympathomimetic drugs and tyramine-containing foods that could lead to dangerous hypertensive emergencies. As a result, the use by medical practitioners of these older MAOIs declined. When scientists discovered that there are two different MAO enzymes (MAO-A and MAO-B), they developed selective compounds for MAO-B, (for example, selegiline, which is used for Parkinson's disease), to reduce the side-effects and serious interactions. Further improvement occurred with the development of compounds (moclobemide and toloxatone) that not only are selective but cause reversible MAO-A inhibition and a reduction in dietary and drug interactions. Irreversible MAOIs were the first antidepressants to be discovered, but they fell out of favour with the advent of the discovery of safer antidepressants; these newer antidepressant drug classes have fewer adverse effects, especially the dangerous irreversible MAOI food interaction with tyramine, sometimes referred to as the 'cheese syndrome', which leads to dangerous hypertension. However, reversible MAOIs lack these hypertensive adverse effects. Moclobemide, was the first reversible inhibitor of MAO-A to enter widespread clinical practice; its reversible inhibitory features give it a number of advantages over the older irreversible MAO inhibitors. A transdermal patch form of the MAOI selegiline, called Emsam, was approved for use in depression by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States on February 28, 2006. List of MAO inhibiting drugs Marketed drugs • Nonselective MAO-A/MAO-B Inhibitors • Hydrazines • Isoniazid (Laniazid, Nydrazid) • Nialamide (Niamid) • Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) • Non-Hydrazines • Tranylcypromine (Parnate, Jatrosom) • Selective MAO-A Inhibitors • Moclobemide (Aurorix, Manerix) • Pirlindole (Pirazidol) (available in Russia) • Toloxatone (Humoryl) (available in France) • Selective MAO-B Inhibitors • Rasagiline (Azilect) 49 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor • Selegiline (Deprenyl, Eldepryl, Emsam) Linezolid is an antibiotic drug with weak MAO inhibiting activity. Drugs withdrawn from the market • Nonselective MAO-A/MAO-B Inhibitors • Hydrazines • Benmoxin (Nerusil, Neuralex) • Iproclozide (Sursum) • Iproniazid (Marsilid, Iprozid, Ipronid, Rivivol, Propilniazida) (discontinued worldwide except for France) • Mebanazine (Actomol) • Octamoxin (Ximaol, Nimaol) • Pheniprazine (Catron) • Phenoxypropazine (Drazine) • Pivalylbenzhydrazine (Tersavid) • Safrazine (Safra) (discontinued worldwide except for Japan) • Non-Hydrazines • Caroxazone (Surodil, Timostenil)] • Selective MAO-A inhibitors • Minaprine (Cantor) Cultural references • In the episode "The Late Shaft" of the TV detective drama Castle, Bobby Mann was taking an MAO inhibitor. His killer used this fact to trigger a negative interaction with the drug, leading to Bobby's death through what seemed to be a normal heart attack. • In the episode "Cut" of Law & Order, a surgeon prescribes painkillers that interact with an MAOI a patient was taking, leading to her death. • The pilot episode of Law and Order was similar to an actual event. Journalist Sidney Zion questioned the sudden death of his daughter Libby Zion in an emergency department in Manhattan on Oct 4, 1984. The cause of death was attributed to "mysterious infection".[22][23] The father convinced authorities to launch a criminal investigation when it was discovered that several medications, including Demerol, were administered to his daughter, reacting with her Nardil medications. The DA sought charges of murder against a doctor who had approved use of restraints and narcotics when Zion became increasingly agitated.[24] The case prompted many reforms in graduate medical education and limiting number of hours staff can work.[25] Drug abuse was successfully argued as a major factor leading to her death. 50 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor References [1] Mayo Clinic Staff, "Depression (major depression): Treatment and drugs" (http:/ / www. mayoclinic. com/ health/ depression/ DS00175/ DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs) [2] Buigues J, Vallejo J. Therapeutic response to phenelzine in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia with panic attacks. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1987;48(2):55–9. [3] Liebowitz MR, Schneier FR, Campeas R, Hollander E, Hatterer J, Fyer A, et al. Phenelzine vs atenolol in social phobia: A placebo-controlled comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1992;49(4):290–300. [4] Versiani M, Nardi AE, Mundim FD, Alves AB, Liebowitz MR, Amrein R. Pharmacotherapy of social phobia. A controlled study with moclobemide and phenelzine. BJP [Internet]. 1992 Sep 1 [cited 2013 Oct 4];161(3):353–60. Available from: http:/ / bjp. rcpsych. org/ content/ 161/ 3/ 353 [5] Heimberg RG, Liebowitz MR, Hope DA, et al. Cognitive behavioral group therapy vs phenelzine therapy for social phobia: 12-week outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1998 Dec 1 [cited 2013 Oct 3];55(12):1133–41. Available from: http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archpsyc. 55. 12. 1133 [6] Jarrett RB, Schaffer M, McIntire D, Witt-Browder A, Kraft D, Risser RC. Treatment of atypical depression with cognitive therapy or phenelzine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1999 May 1 [cited 2013 Oct 4];56(5):431–7. Available from: http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archpsyc. 56. 5. 431 [7] Liebowitz MR, Quitkin FM, Stewart JW, et al. Phenelzine v imipramine in atypical depression: A preliminary report. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1984 Jul 1 [cited 2013 Oct 4];41(7):669–77. Available from: http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archpsyc. 1984. 01790180039005 [8] Walsh B, Stewart JW, Roose SP, Gladis M, Glassman AH. Treatment of bulimia with phenelzine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1984 Nov 1 [cited 2013 Oct 4];41(11):1105–9. Available from: http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archpsyc. 1983. 01790220095015 [9] Rothschild R, Quitkin HM, Quitkin FM, Stewart JW, Ocepek-Welikson K, McGrath PJ, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of phenelzine and imipramine in the treatment of bulimia in atypical depressives. International Journal of Eating Disorders [Internet]. 1994 [cited 2013 Oct 4];15(1):1–9. Available from: http:/ / onlinelibrary. wiley. com/ doi/ 10. 1002/ 1098-108X(199401)15:1<1::AID-EAT2260150102>3.0.CO;2-E/abstract [10] Walsh BT, Stewart JW, Roose SP, Gladis M, Glassman AH. A double-blind trial of phenelzine in bulimia. Journal of Psychiatric Research [Internet]. 1985 [cited 2013 Oct 4];19(2–3):485–9. Available from: http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science/ article/ pii/ 0022395685900585 [11] Walsh B, Gladis M, Roose SP, Stewart JW, Stetner F, Glassman AH. Phenelzine vs placebo in 50 patients with bulimia. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1988 May 1 [cited 2013 Oct 4];45(5):471–5. Available from: http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archpsyc. 1988. 01800290091011 [12] Davidson J, Ingram J, Kilts C. A pilot study of phenelzine in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1987;150:252–5. [13] Soloff PH, Cornelius J, George A, Nathan S, Perel JM, Ulrich RF. Efficacy of phenelzine and haloperidol in borderline personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1993 May 1 [cited 2013 Oct 4];50(5):377–85. Available from: http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archpsyc. 1993. 01820170055007 [14] Mallinger AG, Frank E, Thase ME, Barwell MM, DiazGranados N, Luckenbaugh DA, et al. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Standard Antidepressants in Bipolar Disorder: Are Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Superior? Psychopharmacol Bull [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2013 Oct 4];42(2):64–74. Available from: http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC3570273/ [15] http:/ / www. psycom. net/ hysteroid. html [16] Edward J. Massaro, Handbook of Neurotoxicology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=2c2K-epbCDQC& pg=PA237& lpg=PA237& dq=harmaline+ antidepressant& source=web& ots=IrcpVr4R_H& sig=5FvlysKKEN7Hb4_YjfgoZM8rsTg) [17] ScienceDirect - Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics : Structural insights into the mechanism of amine oxidation by monoamine oxidases A and B (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6WB5-4NVJYMH-2& _user=521319& _coverDate=08/ 15/ 2007& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=search& _origin=search& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _acct=C000026018& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=521319& md5=4cce208ef76638c64e8ce59bf3a3ab13& searchtype=a) [18] A.J Giannini. Psychotropic Drug Overdose. In M.E. Keshavan,J.S. Jennedy. (eds) Drug-Induced Dysfunction in Psychiatry. NY, Hemisphere Publishing,1992, pg. 41. ISBN 0-89116-961-X [19] Mosher, Clayton James, and Scott Akins. Drugs and Drug Policy : The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2007. [20] Kramer, Peter D. Listening to Prozac. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Viking, 1993. [21] Pharmacology from H.P. Rang, M.M. Dale, J.M. Ritter, P.K. Moore, year 2003, chapter 38 [22] Zion v. New York Hospital, 1994 [23] Court TV coverage, 1994 [24] Robert Morgenthau, Manhattan District Attorney May 1986 [25] MTCMA Training manual "Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Fire Fighters and EMS Responders" 51 Acanthaceae 52 Acanthaceae Acanthaceae Flowers of Odontonema cuspidatum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Acanthaceae Juss. Type genus Acanthus L. Subfamilies Acanthoideae Avicennioideae Nelsonioideae Thunbergioideae Synonyms Avicenniaceae Miq., nom. cons. Justiciaceae Raf. Mendonciaceae Bremek. Meyeniaceae Sreem. Nelsoniaceae Sreem. Thunbergiaceae Lilja Acanthaceae (the acanthus family) is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species. Most are tropical herbs, shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. The four main centres of distribution are Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil and Central America. The representatives of the family can be found in nearly every habitat, including dense or open forests, in scrublands, on wet fields and valleys, at the sea coast and in marine areas, and in swamps and as an element of mangrove woods. Acanthaceae 53 Description Plants in this family have simple, opposite, decussate leaves with entire (or sometimes toothed, lobed, or spiny) margins, and without stipules. The leaves may contain cystoliths, calcium carbonate concretions, seen as streaks on the surface. The flowers are perfect, zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic, and arranged in an inflorescence that is either a spike, raceme, or cyme. Typically there is a colorful bract subtending each flower; in some species the bract is large and showy. The calyx is usually 4-5 lobed; the corolla tubular, 2-lipped or 5-lobed; stamens either 2 or 4 arranged in pairs and inserted on the corolla; and the ovary superior, 2-carpellate, with axile placentation. The fruit is a two-celled capsule, dehiscing somewhat explosively. In most species, the seeds are attached to a small, hooked stalk (a modified funiculus called a jaculator) that ejects them from the capsule. A species well-known to temperate gardeners is Bear's Breeches (Acanthus mollis ), a herbaceous perennial plant with big leaves and flower spikes up to 2m tall. Tropical genera familiar to gardeners include Thunbergia and Justicia. Avicennia, a genus of mangrove tree, usually placed in Verbenaceae or in its own family, Avicenniaceae, is included in Acanthaceae by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group on the basis of molecular phylogenetic studies that show it to be associated with this family. Selected genera There are 246 accepted genera according to Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Chinese Violet (Asystasia gangetica) Barleria sp. Acanthaceae 54 Leaf of the Nerve Plant (Fittonia verschaffeltii) Polka Dot Plant (Hypoestes phyllostachya) Justicia aurea Acanthaceae 55 Peristrophe speciosa Pseuderanthemum reticulatum Popping Pod (Ruellia tuberosa ) Acanthaceae 56 Rostellularia sp. Thunbergia laurifolia • Acanthopale C.B.Clarke • Lasiocladus Bojer ex Nees • Acanthopsis Harv. • Leandriella Benoist • Acanthostelma Bidgood & Brummitt • Lepidagathis Willd. • Acanthura Lindau • Leptostachya Nees • Acanthus L. (Bear's Breech) • Liberatia Rizzini (sometimes included in Lophostachys) • Achyrocalyx Benoist • Linariantha B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm. • Aechmanthera • Lophostachys Pohl • Adhatoda Mill. (sometimes included in Justicia) • Louteridium S.Watson • Afrofittonia Lindau • Lychniothyrsus Lindau • Ambongia Benoist • Marcania J.B.Imlay • Ancistranthus Lindau (Desert Honeysuckle) • Megalochlamys Lindau • Ancistrostylis T.Yamaz. • Megalostoma Leonard • Andrographis Wall. ex Nees (False Waterwillow) • Megaskepasma Lindau • Angkalanthus Balf.f. • Melittacanthus S.Moore • Anisacanthus Nees • Mellera S.Moore • Anisosepalum E.Hossain • Mendoncia Vand. • Anisostachya Nees (sometimes included in Justicia) • Metarungia Baden • Anisotes Nees • Mexacanthus T.F.Daniel • Anomacanthus R.D.Good • Meyenia Nees • Apassalus Kobuski • Mimulopsis Schweinf. • Aphanosperma T.F.Daniel • Mirandea Rzed. • Aphelandra R.Br. • Monechma Hochst. (sometimes included in Justicia) Acanthaceae 57 • Aphelandrella Mildbr. • Monothecium Hochst. • Ascotheca Heine • Morsacanthus Rizzini • Asystasia Blume • Nelsonia R.Br. • Asystasiella Lindau • Neohallia Hemsl. • Avicennia L. • Neriacanthus Benth. • Ballochia Balf.f. • Neuracanthus Nees • Barleria L. (Bush violets) • Odontonema Nees (Toothedthread) • Barleriola Oerst. • Ophiorrhiziphyllon Kurz • Benoicanthus Heine & A.Raynal • Oplonia Raf. • Blechum P.Browne • Oreacanthus Benth. • Blepharis Juss. • Orophochilus Lindau • Borneacanthus Bremek. • Pachystachys Nees • Boutonia DC. • Pelecostemon Leonard • Brachystephanus Nees • Pentstemonacanthus Nees • Bravaisia DC. • Perenideboles Ram. (Goyena) • Brillantaisia P.Beauv. • Pericalypta Benoist • Calacanthus T.Anderson ex Benth. & Hook.f. • Peristrophe Nees • Calophanoides (C.B.Clarke) Ridl. (sometimes included in Justicia) • Petalidium Nees • Calycacanthus K.Schum. • Phaulopsis Willd. • Camarotea Scott-Elliot • Phialacanthus Benth. • Carlowrightia A.Gray (Wrightwort) • Phidiasia Urb. • Celerina Benoist • Phlogacanthus Nees • Cephalacanthus Lindau • Physacanthus Benth. • Chaetacanthus Nees • Podorungia Baill. • Chalarothyrsus Lindau • Poikilacanthus Lindau • Chamaeranthemum Nees • Polylychnis Bremek. (often included in Ruellia) • Championella Bremek. • Populina Baill. • Chileranthemum Oerst. • Pranceacanthus Wassh. • Chlamydacanthus Lindau (sometimes included in Theileamea) • Pseuderanthemum Radlk. • Chlamydocardia Lindau • Pseudocalyx Radlk. • Chlamydostachya Mildbr. • Pseudodicliptera Benoist • Chroesthes Benoist • Pseudoruellia Benoist • Clinacanthus Nees • Psilanthele Lindau • Clistax Mart. • Ptyssiglottis T.Anderson • Codonacanthus Nees • Pulchranthus V.M.Baum et al. • Conocalyx Benoist • Pupilla Rizzini (sometimes included in Justicia) • Corymbostachys Lindau • Razisea Oerst. • Cosmianthemum Bremek. • Rhinacanthus Nees • Crabbea Harv. • Rhombochlamys Lindau • Crossandra Salisb. • Ritonia Benoist • Crossandrella C.B.Clarke • Rostellularia Rchb. (sometimes included in Justicia) • Cyclacanthus S.Moore • Ruellia L. (Wild Petunia) • Cylindrosolenium Lindau • Ruelliopsis C.B.Clarke • Cyphacanthus Leonard • Rungia Nees • Dactylostegium Nees (sometimes included in Dicliptera) • Ruspolia Lindau • Danguya Benoist • Ruttya Harv. • Dasytropis Urb. • Saintpauliopsis Staner (sometimes included in Staurogyne) • Dichazothece Lindau • Salpinctium T.J.Edwards • Dicladanthera F.Muell. • Salpixantha Hook. • Dicliptera Juss. (Foldwing) • Samuelssonia Urb. & Ekman • Didyplosandra Wight ex Bremek. • Sanchezia Ruiz & Pav. Acanthaceae 58 • Dipteracanthus Nees (sometimes included in Ruellia) • Santapaua N.P.Balakr. & Subr. (sometimes included in Hygrophila) • Dischistocalyx T.Anderson ex Benth. & Hook.f. • Sapphoa Urb. • Dolichostachys Benoist • Satanocrater Schweinf. • Drejera Nees • Sautiera Decne. • Drejerella Lindau (sometimes included in Justicia) • Schaueria Nees • Duosperma Dayton • Schwabea Endl. & Fenzl • Dyschoriste Nees (Snakeherb) • Sclerochiton Harv. • Ecbolium Kurz • Sebastiano-schaueria Nees • Echinacanthus Nees • Sericospora Nees • Elytraria Michx. (Scalystem) • Siphonoglossa Oerst. (Tubetongue) • Encephalosphaera Lindau • Spathacanthus Baill. • Epiclastopelma Lindau • Sphacanthus Benoist • Eranthemum L. • Sphinctacanthus Benth. • Eremomastax Lindau • Spirostigma Nees • Eusiphon Benoist (often included in Ruellia) • Standleyacanthus Leonard • Filetia Miq. • Staurogyne Wall. • Fittonia Coem. • Steirosanchezia Lindau • Forcipella Baill. • Stenandriopsis S.Moore • Forsythiopsis Baker (sometimes included in Oplonia) • Stenandrium Nees (Shaggytuft) • Geissomeria Lindl. • Stenostephanus Nees • Glossochilus Nees • Streblacanthus Kuntze • Golaea Chiov. • Streptosiphon Mildbr. • Graphandra J.B.Imlay • Strobilanthes Blume • Graptophyllum Nees • Strobilanthopsis S.Moore • Gymnophragma Lindau • Styasasia S.Moore • Gymnostachyum Nees • Suessenguthia Merxm. • Gynocraterium Bremek. • Synchoriste Baill. • Gypsacanthus E.J.Lott et al. • Taeniandra Bremek. • Haplanthodes Kuntze • Tarphochlamys Bremek. • Harpochilus Nees • Teliostachya Nees • Hemiadelphis Nees • Tessmanniacanthus Mildbr. • Hemigraphis Nees (sometimes included in Strobilanthes) • Tetramerium Nees • Henrya Nees • Theileamea Baill. • Herpetacanthus Nees • Thunbergia Retz. • Heteradelphia Lindau • Thysanostigma J.B.Imlay • Holographis Nees • Tremacanthus S.Moore • Hoverdenia Nees • Triaenanthus Nees • Hulemacanthus S.Moore • Trichanthera Kunth • Hygrophila R.Br. (Swampweed) • Trichaulax Vollesen • Hypoestes (including Periestes) • Trichocalyx Balf.f. • Ionacanthus Benoist • Trichosanchezia Mildbr. • Isoglossa Oerst. • Ulleria Bremek. (often included in Ruellia) • Isotheca Turrill • Vavara Benoist • Jadunia Lindau • Vindasia Benoist • Juruasia Lindau • Warpuria Stapf • Justicia L. (Justica, Water-willow, Shrimp plant) • Whitfieldia Hook. • Kalbreyeriella Lindau • Xantheranthemum Lindau • Kosmosiphon Lindau • Xerothamnella C.T.White • Kudoacanthus Hosok. • Yeatesia Small (Bractspike) • Lankesteria Lindl. • Zygoruellia Baill. Acanthaceae Excluded genera • Thomandersia Baill. → Thomandersiaceae References • Schwarzbach, Andrea E. and McDade, Lucinda A. (2002). "Phylogenetic relationships of the mangrove family Avicenniaceae based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences". Systematic Botany 27: 84–98. External links • Acanthaceae ( in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. • Tree of Life Acanthaceae ( • Family Acanthaceae ( Flowers in Israel. 59 Fittonia albivenis 60 Fittonia albivenis Fittonia albivenis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Acanthaceae Genus: Fittonia Species: F. albivenis Binomial name Fittonia albivenis Coem. Fittonia albivenis is a species of flowering plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to the rainforests of Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and northern Brazil. It is notable for its dark green foliage with strongly contrasting white or red veins. It is commonly called nerve plant or mosaic plant. In temperate regions where the temperature falls below 10 °C (50 °F) it must be grown as a houseplant. Fittonia albivenis Growth Fittonia albivenis is a creeping evergreen perennial growing to 15 cm (6 in) high, with lush green leaves with accented veins of white to deep pink and a short fuzz covering its stems. Small buds may appear after time where the stem splits into leaves. Flowers are small with a white to off-white color. This plant is best kept in a moist area with mild sunlight and temperatures above 55 °F (13 °C). It must be watered regularly. Without water for a few days, it is known to "faint" but is easily revived with a quick watering and resumes its healthiness. Fittonia albivenis is known to be hard to grow, so it is best bought at a nursery then cared for. Its spreading habit makes it ideal as groundcover. Uses The species is used as an ornamental plant. Numerous cultivars have Inflorescence been selected, of which the Argyroneura Group has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. It ". . .is employed by the Kofan and Siona-Secoya tribes of the Ecuadorian Amazon as a headache treatment." The leaves are ". . . used by the Machiguenga as a hallucinogenic admixture in kamarampi prior to their introduction to Psychotria viridis." They are said to "produce visions of eyeballs." References External links • Fittonia albivenis (Verschaffeltii Group) ( asp?code=B601) 61 Justicia pectoralis 62 Justicia pectoralis Justicia pectoralis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Acanthaceae Genus: Justicia Species: J. pectoralis Binomial name Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Justicia pectoralis is a herb of the Acanthus family (Acanthaceae). This water-willow is widely known as tilo in Latin America. In Haiti it is called chapantye and zeb chapantyè on Dominica and Martinique. Other folk names are carpintero ("carpenter"), té criollo ("Criollo tea"), curia, death-angel, masha-hari, or "piri piri". This species was described by Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin in 1760, who provided additional data in 1763. A well-marked variety, var. stenophylla, was described by Emery Clarence Leonard in 1958. Justicia pectoralis Uses Traditional uses Across its range it is used in folk medicine as a relaxant and general tonic.[citation needed] Additionally it is often used in Ayahuasca, a tea containing the Banisteriopsis caapi vine. Extracts Scientific study indicates that extracts of J. pectoralis as well as the isolated chemical constituents coumarin and umbelliferone possess anti-inflammatory and relaxant effects in animal models. Other uses As regards other applications, it is noted for its pleasant smell and as a source of coumarin, which it produces in plenty, and which in combination with umbelliferone is responsible for many of its notable properties. It is also admixed to epená (Virola) snuff to make it smell more pleasant. In particular var. stenophylla might also be hallucinogenic in certain preparations; it is known to wajacas (shamans) of the Craós (Krahós, Krahô) tribe in Brazil, who know that variety as mashi-hiri and consider it a potent entheogen, not to be taken by the uninitiated. The wajacas (shamans) refer to the leaves of the Justicia pectoralis var. stenophylla as bolek-bena meaning "Leaves of the Angel of Death." Its name likely comes from the fact it has killed three curanderos. Etymology The name "tilo" could be by association with Tilia, the linden trees. These are entirely unrelated eudicots whose flowers have similar relaxant properties. The water-"willows" are not relatives of the true willows either; like the lindens, the latter belong to the rosid branch of the eudicots. References • Comisión Técnica de Fitomed (CTF) [2003]: Tilo ( [in Spanish]. Retrieved 2008-11-01. • Tilo ( (in Spanish), Consultas Medicas. Retrieved June 2010. • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2006a): Germplasm Resources Information Network – Justicia pectoralis ( Version of 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 63 Aceraceae 64 Aceraceae Aceraceae were recognized as a family of flowering plants also called the Maple Family. They contain two to four genera, depending upon the circumscription, of some 120 species of trees and shrubs. A common characteristic is that the leaves are opposite, and the fruit a schizocarp.[1] The maples have long been known to be closely related to the family Sapindaceae. Several taxonomists (including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) now include both the Aceraceae and the Hippocastanaceae in the Sapindaceae. Recent research (Harrington et al. 2005[2]) has shown that while both Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae are monophyletic in themselves, their removal from Sapindaceae sensu lato would leave Sapindaceae sensu stricto as a paraphyletic group, particularly with reference to the genus Xanthoceras. Field Maple Acer campestre, in Ebsdorfergrund-Frauenberg, Hesse, Germany References [1] Aceraceae (http:/ / delta-intkey. com/ angio/ www/ aceracea. htm) in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards), The families of flowering plants. [2] Harrington, M. G., Edwards, K. J., Johnson, S. A., Chase, M. W., & Gadek, P. A. (2005). Phylogenetic inference in Sapindaceae sensu lato using plastid matK and rbcL DNA sequences. Systematic Botany 30: 366-382. Abstract (http:/ / www. ingentaconnect. com/ content/ aspt/ sb/ 2005/ 00000030/ 00000002/ art00012). Acer saccharinum Acer palmatum Acer saccharinum 65 Acer saccharinum Acer saccharinum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Sapindaceae[1] Genus: Acer Species: A. saccharinum Binomial name Acer saccharinum L. Natural range of Acer saccharinum Acer saccharinum 66 Acer saccharinum, commonly known as silver maple, creek maple, silverleaf maple, soft maple, water maple, swamp maple, or white maple—is a species of maple native to eastern North America in the eastern United States and Canada. It is one of the most common trees in the United States. Description The silver maple is a relatively fast-growing deciduous tree, commonly reaching a height of 15–25 m (50–80 ft), exceptionally 35 m (115 ft). Its spread will generally be 11–15 m (35–50 ft) wide. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 8 m (25 ft) tall. It is often found along waterways and in wetlands, leading to the colloquial name "water maple". It is a highly adaptable tree, although it has higher sunlight requirements than other maples. A silver maple leaf The leaves are palmate, 8–16 cm long and 6–12 cm broad, with deep angular notches between the five lobes. The 5–12 cm long, slender stalks of the leaves mean that even a light breeze can produce a striking effect as the downy silver undersides of the leaves are exposed. The autumn color is less pronounced than in many maples, generally ending up a pale yellow, although some specimens can produce a more brilliant yellow and even orange and red colorations. The tree has a tendency to color and drop its leaves slightly earlier in autumn than other maples. Silver maple leaves Acer saccharinum 67 The flowers are in dense clusters, produced before the leaves in early spring, with the seeds maturing in early summer. The fruit are samaras, each containing a single seed, and winged, in pairs, small (5–10 mm diameter), the wing about 3–5 cm long. The fruit are the largest of any native maple. Although the wings provide for some transport by air, the fruit are heavy and are also transported by water. Silver Maple and its close cousin Red Maple are the only Acer species which produce their fruit crop in spring instead of fall. The seeds of both trees have no epigeal dormancy and will germinate immediately. Samaras and leaves forming in April. On mature trunks, the bark is gray and shaggy. On branches and young trunks, the bark is smooth and silvery gray. Cultivation and uses Wildlife uses the silver maple in various ways. In many parts of the eastern U.S., the large rounded buds are one of the primary food sources for squirrels during the spring, after many acorns and nuts have sprouted and the squirrels' food is scarce. The seeds are also a food source for squirrels, chipmunks and birds. The bark can be eaten by beaver and deer. The trunks tend to produce cavities, which can shelter squirrels, raccoons, opossums, owls and woodpeckers. Native Americans used the sap of wild trees to make sugar, as medicine, and in bread. They used the wood to make baskets and furniture. An infusion of bark removed from the south side of the tree is used by the Mohegan for cough medicine.[2] It is also used by other tribes for various purposes.[3] Today the wood can be used as pulp for making paper. Lumber from the tree is used in furniture, cabinets, flooring, musical instruments, Freeman maple leaf (Acer x freemanii) crates and tool handles, because it is light and easily worked. Because of the silver maple's fast growth, it is being researched as a potential source of biofuels. Silver maple produces a sweet sap, but it is generally not used by commercial sugarmakers because its sugar content is lower than in other maple species. Silver maple bark The silver maple is often planted as an ornamental tree because of its rapid growth and ease of propagation and transplanting. It is highly tolerant of urban situations, and is frequently planted next to streets. However, its quick growth produces brittle wood, and is commonly damaged in storms. The silver maple's root system is shallow and fibrous, and easily invades septic fields and old drain pipes; it can also crack sidewalks and foundations. It is a vigorous resprouter, and if not pruned, will often grow with multiple trunks. Although it naturally is found near water, it can grow on drier ground if planted there. In ideal natural conditions, A. saccharinum may live up 130 years, but in urban environments often 80 or less. Following WWII, silver maples were commonly used as a landscaping and street tree in suburban housing developments and cities due to their rapid growth, especially as a replacement for the blighted American Elm. Acer saccharinum However, they fell out of favor for this purpose because of brittle wood, unattractive form when not pruned or trained, and tendency to produce large numbers of volunteer seedlings, and nowadays it is much less popular for this purpose to the point where some towns and cities banned its use as a street tree. It is also commonly cultivated outside its native range, showing tolerance of a wide range of climates, growing successfully as far north as central Norway and south to Orlando, Florida. It can thrive in a Mediterranean climate, as at Jerusalem and Los Angeles, if summer water is provided. It is also grown in temperate parts of the Southern Hemisphere: Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela, the southern states of Brazil (as well as in a few low-temperature locations within the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais).[citation needed] The silver maple is closely related to the red maple (Acer rubrum), and can hybridise with it. The hybrid variation is known as the Freeman maple (Acer x freemanii). The Freeman maple is a popular ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, combining the fast growth of silver maple with the less brittle wood and less invasive roots of the red maple. The silver maple is the favoured host of the parasitic cottony maple scale.[citation needed] and the maple bladder gall mite Vasates quadripedes. Cultural References In the English Christmas carol, "Wassail, Wassail All Over the Town", the "white maple" in "Our bowl, it is made of the white maple tree" refers not to the silver (white) maple, but the wood of the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus. References [1] Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since]. http:/ / www. mobot. org/ MOBOT/ research/ APweb/ . [2] Tantaquidgeon, Gladys 1928 Mohegan Medicinal Practices, Weather-Lore and Superstitions. SI-BAE Annual Report #43: 264-270 (p. 269) [3] http:/ / herb. umd. umich. edu/ herb/ search. pl?searchstring=Acer saccharinum • • • • USDA Plants Profile: Acer saccharinum ( UConn Plant Database: Silver Maple ( Trees of Western North Carolina: Silver Maple ( Acer saccharinum images at ( frame/acsa2.htm) • Trees of Western North Carolina: Silver ( External links • Winter ID pictures ( • Interactive Distribution Map for Acer saccharinum ( acer-saccharinum-silver-maple-native-range-map.php) 68 Aizoaceae 69 Aizoaceae Aizoaceae Sesuvium portulacastrum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Order: Caryophyllales Family: Aizoaceae Martynov Genera See text Aizoaceae or Ficoidaceae (the fig-marigold family or ice plant family) is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing 135 genera and about 1900 species. They are commonly known as stone plants or carpet weeds. Species that resemble stones or pebbles are sometimes called mesembs. Several species are known as "ice plants". Description The family is widely recognised by taxonomists, although once it went by the botanical name "Ficoideae", now disallowed. The APG II system of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system of 1998) also recognises the family, and assigns it to the order Caryophyllales in the clade core eudicots. The APG II system also classes the former families Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl (1836) , Sesuviaceae Horan. (1834) and Tetragoniaceae Link (1831) under the family Aizoaceae. Most species (96%, 1782 species in 132 genera) in this family are endemic to arid or semiarid parts of southern Africa, but a few are from Australia and the Central Pacific. Most of these species are succulents and belong to the subfamilies Mesembryanthemoideae and Ruschioideae and are loosely termed mesems or mesembs. Most fig-marigolds are herbaceous, rarely somewhat woody, with stems growing either erect or prostrate. Leaves are simple, opposite or alternate, and more or less succulent with entire (or rarely toothed) margins. Flowers are perfect in most species (but unisexual in some), actinomorphic, and appear singularly or in few-flowered cymes developing from the leaf axils. Sepals are typically five (3-8) and more or less connate (fused) below. True petals are absent. However, some species have numerous linear petals derived from staminodes. The fruit is a capsule with one to numerous seeds per cell. Aizoaceae 70 A few species (especially Carpobrotus edulis, commonly called ice plant) have been widely introduced and become invasive. Uses Several Aizoaceae are edible, including: • Carpobrotus edulis and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum have edible leaves, and are both commonly called ice plant. • A species known as New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides) is grown as a garden plant in somewhat dry climates and used as an alternative to spinach in upscale salads. Carpobrotus edulis was introduced to California to stabilize soil along railroad tracks. Ice plant thrives in southern California. People surround their property with it as a firewall to protect against wildfires; ice plant contains so much water, it does not burn. Genera Subfamily Aizooideae • Acrosanthes Eckl. & Zeyh. • Aizoanthemum Dinter ex Friedrich • Aizoon L. • Galenia L. • Gunniopsis Pax • Plinthus Fenzl • Tetragonia L. Aptenia cordifolia or rock rose Ice plant (Carpobrotus edulis) Aizoaceae 71 Jensenobotrya lossowiana Drosanthemum speciosum Cephalophyllum spec. Odontophorus angustifolius Richtersveld N.P. Aizoaceae 72 Fenestraria rhopalophylla Subfamily Mesembryanthemoideae • Aptenia N.E.Br • Phyllobolus N.E.Br • Aridaria N.E.Br • Prenia N.E.Br • Aspazoma N.E.Br • Pseudobrownanthus Ihlenf. & Bittrich • Brownanthus Schwantes • Psilocaulon N.E.Br • Dactylopsis N.E.Br • Sceletium N.E.Br • Mesembryanthemum L. • Synaptophyllum N.E.Br Subfamily Ruschioideae Tribe Apatesieae • • • • • Apatesia N.E.Br Carpanthea N.E.Br Caryotophora Leistner Conicosia N.E.Br Hymenogyne Haw. • Saphesia N.E.Br • Skiatophytum L.Bolus Tribe Dorotheantheae • Aethephyllum N.E.Br • Cleretum N.E.Br • Dorotheanthus Schwantes Tribe Ruschiae • • • • • • • • Acrodon N.E.Br Aloinopsis Schwantes Amphibolia L.Bolus ex A.G.J.Herre Antegibbaeum Schwantes ex C.Weber Antimima N.E.Br Arenifera A.G.J.Herre Argyroderma N.E.Br Astridia Dinter • Bergeranthus Schwantes • Bijlia N.E.Br Aizoaceae • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Braunsia Schwantes Brianhuntleya Chess. et al. Carpobrotus N.E.Br Carruanthus (Schwantes) Schwantes Cephalophyllum N.E.Br Cerochlamys N.E.Br Chasmatophyllum Dinter & Schwantes Cheiridopsis N.E.Br Circandra N.E.Br Conophytum N.E.Br Corpuscularia Schwantes Cylindrophyllum Schwantes Delosperma N.E.Br Dicrocaulon N.E.Br • Didymaotus N.E.Br • Dinteranthus Schwantes • Diplosoma Schwantes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Disphyma N.E.Br Dracophilus (Schwantes) Dinter & Schwantes Drosanthemum Schwantes Eberlanzia Schwantes Ebracteola Dinter & Schwantes Enarganthe N.E.Br Erepsia N.E.Br Esterhuysenia L.Bolus Faucaria Schwantes Fenestraria N.E.Br Frithia N.E.Br Gibbaeum Haw. ex N.E.Br Glottiphyllum Haw. ex N.E.Br Hallianthus H.E.K.Hartmann Hereroa (Schwantes) Dinter & Schwantes Ihlenfeldtia H.E.K.Hartmann Imitaria N.E.Br Jacobsenia L.Bolus & Schwantes Jensenobotrya A.G.J.Herre Jordaaniella H.E.K.Hartmann Juttadinteria Schwantes Khadia N.E.Br Lampranthus N.E.Br Lapidaria (Dinter & Schwantes) N.E.Br. Leipoldtia L.Bolus Lithops N.E.Br Machairophyllum Schwantes Malephora N.E.Br • Mestoklema N.E.Br. ex Glen • Meyerophytum Schwantes 73 Aizoaceae • • • • • Mitrophyllum Schwantes Monilaria (Schwantes) Schwantes Mossia N.E.Br Muiria N.E.Br Namaquanthus L.Bolus • • • • • • • • • • • • Namibia (Schwantes) Schwantes Nananthus N.E.Br Nelia Schwantes Neohenricia L.Bolus Octopoma N.E.Br Odontophorus N.E.Br Oophytum N.E.Br Ophthalmophyllum Dinter & Schwantes Orthopterum L.Bolus Oscularia Schwantes Ottosonderia L.Bolus Pleiospilos N.E.Br • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Polymita N.E.Br Psammophora Dinter & Schwantes Rabiea N.E.Br Rhinephyllum N.E.Br Rhombophyllum (Schwantes) Schwantes Ruschia Schwantes Ruschianthemum Friedrich Ruschianthus L.Bolus Schlechteranthus Schwantes Schwantesia Dinter Scopelogena L.Bolus Smicrostigma N.E.Br Stayneria L.Bolus Stoeberia Dinter & Schwantes Stomatium Schwantes Tanquana H.E.K.Hartmann & Liede Titanopsis Schwantes Trichodiadema Schwantes Vanheerdea L.Bolus ex H.E.K.Hartmann Vanzijlia L.Bolus Vlokia S.A.Hammer Wooleya L.Bolus Zeuktophyllum N.E.Br 74 Aizoaceae Subfamily Sesuvioideae • • • • • Cypselea Turpin Sesuvium L. Trianthema L. Tribulocarpus S.Moore Zaleya Burm.f. Incertae sedis • • • • • • Corbichonia Gisekia Herreanthus Limeum Ophthalmophyllum Saphesia Footnotes References • Bittrich V. H. E. K. Hartmann (1988). "The Aizoaceae — a new approach". Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 97 (3): 239–254. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1988.tb01581.x ( • Cornelia Klak, Angeline Khunou, Gail Reeves and Terry Hedderson (2003). "A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Aizoaceae (Caryophyllales) based on four plastid DNA regions". Amer. J. Bot. 90 (10): 1433–1445. doi: 10.3732/ajb.90.10.1433 ( - on line here (http://www.amjbot. org/cgi/content/full/90/10/1433) External links • Aizoaceae ( in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants ( • NCBI Taxonomy Browser ( id=3542&lvl=3&p=mapview&p=has_linkout&p=blast_url&p=genome_blast&lin=f&keep=1& srchmode=1&unlock) • P. Chesselet (2004 onwards). Interactive Mesembs2 ( • Plants of southern Africa (2005 onwards). SANBI ( php?taxon=famno=162&showdetail=F) • Aizoaceae of South Africa ( • Family Aizoaceae ( Flowers in Israel 75 Delosperma cooperi 76 Delosperma cooperi Delosperma cooperi Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Core eudicots Order: Caryophyllales Family: Aizoaceae Genus: Delosperma Species: D. cooperi Binomial name Delosperma cooperi (Hook.f.) L.Bolus Delosperma cooperi (syn. Mesembryanthemum cooperi; common names Trailing Iceplant or "Pink Carpet") is a dwarf perennial plant, native to South Africa. It forms a dense lawn with abundant, long-lasting flowering. It will reach sizes of approximately 10-15 cm tall, with fleshy leaves and a trailing stem that hangs down. The flowers are the most brilliant aspect of this plant, with the production of a great quantity of vermillion, magenta or pink flowers that will often cover the entire site, hence the popular name "pink carpet". The plant contains ramified stems that are spread out, carrying sheets opposed, and are long and narrow, with the end of the stems increasing into a quantity of isolated small flowers, with diameters ranging from 3 to 5 cm. These abundant and long-lasting flowers will remain in bloom from July through September.Wikipedia:WikiProject Countering systemic bias The plant is sun-loving, and thrives well in very dry and hot environments. While it adapts well to various soil types, it will suffer under water stagnation, and thus prefers well drained soils, or even rocky terrain. According to the New Mexico State University extension, the common name, "ice plant" is because "they have bladder-like hairs on the leaf surface that reflect and refract light in a manner to make it appear that they sparkle like ice crystals" (or tiny glass beads). However, many other species of succulent so-called "ice plant" ground covers have smooth and hairless leaves. Delosperma cooperi Cultivation and uses It can be cultivated in a wide range of areas with a Mediterranean climate. Unlike many ice plants, this species is hardy to -20°F. The leaves turn red in cold winter temperatures. Due to the low need for maintenance, it is suitable for urban environments and high temperature regions. It can often be found in large, extensive patches. The trailing stems also make it suitable for flowerpots and terraces. Propagation is easy. Just take a cutting without a flower on. Strip a couple of bottom leaves off then replant in same soil. Will become established very quickly. Sources • Leistner, O. A. (ed.). 2000. Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera. Strelitzia 10. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. • Smith, G. F.; Chesselet, P.; Van Jaarsveld, E. J.; Hartmann, H.; Hammer, S.; Van Wyk, B.-E.; Burgoyne, P.; Klak, C.; & Kurzweil, H. 1998. Mesembs of the world. Briza Publications, Pretoria. 77 Apocynaceae 78 Apocynaceae Apocynaceae Apocynum cannabinum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Apocynaceae Juss. Type genus Apocynum L. Synonyms • • • • • • Asclepiadaceae Borkh. (nom. cons.) Periplocaceae Schltr. (nom. cons.) Plumeriaceae Horan. Stapeliaceae Horan. Vincaceae Vest Willughbeiaceae J. Agardh Apocynaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, herbs, stem succulents, and vines, commonly called the dogbane family. Members of the family are native to European, Asian, African, Australian and American tropics or subtropics, with some temperate members. Many species are tall trees found in tropical rainforests, but some grow in tropical dry (xeric) environments. There are also perennial herbs from temperate zones. Many of these plants have milky latex, and many species are poisonous if ingested. Some genera of Apocynaceae, such as Adenium, have milky latex apart from their sap, and others, such as Pachypodium, have clear sap and no latex. Apocynaceae 79 Etymology A common term for the family is dogbane family, after the American plant known as dogbane, Apocynum cannabinum. Distribution Species in this family are distributed mainly in tropical regions: • In the rainforests and swamps of Indomalaya: small to very tall evergreen trees up to 80 m tall, often with buttress roots, such as Alstonia and Dyera • In northern Australia: small evergreen trees such as Alstonia, Alyxia, Cerbera and Ochrosia • In deciduous forests of Africa and India: smaller trees such as Carissa, Wrightia and Holarrhena • In tropical America, India, Myanmar and Malaya: evergreen trees and shrubs, such as Rauvolfia, Tabernaemontana and Acokanthera Wrightia antidysenterica • In Central America: Plumeria, or the frangipani, with its waxy white or pink flowers and a sweet scent • In South America, Africa and Madagascar: many lianas, such as Landolphia • In the Mediterranean region: Nerium, with the well-known oleander or be-still tree (Nerium oleander) • The only genera found in temperate Europe away from the Mediterranean are Vinca (Apocynoideae) and Vincetoxicum (Asclepiadoideae). • In North America: Apocynum, dogbane or Indian hemp, including Apocynum cannabinum, a traditional source of fiber • In continental southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe) and Madagascar, except for the humid evergreen forest of the eastern side of Madagascar, and never above 2000 m for the entire island: Pachypodium and Fockea Characteristics The dogbane family consists of trees, shrubs, herbs, stem succulents, and vines. Most exude milky latex if injured. The leaves are simple, usually opposite and decussate, or whorled; lacking stipules. Flowers are usually showy, actinomorphic, aggregated in cymose or racemose inflorescences (rarely fasciculate or solitary). They are perfect (bisexual), with a synsepalous, five-lobed calyx united into a tube at the base. Inflorescences are terminal or axillary. Five petals are united into a tube with four or five epipetalous stamens. The style is expanded at the apex into a massive clavuncle just below the stigma. The ovary is usually superior, bicarpellary, and apocarpous, with a common fused style and stigma. The fruit is a drupe, a berry, a capsule or a follicle. Alstonia scholaris, arrangement of leaves Apocynaceae 80 Uses Several plants of this family had economic uses in the past. The genera Carpodinus, Landolphia, Hancornia, Funtumia and Mascarenhasia were used as a commercial source of inferior rubber. The juice of Acokanthera species such as A. venenata and the milky juice of the Namibian Pachypodium has been used as venom for arrow tips by the Bushmen. Some sources state that Pachypodium do not produce a milky latex. Several genera are grown as ornamental plants, including Amsonia (bluestar), Nerium (oleander), Vinca (periwinkle), Carissa (Natal plum, an edible fruit), Allamanda (golden trumpet), Plumeria (frangipani), Thevetia (lucky nut), Mandevilla (Savannah flower), Adenium (desert-rose). Vinca major, a popular garden plant Some are sources of important drugs, such as cardiac glycosides, which affect heart function. These include the Acokanthera, Apocynum, Cerbera, Nerium, Thevetia and Strophantus. Rauvolfia serpentina, or Indian Snakeroot, yields the alkaloids reserpine and rescinnamine, which are useful tools in the treatment of high blood pressure and even some forms of psychosis. Catharanthus roseus yields alkaloids used in treating cancer. The genus Apocynum was used as a source of fiber by Native Americans. The edible flower of Fernaldia pandurata (common name: loroco) is a popular part of El Salvadorian and Guatemalan cooking. The aromatic juice of Saba comorensis (syn. Landolphia comorensis, the Bungo or Mbungo fruit is popular and highly appreciated on Pemba Island and other parts of coastal Tanzania. Several genera are preferred larval host plants for the Queen. Taxonomy The family comprises some 1,500 species divided over about 424 genera. The former family Asclepiadaceae is included in Apocynaceae according to the APG III system. Subfamilies Apocynoideae and Rauvolfioideae are part of Apocynaceae sensu stricto, whilst the other three subfamilies belong to the former Asclepiadaceae. The Apocynaceae family is the result of a conflation of these two families. • • • • • Apocynoideae Asclepiadoideae Periplocoideae Rauvolfioideae Secamonoideae Apocynaceae Genera Note: this list may be incomplete • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acokanthera Adenium Aganonerion Aganosma Alafia Allamanda Allomarkgrafia Allowoodsonia Alstonia Alyxia Amalocalyx Ambelania Amsonia Ancylobothrys Anechites • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Angadenia Anodendron Apocynum Araujia Arduina Artia Asclepias Asketanthera Aspidosperma Baissea Beaumontia Bousigonia Cabucala Callichilia Calocrater Cameraria Caralluma Carissa Carpodinus Carruthersia Carvalhoa Catharanthus Cerbera Cerberiopsis Ceropegia Chamaeclitandra Chilocarpus • Chonemorpha • Cionura • Cleghornia 81 Apocynaceae • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Clitandra Condylocarpon Couma Craspidospermum Crioceras Cycladenia Cyclocotyla Cylindropsis Cynanchum Delphyodon Dewevrella Dictyophleba Dipladenia Diplorhynchus Dyera Ecdysanthera Echites • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Elytropus Epigynium Eucorymbia Farquharia Fernaldia Forsteronia Funtumia Galactophora Geissospermum Gonioma Grisseea Gymnema Hancornia Haplophyton Himatanthus Holarrhena Hoodia Hoya Huernia Hunteria Hymenolophus Ichnocarpus Isonema Ixodonerium Kamettia Kibatalia Kopsia Lacmellea • Landolphia • Laubertia 82 Apocynaceae • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Laxoplumeria Lepinia Lepiniopsis Leuconotis Lochnera Lyonsia Macoubea Macropharynx Macrosiphonia Malouetia Mandevilla Mascarenhasia Matelea Melodinus Mesechites Micrechtites Microplumeria • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Molongum Mortoniella Motandra Mucoa Neobracea Neocouma Nerium Nouettea Ochrosia Odontadenia Oncinotis Orthopichonia Pachypodium Pachouria Papuechites Parahancornia Parameria Parepigynum Parsonsia Peltastes Pentalinon Periploca Petchia Picralima Plectaneia Pleiocarpa Pleioceras Plumeria • Pottsia • Prestonia 83 Apocynaceae • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pycnobotrya Quiotania Rauvolfia Rhabdadenia Rhazya Rhigospira Rhodocalyx Rhyncodia Saba Schizozygia Secondatia Sindechites Skytanthus Spirolobium Spongiosperma Stemmadenia Stephanostegia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Stephanostema Stephanotis Stipecoma Strempeliopsis Strophanthus Tabernaemontana Tabernanthe Temnadenia Thenardia Thevetia Tintinnabularia Trachelospermum Urceola Urnularia Vahadenia Vallariopsis Vallaris Vallesia Vinca Vincetoxicum Voacanga Willughbeia Woytkowskia Wrightia Xylinabaria Xylinabariopsis 84 Apocynaceae 85 Pictures Alyxia oliviformis References Catharanthus pusillus Cryptolepis buchananii Holarrhena pubescens Saba senegalensis Wrightia tinctoria Prestonia amazonica 86 Prestonia amazonica Prestonia amazonica Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Apocynaceae Genus: Prestonia Species: P. amazonica Binomial name Prestonia amazonica J.F.Macbr. Prestonia amazonica (syn. Haemadictyon amazonicum Benth.) is a hallucinogenic plant native to Amazon Rainforest vegetation. This plant is cited in Louisiana State Act 159. References Voacanga africana 87 Voacanga africana Voacanga africana Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Apocynaceae Genus: Voacanga Species: V. africana Binomial name Voacanga africana Stapf Voacanga africana is a small tropical African tree that grows to 6m in height. It has leaves that are up to 30 cm in length, and the tree produces yellow or white flowers, which become berries with yellow seeds. Uses The bark and seeds of the tree are used in Ghana as a poison, stimulant, aphrodisiac, and ceremonial psychedelic.[citation needed] These effects are due to the presence of a complex mixture of iboga alkaloids such as voacangine, voacamine, vobtusine, amataine, akuammidine, tabersonine, coronaridine and vobtusine. Medicinal uses A number of these compounds have pharmaceutical uses. Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources Of particular pharmaceutical interest is voacangine, which is a common precursor in the semi-synthesis of the anti-addiction medication ibogaine. Small amounts of ibogaine are found in Voacanga Africana root bark but not in sufficient quantity to have much medicinal effect. Chemical structure of voacangine [1] References Chemical structure of voacamine Voacanga africana Notes [1] Review of Voacanga africana taxonomy, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacology. (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ voacanga_africana/ voacanga_africana_info1. shtml) External links • Voacanga africana ( preview=true&searchTextMenue=Voacanga+africana&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. ( 88 Fabaceae Fabaceae WARNING: Article could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) a bug in the pdf-writer software (b) problematic Mediawiki markup (c) table is too wide FabaceaeTemporal range: Palaeocene–RecentKudzu (Pueraria lobata)Biological classificationScientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: FabaceaeJohn LindleyLindl. (Leguminosae Antoine-Laurent de JussieuJussieu, nomen conservandumnom. cons.).Type genusFaba (now included in Vicia)Mill. SubfamiliesFaboideae Rudd (Papilionoideae Juss., is the alternative name) Caesalpinioideae Alphonse Pyrame de CandolleDC.Mimosoideae DC. BiodiversityDiversityFabaceae#Genera730 genera and 19,400 species Fabaceae distribution map. Legumes are found in four major biomes: rain forest, temperate, grass, and succulent.Synonym (taxonomy)Synonyms Caesalpiniaceae R.Br. Cassiaceae Heinrich Friedrich LinkLink Ceratoniaceae Heinrich Friedrich LinkLink Detariaceae (DC.) Johann Jakob Hess (botanist)Hess Hedysareae (Hedysaraceae) Agardh Lathyraceae Burnett Lotaceae Burnett Mimosaceae R.Br. Papilionaceae Giseke Phaseolaceae Patricio Ponce de LeónPonce de León & Alvares Robiniaceae Welw. Swartziaceae (DC.) Bartl.The Fabaceae or Leguminosae International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Article 18, paragraph 5, states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published: ....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill. [= Vicia L.]); … When the Papilionaceae are regarded as a family distinct from the remainder of the Leguminosae, the name Papilionaceae is conserved against Leguminosae." commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family, are a large and economically important family (biology)family of flowering plants. It includes trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants Perennial plantperennials or annuals, which are easily recognized by their fruit (legume) and their compound, stipulestipulated leaves. The group is widely distributed and is the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with 730 genera and over 19,400 species.Judd, W. S., Campbell, C. S. Kellogg, E. A. Stevens, P.F. Donoghue, M. J. (2002), Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach, Sinauer Axxoc, 287-292. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. The largest genera are Astragalus (over 2,400 species), Acacia (over 950 species), Indigofera (around 700 species), Crotalaria (around 700 species), and Mimosa (around 500 species), which contain around 9.4% of all flowering plant species. The fabacea is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas and Africa.Burnham, R. J., & Johnson, K. R. 2004. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rain forests. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 359: 1595-1610.Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that the fabacea are a single monophylymonophyletic family.Lewis, G., B. Schrire, B. MacKinder, and M. Lock (eds). 2005. Legumes of the world. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, UK. This point of view has been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by different groups within the family compared with that found among the leguminosae and their closest relations, but also by all the recent phylogeneticsphylogenetic studies based on DNA sequences.Doyle, J. J., J. A. Chappill, C.D. Bailey, & T. Kajita. 2000. Towards a comprehensive phylogeny of legumes: evidence from rbcL sequences and non-molecular data. pp. 1 -20 in Advances in legume systematics, part 9, (P. S. Herendeen and A. Bruneau, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.Kajita, T., H. Ohashi, Y. Tateishi, C. D. Bailey, and J. J. Doyle. 2001. rbcL and legume phylogeny, with particular reference to Phaseoleae, Millettieae, and allies. Systematic Botany 26: 515-536. These studies confirm that the leguminosae are a monophyletic group that is closely related with the Polygalaceae, Surianaceae and Quillajaceae families and that they belong to the order Fabales.Along with the cereals, some fruits and tropical roots a number of leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use is closely related to human evolution.Burkart, A. Leguminosas. In: Dimitri, M. 1987. 89 Fabaceae Enciclopedia Argentina de Agricultura y Jardinería. Tomo I. Descripción de plantas cultivadas. Editorial ACME S.A.C.I., Buenos Aires. pages: 467-538.A number are important agricultural and food plants, including Glycine max (soybean), Phaseolus (beans), Pisum sativum (pea), Cicer arietinum (chickpeas), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), carobCeratonia siliqua (carob), and licoriceGlycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice). A number of species are also weedy Pest (organism)pests in different parts of the world, including: Cytisus scoparius (broom), Ulex europaeus (gorse), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), and a number of Lupinus species.Etymology The name 'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus Faba, now included in Vicia. The term "faba" comes from Latin, and appears to simply mean "bean".Wiktionary. "Faba". Searched November, 2011. Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid,International Code of Botanical Nomenclature Art. 18.5 (Vienna Code) and refers to the fruit of these plants, which are called legumes.Description The fruit of Gymnocladus dioicus Fabaceae range in habit from giant trees (like Koompassia excelsa) to small annual plantannual Herbaceous plantherbs, with the majority being herbaceous perennials. Plants have indeterminate inflorescences, which are sometimes reduced to a single flower. The flowers have a short hypanthium and a single carpel with a short gynophore, and after fertilization produce fruits that are legumes.Growth habit The legumineae have a wide variety of Habit (biology)growth forms including trees, shrubs or herbaceous plants or even vines or lianas. The herbaceous plants can be annuals, biannuals or perennials, without basal or terminal leaf aggregations. They are upright plants, epiphytes or vines. The latter support themselves by means of shoots that twist around a support or through cauline or foliar tendrils. Plants can be heliophytes, mesophytes or xerophytes.Leaves The leaves are usually phyllotaxisalternate and compound. Most often they are even- or odd-pinnately compound (e.g. Caragana and Robinia respectively), often trifoliate (e.g. Trifolium, Medicago) and rarely palmately compound (e.g. Lupinus), in the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae commonly bipinnate (e.g. Acacia, Mimosa). They always have stipules, which can be leaf-like (e.g. Pisum), thorn-like (e.g. Robinia) or be rather inconspicuous. Leaf margins are entire or, occasionally, Leaf#Terminologyserrate. Both the leaves and the leaflets often have wrinkled pulvinuspulvini to permit nastic movements. In some species, leaflets have evolved into tendrils (e.g. Vicia).Many species have leaves with structures that attract ants that protect the plant from herbivore insects (a form of Mutualism (biology)mutualism). Nectar#Extrafloral nectariesExtrafloral nectaries are common among the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae, and are also found in some Faboideae (e.g. Vicia sativa). In some Acacia, the modified hollow stipules are inhabited by ants and are known as domatia.Roots Many Fabaceae host bacteria in their roots within structures called root nodules. These bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to take nitrogen gas (N2) out of the air and convert it to a form of nitrogen that is usable to the host plant ( NitrateNO3- or AmmoniaNH3 ). This process is called nitrogen fixation. The legume, acting as a host, and rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiosissymbiotic relationship. FlowersA flower of Wisteria sinensis, Faboideae. Two petals have been removed to show stamens and pistil The flowers often have five generally fused sepals and five free petals. They are generally plant sexualityhermaphrodite, and have a short hypanthium, usually cup shaped. There are normally ten stamens and one elongated superior ovary (plants)ovary, with a curved style (botany)style. They are usually arranged in Inflorescence#Terminal flowerindeterminate inflorescences. Fabaceae are typically entomophilyentomophilous plants (i.e. they are pollinated by insects), and the flowers are usually showy to attract pollinators. In the Caesalpinioideae, the flowers are often zygomorphic, as in Cercis, or nearly symmetrical with five equal petals in Bauhinia. The upper petal is the innermost one, unlike in the Faboideae. Some species, like some in the genus Senna (genus)Senna, have asymmetric flowers, with one of the lower petals larger than the opposing one, and the style bent to one side. The calyx, corolla, or stamens can be showy in this group.In the Mimosoideae, the flowers are actinomorphic and arranged in globose inflorescences. The petals are small and the stamens, which can be more than just 10, have long, coloured filaments, which are the showiest part of the flower. All of the flowers in an inflorescence open at once. In the Faboideae, the flowers are zygomorphic, and have a specialized structure. The upper petal, called the banner, is large and envelops the rest of the petals in bud, often reflexing when the flower blooms. The two adjacent petals, the wings, surround the two bottom petals. The two bottom petals are fused together at the apex (remaining free at the base), forming a boat-like structure called the keel. The stamens are always ten in number, and their filaments can be fused in various configurations, often in a group of 90 Fabaceae nine stamens plus one separate stamen. Various genes in the CYCLOIDEA (CYC)/DICHOTOMA (DICH) family are expressed in the upper (also called dorsal or adaxial) petal; in some species, such as Cadia (plant)Cadia, these genes are expressed throughout the flower, producing a radially symmetrical flower.FruitLegume of Vicia angustifolia The ovary most typically develops into a legume. A legume is a Fruit#Simple fruitsimple dry fruit that usually Dehiscence (botany)dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a "pod", although that can also be applied to a few other fruit types. A few species have evolved Samara (fruit)samarae, loments, follicle (fruit)follicles, indehiscent legumes, achenes, drupes, and berries from the basic legume fruit. Physiology and biochemistry The leguminosae are rarely cyanogenic however, where they are, the cyanogenic compounds are derived from tyrosine, phenylalanine or leucine. They frequently contain alkaloids. Proanthocyanidins can be present either as cyanidin or delphinidine or both at the same time. Flavonoids such as kaempferol, quercitin and myricetin are often present. Ellagic acid has never been found in any of the genera or species analysed. Sugars are transported within the plants in the form of sucrose. C3 carbon fixationC3 photosynthesis has been found in a wide variety of genera. The family has also evolved a unique chemistry. Pterocarpans are a class of molecules (derivatives of isoflavonoids) found only in the Fabaceae. Ecology Distribution and habitat The Fabaceae have an essentially worldwide distribution, being found everywhere except Antarctica and the high arctic. The trees are often found in tropical regions, while the herbaceous plants and shrubs are predominant in extratropical regions.Biological nitrogen fixation Roots of Vicia with white root nodules visible. Cross-section through a root nodule of Vicia observed through a microscope.Nitrogen fixationBiological nitrogen fixation (BNF, diazotroph) is a very old process that probably originated in the Archean eon when the primitive atmosphere lacked oxygen. It is only carried out by Euryarchaeota and just 6 of the more than 50 Phylumphyla of bacteria. Some of these lineages co-evolved together with the flowering plants establishing the molecular basis of a mutually beneficial symbiosissymbiotic relationship. BNF is carried out in nodules that are mainly located in the root cortex, although they are occasionally located in the stem as in Sesbania rostrata. The spermatophytes that co-evolved with actinorhizal diazotrophs or with rhizobia to establish their symbiotic relationship belong to 11 families contained within the Rosidae clade included in the rbcL gene molecular phylogeny. This gene codes for part of the RuBisCO enzyme in the chloroplast. This grouping indicates that the predisposition for forming nodules probably only arose once in flowering plants and that it can be considered as an ancestral characteristic that has been conserved or lost in certain lineages. However, such a wide distribution of families and genera within this lineage indicates that nodulation had multiple origins. Of the 10 families within the Rosidae, 8 have nodules formed by actinomyces (Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Coriariaceae, Datiscaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Myricaceae, Rhamnaceae and Rosaceae), and the two remaining families, Ulmaceae and Fabaceae have nodules formed by rhizobia.Lloret, L. & Martínez-Romero, E. 2005. Evolución y filogenia de Rhizobium. Vol. 47, No. 1-2 pp. 43 - 60. Sprent, J. I. 2001. Nodulation in legumes. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. The rhizobia and their hosts must be able to recognize each other for nodule formation to commence. Rhizobia are specific to particular host species although a rhizobia species may often infect more than one host species. This means that one plant species may be infected by more than one species of bacteria. For example, nodules in Acacia senegal can contain seven species of rhizobia belonging to three different genera. The most distinctive characteristics that allow rhizobia to be distinguished apart are the rapidity of their growth and the type of root nodule that they form with their host. Root nodules can be classified as being either indeterminate, cylindrical and often branched, and determinate, spherical with prominent lenticels. Indeterminate nodules are characteristic of legumes from temperate climates, while determinate nodules are commonly found in species from tropical or subtropical climates. Nodule formation is common throughout the leguminosae, it is found in the majority of its members that only form an association with rhizobia, which in turn form an exclusive symbiosis with the leguminosae (with the exception of Parasponia, the only genus of the 18 Ulmaceae genera that is capable of forming nodules). Nodule formation is present in all the leguminosae sub-families, although it is less common in the Caesalpinioideae. All types of nodule formation are present in the sub-family Papilionoideae: indeterminate (with the meristem retained), determinate (without meristem) and the type included in Aeschynomene. The latter two are thought to be the most modern and specialised type of nodule as they 91 Fabaceae are only present in some lines of the Papilionoideae sub-family. Even though nodule formation is common in the two Monophylymonophyletic subfamilies Papilionoideae and Mimosoideae they also contain species that do not form nodules. The presence or absence of nodule-forming species within the three sub-families indicates that nodule formation has arisen several times during the evolution of the leguminosae and that this ability has been lost in some lineages. For example, within the genus Acacia, a member of the Mimosoideae, A. pentagona does not form nodules, while other species of the same genus readily form nodules, as is the case for Acacia senegal, which forms both rapidly and slow growing rhizobial nodules.Evolution, phylogeny and taxonomy Evolution The order Fabales contains around 9.6% of eudicot species and the greatest part of this diversity is contained in just one of the four families that order contains: Fabaceae. This clade also includes the Polygalaceae, Surianaceae and Quillajaceae families and its origins date back 94 to 89 million years, although it started its diversification some 79 to 74 million years ago. In fact, the leguminosae have diversified during the early tertiary to become a ubiquitous part of the modern earth’s Biota (ecology)biota, along with many other families belonging to the flowering plants.Herendeen, P. S., W. L. Crepet, and D. L. Dilcher. 1992. The fossil history of the Leguminosae: phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. Pages 303 – 316 in Advances in Legume Systematics, part 4, the fossil record (P. S. Herendeen and D .L. Dilcher, eds). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.Lewis, G., B. Schrire, B. MacKinder, and M. Lock (eds). 2005. Legumes of the world. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, UK.The leguminosae have an abundant and diverse fossil record, especially for the Tertiary period. Fossils of flowers, fruit, leaves, wood and pollen from this period have been found in numerous locations.Crepet, W. L., and D. W. Taylor. 1985. The diversification of the Leguminosae: first fossil evidence of the Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Science 288: 1087-1089.Crepet, W. L., and D. W. Taylor. 1986. Primitive mimosoid flowers from the Palaeocene-Eocene and their systematic and evolutionary implications. American J. Botany 73: 548-563.Crepet, W. L., and P. S. Herendeen. 1992. Papilionoid flowers from the early Eocene of south eastern North America. Pages 43–55 in Advances in Legume Systematics, part 4, the fossil record (P. S. Herendeen and D. L. Dilcher, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.Herendeen, P. S. 1992. The fossil history of Leguminosae from the Eocene of south eastern North America. Pages 85-160 in Advances in Legume Systematics, part 4, the fossil record (Herendeen, P. S., and D. L. Dilcher, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.Herendeen, P. S. 2001. The fossil record of the Leguminosae: recent advances. In Legumes Down Under: the Fourth International Legume conference, Abstracts, 34–35. Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. The earliest fossils that can be definitively assigned to the leguminosae appeared in the late Palaeocene (approximately 56 million years ago).Herendeen, P. S., and S. Wing. 2001. Papilionoid legume fruits and leaves from the Palaeocene of north western Wyoming. Botany 2001 Abstracts, published by Botanical Society of America (, S. L., F. Herrera, and C. Jaramillo. 2004. A Palaeocene flora from the Cerrajón Formation, Guajíra Peninsula, north eastern Colombia. Pages 146-147 in VII International Organization of Paleobotany Conference Abstracts (21–26 March). Museo Egidio Feruglio, Trelew, Argentina. Representatives of the 3 sub-families traditionally recognised as being members of the leguminosae - cesalpinioideae, papilionoideae and mimosoideae — as well as members of the large clades within these sub-families - such as the genistoides – have been found in periods a little later, starting between 55 to 50 million years ago. In fact, a wide variety of taxa representing the main leguminosae lineages have been found in the fossil record dating from the middle to the late Eocene, suggesting that the majority of the modern fabaceae groups were already present and that a broad diversification occurred during this period. Therefore, the fabaceae started their diversification approximately 60 million years ago and the most important clades separated some 50 million years ago.Bruneau, A., Lewis, G. P., Herendeen, P. S., Schrire, B., & Mercure, M. 2008b. Biogeographic patterns in early-diverging clades of the Leguminosae. Pp. 98-99, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, Abstracts.] The age of the main cesalpinioideae clades have been estimated as between 56 and 34 million years and the basal group of the mimosoideae as 44 ± 2.6 million years. The division between mimosoideae and faboideae is dated as occurring between 59 and 34 million years ago and the basal group of the faboideae as 58.6 ± 0.2 million years ago.Wikström, N. et ál. (2001), Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 2001. Evolution of the angiosperms: Calibrating the family tree. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B, 268: 2211-2220. It has been possible to date the divergence of some of the 92 Fabaceae groups within the faboideae, even though diversification within each genus was relatively recent. For instance, Astragalus separated from the Oxytropsis some 16 to 12 million years ago. In addition, the separation of the aneuploidyaneuploid species of Neoastragalus started 4 million years ago. Inga, another genus of the papilionoideae with approximately 350 species, seems to have diverged in the last 2 million years.Wojciechowski, M. F. 2003. Reconstructing the phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae): An early 21st century perspective. Pp. 5-35, in Klitgaard, B. B. & Bruneau, A. (eds), Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 10, Higher Level Systematics. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Wojciechowski, M. F. 2004. Astragalus (Fabaceae): A molecular phylogenetic perspective. Brittonia 57: 382-396. Wojciechowski, M. F. Sanderson, M. J., Baldwin, B. G., & Donoghue, M. J. 1993. Monophyly of aneuploid Astragalus: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. American J. Bot. 80: 711-722.Wojciechowski, Martin F., Johanna Mahn, and Bruce Jones. 2006. Fabaceae. legumes. Version 14 June 2006. The Tree of Life Web Project, has been suggested, based on fossil and phylogenetic evidence, that legumes originally evolved in arid and/or semi-arid regions along the Tethys OceanTethys seaway during the Palaeogene Period. However, others contend that Africa (or even the Americas) cannot yet be ruled out as the origin of the family.The current hypothesis about the evolution of the genes needed for nodulation is that they were recruited from other pathways after a polyploidy event. Several different pathways have been implicated as donating duplicated genes to the pathways need for nodulation. The main donors to the pathway were the genes associated with the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis genes, the pollen tube formation genes and the haemoglobin genes. One of the main genes shown to be shared between the arbuscular mycorrhiza pathway and the nodulation pathway is SYMRK and it is involved in the plant-bacterial recognition. The pollen tube growth is similar to the infection thread development in that infection threads grow in a polar manner that is similar to a pollen tubes polar growth towards the ovules. Both pathways include the same type of enzymes, pectin-degrading cell wall enzymes. The enzymes needed to reduce nitrogen, nitrogenases, require a substantial input of ATP but at the same time are sensitive to free oxygen. To meet the requirements of this paradoxical situation, the plants express a type of haemoglobin called leghaemoglobin that is believed to be recruited after a duplication event. These three genetic pathways are believed to be part of a gene duplication event then recruited to work in nodulation. Phylogeny and taxonomy Phylogeny The Phylogeneticsphylogeny of the legumes has been the object of many studies by research groups from around the world. These studies have used morphology, DNA data (the chloroplast intron trnL, the chloroplast genes rbcL and matK, or the ribosomal spacers ITS) and Cladisticscladistic analysis in order to investigate the relationships between the family’s different lineages. The studies have confirmed that the traditional sub-families Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae are each Monophylymonophyletic but both are nested within the paraphyletic sub-family Caesalpinioideae. All the different approaches have yielded similar results regarding the relationships between the family's main clades, as shown in the cladogram below.Käss, E., and M. Wink. 1996. Molecular evolution of the Leguminosae: phylogeny of the three subfamilies based on rbcL sequences. Biochemical Systematics and Evolution 24: 365-378.Käss, E., and M. Wink. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships in the Papilionoideae (Family Leguminosae) based on nucleotide sequences of cpDNA (rbcL) and ncDNA (ITS1 and 2). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 8:65-88.Doyle, J.J., J.L. Doyle, J.A. Ballenger, E.E. Dickson, T. Kajita, and H. Ohashi. 1997. A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation. American J. Botany 84: 541-554.Lavin, M., J. J. Doyle, and J. D. Palmer. 1990. Evolutionary significance of the loss of the chloroplast--DNA inverted repeat in the Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae. Evolution 44: 390-402.Sanderson, M. J., and M. F. Wojciechowski. 1996. Diversification rates in a temperate legume clade: are there "so many species" of Astragalus (Fabaceae)? American J. Botany 83: 1488-1502.Chappill, J. A. 1995. Cladistic analysis of the Leguminosae: the development of an explicit hypothesis. Pages 1-10 in Advances in Legume Systematics, part 7, phylogeny (M. D. Crisp and J. J. Doyle, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.FabalesPolygalaceaeSurianaceaeQuillajaceaeFabaceaeDuparquetia*Cercideae clade* unnamed clade (Barnebydendron, Goniorrachis)* unnamed clade (Schotia)*resin-producing Detarieae cladePrioria (plant)Prioria clade* unnamed clade (Brandzeia, Daniella)*Detarieae sensu stricto clade*Detarieae#Subgroup 2 (59 genera)Amherstieae clade* Caesalpinioideae#Subtribe DialiinaeDialiinae clade* Umtiza clade*Caesalpinia 93 Fabaceae clade*Cassia (genus)Cassia clade*Dimorphandra clade A*Tachigali clade*Peltophorum clade*Dimorphandra group B*Dimorphandra group B*MimosoideaeFaboideaeAsterisks (*) indicate clades traditionally assigned to Caesalpinioideae. Taxonomy The Fabaceae are placed in the order Fabales according to most taxonomic systems, including the APG III system. The family includes three subfamilies: Mimosoideae: 80 genera and 3,200 species. Mostly tropical and warm temperate Asia and America. Mimosa, Acacia.Caesalpinioideae: 170 genera and 2,000 species, Cosmopolitan distributioncosmopolitan. Caesalpinia, Senna (genus)Senna, Bauhinia, Amherstia.Faboideae (Papilionoideae):NOTE: The subfamilial name Papilionoideae for Faboideae is approved by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, as is 'Leguminosae' for the Fabaceae sensu lato. 470 genera and 14,000 species, cosmopolitan. Astragalus, Lupinus.These three subfamilies have been alternatively treated at the family level, as in the Cronquist systemCronquist and Dahlgren systemDahlgren systems. However, this choice has not been supported by late 20th and early 21st century evidence, which has shown the Caesalpinioideae to be Paraphylyparaphyletic and the Fabaceae sensu lato to be Monophylymonophyletic. While the Mimosoideae and the Faboideae are largely monophyletic, the Caesalpinioideae appear to be paraphyletic and the tribe Cercideae is probably sister to the rest of the family. Moreover, there are a number of genera whose placement into the Caesalpinioideae is not always agreed on (e.g. Dimorphandra).Genera The genera included in this family can be viewed on the following three pages: MimosoideaeList of Mimosoideae generaCaesalpinioideaeList of Caesalpinioideae generaFaboideaeList of Faboideae generaEconomic and cultural importance Legumes are economically and culturally important plants due to their extraordinary diversity and abundance, the wide variety of edible vegetables they represent and due to the variety of uses they can be put to: in horticulture and agriculture, as a food, for the compounds they contain that have medicinal uses and for the oil and fats they contain that have a variety of uses.Allen, O. N., & E. K. Allen. 1981. The Leguminosae, A Source Book of Characteristics, Uses, and Nodulation. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, USA.Duke, J. A. 1992. Handbook of Legumes of Economic Importance. Plenum Press, New York, USA.Graham, P. H., & C. P. Vance. 2003. Legumes: importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiology 131: 872-877.Wojciechowski, M.F. 2006. Agriculturally & Economically Important Legumes.. Accessed 15 November 2008.Food and Forage The bean#Historyhistory of legumes is tied in closely with that of human civilization, appearing early in Asia, the Americas (the common bean, several varieties) and Europe (broad beans) by 6,000 Anno DominiBCE, where they became a staple, essential as a source of protein. Their ability to nitrogen fixationfix atmospheric nitrogen reduces fertilizer costs for farmers and gardeners who grow legumes, and means that legumes can be used in a crop rotation to replenish soil that has been depleted of nitrogen. Legume seeds and foliage have a comparatively higher protein content than non-legume materials, due to the additional nitrogen that legumes receive through the process. Some legume species perform hydraulic redistributionhydraulic lift, which makes them ideal for intercropping. Preview available at Google Books.Farmed legumes can belong to numerous classes, including Fodderforage, cerealgrain, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure and timber species, with most commercially farmed species filling two or more roles simultaneously. There are of two broad types of forage legumes. Some, like alfalfa, clover, vetch, and Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or regularly cut by humans to provide stock feed.Grain legumes are cultivated for their seeds, and are also called pulse (legume)pulses. The seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of Vegetable fats and oilsoils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include both herbaceous plants like beans, lentils, lupins, peas and peanuts.The gene bank and breeding of grain legumes (lupine, vetch, soya and beah) / B.S. Kurlovich and S.I. Repyev (Eds.), - St. Petersburg, The N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, 1995, 438p. (Theoretical basis of plant breeding. V.111) and trees such as carob, mesquite and tamarind.Bloom legume species include species such as lupin, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Laburnum, Robinia, Gleditsia, Acacia, Mimosa, and Delonix are Ornamental plantornamental trees and shrubs.Industrial farmed legumes include Indigofera, cultivated for the production of indigo, Acacia, for gum arabic, and Derris, for the insecticide action of rotenone, a compound it produces.Fallow or green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil to exploit the high nitrogen levels found in most legumes. Numerous 94 Fabaceae legumes are farmed for this purpose, including Leucaena, Cyamopsis and Sesbania.Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species, Dalbergia species, and Castanospermum australe.Melliferous plants offer nectar to bees and other insects to encourage them to carry pollen from the flowers of one plant to others thereby ensuring pollination.A number of legume species are good nectar providers such as alfalfa, Trifolium repenswhite clover, Melilotussweet clover and various Prosopis species. Industrial uses Natural gums Natural gums are vegetable exudates that are released as the result of damage to the plant such as that resulting from the attack of an insect or a natural or artificial cut. These exudates contain heterogeneous polysaccharides formed of different sugars and usually containing uronic acids. They form viscous colloidal solutions. There are different species that produce gums. The most important of these species belong to the leguminosae. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and textile sectors. They also have interesting therapeutic properties; for example gum arabic is antitussive and anti-inflammatory. The most well known gums are tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer), gum arabic (Acacia senegal) and guar gum (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).Kuklinski, C. 2000. Farmacognosia : estudio de las drogas y sustancias medicamentosas de origen natural. Ediciones Omega, Barcelona. ISBN 84-282-1191-4Dyes Indigo colorant. The species used to produce dyes include the following: Logwood Haematoxylon campechianum; a large spiny tree that can grow up to 15m tall. Its cork is thin and soft and its wood is hard. The heartwood is used to produce dyes that are red and purple. The Histologyhistological stain called haematoxylin is produced from this species. Brazilwood tree (Caesalpinia echinata) is similar to the previous tree but smaller and with red or purple flowers. The wood is also used to produce a red or purple dye. The Madras thorn (Pithecallobium dulce) is another spiny tree native to Latin America, it grows up to 4m high and has yellow or green flowers that grow in florets. Its fruit is reddish and is used to produce a yellow dye.Marquez, A. C., Lara, O.F., Esquivel, R. B. & Mata, E. R. 1999. Composición, usos y actividad biológica: Plantas medicinales de México II. UNAM. First edition. México, D.F. Indigo dye is extracted from the True indigo plant Indigofera tinctoria that is native to Asia. In Central and South America dyes are produced from two species related to this species, indigo from Indigofera suffruticosa and Natal indigo from Indigofera arrecta.Ornamentals The Cockspur Coral Tree Erythrina crista-galli is one of many leguminosae used as ornamental plants. In addition, it is the National Flower of Argentina and Uruguay. Legumes have been used as ornamental plants throughout the world for many centuries. Their vast diversity of heights, shapes, foliage and flower colour means that this family is commonly used in the design and planting of everything from small gardens to large parks. The following is a list of the main ornamental legume species, listed by sub-family. Subfamily Caesalpinioideae: Bauhinia forficata, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Caesalpinia spinosa, Ceratonia siliqua, Cercis siliquastrum, Gleditsia triacanthos, Gymnocladus dioica, Parkinsonia aculeata, Senna multiglandulosa.Macaya J. 1999. Leguminosas arbóreas y arbustivas cultivadas en Chile. Chloris Chilensis Año 2. Nº1. Subfamily Mimosoideae: Acacia caven, Acacia cultriformis, Acacia dealbata, Acacia karroo, Acacia longifolia, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia paradoxa, Acacia retinodes, Acacia saligna, Acacia verticillata, Acacia visco, Albizzia julibrissin, Calliandra tweediei, Paraserianthes lophantha, Prosopis chilensis. Subfamily Faboideae: Clianthus puniceus, Citysus scoparius, Erythrina crista-galli, Erythrina falcata, Laburnum anagyroides, Lotus peliorhynchus, Lupinus arboreus, Lupinus polyphyllus, Otholobium glandulosum, Retama monosperma, Robinia hispida, Robinia luxurians, Robinia pseudoacacia, Styphnolobium japonicumSophora japonica, Sophora macnabiana, Sophora macrocarpa, Spartium junceum, Teline monspessulana, Tipuana tipu, Wisteria sinensis.Emblematic Leguminosae The Cockspur Coral Tree (Erythrina crista-galli), is the National Flower of Argentina and Uruguay.Ministerio de Educación de la Nación. Subsecretaría de Coordinación Administrativa. Día de la Flor Nacional "El Ceibo". Efemérides Culturales Argentinas. Consulted 3 March 2010. The Elephant ear tree (Enterolobium cyclocarpum) is the national tree of Costa Rica, by Executive Order of 31 August 1959.Gilbert Vargas Ulate. 1997. Geografía turística de Costa Rica. EUNED, 180 p. ISBN 9977-64-900-6, 9789977649009. The Brazilwood tree (Caesalpinia echinata) has been the national tree of Brazil since 1978."Lei Nº 6.607, de 7 de dezembro de 1978. O Presidente da República, faço saber que o Congresso Nacional decreta e eu sanciono a seguinte Lei: Art. 1º- É declarada Árvore Nacional a leguminosa denominada Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam), cuja festa será comemorada, anualmente, quando o Ministério da Educação e Cultura promoverá campanha elucidativa 95 Fabaceae sobre a relevância daquela espécie vegetal na História do Brasil." The Golden wattle Acacia pycnantha is Australia’s national flower. The Hong Kong Orchid tree Bauhinia blakeana is the national flower of Hong Kong.Image galleryAcacia baileyana (Wattle)Loments of AlysicarpusAlysicarpus vaginalisCalliandraCalliandra emarginataDesmodium gangeticumDichrostachys cinerea Sickle BushIndigofera gerardianaTendrils of Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet pea)Inflorescence of Lupinus arboreus (Yellow bush lupin)Pisum sativum (Peas); note the leaf-like stipulesSmithia conferta Trifolium repens in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India.Kashubian vetch KashubiaZornia gibbosaReferences Bibliography Lewis G., Schrire B., Mackinder B. & Lock M. 2005. (eds.) Legumes of the world. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Reino Unido. 577 pages. 2005. ISBN 1-900347-80-6. External links Leguminosae at The Plant List Leguminosae at The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA) Fabaceae at the Encyclopedia of Life Fabaceae at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Fabaceae at the Tree of Life Web Project Fabaceae at the online Flora of China Fabaceae at the online Guide to the Flora of Mongolia Fabaceae at the online Flora of Zimbabwe Fabaceae at the online Flora of Western Australia Fabaceae at the online Flora of New Zealand Leguminosae at the International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) World Legume Species Checklist at Legumes Online Fabaceae at Flowers in Israel Asociación Española de las Leguminosas (AEL). Charity founded to promote the agricultural use of legumes in Spain. 96 Acacia acuminata 97 Acacia acuminata Raspberry jam Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. acuminata Binomial name Acacia acuminata Benth. Acacia acuminata, commonly known as the raspberry jam tree, fine leaf jam, "raspberry jam" or jam tree, is a shrub in the family Fabaceae. Endemic to Western Australia, it occurs throughout the south west of the State. It is common in the Wheatbelt, and also extends into the semi-arid interior. Description Raspberry jam grows as a tall shrub or small tree. In ideal conditions it may grow to a height of ten metres, but in most of its distribution it does not grow above five metres. As with most Acacia species, it has phyllodes rather than true leaves. These are bright green, around ten centimetres long and about two millimetres wide, and finish in a long point. The lemon yellow flowers are held in tight cylindrical clusters about two centimetres long. The pods are light brown and flattened, about ten centimetres long and five millimetres wide. Name origin The species name acuminata comes from the Latin acuminatus, which means pointed or elongated. This refers to the long point at the end of each leaf. The common name "raspberry jam" refers to the strong odour of freshly cut wood, which resembles raspberry jam. Growing conditions Acacia acuminata has high frost tolerance and medium salt tolerance. It requires at least 250mm/year (9.8in./year) average rainfall.[1] Acacia acuminata Uses The wood is hard and durable, with an attractive, reddish, close grain. It has been used extensively for fence posts,[2] for ornamental articles, and for high-load applications such as sheave blocks. The wood's "air dried" density is 1040 kg/m³.[3] It is also being used as a companion/host tree with sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) plantations in the Wheatbelt region [4] Subspecies There are no currently recognised subspecies. The taxon previously called Acacia acuminata subsp. burkittii (Benth.) Kodela & Tindale[5] is now considered to be a separate species and is called Acacia burkitti (Benth.) [6] References Notes [1] Dryland Area Species (http:/ / www. dpi. vic. gov. au/ DPI/ nreninf. nsf/ v/ 90D1E24F54030518CA2573E800183121/ $file/ Dryland Area Species. pdf) [2] Qualities Required of Species for Agroforestry and Fuelwood (http:/ / idrinfo. idrc. ca/ archive/ corpdocs/ 074940/ chap1_e. html) [3] Aussie Fantom (http:/ / www. aussiefantom. com/ Wood_Table. htm) [4] Sandalwood Guide for Farmers - Forest Products Commission - April 2007 [5] Catalog of Life (http:/ / www. catalogueoflife. org/ annual-checklist/ show_species_details. php?record_id=583543) [6] FloraBase (http:/ / florabase. calm. wa. gov. au/ browse/ profile/ 3248) General references • "Acacia acuminata Benth." ( Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. • "Acacia acuminata" ( Flora of Australia Online ( html). Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. • "Acacia acuminata" ( FloraBase. Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia. • D. J. Boland et al. (1984). Forest Trees of Australia (Fourth Edition Revised and Enlarged). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria. ISBN 0-643-05423-5. • A. A. Mitchell and D. G. Wilcox (1994). Arid Shrubland Plants of Western Australia (Second and Enlarged Edition). Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. ISBN 1-875560-22-X. • USDA GRIN ( External links Data related to Acacia acuminata at Wikispecies 98 Acacia alpina 99 Acacia alpina Acacia alpina Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. alpina Binomial name Acacia alpina F.Muell. Synonyms Acacia longifolia var. alpina F.Muell.[1] Acacia alpina (Alpine Wattle) is an evergreen[2] shrub 1 m to 2 m high and about 10 m wide. It is a close relative of Acacia phlebophylla and they tend to hybridize. It often can be found in alpine and subalpine areas of Australia. [3] A. alpina flowers from October to November.[4] In gardening it is used as "ground cover." References [1] [2] [3] [4] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~23771& genus~Acacia& species~alpina) (http:/ / www. ontariogardening. com/ Knowledgebase/ speciedetail. jsp?id=50) World Wide Wattle (http:/ / www. worldwidewattle. com/ speciesgallery/ alpina. php?id=23545) PlantNET (http:/ / plantnet. rbgsyd. nsw. gov. au/ cgi-bin/ NSWfl. pl?page=nswfl& showsyn=& dist=& constat=& lvl=sp& name=Acacia~alpina) External links • Acacia alpina Herbarium Sheet (PlantNet) ( pl?page=nswfl&photo=31&file=12/470/53891.jpg) Acaciella angustissima 100 Acaciella angustissima Acaciella angustissima Conservation status Secure  (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acaciella Species: A. angustissima Binomial name Acaciella angustissima (Mill.) Britton & Rose varieties[1] • • • • • • Acaciella angustissima var. angustissima (Mill.) Britton & Rose Acaciella angustissima var. chisosiana Isely Acaciella angustissima var. hirta (Torrey & A.Gray) Robinson Acaciella angustissima var. shrevei (Britton & Rose) Isely Acaciella angustissima var. suffrutescens (Rose) Isely Acaciella angustissima var. texensis (Torrey & A.Gray) Isely Acaciella angustissima 101 Range of Acaciella angustissima Synonyms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acacia angulosa Bertol. Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze Acacia elegans M.Martens & Galeotti Acacia filicina Willd. Acacia filicioides (Cav.) Trel. Acacia glabrata Schltdl. Acacia hirsuta Schltdl. Acacia insignis M. Martens & Galeotti Acacia pittieriana Standl. Acaciella angulosa (Bertol.) Britton & Rose Acaciella costaricensis Britton & Rose Acaciella holtonii Britton & Killip Acaciella martensis Britton & Killip Acaciella rensonii Britton & Rose Acaciella santanderensis Britton & Killip Mimosa angustissima Mill. Mimosa filicioides Cav. Mimosa ptericina Poir. Acaciella angustissima (Prairie acacia, White ball acacia, Ocpatl, Palo de Pulque[2]) is most recognized for its drought tolerance and its ability to be used as a green manure and ground covering. It is a perennial, deciduous, and belongs to the Fabaceae family (been/legume) and as it grows it starts as a shrub but eventually matures to a small tree. The tree has a high density of leaves along with small clumps of white flowers and creates 4-7 cm long seed pods. Acaciella angustissima is found in tropical areas around the equator since, its water needs can vary from 750-2,500 mm a year. It has an advantage it can withstand a moderate drought, since its leaves are retained even in long dry periods. Aside from being drought tolerant, Acaciella angustissima also has the benefit of being a green manure, since it has such a high leaf density, but also loses the majority of its leafs each season. So the leafs can be used in composting or can be saved and used as livestock feed. It should only be used as an additive to the feed and not the main source, since it also toxic in high doses Description Acaciella angustissima belongs to the shrub family but can also look similar to a small tree when fully grown, since its height can vary from 2 – 7 m depending on the growing conditions. Large clumps of small white flowers cover the branches of the bush. The flowers have 5 petals with a large number of stamens extended far past the petals.[3] The plant also produces a small seedpod that starts out green, but then turns brown when fully matured. The seedpods usually have a length of 4-7 cm, and are 6-8 mm wide. The leaves which are one of the plant’s key traits are made up of 10-20 pairs of long thin leaves that go down a stem. They come in pairs of 3-12. One unique feature of the Acaciella angustissima is that it is thornless unlike most members of the genus Acacia[4] (which it formerly belonged to). Acaciella angustissima History Acaciella angustissima comes from the Fabaceae family of plants. It only grows in very wet parts of the world, usually around the equator due to its large consumption of water. It is native to southern parts of North America, the Caribbean and the majority of South America.[5] However, it is able to grow at almost any elevation and usually prefers a warm climate of 25-30 degrees Celsius. Acaciella angustissima is still one of the many crops under-utilized and researched. Luckily there is hope, roughly 20 years ago researches started evaluating it in tropical areas such as Zimbabwe.[6] Natural habitat Acaciella angustissima fruit (bean) Altitude: 0-2600m Annual Temperature Mean: 5-30 deg. C. Annual Rainfall Mean: 895-2870mm Soil: A. angustissima is well-suited for acidic, low-nutrient soils and it has very good resistance to drought.[7] Growing Conditions Since Acaciella angustissima is a shrub, it propagates (spreads) through its seeds or clippings.[8] The seeds come from all the pods that the Acaciella angustissima grows each year, and the clippings should be taken from a somewhat hard branch, to better support themselves when transplanted.[9] Acaciella angustissima should be planted in March or April in soil that has good drainage and is more on the acidic side on the pH scale.[10] To be most effectively utilized it should be used to prevent erosion, since it has such a large root system. This is also one of its downfalls, since when it is intercropped with other species its roots can be a major competitor for vital nutrients. Luckily its fallen leaves can provide enough N, K, and P to keep smaller nearby plants healthy, and provide some shade at the same time.[11] Acaciella angustissima is self-sustaining and does not need fertilizer, but has been found to respond well to fertilizer when added. However, the plant has a large water requirement. It requires a minimum "rain fall" of 700 mm but can handle up to a maximum of 3 000 mm. 102 Acaciella angustissima 103 Uses Alcoholic beverages The bark is used in the production of alcoholic beverages. The root is used in the drink pulque in Mexico. Forage The seeds of Acaciella angustissima are high in protein and are somewhat useful as forage for livestock.[12] The tree has a tannin content of 6%, which inhibits the ability of livestock to make use of the tree's protein. Medicine The indigenous Tzotzil and Tzeltal Maya people of Mexico use A. angustissima to treat digestive tract problems. They also use it to treat toothache, rheumatoid arthritis and cuts of the skin. Experiments have shown that A. angustissima mildly inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Constraints to wider adoption There is unfortunately many constraints holding Acaciella angustissima back from being adopted. Firstly the amount of water it needs to survive is 3 – 4 times the amount of rainfall found in more northern parts of Africa. This is unfortunate since dry land farmers could benefit the most from this tree. The second and most important constraint is that, Acaciella angustissima can actually act as weed. It is so effective at propagation that it spreads rapidly.[13] Thirdly, Acaciella angustissima contains roughly 10% tannins, which is a plants natural defense mechanism. The taste created by the tannins is not usually welcomed, and the compound itself negatively affects livestock digestive systems.[14] Acaciella angustissima Practical Information The most important fact about Acaciella angustissima is that it has turned into a weed in its native habitat, so it should only be used in a controlled environment or when absolutely necessary.[15] The only times it should be considered are when dealing with a harsh conditions where only weeds can survive, and some type of ground cover is needed to help with erosion control. If these circumstances are true, then the expected final height of the plant should be kept in mind when planting to prevent over crowding. Intercropping would also be complementary, by allowing farmers to take advantage of the unused space between plants, the nitrogen fixing habit, and the shade provided by the bushy branches.[16] It should be noted that due to the complex structure of the leaves it can take a year for them to decompose and release nutrients into the soil. To create a seed bank, it is important to remove all the seeds from the pod, and then clean them before storing, so that the pod doesn’t break down and start attracting insects. Acaciella angustissima References [1] ILDIS Legumes of the World (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb/ 6. 00/ fam/ f2. shtml) [2] Hortipedia (http:/ / www. hortipedia. org/ de/ index. php?title=Acacia_filiciana) [3] Tropical Forages, Acaciella angustissima (as Acacia angustissima) (http:/ / www. tropicalforages. info/ key/ Forages/ Media/ Html/ Acacia_angustissima. htm), Tropical Forages [4] Texas Wildlife Center, Acaciella angustissima (as Acacia angustissima) (http:/ / www. wildflower. org/ plants/ result. php?id_plant=ACAN), Wildlife Center [5] Texas Wildlife Center, Acaciella angustissima (as Acacia angustissima) (http:/ / www. wildflower. org/ plants/ result. php?id_plant=ACAN), Wildlife Center [6] Tropical Forages, Acaciella angustissima (as Acacia angustissima) (http:/ / www. tropicalforages. info/ key/ Forages/ Media/ Html/ Acacia_angustissima. htm), Tropical Forages [7] World Agroforestry Centre (http:/ / www. worldagroforestrycentre. org/ sea/ products/ afdbases/ af/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=1762) [8] Texas Wildlife Center, Acaciella angustissima (as Acacia angustissima) (http:/ / www. wildflower. org/ plants/ result. php?id_plant=ACAN), Wildlife Center [9] NC State University, “Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings” (http:/ / www. ces. ncsu. edu/ hil/ hil-8702. html), NC State University [10] Marion Simmons, [ Cultivation of Acacias], World Wide Wattle [11] James E. Smith, Prairie Acacia (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ factsheet/ pdf/ fs_acan. pdf), USDA [12] Acaciella angustissima (as Acacia angustissima) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~15362& genus~Acacia& species~angustissima) [13] James E. Smith, Prairie Acacia (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ factsheet/ pdf/ fs_acan. pdf), USDA [14] Anteonello Cannas, “Plants Poisonous to Livestock (http:/ / www. ansci. cornell. edu/ plants/ toxicagents/ tannin. html), Cornell University – Animal Science [15] Tropical Forages, Acaciella angustissima (as Acacia angustissima) (http:/ / www. tropicalforages. info/ key/ Forages/ Media/ Html/ Acacia_angustissima. htm), Tropical Forages [16] James E. Smith, Prairie Acacia (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ factsheet/ pdf/ fs_acan. pdf), USDA External Links • The Nature Conservancy ( NatureServe?searchSciOrCommonName=acacia&x=0&y=0) • Acacia angustissima ( ( FABA-acac-angu-mex-2120554.jpg) 104 Vachellia aroma 105 Vachellia aroma Vachellia aroma Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. aroma Binomial name Vachellia aroma (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Seigler & Ebinger Range of Vachellia aroma Synonyms[1][2] • • Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. Acacia moniliformis Griseb. Vachellia aroma is a small, perennial, thorny tree native to Bolivia, Peru, Argentina and Paraguay. Some common names for it are Aromita, Aromo Negro, Espinillo and Tusca. It is not listed as being a threatened species.[3] Although some sources[4] say that Vachellia macracantha is synonymous with Vachellia aroma, genetic analysis of the two species has shown that they are different, but that they are closely related.[5] Vachellia aroma Uses V. aroma is used by bees to make honey.[6] The tree's wood is quite hard and it is used for implements, posts and firewood.[7] Botanical varieties • Vachellia aroma var. aroma • Vachellia aroma var. huarango[8] References [1] USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?313812) [2] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~6687& genus~Acacia& species~aroma) [3] International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~6687) [4] USGS Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) (http:/ / www. hear. org/ gcw/ html/ autogend/ species/ 74. HTM) [5] Paola Vanesa Casiva, Juan César Vilardi, Ana María Cialdella and Beatriz O. Saidman, American Journal of Botany (http:/ / www. amjbot. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 91/ 1/ 58). 2004;91:58–64. [6] Argentine Honey: Leguminosae (http:/ / www. apicultura. com. ar/ apis67en. htm) [7] Bosque (Valdivia) (http:/ / www. scielo. cl/ scielo. php?script=sci_abstract& pid=S0717-92002006000200009& lng=pt& nrm=& tlng=en) [8] World Wide Wattle (http:/ / www. worldwidewattle. com/ infogallery/ specieslists/ america. php?project=3& ss=y) External links • Vachellia aroma branch with blossoms ( ( FABA-acac-arom-bol-2146652.jpg) • Vachellia aroma branch with pods ( ( FABA-acac-arom-2013718.jpg) 106 Acacia auriculiformis 107 Acacia auriculiformis Earleaf acacia Conservation status Least Concern  (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. auriculiformis Binomial name Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth. Acacia auriculiformis, commonly known as Auri, Earleaf acacia, Earpod wattle, Northern black wattle, Papuan wattle, Tan wattle, is a fast-growing, crooked, gnarly tree in the family Fabaceae. It is native to Australia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. It grows up to 30m tall.[1] Acacia auriculiformis has about 47 000 seeds/kg. == Identification ==[2] Acacia auriculiformis is an evergreen tree that grows between to 15-30 m tall, with a trunk up to 12 m long and 50 cm in diameter. It has dense foliage with an open, spreading crown. The trunk is crooked and the bark vertically fissured. Roots are shallow and spreading. Leaves 10-16 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide with 3-8 parallel nerves, thick, leathery and curved. Flowers are 8 cm long and in pairs, creamy yellow and sweet scented. Acacia auriculiformis 108 Pods are about 6.5 x 1.5 cm, flat, cartilaginous, glaucous, transversely veined with undulate margins. They are initially straight but on maturity become twisted with irregular spirals. Seeds are transversely held in the pod, broadly ovate to elliptical, about 4-6 x 3-4 mm. The generic name acacia comes from the Greek word ‘akis’ meaning a point or a barb and the specific epithet comes from the Latin ‘auricula’- external ear of animals and ‘forma- form, figure or shape, in allusion to the shape of the pod. Uses This plant is raised as an ornamental plant, as a shade tree and it is also raised on plantations for fuelwood throughout southeast Asia, Oceania and in Sudan. Its wood is good for making paper, furniture and tools. It contains tannin useful in animal hide tanning. In India, its wood and charcoal are widely used for fuel. Gum from the tree is sold commercially, but it is said not to be as useful as gum arabic. The tree is used to make an analgesic by indigenous Australians.[3] Extracts of Acacia auriculiformis heartwood inhibit fungi that attack wood.[4] Functional uses Products Flowers & leaves in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Fodder: Not widely used as fodder, but in India 1-year-old plantations are browsed by cattle. Apiculture: The flowers are a source of pollen for honey production. Fuel: A major source of firewood, its dense wood and high energy (calorific value of 4500-4900 kcal/kg) contribute to its popularity. It provides very good charcoal that glows well with little smoke and does not spark. Fibre: The wood is extensively used for paper pulp. Plantation-grown trees have been found promising for the production of unbleached kraft pulp and high-quality, neutral, sulphite semi-chemical pulp. Large-scale plantations have already been established, as in Kerala, India, for the production of pulp. Timber: The sapwood is yellow; the heartwood light brown to dark red, straight grained and reasonably durable. The wood has a high basic density (500-650 kg/m³), is fine-grained, often attractively figured and finishes well. It is excellent for turnery articles, toys, carom coins, chessmen and handicrafts. Also used for furniture, joinery, tool handles, and for construction if trees of suitable girth are available. Tannin or dyestuff: The bark contains sufficient tannin (13-25%) for commercial exploitation and contains 6-14% of a natural Fruit Acacia auriculiformis dye suitable for the soga-batik industry. In India, the bark is collected locally for use as tanning material. A natural dye, used in the batik textile industry in Indonesia, is also extracted from the bark. Other products: An edible mushroom, Tylopylus fellus, is common in plantations of A. auriculiformis in Thailand. Services Erosion control: Its spreading, superficial and densely matted root system makes A. auriculiformis suitable for stabilizing eroded land. Shade or shelter: The dense, dark-green foliage, which remains throughout the dry season, makes it an excellent shade tree. Planted to provide shelter on beaches and beachfronts. Reclamation: The spreading, densely-matted root system stabilizes eroding land. Its rapid early growth, even on infertile sites, and tolerance of both highly acidic and alkaline soils make it popular for stabilizing and revegetating mine spoils. Soil improver: Acacia auriculiformis Plantations of A. auriculiformis improve soil physio-chemical properties such as water-holding capacity, organic carbon, nitrogen and potassium through litter fall. Its phyllodes provide a good, long-lasting mulch. Nitrogen fixing: Acacia auriculiformis can fix nitrogen after nodulating with a range of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. It also has associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal fungi. Ornamental: It is used for shade and ornamental purposes in cities where its hardiness, dense foliage and bright yellow flowers are positive attributes. Intercropping: The effect of intercropping with annual crops varies. Increased tree growth has been found with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), upland rice and groundnut in Thailand; reduced growth with maize in Cameroon. Pests and diseases Damage by pests and diseases is minor. In Indonesia, growth rate has been impaired by a rust fungus, Uromyces digitatus; in India, root rot caused by a fungus (Ganoderma lucidum) has been reported. A beetle (Sinoxylon spp.) can girdle young stems and branches, causing them to break. The insect is of concern, because the tree will develop multiple leaders if the main stem is damaged and the length of the bole will be reduced. Medicine It was also reported that the oil from the seeds produced some medicinal properties such as spermicidal and anti-HIV properties along with the safe use on vaginal epithelium (Girljashankar, 2011) [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Purdue University Horticulture department (http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ duke_energy/ Acacia_auriculiformis. html) http:/ / www. worldagroforestrycentre. org Analgesic Plants (http:/ / www. newcrops. uq. edu. au/ newslett/ ncnl1020. htm) Australian New Crops Newsletter Active antifungal substances from natural sources (http:/ / www. arkat-usa. org/ ARKIVOC/ JOURNAL_CONTENT/ manuscripts/ 2007/ UR-2002CR as published mainmanuscript. pdf) [5] http:/ / www. academia. edu External links • Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): Acacia auriculiformis ( acacia_auriculiformis.htm) • Purdue University: Acacia auriculiformis ( Acacia_auriculiformis.html) • Acacia auriculiformis ( • Acacia auriculiformis ( • Acacia auriculiformis ( auriculiformis.pdf) 109 Acacia baileyana 110 Acacia baileyana Cootamundra Wattle Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. baileyana Binomial name Acacia baileyana F.Muell. Range of Acacia baileyana Synonyms • • • Acacia baileyana F.Muell. var. aurea Pescott Acacia baileyana F.Muell. var. purpurea F.Muell. Racosperma baileyanum (F.Muell.) Pedley) Acacia baileyana or Cootamundra wattle, is a shrub or tree in the genus Acacia. The scientific name of the species honours the botanist Frederick Manson Bailey. It is indigenous to a small area of southern New South Wales in Australia, but it has been widely planted in other Australian states and territories. In many areas of Victoria, it has Acacia baileyana 111 become naturalised and is regarded as a weed, out-competing indigenous Victorian species. Almost all wattles have cream to golden flowers. The small flowers are arranged in spherical to cylindrical inflorescences, with only the stamens prominent. Wattles have been extensively introduced into New Zealand. Uses A. baileyana is used in Europe in the cut flower industry. It is also used as food for bees in the production of honey. Less than 0.02% alkaloids were found in a chemical analysis of Acacia baileyana. Cultivation This plant is adaptable and easy to grow. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Unfortunately it has an ability to naturalise (i.e. escape) into surrounding bushland. Also, it hybridises with some other wattles, notably the rare and endangered Sydney Basin species Acacia pubescens. A prostrate weeping form is in cultivation. Its origin is unknown, but it itself is a popular garden plant, its cascading horizontal branches good for rockeries. The fine foliage of the original Cootamundra wattle is grey-green, but a blue-purple foliaged form, known as 'Purpurea' is very popular. Use of colour The colour Cootamundra Wattle is used currently by the Australian Capital Territory Fire Brigade as their colour scheme for firefighting appliances. Gallery Leaf and blossom A. baileyana prostrate form in cultivation, Illawarra Grevillea Park, Bulli, NSW Fine detail of leaf Leaf with fingers for scale A. baileyana seeds Acacia baileyana References Cited text • Stewart, Angus (2001). Gardening on the Wild Side. Sydney: ABC Books. ISBN 0-7333-0791-4. External links • Acacia baileyana ( genus~Acacia&species~baileyana) • Society of studies about Ethnobotany and the Modified States of Consciousness ( 112 Acacia beauverdiana 113 Acacia beauverdiana Acacia beauverdiana Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. beauverdiana Binomial name Acacia beauverdiana Ewart & Sharman[1] Range of Acacia beauverdiana Acacia beauverdiana is a perennial tree 1 to 8 metres (3 to 26 ft) tall with multiple stems. It has yellow flowers and it blooms from July to October.[1] It is native to Western Australia. [2] References [1] FloraBase the Western Australian Flora (http:/ / florabase. calm. wa. gov. au/ browse/ flora?f=163& level=s& id=3236) [2] International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~23709& genus~Acacia& species~beauverdiana) External links • Acacia beauverdiana Photo -- Florabase ( Senegalia berlandieri 114 Senegalia berlandieri Senegalia berlandieri Conservation status Apparently Secure  (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Senegalia Species: S. berlandieri Binomial name Senegalia berlandieri (Benth.) Britton & Rose Range of Senegalia berlandieri Synonyms Senegalia berlandieri 115 Acacia berlandieri Benth. Senegalia berlandieri (Berlandier Acacia, Guajillo Acacia, guajillo, huajillo) is a shrub native to the Southwestern United States and northeast Mexico that belongs to the subfamily Mimosoideae (wattles) of Fabaceae (legumes). It grows 1 to 5 metres (3.3 to 16.4 ft) tall, with blossoms that are spherical and white, occurring from February through April.[1] The berlandieri epithet comes from the name of Jean-Louis Berlandier, a French naturalist who studied wildlife native to Texas and Mexico. S. berlandieri contains a wide variety of alkaloids and has been known to cause toxic reactions in domestic animals such as goats.[2][3] Uses Senegalia berlandieri foliage and flowers S. berlandieri is toxic to livestock and thus should not be used as forage or fodder. The honeybees use the flowers to make a honey that is crystal clear as water . p281 of "The ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture" by A. I. Root "HUAJILLA. (Zygia brevifolia, Sargent). This is a very important honey-plant, or tree, rather, in Texas, for the dry arid portions where there is little or no irrigation, and where nothing, in fact, grows except mesquite, catclaw, sage-brush, and other desert plants. The fact that it does not depend on irrigation, and needs only a scanty amount of rain early in the season, makes it most valuable to the bee-keeper in those regions where it grows and yields large quantities of beautiful water-white honey. Indeed, it is the finest produced in Texas, and is so nearly water white as to be almost as clear as pure water. It is at its very best in the region of Uvalde, Texas." [4] Alkaloids S. berlandieri contains a number of diverse alkaloids, the most plentiful of which are N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. The total alkaloid content in dried leaves has been reported to be in the range 0.28-0.66%. In a recent study, researchers identified thirty-one Senegalia berlandieri tree alkaloids in samples of plant foliage, including trace amounts of four amphetamines previously known only from laboratory synthesis: amphetamine, methamphetamine, para-hydroxyamphetamine and para-methoxyamphetamine. Other trace alkaloids include nicotine, and mescaline (found in many cacti but infrequently in other plants). The same group of researchers later reported finding most of the same Senegalia berlandieri 116 alkaloids in A. rigidula, a related species also native to the Southwestern U.S.[5] There are no reports in the literature of these findings having been repeated, however, leading to the suggestion that they resulted from cross-contamination or were possibly artifacts of the analytical technique. References [1] University of Texas Native Plant Information Network (http:/ / wildflower. utexas. edu/ plants/ result. php?id_plant=ACBE) Senegalia berlandieri bark [2] B.A. Clement, C. M. Goff and T. D. A. Forbes (1997). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri." Phytochem. 46 249-254. [3] I. J. Pemberton, G. R. Smith, T. D. Forbes, and C. M. Hensarling (1993). "Technical note: an improved method for extraction and quantification of toxic phenethylamines from Acacia berlandieri." J. Anim. Sci. 71 467-70. http:/ / www. journalofanimalscience. org/ content/ 71/ 2/ 467. full. pdf [4] A.I. Root and E.R. Root , (1910), "The ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture" https:/ / archive. org/ stream/ abcxyzofbeecultu00root#page/ 281/ mode/ 2up [5] B. A. Clement, C. M. Goff, and T.D. A. Forbes (1998). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia rigidula." Phytochem. 49 1377-1380. External links Senegalia berlandieri flowers and seed pods • Chemistry of Acacias from South Texas (http:// • Interactive Distribution Map of Senegalia berlandieri ( acacia-berlandieri-berlandier-acacia-native-range-map. php) Senegalia berlandieri seeds Senegalia catechu 117 Senegalia catechu Senegalia catechu Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Senegalia Species: S. catechu Binomial name Senegalia catechu (L.f.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. varieties • • Senegalia catechu var. catechu (L.f.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. Senegalia catechu var. sundra (L.f.) Willd.[1] Range of Senegalia catechu Synonyms[2] • • Acacia catechu (L.) Willd., Oliv. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. var. catechuoides (Roxb.)Prain Senegalia catechu 118 • • • • • Acacia catechuoides (Roxb.) Benth. Acacia sundra (Roxb.) Bedd. Acacia wallichiana DC. Mimosa catechu L.f. Mimosa catechuoides Roxb. Senegalia catechu is a deciduous, thorny tree which grows up to 15 m (50 ft) in height.[3] The plant is called khair [4] in Hindi, and kachu in Malay, hence the name was Latinized to "catechu" in Linnaean taxonomy, as the type-species from which the extracts cutch and catechu are derived.[5] Common names for it include catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu. Senegalia catechu is found in Asia, China, India and the Indian Ocean area. Through derivatives of the flavanols in its extracts, the species has lent its name to the important catechins, catechols and catecholamines of chemistry and biology. Uses Food The tree's seeds are a good source of protein.[6] Kattha (catechu), an extract of its heartwood, is used as an ingredient to give red color and typical flavor to paan. Paan, from the word pān in Hindi: पान, is an Indian and Southeast Asian tradition of chewing betel leaf (Piper betle) with areca nut and slaked lime paste. Fodder Branches of the tree are quite often cut for goat fodder and are sometimes fed to cattle. Senegalia catechu flowers Medicinal uses The heart wood and bark of the tree are used in traditional medicine.[7] A wood extract called catechu is used in traditional medicine for sore throats and diarrhea. The concentrated aqueous extract, known as khayer gum or cutch, is astringent.[8] It is used in Ayurvedic medicine.[9] In ayurveda, it is used for rasayana ( rejuvenation treatments). It is also used for its actions like anti-dyslipidemic, anthelminthic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diuretic,anti-pruritic, coolant, taste promoting, enhancing digestion  and curing skin disorders.[10] Senegalia catechu 119 Wood The tree is often planted for use as firewood and charcoal and its wood is highly valued for furniture and tools. The wood has a density of about 0.88 g/cm³.[11] Other uses Its heartwood extract is used in dyeing and leather tanning, as a preservative for fishing nets, and as a viscosity regulator for oil drilling. Senegalia catechu trunks Cultivation The tree can be propagated by planting its seeds, which are soaked in hot water first. After about six months in a nursery, the seedlings can be planted in the field. Senegalia catechu pods References [1] (http:/ / www. hear. org/ gcw/ html/ autogend/ species/ 107. HTM) [2] International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~16744& genus~Acacia& species~catechu) [3] (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ V8879E/ v8879e05. htm) [4] (http:/ / www. haryana-online. com/ Flora/ khair. htm) [5] http:/ / www. yourdictionary. com/ catechu Derivation of word from Malay [6] World AgroForestry Database (http:/ / www. worldagroforestrycentre. org/ SEA/ Products/ AFDbases/ AF/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=21) [7] http:/ / envis. frlht. org/ plant_details. php?disp_id=22& parname=0 [8] British Pharmacopoeia, Department of Health, British Pharmacopoeia Commission, London. The Stationary Office,(1999) [9] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=aTIVnugZofsC& pg=PA322& dq=Acacia+ catechu+ ayurveda& hl=en& sa=X& ei=xpjHUKXnHo7m8QSciYHgBw& ved=0CDwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage& q=Acacia%20catechu%20ayurveda& f=false [10] http:/ / www. frlht. org/ rasayana/ node/ 82 Senegalia catechu 120 [11] FAO Appendix 1 (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ W4095E/ w4095e0c. htm) External links Media related to Senegalia catechu at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Acacia catechu at Wikispecies Vachellia caven 121 Vachellia caven Roman cassie Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. caven Binomial name Vachellia caven (Molina) Seigler & Ebinger varieties[1] • • • • Vachellia caven var. caven (Molina) Molina Vachellia caven var. dehiscens Ciald. Vachellia caven var. microcarpa (Speg.) Ciald. Vachellia caven var. stenocarpa (Speg.) Ciald. Range of Vachellia caven Synonyms • • • • Acacia caven (Molina) Molina Acacia cavenia (Molina) Hook. & Arn. Mimosa caven Molina Mimosa cavenia Molina[2] Vachellia caven Vachellia caven (Roman Cassie, Aromita, Aromo Criollo, Caven, Churque, Churqui, Espinillo, Espinillo de Baado, Espino, Espino Maulino) is an ornamental tree in the Fabaceae family. Vachellia caven is native to Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It grows four to five metres tall and bears very stiff and sharp white thorns up to 2 cm in length. It blooms in Spring, with bright yellow flowers 1 cm to 2 cm in diameter. Ecology Prominent occurrences of V. caven are within the Chilean matorral of central Chile, where the species is a common associate of the Chilean Wine Palm, Jubaea chilensis.[3] The flowers of V. caven are used as food for bees in the production of honey. Uses Erosion control The tree is used for erosion control.[3] Ornamental tree The tree has ornamental uses. Industrial Tannin from the seed pods is used for tanning hides. The wood is used as fuel and to make posts for fences. The chief current human use for V. caven is in the production of charcoal. The flowers are used in perfume.[] References [1] Pometti CL. et al. 2007. Morphometric analysis of varieties of Acacia caven: (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae):Taxonomic inferences in the context of Argentine species. Pl.Syst. and Evol.264,239-249 [2] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~13903& genus~Acacia& species~caven) [3] C. Michael Hogan (2008) Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis,, ed. N. Stromberg (http:/ / globaltwitcher. auderis. se/ artspec_information. asp?thingid=82831) External links • Vachellia caven (as Acacia caven) in Chileflora ( HighResPages/EH0001.htm) • (Spanish) Vachellia caven (as Acacia caven) photos ( • Vachellia caven (as Acacia caven) branch with pods ( med/FABA-acac-cave-bol-2012812.jpg) • Vachellia caven (as Acacia caven) branch ( FABA-acac-cave-par-2214747.jpg) 122 Senegalia chundra 123 Senegalia chundra Senegalia chundra Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Senegalia Species: S. chundra Binomial name Senegalia chundra (Roxb. ex Rottler) Maslin Range of Senegalia chundra Synonyms[1] • • • • • Acacia catechu (Rottler) Willd. Acacia catechu auct. non Willd. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. var. sundra (Roxb.) Prain Acacia sundra (Roxb.) DC. Mimosa chundra Rottler Senegalia chundra is a perennial, deciduous tree found in Asia, India and in the Indian Ocean area. It grows 12 m to 15 m in height.[2] Common names for it include Karangali, Kodalimurunkai, Lal Khair, Lal Khair, Rat Kihiriya and Red Cutch. Its uses include chemical and wood products. Senegalia chundra Uses The wood is used for certain applications in shipbuilding.[3] The tree is used for timber, for cutch (catechutannic acid)[4] from its wood and for tannin. It is also used as food for bees.[5] It is a preferred nesting site for the Scaly-breasted Munia. Kheersal is found as a white substance in the tree's wood. Cutch is sought after commercially as a dye and to preserve fabrics from weather, mildew and marine exposure. Conservation S. chundra is "moderately threatened" and in India it is now necessary to get a permit before cutting this tree down.[6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Acacia+ chundra) Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (http:/ / www. frienvis. nic. in/ Khair. htm) FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ x5356e/ x5356e04. htm) Cutch and Katha (http:/ / www. environsciences. com) Sources of Bee Forage in India (http:/ / mandafamily. com/ indhonindbeeforage. htm) [6] Biodiversity Information System (http:/ / ces. iisc. ernet. in/ hpg/ cesmg/ pew/ acachu. html) Plants of Western Ghats 124 Acacia colei 125 Acacia colei Acacia colei Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. colei Binomial name Acacia colei Maslin & L.A.J. Thomson Range of Acacia colei Synonyms • Acacia holosericea auct. non G. Don[1] Acacia colei is a perennial bush or tree native to Australia and southern Asia. A common name for it is Cole's Wattle. It grows to a height of up to 9 m. Acacia colei blooms from June through July and the flowers are bright yellow.[2] Uses Its uses include environmental management, forage and wood. The seeds are good-tasting[3] and are potentially useful as food for humans. The results of tests in Nigeria for the feasibility of raising the tree as a drought-resistant food crop came out very positively.[4] Phytochemistry Several recent reports of up to 1.8% dimethyltryptamine bark. References [1] International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~23517& genus~Acacia& species~holosericea) [2] Australian Biological Resources Study (http:/ / www. environment. gov. au/ cgi-bin/ species-bank/ sbank-treatment. pl?id=55598) Acacia colei [3] ECHO (http:/ / www. echotech. org/ mambo/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=19& Itemid=51) Education Concerns for Hunger Organization [4] World Wide Wattle (http:/ / www. worldwidewattle. com/ schools/ uses. php) External links • Acacia colei -- Florabase ( 126 Acacia complanata 127 Acacia complanata Acacia complanata Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. complanata Binomial name Acacia complanata Benth. Range of Acacia complanata Synonyms • • Acacia anceps Hook. Racosperma complanatum (Benth.) Pedley[1] Acacia complanata, generally known as Long-pod Wattle and Flat-stemmed Wattle, is a perennial tree native to Australia. It can grow 5–6 m tall, but more often it grows as a large shrub.[2] It is not listed as being a threatened species. It is commonly used in environmental management. Alkaloids The major base is Nb-methyltetrahydroharman, isolable to 0.3%, but there are also trace amounts of tetrahydroharman and N-methyltetrahydroharman. Varieties • 'Fasciculata' References • Johns, S. R.; J. A. Lamberton, and A. A. Sioumis (1966). "Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae" [3]. Australian Journal of Chemistry 19: 1539–1540. Retrieved 2008-03-09. Acacia complanata 128 Footnotes [1] International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Racosperma+ complanatum) [2] Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP) (http:/ / asgap. org. au/ a-com. html) Acacia confusa Acacia confusa Conservation status Least Concern  (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. confusa Binomial name Acacia confusa Merr. Acacia confusa 129 Range of Acacia confusa Synonyms • • Acacia richii auct. non A. Gray Racosperma confusum (Merr.) Pedley[1] Acacia confusa is a perennial tree native to South-East Asia. Some common names for it are Acacia Petit Feuille, Small Philippine Acacia, Formosa Acacia (Taiwan Acacia) and Formosan Koa. It grows to a height of 15 m. The tree has become very common in many tropical Pacific areas, including Hawaii, where the species is considered invasive.[2] Uses Its uses include chemical products, environmental management and food and drink. The bark may be ground into a powder and saturated into water to create a tea, or may be spread onto various foods as a spice and taste enhancer. The wood has a density of about 0.75 g/cm³.[3] In Taiwan, its wood is used to make support beams for underground mines. The wood is also converted to charcoal for family use. The plant is used in traditional medicine[4] and is available from herbal medicine shops (草 藥 店) in Taiwan, but there has been no clinical study to support its effectiveness. Phytochemicals Phytochemicals found in Acacia confusa: Root bark • N-methyltryptamine, 1.43%[5] • N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 1.15% Seeds • Neurolathryogen (α-amino-β-oxalylaminopropionic acid), which can cause neurological damage, paralysis and death. Stems Acacia confusa habit • N-methyltryptamine, 0.04% • N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 0.01% Phyllodes No alkaloids are found in the structures).Wikipedia:Disputed statement Varieties • Acacia confusa var. inamurai Hayata Acacia confusa leaves and pods phyllodes (leaf-like Acacia confusa 130 References [1] International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Racosperma+ confusum) [2] Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http:/ / www. hear. org/ Pier/ wra/ pacific/ acacia_confusa_htmlwra. htm) [3] FAO Appendix 1 (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ W4095E/ w4095e0c. htm) [4] Li, Thomas S. C. Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants: Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values, CRC Press (2006), ISBN 0-8493-9249-7, p.2. online GoogleBooks preview (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=cAYXHeEPdB0C& lpg=PP1& pg=PA2#v=onepage& q& f=false) Acacia confusa seeds [5] Lycaeum (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ confusaphy. html) External links • Acacia Confusa Global Distributor based in the U.S. ( • Acacia confusa on DMT-Nexus Wiki ( • Erowid Acacia vault ( • Acacia confusa Merr. ( searchword=herb_id=D00350) Medicinal Plant Images Database (School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University) (traditional Chinese) (English) Vachellia cornigera 131 Vachellia cornigera Vachellia cornigera Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. cornigera Binomial name Vachellia cornigera (L.) Seigler & Ebinger Range of Vachellia cornigera Synonyms • • • • • • • • • • Acacia campecheana Schenck Acacia cornigera (L.) Willd. Acacia cornigera var. americana DC. Acacia cubensis Schenck Acacia furcella Saff. Acacia hernandezii Saff. Acacia interjecta Schenck Acacia rossiana Schenck Acacia spadicigera Schldl. & Cham. Acacia turgida Saff. Vachellia cornigera 132 • Mimosa cornigera L. Tauroceras cornigerum (L.)Britton & Rose • Tauroceras spadicigerum (Schldl. & Cham.)Britton & Rose[1] • Vachellia cornigera, commonly known as Bullhorn Acacia (family Fabaceae), is a swollen-thorn tree native to Mexico and Central America. The common name of "bullhorn" refers to the enlarged, hollowed-out, swollen thorns (technically called stipular spines) that occur in pairs at the base of leaves, and resemble the horns of a steer. In Yucatán (one region where the bullhorn acacia thrives) it is called "subín", in Panamá the locals call them "cachito" (little horn). The tree grows to a height of 10 metres (33 ft). Mutualism Bullhorn Acacia is best known for its symbiotic relationship with a species of Pseudomyrmex ant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea) that lives in its hollowed-out thorns. Unlike other acacias, Bullhorn acacias are deficient in the bitter alkaloids usually located in the leaves that defend against ravaging insects and animals. Bullhorn acacia ants fulfill that role. The ants act as a defense mechanism for the tree, protecting it against harmful insects, animals or humans that may come into contact with it. Acacia ants The ants live in the hollowed-out thorns for which the tree is named. In return, the tree supplies the ants with protein-lipid nodules called Beltian bodies from its leaflet tips and carbohydrate-rich nectar from glands on its leaf stalk. These Beltian bodies have no known function other than to provide food for the symbiotic ants. The aggressive ants release an alarm pheromone and rush out of their thorn "barracks" in great numbers. According to Daniel Janzen, livestock can apparently smell the pheromone and avoid these acacias day and night.[2] Getting stung in the mouth and tongue is an effective deterrent to browsing on the tender foliage. In addition to protecting V. conigera from leaf-cutting ants and other unwanted herbivores, the ants also clear away invasive seedlings around the base of the tree that might overgrow it and block out vital sunlight. Uses Decorative uses The thorns of V. cornigera, are often strung into unusual necklaces and belts. In El Salvador the horn-shaped thorns provide the legs for small ballerina seed dolls which are worn as decorative pins. References [1] Acacia cornigera (ILDIS LegumeWeb) (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~15473) [2] Daniel Janzen, Costa Rican Natural History, 1983 External links • Vegetation of Belize ( • Community Ecology ( • Backyard Nature ( Acacia cultriformis 133 Acacia cultriformis Knife-leaf Wattle Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. cultriformis Binomial name Acacia cultriformis A. Cunn. ex G. Don Synonyms • • • • • • • Acacia cultriformis G. Don var. albicans Chopinet Acacia cultriformis G. Don var. glaucescens Chopinet Acacia glaucifolia Meissner Acacia glaucophylla F. Cels Acacia papuliformis Loudon Acacia scapuliformis G. Don Racosperma cultriforme (G. Don) Acacia cultriformis, known as the Knife-leaf Wattle, Dogtooth Wattle, Half-moon Wattle or Golden-glow Wattle, is a perennial tree or shrub of the genus Acacia native to Australia. It is widely cultivated, and has been found to have naturalised in Asia, Africa, North America, New Zealand and South America. Acacia cultriformis grows to a height of about 2–3 m.[1] Acacia cultriformis Uses A. cultriformis is used as cut flowers.[2] The flowers are edible and they are an ingredient used in some fritters. Yellow dye is extracted from the flowers and green dye is extracted from the seed pods. Since the plant has many thorns, it is used as a protective hedge. List of the cultivars • Acacia ‘Cascade’ (RN: ACC154) Wikipedia:Please clarify Notes & references [1] Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP) (http:/ / asgap. org. au/ a-cul. html) [2] Australian Plants as Cut Flowers (http:/ / asgap. org. au/ APOL4/ dec96-2. html) External links • Acacia cultriformis (Botanic Gardens Trust) ( garden_features/blooming_calendar/Acacia_cultriformis) • Acacia cultriformis (The New York Botanical Garden) ( wwwcatalog.detail_list?this_id=4361551) 134 Acacia cuthbertsonii 135 Acacia cuthbertsonii Acacia cuthbertsonii Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. cuthbertsonii Binomial name Acacia cuthbertsonii Luehm. Range of Acacia cuthbertsonii Synonyms Acacia cuthbertsoni Luehm.[1] Acacia cuthbertsonii is a perennial shrub or tree native to Australia. It grows 1–5 m tall with fissured, flaky bark. It grows in the central western part of Australia.[2] Uses The plant is used as an analgesic by the indigenous peoples of Australia.[3] More specifically, A. cuthbertsonii is also used to treat headaches and toothaches [4] by indigenous people of the Australian NT. The tree's wood is used to make splints to treat bone fractures.[5] Certain parts of the tree are used to make bandages.[6] Subspecies • Acacia cuthbertsonii subsp. cuthbertsonii • Acacia cuthbertsonii subsp. linearis Acacia cuthbertsonii References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] ILDIS (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& genus~Acacia& species~%r%t%o%i*) FloraBase (http:/ / florabase. calm. wa. gov. au/ browse/ flora?f=163& level=s& id=3281) Analgesic Plants (http:/ / www. newcrops. uq. edu. au/ newslett/ ncnl1020. htm) Australian New Crops Newsletter Sydney Exotic Plants (http:/ / www. bushfood. net/ medicinals_full. htm) ABRS Flora of Australia Online (http:/ / www. anbg. gov. au/ abrs/ abif/ flora/ stddisplay. xsql?pnid=1320) Aboriginal Medicine - Japan Paper.pdf Traditional Aboriginal Medicine - Japan Paper (http:/ / www. nt. gov. au/ health/ comm_health/ abhealth_strategy/ Traditional) 136 Acacia decurrens 137 Acacia decurrens Acacia decurrens Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. decurrens Binomial name Acacia decurrens (Wendl.f.) Willd. Synonyms • Acacia angulata Desv. Acacia decurrens Willd. var. angulata (Desv.)Benth. Acacia molissima Willd. var. angulata (Desv.)Walp. Mimosa angulata (Desv.) Poir. Mimosa decurrens Donn Mimosa decurrens Wendl. • Racosperma decurrens (Willd.) Pedley[1] • • • • • Acacia decurrens (acacia bark, early black wattle, green wattle, Sydney wattle, wattle bark, tan wattle, golden teak, or Brazilian teak) is a perennial tree or shrub native to eastern New South Wales, including Sydney, the Greater Blue Mountains Area, the Hunter Region, and south west to the Australian Capital Territory. It is cultivated throughout Australia and the world, and has naturalised in most Australian states and in Africa, the Americas, Europe, New Zealand and the Pacific, the Indian Ocean area, and Japan. It grows to a height of 2–10 m and it flowers from July to September.[2] Acacia decurrens Leaves Alternately arranged leaves with dark green on both side. Stipules are either small or none. Base of petiole swollen to form the pulvinus. Leaf blade is bipinnate. Rachis is 20-120mm long, angular and hairless. 15-45 pairs of widely spaced small leaflets (pinnules) are connected each other and 5-15 mm long by 0.4-1 mm wide, straight, parallel sided, pointed tip, tapering base, shiny and hairless or rarely sparsely hairy leaves. Stems Usually 2-15m high. They are erect and hairless. Young foliage tips are yellow. Bark is brown to dark grey colour and smooth to deeply fissured longitudinally with conspicuous intermodal flange marks. Flowers The small yellow or golden-yellow flowers are very cottony in appearance and are densely attached to the stems in each head with 5-7 mm long and 60-110 mm long axillary raceme or terminal panicle. They are bisexual and fragrant. The flowers have five petals and sepals and numerous conspicuous stamens. Ovary is superior and has only one carpel with numerous ovules. Fruit Dark brown or reddish brown to black colour of the seed are located inside of parallel sided, flattish, smooth pod. They are 20-105 mm long by 4-8.5 mm wide with edges. Seed opens by two valves. Pods are initially hairy but they become hairless when they grow. Reproduction Dark brown or black seed is main source of reproduction. They can be spread by insects, wind or water. Habitat Grows naturally in woodlands, dry forests and heathlands in New South Wales, where moisture level is high. In areas where it has become naturalised, Sydney green wattle (Acacia decurrens) is generally found on roadsides, along creeklines and in waste areas. It also grows in disturbed sites nearby bushlands and open woodlands Soil Ordinary soil, enriched soil, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline are suitable but mainly good in dry soil for extended periods to constantly moist Origin Native to Tablelands of New South Wales and Victoria. The species become naturalised in other states include Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania. Climate Temperate coastal to cool inland but not dry or hot areas of inland NSW. High rainfall areas with 600-1400mm per year, otherwise tolerant of a wide range of conditions. Uses Uses for it include chemical products, environmental management, and wood. The flowers are edible and are used in fritters. An edible gum oozing from the tree's trunk can be used as a lesser-quality substitute for gum arabic, for example in the production of fruit jelly. The bark contains about 37-40% tannin. The flowers are used to produce yellow dye, and the seed pods are used to produce green dye.[3] An organic chemical compound called kaempferol 138 Acacia decurrens 139 gives the flowers of Acacia decurrens their color.[4] Cultivation Cultivation of A. decurrens can be started by soaking the seeds in warm water and sowing them outdoors. The seeds keep their ability to germinate for many years.[5] Acacia decurrens (Wendl. f.) Willd. - green wattle seeds Gallery References [1] ILDIS (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~246& genus~Acacia& species~decurrens) [2] FloraBase (http:/ / florabase. calm. wa. gov. au/ browse/ flora?f=163& level=s& id=16975& PHPSESSID=5f37f4a6bc3fbb3d58d92204583eb8ce) [3] Plants for a Future Database (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Acacia+ decurrens) [4] Lycaeum -- Phytochemistry Intro (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ phyto. html) [5] Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CfDcl2m-6BMC& pg=PA7& lpg=PA7& dq="acacia+ longifolia"+ uses& source=web& ots=EkNk6Oa_ip& sig=QcXMyBrLsTSqmA1MLErlSFY-s_w#PPA8,M1) Select Extra-tropical Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture Or Naturalization By Ferdinand von Mueller Invasive Species Compendium.(1994). Datasheet-Acacia decurrens(green wattle).[On-line]. Availavble from: http:/ / Acacia decurrens HerbiGuide. (1988). Availavble from: Queensland Government, Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition. (2011) Availavble from: http:/ / keyserver. lucidcentral. org/ weeds/ data/ 03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/ media/ Html/ Acacia_decurrens.htm A view from Yallaroo. (2009) Availavble from: External links • USDA Plants Profile: Acacia decurrens ( 140 Acacia delibrata 141 Acacia delibrata Acacia delibrata Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. delibrata Binomial name Acacia delibrata Benth. Acacia delibrata is a perennial tree native to Western Australia.[1] It grows narrowly upward to a height of 2-8m. It flowers from March to August. It is not listed as being a threatened species.[2] The seed pods produce "a saponin which is irritant to the mucous membranes."[3] References [1] ILDIS (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~23572& genus~Acacia& species~delibrata) [2] FloraBase (http:/ / florabase. calm. wa. gov. au/ browse/ flora?f=163& level=s& id=3288& PHPSESSID=5f37f4a6bc3fbb3d58d92204583eb8ce) [3] Acacia delibrata (http:/ / www. botanical-dermatology-database. info/ BotDermFolder/ LEGU-1. html#Acacia delibrata) in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database Distribution map Acacia falcata 142 Acacia falcata Acacia falcata Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. falcata Binomial name Acacia falcata Willd. Range of Acacia falcata Synonyms • • • • • • Acacia ensifolia Steud. Acacia obliqua Desv. Acacia plagiophylla Spreng. Mimosa falcata (Willd.) Poir. Mimosa obliqua Wendl., Pers. Racosperma falcatum (Willd.) Pedley Acacia falcata, commonly known as sickle wattle and by other vernacular names including sally,[1] is a perennial shrub or tree native to eastern Australia, which reaches five metres in height and has cream flowers in early winter. It gets its common and scientific name for its sickle-shaped leaves. Hardy and adaptable to cultivation, it is used in regeneration of bushland. Acacia falcata 143 Taxonomy German botanist Carl Ludwig Willdenow was the first to officially describe the sickle wattle in 1806, although his countryman Johann Christoph Wendland had given it the name Mimosa obliqua in 1798, this was deemed an illegitimate name. The species name is derived from the Latin word falx "sickle". Some common names for it are burra, sally, sickle-shaped acacia and silver-leaved wattle. Description leaves and developing buds Found as a shrub or small tree from 2 to 5 m (7–16 ft) high, Acacia falcata has grey or black bark. Like most wattles it has phyllodes rather than leaves. These are a pale green or grey-green and sickle-shaped, measuring 7–19 cm (2.8–7.6 in) in length, by 0.9–4 cm (0.4–1.6 in) wide with a prominent mid vein. The small round flowers are cream or pale-yellow and appear in early winter from April to August. These are followed by thin seed pods which are 4.5–12 cm (0.8–4.6 in) long and 0.5–0.8 cm (0.2–0.3 in) wide. The pods mature from September to December. Distribution and habitat The range is from Queensland south through eastern New South Wales to Bermagui on the south coast. It grows predominantly on shale soils in open forest, and is associated with such trees as Eucalyptus paniculata, E. longifolia and E. tereticornis. Naturalised, it has been recorded in Java in Indonesia, and in North Island in New Zealand. Ecology Plants live for five to twenty years in the wild, and are killed by bushfire. The seed is released in December, and dispersed by wind. It is stored in the soil, although it is unclear how related germination is to bushfire. Seed can germinate in disturbed areas. Acacia falcata is the host plant for the Imperial Hairstreak (Jalmenus evagoras). One field study recovered 98 species of bug (hemiptera) from A. falcata across its range. Cultivation and uses Acacia falcata is adaptable to a wide range of soils in cultivation, and its attractive foliage is a horticultural feature. It is propagated by seed which must be pretreated with boiling water before it is able to germinate. It is easy to grow given a good sunlit position and good drainage, and is used in revegetation. Australian indigenous people use the bark to make a liniment for treating ailments of the skin. A. falcata is excellent for stabilizing barren sand. The bark is important in the tanning industry. References [1] A sallow is a shrubby willow (OED). Vachellia farnesiana 144 Vachellia farnesiana Vachellia farnesiana Conservation status Secure  (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. farnesiana Binomial name Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Willd. varieties • • Vachellia farnesiana var. farnesiana (L.) Willd. Vachellia farnesiana var. guanacastensis H.D.Clarke et al. Synonyms • Acacia acicularis Willd. Vachellia farnesiana 145 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Acacia farnesiana var. lenticellata (F.Muell.) Bailey Acacia indica (Poir.) Desv. Acacia lenticellata F. Muell. Acacia minuta (M.E. Jones) R.M. Beauch. Acacia minuta subsp. minuta (M.E.Jones) R.M. Beauch. Farnesia odora Gasp. Farnesiana odora Gasp. Mimosa acicularis Poir. Mimosa farnesiana L. Mimosa indica Poir. Mimosa suaveolens Salisb. Pithecellobium acuminatum M.E. Jones Pithecellobium minutum M.E. Jones Popanax farnesiana (L.) Raf. Poponax farnesiana (L.) Raf. Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as needle bush, is so named because of the numerous thorns distributed along its branches. The native range of V. farnesiana is uncertain. While the point of origin is Mexico and Central America, the species has a pantropical distribution incorporating northern Australia and southern Asia. It remains unclear whether the extra-American distribution is primarily natural or anthropogenic.[1] It is deciduous over part of its range,[2] but evergreen in most locales. The species grows to a height of up to 8 m (26 ft) and has a lifespan of about 25–50 years. The plant has been recentlyWikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items spread to many new locations as a result of human activity and it is considered a serious weed in Fiji, where locals call it Ellington's curse. It thrives in dry, saline, or sodic soils. It is also a serious pest plant in parts of Australia, including north-west New South Wales, where it now infests thousands of acres of grazing country. Vachellia farnesiana The taxon name farnesiana is specially named after Odoardo Farnese (1573–1626) of the notable Italian Farnese family which, after 1550, under the patronage of cardinal Alessandro Farnese, maintained some of the first private European botanical gardens in Rome, in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under stewardship of these Farnese Gardens this acacia was imported to Italy. The plant itself was brought to the Farnese Gardens from the Caribbean and Central America, where it originates. Analysis of essences of the floral extract from this plant, long used in perfumery, resulted in the name for the sesquiterpene biosynthetic chemical farnesol, found as a basic sterol precursor in plants, and cholesterol precursor in animals. Vachellia farnesiana 146 Some of the reported uses of the plant Bark The bark is used for its tannin content. Highly tannic barks are common in general to acacias, extracts of many being are used in medicine for this reason. (See cutch). Food The leaves are used as a tamarind flavoring for chutneys and the pods are roasted to be used in sweet and sour dishes. Bark and Thorns of Vachellia farnesiana Flowers The flowers are processed through distillation to produce a perfume called Cassie. It is widely used in the perfume industry in Europe. Flowers of the plant provide the perfume essence from which the biologically important sesquiterpenoid farnesol is named. Scented ointments from Cassie are made in India. Foliage The foliage is a significant source of forage in much of its range, with a protein content around 18%. Seed pods The concentration of tannin in the seed pods is about 23%. Seeds The seeds of V. farnesiana are not toxic to humans and are a valuable food source for people throughout the plant's range. The ripe seeds are put through a press to make oil for cooking. Nonetheless, an anecdotal report has been made that in Brazil some people use the seeds of V. farnesiana to eliminate rabid dogs. This is attributed to an unnamed toxic alkaloid. Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Willd. - sweet acacia seeds Vachellia farnesiana Forage The tree makes good forage for bees. Dyes and inks A black pigment is extracted from the bark and fruit. Traditional medicine The bark and the flowers are the parts of the tree most used in traditional medicine. V. farnesiana has been used in Colombia to treat malaria, and the extract from the tree bark and leaves has shown some efficacy against the malarial pathogen Plasmodium falciparum in animal models . Indigenous Australians have used the roots and bark of the tree to treat diarrhea and diseases of the skin. The tree's leaves can also be rubbed on the skin to treat skin diseases.Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources[medical citation needed] Common names Farnese wattle, dead finish, mimosa wattle, mimosa bush, prickly mimosa bush, prickly Moses, needle bush, north-west curara, sheep's briar, sponge wattle, sweet acacia, thorny acacia, thorny feather wattle, wild briar, huisache, cassie, cascalotte, cassic, mealy wattle, popinac, sweet briar, Texas huisache, aroma, (Bahamas) cashia, (Bahamas, USA) opoponax, sashaw, (Belize) suntich, (Jamaica) sassie-flower, iron wood, cassie flower, honey-ball, casha tree, casha, (Virgin Islands) cassia, (Fiji) Ellington's curse, cushuh, (St. Maarten), huizache (Mexico). References [1] Clarke, H.D., Seigler, D.S., Ebinger, J.E. 1989; 'Acacia farnesiana (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) and Related Species from Mexico, the Southwestern U.S., and the Caribbean' Systematic Botany 14 549-564 [2] PDF (http:/ / cals. arizona. edu/ pubs/ crops/ az1359/ az13592b. pdf) Ursula K. Schuch and Margaret Norem, Growth of Legume Tree Species Growing in the Southwestern United States, University of Arizona. External links • Dr. Duke's Database ( • Interactive Distribution Map of Vachellia farnesiana ( acacia-farnesiana-sweet-acacia-native-range-map.php) • Acacia farnesiana ( Israel Native Plants • Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. ( searchword=herb_id=D00548) Medicinal Plant Images Database (School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University) (traditional Chinese) (English) 147 Acacia flavescens 148 Acacia flavescens Acacia flavescens Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. flavescens Binomial name Acacia flavescens A.Cunn. ex Benth. Acacia flavescens, also known as the red or yellow Wattle, is a tree in the Acacia genus native to eastern Australia. References Acacia floribunda 149 Acacia floribunda Acacia floribunda Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. floribunda Binomial name Acacia floribunda (Vent.) Willd. Synonyms • • • • • • • • • Acacia angustifolia Lodd. Acacia floribunda (Vent.) Willd. var. latifolia Benth. Acacia intermedia Hook. Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. var. floribunda (Vent.)Benth. Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. var. floribunda (Vent.)F.Muell. Acacia retinodes Schltdl. var. floribunda (Vent.)H.Vilm. Mimosa floribunda Vent. Phyllodoce floribunda (Vent.) Link Racosperma floribundum (Vent.) Pedley Acacia floribunda is a perennial evergreen[1] shrub or tree. It is native to New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria, but is cultivated extensively, and has naturalised in South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia, and also in Indonesia, Mauritius and northern New Zealand. Common names for it include Gossamer Wattle, Acacia floribunda Grossamer Wattle, Weeping Acacia and White Sallow Wattle. It grows up to 6m in height, but there is a commercial form available which only grows to about 1m tall. Its cream-colored flowers occur in the early Spring (August to September in the southern hemisphere).[2] Uses In landscaping, Acacia floribunda is very useful for controlling erosion, especially in gullies. It is also useful as a hedge, as a wind breaker, around bogs and ponds and as a shade tree.[3] It is sold frequently as an ornamental landscaping plant because it is fast-growing and it has many beautiful flowers.[4] The tree is used for its nitrogen fixing properties by interspersing it with fruit trees.[5] A. floribunda foliage has some use as fodder for livestock such as goats. The Mature Inner Bark of this species contains the compound NN-Dimethyltryptamine (0.4%) and other substituted Tryptamines that are components of the South American visionary medicine Ayahuasca. Allergen Some individuals are allergic to A. floribunda pollen. About 1.2% of the population not closely exposed to the pollen are allergic, but 31% of floriculturists are allergic to it, seemingly because of their increased exposure. Cultivation Acacia floribunda can be propagated from seed by treating the seeds in near-boiling water to penetrate the hard outer seed coating. Alternatively, the outer coatings of the seeds can be sanded down somewhat to allow water in. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Native Flora of the Southern Highlands (http:/ / www. highlandsnsw. com. au/ nature/ native_flora. html) Australian National Botanic Gardens (http:/ / www. anbg. gov. au/ acacia/ species/ A-floribunda. html) Organic Matters (http:/ / www. organicmatters. com. au/ acacia-floribun. htm) Australian Acacias in the Garden (http:/ / www. uq. net. au/ ~zzlstein/ acacia/ acgarden. html) Gardening Australia Factsheet: Permaculture Paradise (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ gardening/ stories/ s1884872. htm) 150 Acacia georginae 151 Acacia georginae Acacia georginae Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. georginae Binomial name Acacia georginae Bailey Synonyms Racosperma georginae (Bailey) Pedley[1] Acacia georginae is a perennial tree which is native to Australia and which has been introduced into the United States. Common names for it include Georgina Gidgee, Georgina Gidyea and Poison Gidyea. It grows to a height of 3-8m.[2] Acacia georginae Uses Its uses include timber and fuel. Primarily the seed pods can be extremely poisonous, since they may contain what are called organic fluoroacetates. Unfortunately, sheep and cattle sometimes are poisoned after grazing on the pods.[3] References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~16214& genus~Acacia& species~georginae) [2] World Wide Wattle (http:/ / www. worldwidewattle. com/ speciesgallery/ georginae. php?id=23659) [3] Veterinary Education and Information Network (http:/ / vein. library. usyd. edu. au/ links/ pact/ fluoroacetates. html) External links • Acacia georginae (Google Images) ( oe=ISO-8859-1&gbv=1&safe=off&q="Acacia+georginae"&btnG=Search&um=1&sa=N&tab=wi) 152 Vachellia horrida 153 Vachellia horrida Vachellia horrida Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. horrida Binomial name Vachellia horrida (L.) Kyal. & Boatwr. subspecies[1] • • Vachellia horrida subsp. benadirensis (Chiov.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia horrida subsp. horrida (L.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Range of Vachellia horrida Synonyms[2] Vachellia horrida 154 • • • • Acacia horrida (L.) Willd. Acacia latronum (L.f.) Willd. Mimosa horrida L. Mimosa latronum L. f. Vachellia horrida is a low spreading shrub or sometimes tree native to both the wet and dry scrublands of tropical to subtropical East Africa. Common names for it are Cape Gum and Dev-Babul. It is also found elsewhere in Africa, Asia, India and South America. It frequently has stipular spines 9.5 cm long.[3] V. horrida is an important browse plant in the tropics, particularly during the dry season. Uses Vachellia horrida is used as forage for livestock, for its wood and for fuel.[4] Because of its huge thorns, it makes an excellent protective hedge. It used to be the most important tree for the tanning industry in South Africa, but extract from its bark leaves the leather with a rather bad smell. The tree produces good gum, but it is yellowish in color. References [1] http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb/ 6. 00/ fam/ f2. shtml [2] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Mimosa+ horrida) [3] Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CfDcl2m-6BMC& pg=PA7& lpg=PA7& dq="acacia+ longifolia"+ uses& source=web& ots=EkNk6Oa_ip& sig=QcXMyBrLsTSqmA1MLErlSFY-s_w#PPA8,M1) Select Extra-tropical Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture Or Naturalization By Ferdinand von Mueller [4] Madras Naturalists' Society (http:/ / www. blackbuck. org/ blackbuck/ vol_15_1/ article5. htm#Acacia) Acacia implexa 155 Acacia implexa Acacia implexa Acacia implexa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. implexa Binomial name Acacia implexa Acacia implexa, commonly known as Lightwood, is a fast-growing Australian tree, the timber of which is used for furniture making. It is widespread in eastern Australia from central coastal Queensland to southern Victoria, with outlying populations on the Atherton Tableland in northern Queensland and Tasmania's King Island. It grows to 5–15 m high and 4–7 m wide. It has sickle-shaped phyllodes up to 20 cm long, and perfumed cream-coloured flowers. References Mimosa tenuiflora 156 Mimosa tenuiflora Mimosa tenuiflora Mimosa tenuiflora Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Mimosoideae Genus: Mimosa Species: M. tenuiflora Binomial name Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. Mimosa tenuiflora 157 Range of Mimosa tenuiflora Synonyms • • • • • • Acacia hostilis Mart. Acacia jurema Mart. Acacia tenuiflora Willd. Mimosa cabrera H. Karst. Mimosa hostilis (C. Mart.) Benth. Mimosa limana Rizzini Mimosa tenuiflora, syn. Mimosa hostilis (Jurema, Tepezcohuite) is a perennial tree or shrub native to the northeastern region of Brazil (Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Pernambuco, Bahia) and found as far north as southern Mexico (Oaxaca and coast of Chiapas). It is most often found in lower altitudes, but it can be found as high as 1000 m. Description The fern-like branches have leaves that are Mimosa like, finely pinnate, growing to 5 cm long. Each compound leaf contains 15–33 pairs of bright green leaflets 5–6 mm long. The tree itself grows up to 8 m tall and it can reach 4–5 m tall in less than 5 years. The white, fragrant flowers occur in loosely cylindrical spikes 4–8 cm long. In the Northern Hemisphere it blossoms and produces fruit from November to June or July. In the Southern Hemisphere it blooms primarily from September to January. The fruit is brittle and averages 2.5–5 cm long. Each pod contains 4–6 seeds that are oval, flat, light brown and 3–4 mm in diameter. There are about 145 seeds/g. In the Southern Hemisphere, the fruit ripens from February to April. The tree's bark is dark brown to gray. It splits lengthwise and the inside is reddish brown. The tree's wood is dark reddish brown with a yellow center. It is very dense, durable and strong, having a density of about 1.11 g/cm³. Mimosa tenuiflora does very well after a forest fire, or other major ecological disturbance. It is a prolific pioneer plant. It drops its leaves on the ground, continuously forming a thin layer of mulch and eventually humus. Along with its ability to fix nitrogen, the tree conditions the soil, making it ready for other plant species to come along. Small Mimosa tenuiflora stem and roots Mimosa tenuiflora 158 Medicinal uses The Mayans of Mexico have used roasted Mimosa tenuiflora "tepezcohuite" bark to treat lesions of the skin for over a thousand years.Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources A tea made of the leaves and stem has been used to treat tooth pain. For cases of cough and bronchitis, a water extract (decoction) of Mimosa tenuiflora is drunk. A handful of bark in one liter of water is used by itself or in a syrup. The solution is drunk until the symptoms subside. One preliminary clinical study found Mimosa tenuiflora to be effective in treating venous leg ulcerations. Mimosa tenuiflora root bark Mimosa tenuiflora Other uses The tree is an acceptable source of forage or fodder for animals, providing vital protein and other nutrients. It does well in the dry season and in drought, while providing life saving food for local livestock and animals. Cows, goats and sheep eat the pods and leaves. There seems to be evidence that Mimosa tenuiflora forage or fodder cause development defects to pregnant ruminants in Brazil. The tree is an important source of forage for bees, especially during the dry season and in the beginning of the wet season. Like most plants in the Fabaceae family, Mimosa tenuiflora fertilizes the soil via nitrogen fixing bacteria. The tree is useful in fighting soil erosion and for reforestation. Mimosa tenuiflora syn. Mimosa hostilis provides life saving food for animals in drought. Mimosa tenuiflora 159 Mimosa tenuiflora is a very good source of fuel wood and works very well for making posts, most likely because of its high tannin content (16%), which protects it from rot. Due to its high tannin content, the bark of the tree is widely used as a natural dye and in leather production. It is used to make bridges, buildings, fences, furniture and wheels. It is an excellent source of charcoal and at least one study has been done to see why this is the case. The healing properties of the tree make it useful in treating domestic animals. A solution of the leaves or bark can also be used for washing Mimosa tenuiflora animals in the prevention of parasites. Because the tree keeps most of its leaves during the dry season, it is an important source of shade for animals and plants during that time. Chemistry The bark is known to be rich in tannins, saponins, alkaloids, lipids, phytosterols, glucosides, xylose, rhamnose, arabinose, lupeol, methoxychalcones and kukulkanins.[citation needed] Entheogenic uses Mimosa tenuiflora is an entheogen known as Jurema, Jurema Preta, Black Jurema, and Vinho de Jurema. Dried Mexican Mimosa tenuiflora root bark has been recently shown to have a DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) content of about 1%. The stem bark has about 0.03% DMT. The bark is the part of the tree traditionally used in northeastern Brazil in a psychoactive decoction also called Jurema or Yurema. Analogously, the traditional Western Amazonian sacrament Ayahuasca is brewed from indigenous ayahuasca vines. However, to date no β-carbolines such as harmala alkaloids have been detected in Mimosa tenuiflora decoctions, yet the root bark is consistently used without added MAOI. Mimosa tenuiflora' syn. Mimosa hostilis This presents challenges to the pharmacological understanding of how DMT from the plant is rendered orally active as an entheogen. In this view, if MAOI is neither present in the plant nor added to the mixture, the enzyme MAO will break apart DMT in the human gut, preventing the active molecule from entering blood and brain. The isolation of a new compound "Yuremamine" Mimosa tenuiflora as reported in 2005 represents a new class of phyto-indoles, which may explain an apparent oral activity of DMT in Jurema. Mimosa tenuiflora 160 Cultivation For outside planting, USDA Zone 9 or higher is recommended. In nature, Mimosa tenuiflora "[...] fruits and seeds are disseminated by the wind in a radius of 5–8 m from the mother plant; rain carries them from slopes to lower plains and human activities contribute to their dissemination." For cultivation, the seed pods are collected once they start to spontaneously open on the tree. The collected pods are laid out in the sun so that the pods open up and release their seeds. The seeds can then be planted in sandy soil with sun exposure. Mimosa tenuiflora Scarification of the seed via mechanical means or by using sulfuric acid greatly increases the germination rate of the seeds over non-treatment. The seeds can be sown directly into holes in the ground or planted in prepared areas. The seeds can germinate in temperatures ranging from 10 to 30 °C, but the highest germination rate occurs at around 25 °C (about 96%), even after four years of storage. Germination takes about 2–4 weeks. It is also possible to propagate Mimosa tenuiflora via cuttings. Trimming adult Mimosa tenuiflorae during the rainy season is not recommended because it can cause them to perish. References External links • Erowid mimosa page ( • Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.): a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology ( tlng=en) • Camargo-Ricalde SL (December 2000). "[Description, distribution, anatomy, chemical composition and uses of Mimosa tenuiflora (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) in Mexico]". Rev. Biol. Trop. (in Spanish; Castilian) 48 (4): 939–54. PMID  11487939 ( • Mimosa tenuiflora USDA ( • Tepezcohuite Czech Republic ( Vachellia karroo 161 Vachellia karroo Vachellia karroo Conservation status Vulnerable  (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. karroo Binomial name Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso Vachellia karroo 162 Native Range of Vachellia karroo Synonyms • • • • • • • • • • • • Acacia campbellii Arn. Acacia dekindtiana A. Chev. Acacia eburnea sensu auct. Acacia horrida sensu auct. Acacia inconflagrabilis Gerstner Acacia karoo Hayne Acacia karroo Hayne Acacia minutifolia Ragup. Acacia natalitia E.Mey. Acacia pseudowightii Thoth. Acacia roxburghii Wight & Arn. Mimosa eburnea L.f. Vachellia karroo also known as the Sweet Thorn, is a species of Vachellia, native to southern Africa from southern Angola east to Mozambique, and south to South Africa.[1] It is a shrub or small to medium-sized tree which grows to height of 12m.[2] It is difficult to tell apart from Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens without examining the seed pods. It is not listed as being a threatened species.[2] Common names in various languages include Karoo Thorn, Doringboom, Soetdoring, Cape Gum, Cassie, Piquants Blancs, Cassie Piquants Blancs, Cockspur Thorn, Deo-Babool, Doorn Boom, Kaludai, Kikar, Mormati, Pahari Kikar, umuNga and Udai Vel. Vachellia karroo 163 Identification It is a shrub or small to medium-sized tree which grows to height of 12m. Vachellia karroo has a rounded crown, branching fairly low down on the trunk. It is variable in shape and size, reaching a maximum of about 12m where there is good water. The bark is red on young branches, darkening and becoming rough with age. Sometimes an attractive reddish colour can be seen in the deep bark fissures The leaves are finely textured and dark green. The abundant yellow flowers appear in early summer, or after good rains. The seed pods are narrow, flat and crescent shaped. They are green when young becoming brown and dry. The pods split open allowing the seeds to fall to the ground. The thorns are paired, greyish to white and are long and straight Distribution It is a tree of open woodland and wooded grassland. It grows to its greatest size when rainfall of 800-900mm is received but can grow and even thrive in very dry conditions such as the Karoo region of western Winter habit of tree South Africa. The requirement here is for deep soils that allow its roots to spread. Everywhere in its range, however, the tree is easily recognised by its distinctive long white paired thorns and coffee coloured bark, both of which are very attractive. In the tropics it shows little variation but at the southern end of its range it becomes more variable in appearance. Adaptations Vachellia karroo has a life span of 30–40 years and is an adaptable pioneer, able to establishing itself without shade, shelter or protection from grass fires. Once over a year old, seedlings can resprout after fire. Several fungi are associated with this tree and the crown of mature trees may be parasitized by various mistletoes, leading to the tree's decline. This tree has a long taproot which enables it to use water and nutrients from deep underground, this and its ability to fix nitrogen, lead to grasses and other plants thriving in its shade. The tree has been noted to occur in the Torre del Mar area, near Malaga, Spain. Here it grows freely as a large shrub on waste ground. It has been used as hedging to keep out goats from vegetable plots. Flowers during July. Uses V. karoo is used for chemical products, forage, domestic uses, environmental management, fibre, food, drink, and wood. The tough wood is white to slightly yellowish in colour, rarely producing dark brown heartwood. It is widely cultivated in Asia, Australia, the Mediterranean region, India and the Indian Ocean area. The large thorns mean that the tree must be approached, and the branches handled, carefully. Food As is common in Vachellia spp., edible gum seeps from cracks in the tree's bark, and is an important part of the bushbaby's winter diet. The gum can be used to manufacture candy (see Gum arabic) and used to have economic importance as "Cape Gum". In dry areas, the tree's presence is a sign of water, both above and underground. [3] Vachellia karroo 164 Forage and fodder The tree is especially useful as forage and fodder for domestic and wild animals. Apparently, there is no risk of poisoning from it. Goats seem to like V. karoo better than cattle.[4] The small pom-pom shaped yellow flowers are attractive in mid-summer. The flowers make it a very good source of forage for honey bees; honey from it has a pleasant taste. Countries where Vachellia karroo is present Wood and bark V. karroo is an excellent source of firewood and charcoal. The wood is also used for fencing posts for cattle byres or kraals. The heartwood has a density of about 800 kg/m³. A tough rope can be made from the inside bark of the tree.[5] Traditional Medicine The gum, bark and leaves have been used as a soothing agent and astringent for colds, conjunctivitis and hemorrhage in South Africa.[6] Bans Notifiable in NSW, Australia. It is illegal to not notify the NSW government of the existence of this plant. References [1] Germplasm Resources Information Network: Vachellia karroo (as Acacia karroo) (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?312498) [2] Department of the Environment and Heritage and the CRC for Australian Weed Management, 2003 (http:/ / www. environment. gov. au/ biodiversity/ invasive/ publications/ a-karroo. html) [3] Vachellia karroo (as Acacia karoo) PlanzAfrica (http:/ / www. plantzafrica. com/ plantab/ acaciakar. htm) [4] World AgroForestry Centre (http:/ / www. worldagroforestry. org/ Sites/ TreeDBS/ aft/ speciesPrinterFriendly. asp?Id=58) [5] FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ V5360E/ v5360e0f. htm) [6] Joffe, Pitta: Indigenous Plants of South Africa, 2007, Briza Publications, p87 Senegalia laeta 165 Senegalia laeta Senegalia laeta Senegalia laeta on a hill near Djibo, Burkina Faso Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Senegalia Species: S. laeta Binomial name Senegalia laeta (R. Br. ex Benth.) Seigler & Ebinger Range of Senegalia laeta Synonyms Acacia laeta R. Br. ex Benth. Senegalia laeta is a legume found in the family Fabaceae. It was formerly included in the genus Acacia. Senegalia laeta Description It is a perennial shrub or tree growing to a height of 4-10m. Its flowers are yellow to creamy white and they appear near the end of the rainiest part of the year.[1] Distribution Senegalia laeta is native to Africa, including the Sahara, the Middle East, and Western Asia.[2] Uses Parts of the tree are used for dyestuff. The tree is used for fodder; the foliage and seed pods make good forage for livestock and the tree stands up well to this use. It produces an edible gum. Water and heat are used to extract tannin from the tree's bark for use in tanning hides. The wood is used for fuel, charcoal and domestic construction. It is used to make wooden posts for fences. References [1] AgroForestryTree Database (http:/ / www. worldagroforestrycentre. org/ sea/ products/ afdbases/ af/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=59) [2] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~298& genus~Acacia& species~laeta) External links • Senegalia laeta (as Acacia laeta) ( php?page_id=13&preview=true&searchTextMenue=Senegalia+laeta+(as+Acacia+laeta)& search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. (http://www.westafricanplants.senckenberg. de/) 166 Acacia longifolia 167 Acacia longifolia Acacia longifolia Foliage and blossoms of Acacia longifolia Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. longifolia Binomial name Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. Range of Acacia longifolia Synonyms Acacia longifolia 168 • • • • • Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. var. typica Benth. Mimosa longifolia Andrews Mimosa macrostachya Poir. Phyllodoce longifolia (Andrews) Link Racosperma longifolium (Andrews) C. Mart. Acacia longifolia is a species of Acacia native to southeastern Australia, from the extreme southeast of Queensland, eastern New South Wales, eastern and southern Victoria, and southeastern South Australia. Common names for it include Long-leaved wattle, Acacia Trinervis, Aroma Doble, Golden Wattle, Coast Wattle, Sallow Wattle and Sydney Golden Wattle. It is not listed as being a threatened species,[1][2] and is considered invasive in Portugal and South Africa.[3] It is a tree that grows very quickly reaching 7–10 m in five to six years.[4] Subspecies There are two subspecies: • Acacia longifolia subsp. longifolia • Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae (Labill.) Court Uses Acacia longifolia is widely cultivated in subtropical regions of the world. Its uses include prevention of soil erosion, food (flowers, seeds and seed pods), yellow dye (from the flowers), green dye (pods) and wood.[5] The flower colour derives from the organic compound kaempferol.[6] The tree's bark has limited use in tanning, primarily for sheepskin. It is useful for securing uninhabited sand in coastal areas, primarily where there are not too many hard frosts. Control In South Africa at least, the Pteromalid wasp Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae has been introduced from Australia, and has spread rapidly, achieving substantial control.[7] The effect on the trees has been described as drastic seed reduction (typically over 90%) by galling of reproductive buds, and indirect debilitation of the affected plant by increased abscission of inflorescences adjacent to the growing galls. The presence of galls also caused leaf abscission, reducing vegetative growth as well as reproductive output. The leaves of the Coastal Wattle when crushed and mixed with water can be used as hand soap or to help soothe eczema Phytochemistry • N-(2-imidazol-4-yl-ethyl)-trans-cinnamamide [8] • N-(2-imidazol-4-yl-ethyl)-deca-trans-2, cis-4-dienamide • dimethyltryptamine 0.2-0.3%, histamine[8] Young galls of Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, still showing the branch morphology of the galled buds. One of the phyllodes already seems to be showing stress and might be expected to drop within a few weeks or months. Acacia longifolia 169 Similar galls, probably on Acacia pycnantha, further advanced in development, and practically spherical Gallery Flowering Illustration Bushy habit Cultivated Seeds Acacia longifolia References [1] Australian Plant Name Index: Acacia longifolia (http:/ / www. anbg. gov. au/ cgi-bin/ apni?taxon_name=Acacia longifolia%) [2] What goes here? [3] Vespa australiana pode ajudar a reduzir invasão das acácias (http:/ / jn. sapo. pt/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ sociedade_e_vida/ vespa_australiana_pode_ajudar_a_redu. html) [4] Warringah Online (http:/ / www. warringah. nsw. gov. au/ environment/ tree_replace_small. aspx#acacialongifolia) [5] Plants for a Future: Acacia longifolia (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Acacia+ longifolia) [6] Lycaeum: Phytochemistry Intro (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ phyto. html) [7] Dennill, G.B. ; The effect of the gall wasp Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on reproductive potential and vegetative growth of the weed Acacia longifolia; Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 14, Issues 1-2, November 1985, Pages 53-61 [8] Hegnauer, Robert (1994). Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Springer. ISBN 3-7643-2979-3., Nen in Entheogen Review (journal) 1994-7 170 Acacia sophorae 171 Acacia sophorae Acacia sophorae Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. sophorae Binomial name Acacia sophorae (Labill.) Court Synonyms • Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae Acacia sophorae, commonly known as Coast Wattle or Coastal Wattle, is a wattle found in coastal and subcoastal south-eastern Australia from the Eyre Peninsula to southern Queensland. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of Sallow Wattle (Acacia longifolia). The specific epithet refers to its similarity to plants in the genus Sophora. Description In exposed situations it is a large, prostrate or decumbent shrub, with its trunk and lower branches usually growing along the ground, reaching up to 3 m in height and spreading to 4 m or more horizontally. The oval phyllodes are 50-100 mm long with prominent longitudal veins. The bright yellow flowers occur as elongated spikes up to 50 mm long in the phyllode axils. Flowering occurs mainly in late winter and spring. It occurs on primary dunes, in coastal heath, open forest and alluvial flats. It is used for dune stabilisation on beaches where it will tolerate sea spray and sand blast, providing protection for less hardy plants. Acacia sophorae 172 References Acacia macradenia Acacia macradenia Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. macradenia Binomial name Acacia macradenia Benth. Synonyms Racosperma macradenium (Benth.) Pedley Acacia macradenia is also known as the zig-zag wattle, which derives from its zig-zag stem growth pattern. Another name used to identify A. macradenia is the 'bed of rivers'. Distinguishing features include alternating phyllodes, yellow globular clusters growing at the forks of the branches and a 'zig-zag' stem. Acacia macradenia Taxonomy George Bentham described the zig-zag wattle in 1848, and it still bears its original name. The species name is derived from the Ancient Greek words macros "long" and adenos "gland". It has hybridised with A. bancroftiorum in the wild, with the resulting plants resembling A. holotricha. A. macradenia has interbred with the fringed wattle (A. fimbriata) in cultivation. Distribution Native to Australia, Acacia macradenia ranges across Central Queensland, Australia and is cultivated in areas around Chinchilla and Pentland. However, due to its invasive growth habits, it has been spotted in parks outside its originated area such as Ipswich. Habitat and ecology Acacia macradenia is a shrub that grows preferably in cool climate to warm climate by sandy or gravelly areas near creeks. The cold temperature prepares and enhances a stronger flowering effect of the seeds when temperatures increase.[] Acacia macradenia can adapt to areas affected by air pollution. In an experiment, Acacia macradenia seeds were placed in environments with different concentrations of air pollution and results show stable photosynthetic and transpiration rate relative to a non-polluted environment. Description The branches of the Acacia macradenia plant are hairless and smooth. Generally, the younger part of the stem is green and the older parts are brown. Known as phyllodes, the leaf-likes are actually flattened leaf-stalks or petioles. Initially they are bipinnate. The darker phyllodes are typically older and longer have a lanceolate leaf shape compared to the younger phyllodes which are much smaller in size and shape. The A. macradenia plant or tree can grow up to 5 m in height and 4 m spread. The branches are pendulous (loosely hanging) to subpendulous and flexuose (fully bending). The small yellow globular clusters are found at the stalk of the stem. Each globular cluster contains numerous flowering plants which can range between 35 and 50 flowers per cluster. Each plant contains five petals and sepals and many stamens which gives each cluster of flowers a soft look when fully bloomed. The growth of each globular cluster are weather dependent. Optimal flowering conditions favor temperatures in February through March. If there is growth, it will be indicated by areas of redness. If globular clusters do not appear, the phyllodes that are already produced will continue to grow in an alternating pattern. The fruits of the zig-zag wattle are the black pods that have lima-bean-like structure that are found on the plant. The pods are small, curved and have a smooth exterior casing. The pods appear green initially but begins to turn brown-black as temperatures increase through the spring, eventually reaching full maturation. At full maturation, the pods can reach in length up to 12 cm long. Inside these pods are hard brown seeds in a shape of bean. In an experiment conducted to test the effect of seed germination vs. temperature on Acacia seeds, the results showed that seeds that were treated with hot water had higher germination compared to seeds that were treated with cooler water. 173 Acacia macradenia Dispersal Acacia macradenia seeds are transported and spread by natural pollinators such as birds and nearby grazing animals. However, the largest contributor to the dispersal of A. macradenia seeds is the direct results of re-vegetation and amenity projects. Due to the high seed dispersal rate of A. macradenia, its growth habits could potentially classify the species as invasive; it continues to inhabit and dominate new areas across Australia. A. macradenia plants can simply be removed by hand but the tree cannot be removed. Australia has no law to inhibit the spread of A. macradenia. The successful growing habits of A. macradenia seem to be encouraged by the hard-shelled seeds' ability to survive and outlive other invasive Acacia species in Australia. Cultivation Yellow clusters and phyllodes Acacia macradenia prefers a well-drained situation, preferably in full sun. Successful cultivation has been recorded in coastal areas in eastern Australia from Townsville south to Melbourne. However, plants have succumbed to heavy frosts in some inland locations such as Canberra. References 174 Acacia maidenii 175 Acacia maidenii Acacia maidenii Acacia maidenii Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. maidenii Binomial name Acacia maidenii F. Muell. Native range of Acacia maidenii Acacia maidenii 176 Synonyms Racosperma maidenii (F. Muell.) Pedley Acacia maidenii, also known as Maiden's Wattle, is a tree native to Australia (New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria). It has been introduced into India (Tamil Nadu) and Argentina, and it grows on plantations in South Africa. It prefers full sun to partial shade and it is often found on the edge of the rainforest. It grows up to 15 m in height by 10–15 m in width. The phyllodes are dark green, alternate along the stem and reach 20 cm in length and 1 to 3 cm in width. It is very fast growing, reaching 1.5 m tall in as little as 5 months. Its flowers have pale yellow spikes up to 6 cm long that often occur in clusters of 2 to 3. The fruit is hairy, about 15 cm long and narrow, often becoming coiled. In Australia it is listed as being an endangered species.[1] The tree has a lifespan of more than 30 years.[2] It grows approximately 1 m per year. It is frost tolerant down to -7 °C (about 19 °F), but it is not drought tolerant, so irrigation may be necessary in some growing areas. In its natural range, it tends to grow in places with an average maximum temperature of about 25°C, but it also exists in a range of 22-32°C avg. max. temp. It tends to grow primarily in areas near the coast averaging 1200–1600 mm/year of rainfall, but overall it is found to some extent in an areas ranging 600–2000 mm/year of rainfall. Uses It makes an attractive ornamental tree along streets and in parks. It is very good for reforestation in suitable areas. The exudates from the trunk (like gum or pitch) have been used in the past for food by indigenous Australians. Phytochemicals Fitzgerald and Siournis reported in the Australian Journal of Chemistry (1965, volume 18, pp. 433–4) that a sample of the bark contained 0.36% of the hallucinogen DMT as well as 0.24% of N-methyltryptamine. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that the concentration of DMT and other tryptamines in A. maidenii is very variable and may be zero in many strains. Older trees tend to have a higher percentage of DMT. Regardless, it is used as an admixture ingredient to nontraditional concoctions of ayahuasca, acting as a substitute for the traditional ingredient P. viridis. Teracacidin, a flavan-3,4-diol, can be isolated from A. maidenii heartwood.[3] Cultivation USDA Zone 9 is recommended. Acacia maidenii does well in all types of soil, except those that are waterlogged for lengthy periods of time. The tree's seeds number about 65 seeds/g. Acacia maidenii can be propagated from seed, but, in order to increase the germination rate, the seed should be treated first. It can be soaked in hot water or the seed can be nicked or otherwise mechanically scarified, so that water will penetrate the seed's hard coating and induce germination. Germination is highest at temperatures between 21-27°C. Acacia maidenii References [1] Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement (http:/ / www. dpi. vic. gov. au/ CA256F310024B628/ 0/ 1374C42A7C665C57CA25709200225F21/ $File/ 036+ Maidens+ Wattle+ 1993. pdf) State of Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2003 [2] Lycaeum (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ maideni. html) [3] Flavan derivatives. XIX. Teracacidin and isoteracacidin from Acacia obtusifolia and Acacia maidenii heartwoods; Phenolic hydroxylation patterns of heartwood flavonoids characteristic of sections and subsections of the genus Acacia. JW Clark-Lewis and I Dainis, Australian Journal of Chemistry, 20(10), pp. 2191-2198, External links • Growing Acacia from Seed ( ( • Society of studies about Ethnobotany and the Modified States of Consciousness ( 177 Acacia mangium 178 Acacia mangium Acacia mangium Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. mangium Binomial name Acacia mangium Willd. Range of Acacia mangium Synonyms Acacia mangium 179 • • • Acacia glaucescens sensu Kaneh. & Hatus. Mangium montanum Rumph. Racosperma mangium (Willd.) Pedley Acacia mangium is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to northeastern Queensland in Australia, the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, Papua, and the eastern Maluku Islands. Common names include Black Wattle, Hickory Wattle, Mangium, and Forest Mangrove. Its uses include environmental management and wood. Cultivation Acacia mangium grows up to 30 metres (98 ft), often with a straight trunk. A. mangium has about 142,000 seeds/kg. To break down dormancy mature seed requires pre-germination treatments such as mechanical scarification (scratching the surface) or boiling water. This treatment leads to a fast germination and typically exceeds 75%.[1] Like many other legumes, it is able to fix nitrogen in the soil. A. mangium is a popular species for forest plantation and used more and more also for agroforestry projects. In mixed cultures, plants can profit of the shadow from A. mangium and the nitrogen fixation[2] A. mangium will tolerate low fertility soils with impeded drainage, but prefers fertile sites with good drainage. Soil depth and topographic position can influence yields. With respect to distance from the equator, there are significant differences in performance under cultivation. A mean annual height increase of about 3 to 4 m is usual near the equator. In areas further from the equator growth is lower. Use Timber A. mangium trees produce sapwood and heartwood. The heartwood’s colour is brownish yellow shimmery and medium textured. Because the timber is extremely heavy, hard, very strong, tough, and liable to warp and crack badly it is used for furniture, doors and window frames. The glossy and smooth surface finish after polishing leads also to a potential for making export orientated parquet flooring tiles and artifacts.[3] Industrial Use Since these trees crack easily and temperamental for use in furniture, this is mainly used for the Paper pulp and Biomass Fuel industries. Both industries will require the A. Mangium trees to be chipped and delivered by the ton and moisture rates. Ecological Aspects Because Acacia mangium trees largely increase the turnover rate of N in the topsoil, it might improve also the mineral N availability in soils in mixed cultures.[4] Due to the fact that it is a very fast growing tree it develops an intensive rooting system, particularly in a low fertility soil.[5] That helps to recover degraded tropical lands for what A. Mangium is very useful. The Tree is widely used in Goa in the mining industry for rehabilitation of the waste dumps as it is a drought resistant species and binds the sterile mine waste consisting of lateritic strata. Acacia mangium 180 Chemistry The gum contains 5.4% ash, 0.98% N, 1.49% methoxyl, and by calculation, 32.2% uronic acid. The sugar composition after hydrolysis: 9.0% 4-0-methylglucuronic acid, 23.2% glucuronic acid, 56% galactose, 10% arabinose, and 2% rhamnose. Gallery Acacia mangium Cultivation in Africa Trunk in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Tree in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Leaves with fruit pod at canopy in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Leaves at canopy on the branchesin Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Leaves at canopy in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Acacia mangium Branch and Pods Acacia mangium Old Bark References [1] Discover Life/ Royal Botanical Gardens (http:/ / www. discoverlife. org/ mp/ 20q?go=http:/ / www. kew. org/ plants-fungi/ Acacia-mangium. htm) [2] Jeyanny, V., SS Lee & K Wan Rasidah, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (2010). EFFECTS OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION AND FERTILISATION ON THE GROWTH OF ACACIA MANGIUM SEEDLINGS. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23(4): 404–409 (2011) [3] Sharma, S. K., Kumar, P., Rao, R. V., Sujatha, M., Shukla, S. R., 2011 .Rational utilization of plantation grown Acacia mangium willd. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, volume 8 (2011) issue 2, page 97-99 [4] ^Voigtlaender M. et al (2011). Introducing Acacia mangium trees in Eucalyptus grandis plantations: consequences for soil organic matter stocks and nitrogen mineralization. Published online: 10 September 2011, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 [5] Kadir W.R, Kadir A.A.,Van Cleemput O.,Zaharah Abdul Rahman. 1996. Field grown Acacia Mangium: How intensive is root growth?Journal of Tropical Forest Science 10(3): 283 - 291 (1998) Acacia melanoxylon 181 Acacia melanoxylon Australian Blackwood Flowering twigs of Acacia melanoxylon Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. melanoxylon Binomial name Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. Range of Acacia melanoxylon Synonyms • • • • • Acacia arcuata Spreng. Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. var. arcuata (Spreng.) Ser. Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. var. obtusifolia Ser. Acacia melanoxylum R.Br. Mimosa melanoxylon (R.Br.) Poir. Acacia melanoxylon 182 • Racosperma melanoxylon (R.Br.) C.Mart. • Racosperma melanoxylon (R.Br.) Pedley[1] Acacia melanoxylon, commonly known as the Australian Blackwood, is an Acacia species native in eastern Australia. The species is also known as Sally Wattle, Lightwood, Hickory, Mudgerabah, Tasmanian Blackwood or Black Wattle. Timber Acacia melanoxylon is valued for its highly decorative timber which may be used as a cabinet timber, for musical instruments or in boatbuilding. Appearance Sapwood may range in colour from straw to grey-white with clear demarcation from the heartwood. The heartwood is golden to dark brown with chocolate growth rings. The timber is generally straight grained but may be wavy or interlocked. Quartersawn surfaces may produce an attractive fiddleback figure. The wood is lustrous and possesses a fine to medium texture. Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. ex Ait. f. foliage and seed pods Properties Acacia melanoxylon timber has a density of approximately 660 kg/m3 and is strong in compression, resistant to impact and is moderately stiff. It is moderately blunting to work with tools and bends well. It may be nailed or screwed with ease, but gluing may produce rather variable results. The wood may be stained easily and produces a high-quality finish. Australian blackwood seasons easily with some possible cupping when boards are inadequately restrained. The timber produces very little movement once seasoned. Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. ex Ait. f. seeds The timber may be attacked by furniture beetles, termites and powder-post beetles (sapwood). It is resistant to effective preservative treatments. Acacia melanoxylon Ecology and habitat It tolerates drought, poor drainage, any soil, salt air, gusty, steady or cold winds if grown in open, fog, smog, temperature extremes, sun, or shade. Occurs in agricultural areas, coastland, disturbed areas, estuaries, natural forest, planted forests, range/grasslands, riparian zones, scrub/shrublands, urban areas, wetlands. This fast growing perennial tree is a successional species. It lives for 15 – 50 years, regularly producing large numbers of well-dispersed seeds. Seed viability is sufficiently long to bridge the time between successive seedling stages. In South-east Queensland it is an important host plant for a number of indigenous butterfly larvae, including Tailed Emperor (Polyura sempronius); Silky Hairstreak (Pseudalmenus chlorinda); Imperial Hairstreak (Jalmenus evagoras evagoras); Stencilled Hairstreak (Jalmenus ictinus) & Large Grass-yellow (Eurema hecabe hecabe). Invasive species It has been introduced to many countries for forestry plantings and as an ornamental tree. It now is present in Africa, Asia, Europe, Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, South America and the Acacia melanoxylon older bark United States. It is a declared noxious weed species in South Africa and is a pest in Portugal's Azore Islands. It was also recently listed by the California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC) as an invasive weed that may cause limited impact (Knapp 2003). Its use as a street tree is being phased out in some locales because of the damage it often causes to pavements and underground plumbing. Uses Indigenous Australians derive an analgesic from the tree.[2] The wood is very good for many uses including furniture, tools, boats, and wooden kegs. It is of about the same quality as walnut and it is well-suited for shaping with steam. The bark has a tannin content of about 20%.[3] It may also be used for producing decorative veneers. The tree's twigs and its bark are used to poison fish as a way of fishing.[4] This tree can also be used as a fire barrier plant, amongst other plants, in rural situations Plain and Figured Australian Blackwood is used in musical instrument making (in particular guitars, drums, Hawaiian ukuleles, violin bows and organ pipes), and in recent years has become increasingly valued as a substitute for koa wood. 183 Acacia melanoxylon References Notes [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~314& genus~Acacia& species~melanoxylon) [2] Analgesic Plants (http:/ / www. newcrops. uq. edu. au/ newslett/ ncnl1020. htm) Australian New Crops Newsletter [3] Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CfDcl2m-6BMC& pg=PA7& lpg=PA7& dq="acacia+ longifolia"+ uses& source=web& ots=EkNk6Oa_ip& sig=QcXMyBrLsTSqmA1MLErlSFY-s_w#PPA8,M1) Select Extra-tropical Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture Or Naturalization By Ferdinand von Mueller [4] A. Melanoxylon (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ melano. html) General references • Cal-IPC Plant Assessment Form ( External links • Acacia melanoxylon ( genus~Acacia&species~melanoxylon) • DermNet dermatitis/plants/blackwood ( • Musical instrument maker utilizing Acacia melanoxylon • • Management of Blackwood in Plantations ( conference paper.pdf) 184 Senegalia mellifera 185 Senegalia mellifera Senegalia mellifera Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Senegalia Species: S. mellifera Binomial name Senegalia mellifera (M. Vahl) Seigler & Ebinger subspecies[1] • • Senegalia mellifera subsp. detinens (Burch.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Senegalia mellifera subsp. mellifera (M. Vahl) Seigler & Ebinger Range of Senegalia mellifera Synonyms • • Acacia mellifera (M. Vahl) Benth. Mimosa mellifera M. Vahl Senegalia mellifera is a common thorn tree in Africa. The name mellifera refers to its sweet-smelling blossoms and honey. Its lumber turns pitch black when oiled. Common names of the tree include Blackthorn and Swarthaak (Afrikaans). It is listed as being not threatened.[2] Senegalia mellifera Distribution Senegalia mellifera is found in the dry areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Characteristics Senegalia mellifera can occur either as a multi-trunked bush up to seven meters high with more or less a funnel-shaped crown, or as a single-trunked tree that can reach a height of up to nine meters. It can form an impenetrable thickets. In some areas of Africa, it is considered an invasive species as it can expand into and cover large ares of farmland. Uses In Africa, Senegalia mellifera is used as fencing, livestock feed and building material for huts. It flowers are sources of nectar for honey-producing bees. The wood is prized also for fuel and making charcoal. [3] It is widely used in traditional African medicine.[4] Animal uses This tree is an important food resource for both cattle and wild animals especially in dry areas of Africa. The leaves and young branches are very nutritious, containing a high percentage of protein. The flowers are often eaten by kudu. Common browsers of the tree include elephants, black rhino, giraffe and the eland. References General references • Wikipedia (German) "Schwarzdorn-Akazie" • Acacia mellifera: A Guide to trees (Safari Holiday Guide) [5] • [6] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] ILDIS (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb/ 6. 00/ fam/ f2. shtml) ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~315& genus~Acacia& species~mellifera) Trees of Kenya, Tim Noad and Ann Birnie (1989) ISBN 9966-848-95-9 http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC2816522/ 186 Vachellia nilotica 187 Vachellia nilotica Vachellia nilotica Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. nilotica Binomial name Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. subspecies • • • • • • • • • Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia nilotica subsp. cupressiformis (J.L.Stewart) Ali & Faruqi Vachellia nilotica subsp. hemispherica Ali & Faruqi Vachellia nilotica subsp. indica (Benth.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia nilotica subsp. kraussiana (Benth.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia nilotica subsp. leiocarpa (Brenan) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia nilotica subsp. nilotica (L.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. Vachellia nilotica subsp. subalata (Vatke) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia nilotica subsp. tomentosa (Benth.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Range of Vachellia nilotica Synonyms • Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. Vachellia nilotica 188 • • • • • Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile Acacia scorpioides W.Wight Mimosa arabica Lam. Mimosa nilotica L. Mimosa scorpioides L. Vachellia nilotica (gum arabic tree, Babul/Kikar, Egyptian thorn, Sant tree, Al-sant or prickly acacia;[1][2][3] called thorn mimosa or prickly acacia in Australia; lekkerruikpeul or scented thorn in South Africa; karuvela maram in South India) is a species of Vachellia native to Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. It is also currently an invasive species of significant concern in Australia. This tree was originally the type species of the genus Acacia, which derives its name from ακακία (akakia), the name given by early Greek botanist-physician Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) to this tree as a medicinal, in his book Materia Medica. This name derives from the Greek word for its characteristic thorns, ακις (akis, thorn). The species name nilotica was given by Linnaeus from this tree's best-known range along the Nile river. The plant V. nilotica then, in turn, became the type species for the Linnaean Acacia genus (not all of which have thorns, even though they are named for them). For the ongoing reclassification of this and other species historically classified under genus Acacia, see the Acacia. Description Vachellia nilotica is a tree 5–20 m high with a dense spheric crown, stems and branches usually dark to black coloured, fissured bark, grey-pinkish slash, exuding a reddish low quality gum. The tree has thin, straight, light, grey spines in axillary pairs, usually in 3 to 12 pairs, 5 to 7.5 cm (3 in) long in young trees, mature trees commonly without thorns. The leaves are bipinnate, with 3–6 pairs of pinnulae and 10–30 pairs of leaflets each, tomentose, rachis with a gland at the bottom of the last pair of pinnulae. Flowers in globulous heads 1.2–1.5 cm in diameter of a bright Spring blossoms at Hodal in Faridabad District of Haryana, India golden-yellow color, set up either axillary or whorly on peduncles 2–3 cm long located at the end of the branches. Pods are strongly constricted, hairy, white-grey, thick and softly tomentose. Its seeds number approximately 8000/kg.[4] Vachellia nilotica 189 Distribution Vachellia nilotica is native from Egypt, across the Maghreb and Sahel, south to Mozambique and KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and east through Arabian Peninsula to Pakistan, India and Burma. It has become widely naturalised outside its native range including Zanzibar and Australia. Vachellia nilotica is spread by livestock. Uses Forage and fodder Trunk at Hodal in Faridabad District of Haryana, India In part of its range smallstock consume the pods and leaves, but elsewhere it is also very popular with cattle. Pods are used as a supplement to poultry rations in India. Dried pods are particularly sought out by animals on rangelands. In India branches are commonly lopped for fodder. Pods are best fed dry as a supplement, not as a green fodder. Hedges V. nilotica makes a good protective hedge because of its thorns. Lumber The tree's wood is "very durable if water-seasoned" and its uses include tool handles and lumber for boats. The wood has a density of about 1170 kg/m³. Propagation There are 5000–16000 seeds/kg. Gallery Seed pods Compound leaf, seed, flower and seed pod Bark structure Vachellia nilotica References [1] Babul dictionary_infoplease (http:/ / dictionary. infoplease. com/ babul) [2] Babul_Mirriam Webster (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ babul) [3] AgroForestryTree Database_World AgroForestry Centre (http:/ / www. worldagroforestry. org/ Sea/ Products/ AFDbases/ AF/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=81) [4] Handbook on Seeds of Dry-zone Acacias FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 006/ Q2190E/ Q2190E10. htm) External links • Carter, J.O. (1998). "7.2 Acacia nilotica: a Tree Legume out of Control" ( doc/Publicat/Gutt-shel/x5556e0v.htm). In Gutteridge, Ross C.; Shelton, H. Max. Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture ( The Tropical Grassland Society of Australia. ISBN 0-9585677-1-9. • "Vachellia nilotica (as Acacia nilotica subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan)" ( browse/flora?f=163&level=s&id=20757&type=l&PHPSESSID=948be459b92215063fcb287af7ed3099). FloraBase the West Australian Flora. • Vachellia nilotica (as Acacia nilotica) ( ( • Acacia nilotica ( searchTextMenue=Acacia+nilotica&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. (http:// 190 Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens 191 Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. nilotica Subspecies: V. n. subsp. adstringens Trinomial name Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Synonyms • • • • • • Acacia adansonii Guill. & Perr. Acacia adstringens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Berhaut Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. var. adstringens (Schum. & Thonn.) Baker f. Acacia nilotica subsp. adansonii (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Roberty Mimosa adstringens Schum. & Thonn. Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens is a perennial tree. It is not listed as being threatened. Some common names for it are Cassie, Piquants Blancs and Piquant Lulu. Its geographic distribution includes Africa, Asia, the Indian Ocean area and the Middle East. Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens is difficult to tell apart from Vachellia karoo without seeing the seed pods.[1] Uses Wood The tree's wood heartwood has a density of about 0.945 g/cm³ and its sapwood has a density of about 0.827 g/cm³.[2] References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Acacia+ dekindtiana) [2] FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ V5360E/ v5360e0f. htm) External Links • ( Acacia obtusifolia 192 Acacia obtusifolia Acacia obtusifolia Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. obtusifolia Binomial name Acacia obtusifolia A. Cunn. Range of Acacia obtusifolia Synonyms • • • Acacia intertexta DC. Acacia longifolia (Andrews[1]) Willd. var. obtusifolia (A.Cunn.)Seeman[1] Racosperma obtusifolium (A. Cunn.) Pedley[1] Acacia obtusifolia is a perennial tree in subfamily Mimosoideae of family Fabaceae. Acacia obtusifolia Description Acacia obtusifolia is an upright or spreading perennial tree which grows from 1.5m to 8m in height and it is native to Australia. It is closely related to Acacia longifolia. Acacia obtusifolia can be distinguished by it having phyllode margins which are resinous, it usually blooms later in the year and it has paler flowers than Acacia longifolia.[2] It flowers usually from December through February. Some populations of Acacia obtusifolia can survive winters to -6C and possibly a light snow, however plants from populations in areas that are frost free such as the coastal ranges of Northern NSW are suscpetible to cold and will be killed by frosts lower than -3C. These populations avoid the valley floors and occur mainly on sandstone ridges well above the frost line. Phytochemicals Teracacidin, a flavan-3,4-diol, can be isolated from A. obtusifolia heartwood.[3] Net lore indicates a 0.45% average dimethyltryptamine in the bark and 0.3% in the dried young leaves. Similarly, Mulga states figures ranging from 0.4% to 0.5% in the dried bark, noting there to be some variability.[4] No formal scientific publishing of phytochemistry, several chromatographs show 0.3% alkaloid consisting 2:1 monomethyltryptamine,dimethyltryptamine,plus trace betacarbolines; another found additional 5methoxydimethyltryptamine and gramine. Is highly variable in composition, sometimes devoid of tryptamines (Ref: Nen in EntheogenReview (journal) 1996); privately commissioned test at Southern Cross University,NSW,Australia, 2000. Also findings of 5methoxyDMT, DMT & bufotenine[5] References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~16252& genus~Acacia& species~obtusifolia) [2] PlantNET Flora Online (http:/ / plantnet. rbgsyd. nsw. gov. au/ cgi-bin/ NSWfl. pl?page=nswfl& lvl=sp& name=Acacia~obtusifolia) [3] Flavan derivatives. XIX. Teracacidin and isoteracacidin from Acacia obtusifolia and Acacia maidenii heartwoods; Phenolic hydroxylation patterns of heartwood flavonoids characteristic of sections and subsections of the genus Acacia. JW Clark-Lewis and I Dainis, Australian Journal of Chemistry, 20(10), pp. 2191-2198, [4] Acacia and Entheogenic Tryptamines (http:/ / mulga. yage. net/ acacia/ ) [5] Poland National Herbarium http:/ / herbarium. 0-700. pl/ Akacje. html External links • Acacia (Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs) ( ayahuasca_apa/aya_sec3_part2_admixture_acacia.shtml) 193 Vachellia oerfota 194 Vachellia oerfota Vachellia oerfota Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. oerfota Binomial name Vachellia oerfota (Forssk.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Range of Vachellia oerfota Synonyms[1] • • • • • Acacia gorinii Chiov. Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf. Acacia orfota sensu auct. Acacia pterygocarpa Benth. Mimosa oerfota Forssk. Vachellia oerfota is a perennial shrub or tree which is native to Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Among other things, it is used in making beverages.[2] It grows 1–5m high.[3] References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~331& genus~Acacia& species~nubica) [2] USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?314912) [3] The Virtual Field Herbarium (http:/ / herbaria. plants. ox. ac. uk/ vfh/ image/ index. php?item=2033) Acacia penninervis 195 Acacia penninervis Acacia penninervis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. penninervis Binomial name Acacia penninervis DC. Synonyms • • • • Acacia impressa Lindl. Acacia penninervis Sieber Acacia penninervis DC. var. impressa (Lindl.)Domin Racosperma penninerve (DC.)Pedley[1] Acacia penninervis is a perennial shrub or tree 2–8m high,[2] which is native to Australia. Common names for it are Hickory Wattle and Mountain Hickory. Its uses include environmental management. The tannin content of the bark is approximately 18%.[3] Acacia penninervis Varieties • Acacia penninervis var. longiracemosa • Acacia penninervis var. penninervis References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~19921& genus~Acacia& species~penninervis) [2] PlantNet (http:/ / plantnet. rbgsyd. nsw. gov. au/ cgi-bin/ NSWfl. pl?page=nswfl& lvl=sp& name=Acacia~penninervis) [3] Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CfDcl2m-6BMC& pg=PA7& lpg=PA7& dq="acacia+ longifolia"+ uses& source=web& ots=EkNk6Oa_ip& sig=QcXMyBrLsTSqmA1MLErlSFY-s_w#PPA8,M1) Select Extra-tropical Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture Or Naturalization By Ferdinand von Mueller External links • World Wide Wattle ( 196 Acacia phlebophylla 197 Acacia phlebophylla Acacia phlebophylla Acacia phlebophylla Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. phlebophylla Binomial name Acacia phlebophylla H.B.Will. Range of Acacia phlebophylla Synonyms Acacia phlebophylla 198 • • • Acacia longifolia (Andrews[1]) Willd. var. phlebophylla F.Muell. Acacia phlebophylla F. Muell. Acacia sophorae (Labill.) R.Br. var. montana F.Muell.[1] Acacia phlebophylla, a type of acacia also known by the names Buffalo Sallow Wattle and Mountain Buffalo Wattle, is a straggling shrub to small, twisted tree reaching up to 5 m in height. It is a close relative of Acacia alpina.[2] It has large, elliptic, flat, commonly asymmetrical phyllodes 4–14 cm long, 1.5–6 cm wide, with coarse veins, a leathery feel, prominent nerves and reticulated veins. Deep yellow rod-like flowers appear in spring (June–December in Australia), widely scattered on spikes 4–7 cm long, followed by 7–10 cm long legumes in November–March, narrow, straight or slightly curved, releasing 5-10 elliptical seeds, 5-7.5 mm long. Solitary or twinned spikes, to 6 cm long. Only known from the high altitude granite slopes of Mount Buffalo National Park, Victoria, Australia, where it occurs above 350 meters in woodlands and heathlands often amongst granite boulders. This is one of the purest natural sources of the psychedelic drug dimethyltryptamine, also known as DMT, which occurs as the predominant alkaloid throughout the plant. However due to conservation issues this species is not considered a viable source of tryptamines, as outlined below. A much more common species such as Acacia obtusifolia, should be researched instead. Recent reports on regrowth after the 2006 bushfires indicates that the phyllodes of young plants have little to no dimethyltryptamine content. This is presumed to be due to the young age of the plants versus the old growth that stood before the fire. Conservation • Care must be taken with this species as it consists of one population or metapopulation which has been ravaged over the years by bush fires and fungal infections. Acacia phlebophylla is listed as rare and threatened by the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment. There is significant concern for the viability of this population, particularly with the threat of fungal pathogens and other disturbances. (A particular species of local wasp may be associated with the transmission of this fungal pathogen.) • Looking/walking amongst them from stand to stand has been strongly advised against, due to the risk of spreading the fungal pathogen which at the moment is their greatest threat. • Though there are many accounts of bountiful regrowth, this species should not be used for the extraction of drugs for conservation reasons. Attempts at ex-situ cultivation have been mostly unsuccessful and have usually resulted in plants dying at 3 years. If cultivation is successful, it is important that plants are allowed to mature and produce seeds for eventual rehabilitation rather than used for tryptamine production. Healthy plants exist in private gardens near Gatton, Qld, as well as in Ireland, indicating the plant is not as recalcitrant in cultivation or restricted to its alpine environment as was once thought. References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~16220& genus~Acacia& species~phlebophylla) [2] World Wide Wattle (http:/ / www. worldwidewattle. com/ speciesgallery/ alpina. php?id=23545) External links • Acacia Phlebophylla ( - Extensive Information and Photos. Acacia podalyriifolia 199 Acacia podalyriifolia Acacia podalyriifolia Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. podalyriifolia Binomial name Acacia podalyriifolia A.Cunn. ex G. Don, 1832 Range of Acacia podalyriifolia Synonyms • • • • • • Acacia fraseri Hook. Acacia podalyriaefolia A. Cunn. Acacia podalyriaefolia A. Cunn. var. viridis Guilf. Acacia podalyriifolia Loudon Acacia podalyriifolia G. Don var. typica Domin Acacia podalyriifolia G. Don var. viridis Guilf. Acacia podalyriifolia 200 • Racosperma podalyriifolia (G. Don) Pedley • Racosperma podalyriifolium (G. Don) Pedley[1] Acacia podalyriifolia is a perennial tree which is fast-growing and widely cultivated. It is native to Australia but is also naturalised in Malaysia, Africa, India and South America. Its uses include environmental management and it is also used as an ornamental tree. It is very closely related to Acacia uncifera. It grows to about 5m in height and about the same in total width.[2] It blooms during winter. Acacia podalpodalyriifolia seedpods -Photo by Forest & Kim Starr Common names for it are Mount Morgan Wattle and Queensland Silver Wattle. References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~343& genus~Acacia& species~podalyriaefolia) Acacia podalyriifolia foliage Acacia podalyriifolia - MHNT [2] Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP) (http:/ / asgap. org. au/ a-pod. html) Senegalia polyacantha 201 Senegalia polyacantha Senegalia polyacantha Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Senegalia Species: S. polyacantha Binomial name Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) Seigler & Ebinger subspecies • • Senegalia polyacantha subsp. campylacantha (Hochst. ex. A.Rich.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Senegalia polyacantha subsp. polyacantha (Willd.) Seigler & Ebinger Senegalia polyacantha 202 Synonyms[1] • • • • • • • Acacia catechu sensu Griseb. Acacia catechu auct. non L. Acacia polyacantha Willd. Acacia suma (Roxb.) Voigt Gagnebina tamariscina sensu Bojer Mimosa suma Roxb. Senegalia suma (Roxb.) Britton & Rose Senegalia polyacantha, also known as White Thorn is a flowering tree which can grow up to 25m tall. Polyacantha has the meaning "many thorns" in Latin.[2] The tree is native to Africa, India, the Indian Ocean and Asia, but it has also been introduced to the Caribbean. Uses Repellent uses The root of Senegalia polyacantha subsp. campylacantha emits chemical compounds that repel animals including rats, snakes and crocodiles. Gum The tree's gum is used in the manufacture of candy. Medicinal purposes S. polycantha's roots and perhaps its bark have medicinal uses. The root extract is useful for snakebites and is applied to wash the skin of children who are agitated at night time. The root is also used for treating gonorrhea, venereal diseases, dysentery and gastrointestinal disorders. Tannin The bark is useful for tanning. Wood The tree's primary use is for wood.[3] References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Acacia+ polyacantha)(ILDIS) [2] PlantzAfrica (http:/ / www. plantzafrica. com/ plantab/ acaciapoly. htm) [3] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (http:/ / www. fao. org/ ag/ agp/ agpc/ doc/ gbase/ data/ pf000129. htm) External links • Acacia polyacantha ( preview=true&searchTextMenue=Acacia+polyacantha&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. ( Vachellia rigidula 203 Vachellia rigidula Vachellia rigidula Conservation status Secure  (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. rigidula Binomial name Vachellia rigidula (Benth.) Seigler & Ebinger Vachellia rigidula 204 Natural range Synonyms • • Acacia rigidula Benth. Acaciopsis rigidula (Benth.) Britton & Rose Vachellia rigidula, commonly known as Blackbrush Acacia or Chaparro Prieto, is a species of shrub or small tree in the legume family, Fabaceae. Its native range stretches from Texas in the United States south to central Mexico. This perennial is not listed as being threatened.[1] It reaches a height of 5–15 feet (1.5–4.6 m). Blackbrush Acacia grows on limestone hillsides and canyons. Phytochemistry A phytochemical study of V. rigidula[2] by workers at the Texas A & M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center at Uvalde, TX, reported the presence of over forty alkaloids, including low amounts (up to ~ 15 ppm) of several amphetamines that had previously been found by the same research group in the related species Senegalia berlandieri,[3] but which otherwise are known only as products of laboratory synthesis. Compounds found in the highest concentrations (ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand ppm) were phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine and N-methyltyramine. Other notable compounds reported were N,N-dimethyltryptamine, mescaline, and nicotine, although these were found in low concentrations (e.g. mescaline at 3-28 ppm). The presence of such an unprecedented chemical range of psychoactive compounds, including ones not previously found in nature, in a single plant species has led to the suggestion that some of these findings may have resulted from cross-contamination or were possibly artifacts of the analytical technique. Vachellia rigidula 205 Uses Blackbrush Acacia is used in weight loss dietary supplements because of its adrenergic amine content. These compounds are claimed to stimulate beta-receptors to increase lipolysis and metabolic rate and decrease appetite. Gallery Seeds Foliage Bark References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~7639& genus~Acacia& species~rigidula) [2] B. A. Clement, C. M. Goff, and T.D. A. Forbes (1998). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia rigidula." Phytochem. 49 1377-1380. [3] B.A. Clement, C. M. Goff and T. D. A. Forbes (1997). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri." Phytochem. 46 249-254. External links Media related to Vachellia rigidula at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Vachellia rigidula at Wikispecies • Range Shrubs ( Acacia sassa 206 Acacia sassa Acacia sassa Acacia sassa Blossom Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. sassa Binomial name Acacia sassa Acacia sassa grows in the forests of Senegal.[1] Smoke from certain parts of it is known to be psychoactive.[2] References [1] Convention on Biological Diversity (http:/ / www. biodiv. org/ doc/ programmes/ cro-cut/ gti/ gti-needs-summary-en. pdf) [2] Book Index from Christian Rätsch Räucherstoffe - Der Atem des Drachens Presented at (http:/ / www. deutschesfachbuch. de/ info/ detail. php?PHPSESSID=671b6aae5958d853f3f650eeed1bece7& isbn=3038003026) Acacia schaffneri 207 Acacia schaffneri Acacia schaffneri Acacia schaffneri beans Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. schaffneri Binomial name Acacia schaffneri (S. Watson) F.J. Herm. Synonyms • • Pithecellobium schaffneri S. Watson Poponax schaffneri (S. Watson) Britton & Rose Acacia schaffneri (Twisted Acacia, Schaffner Acacia) is a tree native to Mexico and the United States (Texas). Uses Acacia schaffneri wood is used for fuel and fences. The wood makes very good firewood. It is used for cooking. Acacia schaffneri trees serve as food for animals. Goats and sheep browse leaves from the tree and eat the fuzzy beans when available late in the summer. Livestock use the trees for shade and shelter. Some chemical compounds found in Acacia schaffneri • • • • Phenethylamine[1] Beta-methyl-phenethylamine Tyramine Hordenine Acacia schaffneri 208 The foliage and seeds of Acacia schaffneri have a protein content of about 11.6%.[2] Acacia schaffneri as food for goats Very large Acacia schaffneri thorns Acacia schaffneri wood Acacia schaffneri References Notes [1] Chemistry of Acacia's from South Texas (http:/ / uvalde. tamu. edu/ pdf/ chemtdaf. pdf) [2] Range Shrubs (http:/ / www. asft. ttu. edu/ cfire/ databases/ range3. html) General references • Range Shrubs ( External links • Xeriscape Landscaping Plants For The Arizona Desert Environment ( AcaciaTenazaPrieto/AcaciaTenazaPrieto.htm) 209 Senegalia senegal 210 Senegalia senegal This Gum Acacia tree was photographed at Taljai hill, Pune Gum Arabic Tree Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Senegalia Species: S. senegal Binomial name Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton & P. Wilson Synonyms[1] • • Acacia circummarginata Chiov. Acacia cufodontii Chiov. Senegalia senegal 211 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acacia glaucophylla sensu Brenan Acacia kinionge sensu Brenan Acacia oxyosprion Chiov. Acacia rupestris Boiss. Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Acacia senegal subsp. modesta (Wall.) Roberty Acacia senegal subsp. senegalensis Roberty Acacia somalensis sensu Brenan Acacia sp. 1 F. White Acacia spinosa Marloth & Engl. Acacia thomasii sensu Brenan Acacia volkii Suess. Mimosa senegal L. Senegalia senegal (formerly Acacia senegal) is a small deciduous tree from the genus Senegalia, known by the common names Rfaudraksha, Gum Acacia, Gum Arabic Tree, or Gum Senegal Tree. It is native to semi-desert regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as Oman, Pakistan, and northwestern India. It grows to a height of 5-12m, with a trunk up to 30 cm in diameter.[2] S. senegal is the source of the world's highest quality gum arabic, known locally as hashab gum in contrast to the related, but inferior, gum arabic from Red acacia or talh gum. Uses Gum arabic The tree is of great economic importance for the gum arabic it produces to be is used as a food additive, in crafts, and as a cosmetic. The gum is drained from cuts in the bark, and an individual tree will yield 200 to 300 grams. Seventy percent of the world's gum arabic is produced in Sudan. Forage New foliage is very useful as forage.[3] Food Dried seeds are used as food by humans. Senegalia senegal 212 Agriculture Like other legume species, S. senegal fixes nitrogen within Rhizobia or nitrogen-fixing bacteria living in root nodules. This nitrogen fixation enriches the poor soils where it is grown, allowing for the rotation of other crops in naturally nutrient-poor regions. Traditional uses It is reportedly used as for its astringent properties, to treat bleeding, bronchitis, diarrhea, gonorrhea, leprosy, typhoid fever and upper respiratory tract infections.Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources (medicine) Rope Roots near the surface of the ground are quite useful in making all kinds of very strong ropes and cords. The tree bark is also used to make rope. Wood Senegalia senegal Handles for tools, parts for weaving looms. Chemistry A. senegal contains hentriacontane, a solid, long-chain alkane hydrocarbon. The leave also contain the psychoactive alkaloid dimethyltryptamine.[4] References Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] ILDIS (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~371& genus~Acacia& species~senegal) World Agroforestry Centre (http:/ / www. worldagroforestrycentre. org/ SEA/ Products/ AFDbases/ AF/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=108) Purdue University (http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ duke_energy/ Acacia_senegal. html) Khalil, S.K.W. & Elkheir, Y.M. 1975. “Dimethyltryptamine from the leaves of certain Acacia species of Northern Sudan.” Lloydia 38(3):176-177. Senegalia senegal General references Van Wyk, Ben-Erik (2005). Food Plants of the World. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 0-88192-743-0 External links • Acacia senegal Photos (Google Images) ( ie=ISO-8859-1&oe=ISO-8859-1&gbv=1&q="Acacia+senegal"+&btnG=Search+Images) • Acacia senegal ( searchTextMenue=Acacia+senegal&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. (http:// 213 Vachellia seyal 214 Vachellia seyal red acacia Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. seyal Binomial name Vachellia seyal (Del.) P.J.H.Hurter varieties[1] • • Vachellia seyal var. fistula (Schweinf.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia seyal var. seyal (Del.) P.J.H.Hurter Synonyms[2] • • • • Acacia fistula Schweinf. Acacia flava (Forssk.) Schweinf. var. seyal (Del.) Roberty Acacia seyal Del. Acacia stenocarpa A. Rich. Vachellia seyal 215 Vachellia seyal, the Red acacia, known also as the shittah tree (the source of shittim wood), is a thorny, 6–10 m (20–30 ft) high tree with a pale greenish or reddish bark. At the base of the 3–10 cm (1–4 in) feathery leaves there are two straight, light grey thorns, growing to 7–20 cm (3–8 in) long. The blossoms are displayed in round, bright yellow clusters approximately in 1.5 cm (0.5 in) diameter. In Vachellia seyal var. fistula, which is more common on heavy clay soils, some of the thorns are swollen and house symbiotic ants. It is distributed from Egypt to Kenya and west Senegal. In the Sahara, it often grows in damp valleys. Uses Gum arabic Vachellia seyal bark Vachellia seyal is, along with other vachellias, an important source for gum arabic, a natural polysaccharide, that exudes from damaged stems and solidifies.[3] Tanning Parts of the tree have a tannin content of up to 18-20%. The bark and seed pods of Vachellia seyal var. seyal have a tannin content of about 20%.[2] Wood Vachellia seyal Wood from the tree is said to have been used in Ancient Egypt to make coffins and also the Ark of the Covenant.[4] Medicinal uses Bark The bark is used to treat dysentery and bacterial infections of the skin, such as leprosy. The bark is also used as a stimulant. Gum The gum is used as an aphrodisiac, to treat diarrhoea, as an emollient, to treat hemorrhaging, inflammation of the eye, intestinal ailments and rhinitis. The gum is used to ward off arthritis and bronchitis. Wood Incense from the wood is used to treat pain from rheumatism and to keep expectant mothers from contracting rhinitis and fevers. Vachellia seyal Hybrids Vachellia seyal occasionally hybridizes with V. xanthophloea. References [1] [2] [3] [4] ILDIS (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb/ 6. 00/ fam/ f2. shtml) ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01) Purdue University (http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ duke_energy/ Acacia_seyal. html) Vachellia seyal (as Acacia seyal) (http:/ / www. botanical-dermatology-database. info/ BotDermFolder/ LEGU-12. html#Acacia seyal) in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database • Acacia seyal ( searchTextMenue=Acacia+seyal&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. (http:// • Arbonnier, M. Arbres, arbustes et the lianes zones seches d'Afrique de l'Ouest. CIRAD. Montpellier, 2000 ISBN 2-87614-431-X 216 Vachellia sieberiana 217 Vachellia sieberiana Vachellia sieberiana In Kirstenbosch, Cape Town Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. sieberiana Binomial name Vachellia sieberiana (DC.) varieties[1] • • • Vachellia sieberiana var. sieberiana (DC.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia sieberiana var. villosa (A.Chev.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia sieberiana var. woodii (Burtt Davy) Kyal. & Boatwr. Synonyms[2] • • • • • • • • Acacia abyssinica sensu auct. Acacia amboensis Schinz Acacia davyi sensu auct. Acacia purpurascens Vatke Acacia sieberana DC. Acacia sieberiana DC. Acacia sieberiana subsp. vermoesenii (De Wild.)Troupin Acacia vermoesenii De Wild. Vachellia sieberiana is a perennial tree native to Africa and introduced into Pakistan. It is known in South Africa as the Paperbark Thorn. It is used in many areas for various products. This tree grows 3–25 m in height, with a trunk diameter of 0.6–1.8 m.[3] It is not listed as being a threatened species. Vachellia sieberiana 218 Uses Its uses include forage, medicine and wood. It is used for fiber (twine is made from the inside bark for stringing beads); for food (the gum is edible); and for livestock and game. The flowers of the tree make good forage for bees and bee hives are put directly in the trees for this. The tree leaves sometimes contain chemical compounds that when ingested may release hydrogen cyanide and they can be lethal to cattle. They can be lifesaving during dry times of the year. The gum of the tree is used as food, an adhesive, and to make ink. Traditional medicinal uses Close-up of the leaves In Africa, the bark or root is used to treat urinary tract inflammation. The bark has astringent properties and it is used to treat colds, cough, and childhood fever. According to the World AgroForestry Centre, "A decoction of the root is taken as remedy for stomach-ache. The bark, leaves and gums are used to treat tapeworm, bilharzia, haemorrhage, orchitis, colds, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, kidney problems, syphilis, ophthalmia, rheumatism and disorders of the circulatory system. It is also used as an astringent. The pods serve as an emollient, and the roots for stomach-ache, acne, tapeworms, urethral problems, oedema and dropsy." Nitrogen fixation The tree is a legume, so it takes nitrogen gas out of the air and converts it into nitrogen fertilizer (this phenomenon is known as nitrogen fixation), from which surrounding crops benefit. Tannin Tannin is found in the bark and seed pods. Wood The wood is fairly hard and it is used for furniture, handles for implements and tools for grinding grain manually. The wood of V. sieberiana has a density of about 655 kg/m³.[4] Ecology and Conservation This tree is widespread in its natural habitat and is not threatened. It is browsed upon by livestock and game such as elephant and giraffe. A close-up of the bark that gives the tree its name Vachellia sieberiana References [1] [2] [3] [4] ILDIS List (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb/ 6. 00/ fam/ f2. shtml) ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~373& genus~Acacia& species~sieberiana) World Agroforestry Centre (http:/ / www. worldagroforestrycentre. org/ SEA/ Products/ AFDbases/ AF/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=113) FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ V5360E/ v5360e0f. htm) External links • Acacia sieberiana ( preview=true&searchTextMenue=Acacia+sieberiana&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. ( 219 Acacia simplex 220 Acacia simplex Acacia simplex Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. simplex Binomial name Acacia simplex (Sparrm.) Pedley[1] Synonyms • • • • Acacia laurifolia A.Gray Acacia laurifolia Willd. Acacia simplicifolia Druce Mimosa simplicifolia L.f. Acacia simplex is a perennial climbing tree native to islands in the western part of the Pacific Ocean as far east as Savaiʻi. It is also found in Argentina. This tree grows up to 12 m in height.[2] There is no common English name, but it is called tatakia in Fiji, tatagia in Samoa, tātāngia in Tonga and Martaoui in New-Caledonia Acacia simplex 221 Uses The tree is used as a toxin in fishing. It incapacitates the fish, but it is apparently not harmful to people.[3] Phytochemicals Bark • N-methyltryptamine[4] • N,N-dimethyltryptamine • 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-B-carboline Leafy stems • • • • • N-methyltryptamine N,N-dimethyltryptamine 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-B-carboline N,N-formylmethyltryptamine Traces of another unidentified alkaloid Stem bark Total alkaloids 3.6% of which 40% 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline. N-methyltryptamine, 22.5% N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 12.7% Twigs Total alkaloids 0.11%, of which N-methyltryptamine 26.3%, 6.2% 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahyrdo-β-carboline, 1.6% N,N-formylmethyltryptamine. N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Reference [1] [2] [3] [4] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& genus~Mimosa& species~s%m%p*) Australian and Extra-Australian Acacia (http:/ / mulga. yage. net/ acacia/ ) FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ u2440e/ u2440e05. htm) Phytochemical Studies of Acacia Simplicifolia (Acacia simplex) (http:/ / users. lycaeum. org/ ~mulga/ acacia/ simphy. html) 5.8% Vachellia tortilis 222 Vachellia tortilis Vachellia tortilis Vachellia tortilis in the Serengeti National Park Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Vachellia Species: V. tortilis Binomial name Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso & Banfi subspecies[1] and varieties • • • • Vachellia tortilis subsp. heteracantha (Burch.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Savi) Kyal. & Boatwr. • var. pubescens (A.Chev.) Kyal. & Boatwr. • var. raddiana (Savi) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia tortilis subsp. spirocarpa (Hochst. ex. A.Rich.) Kyal. & Boatwr. • var. crinita (Chiov.) Kyal. & Boatwr. • var. spirocarpa (Hochst. ex. A.Rich.) Kyal. & Boatwr. Vachellia tortilis subsp. tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso & Banfi Vachellia tortilis 223 Range of Vachellia tortilis Synonyms • • • Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne Mimosa tortilis Forssk. Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. Vachellia tortilis, attributed by APG III to the Vachellia genus,[2] is the Umbrella thorn acacia, also known as Umbrella thorn and Israeli babool,[3] a medium to large canopied tree native primarily to the savanna and Sahel of Africa (especially Sudan), but also occurring in the Middle East. Distribution and growing conditions Vachellia tortilis tends to grow in areas where temperatures vary from 0 to 50 degree Celsius and rainfall is anywhere from about 100–1,000 mm (3.9–39.4 in) per year.[4] Characteristics In extremely arid conditions, it may occur as a small, wiry bush. It grows up to 21 m (69 ft) in height.[5] The tree carries leaves that grow to approx. 2.5 cm (1 in) in length with between 4 and 10 pair of pinnae each with up to 15 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are small and white, highly aromatic, and occur in tight clusters. Seeds are produced in pods which are flat and coiled into a springlike structure. The plant is known to tolerate high alkalinity, drought, high temperatures, sandy & stony soils, strongly sloped rooting surfaces, and sand blasting. Also, plants older than 2 years have been observed to be somewhat frost resistant. Importance Timber from the tree is used for furniture, wagon wheels, fence posts, cages, and pens. Vachellia wood was also used exclusively by the Israelites in the Old Testament in the building of the tabernacle and the tabernacle furniture, including the Ark of the Covenant. The pods and foliage, which grow prolifically on the tree, are used as fodder for desert grazing animals. The bark is often used as a string medium in Tanganyika, and is a source for tannin. Gum from the tree is edible and can be used as Gum Arabic. Parts of the tree including roots, shoots, and pods are also often used by natives for a vast number of purposes including decorations, weapons, tools, and medicines.[6] The Umbrella thorn is also emerging as an important species in the battle to 'green the deserts', as it is one of few trees to tolerate very harsh, arid environments. Vachellia tortilis 224 Common names Spread over such a large area inhabited by diverse cultures, the V. tortilis is known by a wide number of common names. These include (but are not limited to):[7] • Afrikaans: haak-en-steek • Arabic: samar, sammar, samor, samra, sayyal, seyal, seyyal • English: karamoja, umbrella thorn • Hebrew: shitat ha'sochech • Hindi: Israeli babool • Italian: acacia ad ombrello • Ndebele: isanqawe, umsasane, umshishene, umtshatshatsha • Nyanja: mzunga, nsangu, nsangunsangu, nyoswa • Samburu: ltepes • Somali: abak, kura, maraa • Swahili: mgunga, mugumba, munga • Tigrigna: akba, akiba, alla, aqba • Tongan: mukoka, muzungu, ngoka • Tswana: mosu, mosunyana • Zulu: umSasane V. tortilis has a combination of paired straight and paired hooked thorns, from which the Afrikaans name derives, meaning "hook and prick". References [1] ILDIS Legumes of the World (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb/ 6. 00/ fam/ f2. shtml) [2] XVIII International Botanical Congress, 23-30 July 2011, Melbourne Australia [3] Vachellia tortilis (as Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne) (http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ duke_energy/ Acacia_tortilis. html), Purdue University, December 1997. V. tortilis in northern Tanzania [4] Handbook on Seeds of Dry-Zone Acacias FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ 006/ Q2190E/ Q2190E10. htm) [5] World Agroforestry Centre (http:/ / www. worldagroforestrycentre. org/ SEA/ Products/ AFDbases/ AF/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=118) [6] Purdue University (http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ duke_energy/ Acacia_tortilis. html) [7] World AgroForestryTree Database: ICRAF / PROSEA network. (http:/ / www. worldagroforestry. org/ sea/ Products/ AFDbases/ af/ asp/ SpeciesInfo. asp?SpID=118) External links • Vachellia tortilis (as Acacia tortilis) ( ( htm) • Purdue University's detailed article on the Umbrella Thorn Acacia ( duke_energy/Acacia_tortilis.html). • Vachellia tortilis (as Acacia tortilis) ( ( • Acacia tortilis ( searchTextMenue=Acacia+tortilis&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. (http:// Vachellia tortilis 225 • Vachellia tortilis (as Acacia tortilis) ( Israel wildflowers and native plants Acacia vestita Acacia vestita Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. vestita Binomial name Acacia vestita Ker Gawl. Acacia vestita, with common names Weeping Boree, Weeping Acacia, and Hairy Wattle, is a shrub and small tree native to New South Wales, Australia. Description Acacia vestita grows to about 3 metres (9.8 ft) tall and 3m in diameter. It flowers from about August to October. It can be propagated by seed, whereby it may be first soaked in hot water to permeate the hard seed coating before planting.[1] Gardens Acacia vestita is grown in the horticulture industry as a small multi-trunk tree for gardens, and is popular in California for drought tolerant landscaping. References [1] Australian National Botanic Gardens (http:/ / www. cpbr. gov. au/ gnp/ gnp5/ aca-vest. html) Acacia victoriae 226 Acacia victoriae Acacia victoriae Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Acacia Species: A. victoriae Binomial name Acacia victoriae Benth. Synonyms • Acacia coronalis J.M. Black Acacia decora auct. non Rchb. Acacia decora Rchb. var. spinescens Benth. Acacia hannianav Domin Acacia sentis Benth. Acacia sentis F. Muell. Acacia sentis Benth. var. victoriae (Benth.)Domin • Racosperma victoriae (Benth.) Pedley"[1] • • • • • • Acacia victoriae commonly known as Gundabluie or Bardi bush is a shrub-like tree native to Australia. Subspecies: A. victoriae subsp. arida Pedley Acacia victoriae Distribution and Ecology Native to Australia in arid and semi-arid areas,[2] the Acacia victoriae is generally found in alkaline soils including clayey alluvials, grey cracking clays and saline loams on floodplains, alluvial flats, rocky hillsides and ridges.[3] Animals such as birds and small mammals are known to use the tree as protection. The seeds and foliage also offer a source of food to animals.[4] Description Mature Acacia victoriae grow into a shrub-like tree with multiple trunks. They reach a height of about 5–6 meters and is moderately fast growing. It has a life-span of about 10–15 years. The tree has a large root system, known to extend to 20m. It is able to survive drought fairly well, however not in severe drought, though it can regenerate from suckers. Flowering begins in August and continues into late December; depending on the region the tree is found. As with the variation of flowering, the maturation of the seeds is also variant. Foliage and Seeds The branches of the Acacia victoriae are covered in small spines that are about 1 cm in length. During flowering, the branches are full clustered, yellowish, and strong scented flowers. Each flower is in a pair within the 12–12 cm cluster. Seeds are found in 8 cm pale coloured pods. The seeds themselves are about 0.5 cm and brown in colour. Uses Food The nitrogen containing seeds are used in breads as well as ground up as a meal. Aboriginals are helping to apply their methods to using the seeds form Acacia victoriae for food. The seeds have also been used as fodder, being a good source of protein. Land Uses The Acacia victoriae is useful when used as a windbreak and also helps with soil stabilization. Because it is able to grow at a moderate rate, it has also been used site rehabilitation. References [1] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Acacia+ victoriae) [2] University of Arizona (2012). Campus Aboretum Acacia victoriae. Retrieved from: http:/ / arboretum. arizona. edu/ taxa/ Acacia_victoriae. html [3] Florabank (2012). Acacia victoriae. Retrieved from: http:/ / www. florabank. org. au/ lucid/ key/ species%20navigator/ media/ html/ Acacia_victoriae. htm [4] Worldwide Wattle (2012). Acacia victoriae Benth. Retrieved from: http:/ / www. worldwidewattle. com/ infogallery/ utilisation/ acaciasearch/ pdf/ victoriae. pdf 227 Albizia inundata 228 Albizia inundata Albizia inundata Conservation status Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Albizia Species: A. inundata Binomial name Albizia inundata (Mart.) Barneby & J.W. Grimes Synonyms Many, see text Albizia inundata is a perennial tree native to South America. Common names include maloxo, muqum, paloflojo, Timbo Blanco, Timbo-ata, and also "canafistula" though this usually is Golden Shower Tree (Cassia fistula).[1] It grows to a height of up to 20 m.[2] The leaves of Albizia inundata contain dimethyltryptamine, a hallucinogenic drug.[3] Albizia inundata Synonyms The synonymy of this species is quite confusing; related plants have been described by various authors under the same name as A. inundata. Junior synonyms of A. inundata are: • Acacia inundata Mart. • Acacia multiflora Spreng. Acacia multiflora Kunth. is Albizia multiflora var. multiflora • • • • • • Acacia polyantha A.Spreng. Albizia polyantha (A.Spreng.) G.P.Lewis Arthrosamanea polyantha (A.Spreng.) Burkart Arthrosamanea polycephala (Griseb.) Burkart Cathormion polyanthum (A.Spreng.) Burkart Cathormion polycephalum Burkart Cathormion polycephalum (Griseb.) Burkart is Albizia polycephala • Enterolobium polycephalum Griseb. • Feuilleea polycephala (Griseb.) Kuntze • Pithecellobium multiflorum (Kunth) Benth var. brevipedunculata Chodat & Hassl. Pithecellobium multiflorum (Kunth) Benth is Albizia multiflora var. multiflora Pithecellobium multiflorum Merr. is Archidendron merrillii • Pithecellobium pendulum Lindm. Footnotes [1] ILDIS (2005) [2] SMN (2008) [3] Rätsch (2004) References • International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (2005): Albizia berteriana (DC.) Fawc. & Rendle ( species~berteriana). Version 10.01, November 2005. Retrieved 2008-MAR-30. • Rätsch, Christian (2004): Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen (7th ed.). AT Verlag. ISBN 3-85502-570-3 • Secretaría de Minería de la Natión, República Argentina (SMN) (2008): Provincia de Formosa - Biota: Resultados del Muestreo Observacional y Carta de Vegetación ( formosa/p-4-1.asp). Retrieved 2008-MAR-30. External links • Albizia inundata Photo (Field Museum) ( • Dried Herbarium Specimens (Field Museum) ( genus=Albizia&species=inundata) 229 Anadenanthera colubrina 230 Anadenanthera colubrina Anadenanthera colubrina Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Anadenanthera Species: A. colubrina Binomial name Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan Range of Anadenanthera colubrina Synonyms • • • • Acacia colubrina Mart. Acacia grata Willd. Mimosa colubrina Vell. Piptadenia grata (Willd.) J.F. Macbr. Anadenanthera colubrina 231 Anadenanthera colubrina (also known as Vilca, Huilco, Huilca, Wilco, Willka, Cebil, or Angico) is a South American tree closely related to Yopo, or Anadenanthera peregrina. It grows from 5 m to 20 m tall and the trunk is very thorny. The leaves are mimosa-like, up to 30 cm in length and they fold up at night.[1] In Chile, A. colubrina produces flowers from September to December and bean pods from September to July.[2] In Brazil A. colubrina has been given "high priority" conservation status. Nomenclature Anadenanthera colubrina is known by many names throughout South America. In Peru it is known as Willka (also Wilca, Vilca and Huilca) which in the Quechua languages means "sacred". Geography A. colubrina is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Cuba, and Mauritius.[3] Natural growing conditions A. colubrina grows at altitudes of about 315-2200 m with roughly 250-600 mm/year (10-24 in/yr) of precipitation and a mean temperature of 21 °C. It tends to grow on rocky hillsides in well-drained soil, often in the vicinity of rivers. It grows quickly at 1-1.5 m/year in good conditions.[4] The growing areas are often "savannah to dry rainforest." Flowering can begin in as soon as two years after germination.[5] Anadenanthera colubrina flowers General uses Food A sweetened drink is made from the bark. Gum Gum from the tree can be used in the same way as gum arabic.[6] Tannin A. colubrina's tannin is used in industry to process animal hides. Anadenanthera colubrina Anadenanthera colubrina 232 Traditional medicine The tree's bark is the most common part used medicinally. Gum from the tree is used medicinally to treat upper respiratory tract infections, as an expectorant and otherwise for cough.[7] Wood In northeastern Brazil, the tree is primarily used as timber and for making wooden implements. "It is used in construction and for making door and window frames, barrels, mooring masts, hedges, platforms, floors, agricultural implements and railway sleepers."[4] The wood is also reportedly a preferred source of cooking fuel, since it makes a hot and long-lasting fire. It is widely used there in the making of fences, since termites seem not to like it. At one time, it was used in the construction of houses, but people are finding it more difficult to find suitable trees for that purpose. Chemical compounds Chemical compounds contained in A. colubrina include: • 2,9-dimethyltryptoline – plant[8] • 2-methyltryptoline – plant • 5-MeO-DMT – bark Anadenanthera colubrina trunk • 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine – bark • • • • • • • • • • • Bufotenin – plant beans[9] Bufotenin-oxide – fruit, beans Catechol – plant Leucoanthocyanin – plant Leucopelargonidol – plant DMT – fruit, beans, pods, bark[10] DMT-oxide – fruit Methyltryptamine – bark Orientin – leaf Saponarentin – leaf Viterine – leaf The bark and leaves contain tannin and the beans contain saponin. Entheogenic uses To make the psychedelic snuff called Vilca (sometimes called cebil), the black beans from the bean pods of these trees are first toasted until the beans pop like popcorn breaking the bean's husk. The roasting process facilitates removal of the husk and makes the beans easier to grind into a powder. The bean's husk is usually removed because it is difficult to powderise. The bean is then ground with a mortar and pestle into a powder and mixed with a natural form of calcium hydroxide (lime) or calcium oxide (from certain types of ashes, calcined shells, etc.). This mix is then moistened to a consistency similar to bread dough, using a small amount of water. If calcium oxide is used, the water will react with it to form calcium hydroxide. Once moistened, it is kneaded into a ball for several minutes so that all the bufotenin comes into contact with the calcium hydroxide and forms the free-base. After kneading, it is then left to sit for several hours to several days, depending on the local customs. During this period most of the Anadenanthera colubrina 233 excess calcium hydroxide reacts with the carbon dioxide in the air to form calcium carbonate. Calcium hydroxide is caustic in the presence of water, and is very irritating to the nasal passages, so it is desirable to allow any left over calcium hydroxide to convert to calcium carbonate. It is then thoroughly dried and ready for use. The more modern non-traditional use of baking soda or ammonia as a substitute for calcium hydroxide has been used with limited success. A nearly identical snuff called Yopo, can be prepared from the related Anadenanthera peregrina. The main active constituent of Vilca is bufotenin; to a much lesser degree DMT and 5-MeO-DMT are also present. A. colubrina has been found to contain up to 12.4% bufotenin. As bufotenin is quickly metabolized, the effects of the drug are short-acting. Usage and preparation of vilca is almost identical to that of yopo. Even as recently as 1996 there have been reports of active use of Vilca by Wichi shamans, under the name hatáj [Ott 2001, p.90]. It is also believed that the beans were consumed orally by the Incas.[11] Anadenanthera colubrina foliage and flowers. Botanical varieties • Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.Conc.)Brenan var. cebil (Griseb.)Altschul • Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.Conc.)Brenan var. colubrina References Notes [1] Diccionarios Botánicos (http:/ / psicodioscorides. com/ listar_a. html) [2] Angelo Z, Dante and Capriles, José M. La Importancia de las Plantas Psicotrópicas para la Economía de Intercambio y Relaciones de Interacción en el Altiplano sur Andino. (http:/ / www. scielo. cl/ scielo. php?script=sci_arttext& pid=S0717-73562004000400038& lng=es& nrm=iso) Chungará (Arica). Volumen Especial, 2004. Pages 1023-1035. Chungara, Revista de Antropología Chilena. ISSN 0717-7356. [3] ILDIS LegumeWeb (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?sciname=Anadenanthera+ colubrina) [4] Desiccation and storage of Anadenanthera colubrina beans. (http:/ / www. ipgri. cgiar. org/ Publications/ 1032/ 1032_PDF/ 7 - South and Central America. pdf) International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). Edilberto Rojas Espinoza. [5] Anadenanthera spp. (http:/ / www. ethnobotanica. org/ wiki/ index. php?title=Anadenanthera_spp. ) [6] Anadenanthera: Visionary Plant of Ancient South America By Constantino Manuel Torres, David B. Repke, p. 98 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=cMSFT5K3C9wC& oi=fnd& pg=PR9& dq=Anadenanthera+ peregrina+ falcata& ots=YxsJ1pJmIc& sig=cz-JSXhgUDeHieDOmCq2gseSQ3w#PPA98,M1) [7] Plantamed (Portuguese) (http:/ / www. plantamed. com. br/ plantaservas/ especies/ Anadenanthera_colubrina. htm) [8] Dr. Duke's (http:/ / sun. ars-grin. gov:8080/ npgspub/ xsql/ duke/ plantdisp. xsql?taxon=72) Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases [9] UNO (http:/ / www. unodc. org/ unodc/ en/ bulletin/ bulletin_1965-01-01_2_page006. html?print=yes) [10] Medicina traditional Ergebnisse einethnomedizinischen ...(German) (http:/ / deposit. ddb. de/ cgi-bin/ dokserv?idn=981893406& dok_var=d1& dok_ext=pdf& filename=981893406. pdf) [11] Hallucinogens Found in Mummy Hair (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 27441890/ ) Anadenanthera colubrina General references • Rätsch, Christian; Schultes, Richard Evans; Hofmann, Albert (2001). Plants of the gods: their sacred, healing, and hallucinogenic powers. Rochester, Vt: Healing Arts Press. ISBN 0-89281-979-0. • Pachter IJ, Zacharias DE, Ribeiro O (1959). "Indole Alkaloids of Acer saccharinum (the Silver Maple), Dictyloma incanescens, Piptadenia columbrina, and Mimosa hostilis". J. Org. Chem. 24 (9): 1285. doi: 10.1021/jo01091a032 ( External links • Anadenanthera colubrina Specimens Click View Med ( ( vrrc/?page=results&rpno=1&family=&genus=Anadenanthera&species=&intPerPage=25&x=76&y=10) • Anadenanthera colubrina Photo ( • The Preparation of Anadenanthera Snuffs ( ( • Growing Anadenanthera colubrina ( ( • (Portuguese) Anadenanthera colubrina ( 234 Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil 235 Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Anadenanthera Species: A. colubrina Variety: A. c. var. cebil Trinomial name Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul Synonyms • • • • • • • • • • • Acacia cebil Griseb. Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan Piptadenia cebil (Griseb.) Griseb. Piptadenia hassleriana Chodat Piptadenia hassleriana Chodat var. fruticosa Chodat & Hass Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. var. cebil (Griseb.) Chodat & Hass Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. var. genuina Chodat & Hass Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. var. plurifoliata Hoehne Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. var. vestita Chodat & Hass Piptadenia microphylla Benth. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul is a mimosa-like timber tree native to Caatinga and Cerrado vegetation in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. It has also been introduced to Mauritius. It grows up to 25 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 60–90 cm. The tree's mimosa-like leaves range in length from about 7–20 cm. The flowers are cream-colored and arrive in the spring. The seed pods are fairly straight and contain about 8 to 15 seeds each. The seeds are flat, average each about 1.5 cm in diameter and have an average mass of about 0.125 g each. The tree's wood has a density of about 0.840 kg/dm³.[1] Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Uses Gum Gum from the tree can be used in the same way as gum arabic.[2] Honey This tree is used as a honey plant. Medicine The tree is a medicinal plant. The bark is the most-used part of the tree for this. Small amounts of roasted, powdered seeds are snuffed for headaches and colds. Ornamental tree The tree is an ornamental plant, and it is especially useful as an urban tree. Tannin The tree's bark contains about 15.38% tannin. The seed pods contain 3% tannin and the heartwood contains 1.8%.[3] Wood The wood is very hard and it dulls cutting tools. The heartwood is quite durable. The tree's wood is used for outdoor construction, marine applications, railroad ties and implement handles. Alkaloids Bufotenin and dimethyltryptamine have been isolated from the seeds and seed pods, 5-MeO-DMT from the bark of the stems. The seeds were found to contain 12.4% bufotenine, 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.06% DMT.[4] Conservation A. colubrina var. cebil is very much sought for its wood and bark (for medicinal purposes) and so it is being destructively cut down by industry. Since the tree is beautiful and useful, calls are being made to plant trees near communities that use them, so that sustainable harvesting of the tree can be accomplished.[5] Propagation The seeds can be placed between a folded damp paper towel in a sealable plastic sandwich bag for a few days until the seeds sprout. They can then be planted 1 cm deep in well-drained containers.[6] Once watered, is important to let the growing medium dry out well, before watering again. 236 Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil References [1] Herbotechnica (http:/ / www. herbotecnia. com. ar/ aut-curupay. html) [2] Anadenanthera: Visionary Plant of Ancient South America By Constantino Manuel Torres, David B. Repke, p. 98 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=cMSFT5K3C9wC& oi=fnd& pg=PR9& dq=Anadenanthera+ peregrina+ falcata& ots=YxsJ1pJmIc& sig=cz-JSXhgUDeHieDOmCq2gseSQ3w#PPA98,M1) [3] Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=cMSFT5K3C9wC& pg=PA75& ots=YxrR7rDmPa& dq="anadenanthera+ peregrina"& sig=q5kJzixY03o-gr8tp9fikXovnqY#PPA96,M1) Anadenanthera: Visionary Plant of Ancient South America By Constantino Manuel Torres, David B. Repke p. 96 [4] Erowid (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ archive/ sonoran_desert_toad/ ott. htm) [5] Acta Botanica Brasilica (http:/ / www. scielo. br/ scielo. php?pid=S0102-33062005000100004& script=sci_arttext) Print ISSN 0102-3306 Acta Bot. Bras. vol.19 no.1 São Paulo Jan./Mar. 2005 Use of plant resources in a seasonal dry forest (Northeastern Brazil) [6] Growing Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Plot55 (http:/ / www. plot55. com/ growing/ a. colubrina. html) External links • Anandenanthera macrocarpa Click on Image ( ( FABA-anad-macr-bra-2082419.jpg) • Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (ILDIS) ( LegumeWeb&tno~15575&genus~Anadenanthera&species~macrocarpa) • (Portuguese) Anadenanthera macrocarpa ( • Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Photos -- Google Images ( ie=ISO-8859-1&oe=ISO-8859-1&q=cebil&btnG=Search+Images&gbv=1) • Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Photo ( search_vast?w3till=MOA-02456_001.jpg) • Current Specimen List for Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil ( 237 Anadenanthera peregrina 238 Anadenanthera peregrina "Ebene" redirects here. For the city in Mauritius, see Ebene City. Anadenanthera peregrina Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Anadenanthera Species: A. peregrina Binomial name Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg. Range of Anadenanthera peregrina Synonyms Anadenanthera peregrina 239 Acacia angustiloba DC. Acacia microphylla Willd. Acacia peregrina (L.) Willd. Inga niopo Willd. Mimosa acacioides Benth. Mimosa niopo (Willd.) Poiret Mimosa parvifolia Poiret Mimosa peregrina L. Niopa peregrina (L.) Britton & Rose Piptadenia niopo (Willd.) Spruce Piptadenia peregrina (L.) Benth. Anadenanthera peregrina, also known as Yopo, Jopo, Cohoba, Parica or Calcium Tree, is a perennial tree of the Anadenanthera genus native to the Caribbean and South America. It grows up to 20 m tall, having a horny bark. Its flowers are pale yellow to white and spherical. It is not listed as being a threatened species. It is an entheogen used in healing ceremonies and rituals. It is also a well known source of dietary calcium. Related species This plant is almost identical to that of a related tree, Anadenanthera colubrina, commonly known as Cebíl or Vilca. The beans of A. colubrina have a similar chemical makeup as Anadenanthera peregrina, with their primary constituent being 5-OH-DMT (bufotenin). Botanical varieties • Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata • Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina Uses Wood The wood from A. peregrina is very hard and it is good for making furniture.[1] It has a Janka rating of 3700 lb.[2] and a density of around 0.86 g/cm³.[3] Toxicity The beans (sometimes called seeds) and falling leaves are hallucinogenic and are toxic to cattle. Chemical compounds Chemical compounds contained in A. peregrina include: • • • • • • • • • • 2,9-dimethyltryptoline – plant[4] 2-methyltryptoline – plant 5-MeO-DMT – bark 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine – bark Bufotenin – plant beans[5] Bufotenin-oxide – fruit, beans Catechol – plant Leucoanthocyanin – plant Leucopelargonidol – plant DMT – fruit, beans, pods, bark[6] Anadenanthera peregrina • • • • • 240 DMT-oxide – fruit Methyltryptamine – bark Orientin – leaf Saponarentin – leaf Viterine – leaf The bark and leaves contain tannin and the beans contain saponin. Entheogenic uses Traditional usage Archaeological evidence shows Anadenanthera beans have been used as hallucinogens for thousands of years. The oldest clear evidence of use comes from smoking pipes made of puma bone (Felis Concolor) found with Anadenanthera beans at Inca Cueva, a site in the northwest of Humahuaca in the Puna border of Jujuy Province, Argentina. The pipes were found to contain the hallucinogen DMT, one of the compounds found in Anadenanthera beans. Radiocarbon testing of the material gave a date of 2130 BC., suggesting Anadenanthera use as a hallucinogen is over 4000 years old.[7] Snuff trays and tubes similar to those commonly used for yopo were found in the central Peruvian coast dating back to 1200 BC., suggesting that insufflation of Anadenanthera beans is a more recent method of use.[8] Archaeological evidence of insufflation use within the period 500-1000 AD. in northern Chile has been reported.[9] Some indigenous peoples of the Orinoco basin in Colombia, Venezuela and possibly in the southern part of the Brazilian Amazon make use of yopo snuff for spiritual healing. Yopo snuff was also widely used in ceremonial contexts in the Caribbean area, including Cuba and La Española, up to the Spanish Conquest. Anadenanthera peregrina 1916 Yopo snuff is usually blown into the user's nostrils by another person through bamboo tubes or sometimes snuffed by the user using bird bone tubes. Blowing is more effective as this method allows more powder to enter the nose and is said to be less irritating. In some areas the unprocessed ground beans are snuffed or smoked producing a much weaker effect with stronger physical symptoms. Some tribes use yopo along with Banisteriopsis caapi to increase and prolong the visionary effects, creating an experience similar to that of ayahuasca. Anadenanthera peregrina Snuff preparation To make the psychedelic snuff called yopo, the black beans from the bean pods of these trees are first toasted until the beans pop like popcorn breaking the bean's husk. The roasting process facilitates removal of the husk and makes the beans easier to grind into a powder. The bean's husk is usually removed because it is difficult to powderise and adds unnecessary volume. The bean is then ground with a mortar and pestle into a powder and mixed with a natural form of calcium hydroxide (lime) or calcium oxide (from certain types of ashes, calcined shells, etc.). This mix is then moistened to a consistency similar to bread dough, using a small amount of water. If calcium oxide is used, the water will react with it to form calcium hydroxide. Once moistened, it is kneaded into a ball for several minutes. After Modern yopo snuff kneading, it is then left to sit for several hours to several days, depending on the local customs. During this period most of the excess calcium hydroxide reacts with the carbon dioxide in the air to form less caustic calcium carbonate (carbonatation). Effects Inhaling Yopo can cause considerable pain in nostrils. However, this pain usually subsides within minutes. Physical effects include tingling and numbness throughout the body and an increased heart rate. Hallucinatory effects follow as colours become more vivid and shapes appear to alter. The effects of Yopo intensify quickly but gradually fade and are replaced by nausea and general unease. Increased amounts of the substance induced may intensify and lengthen effects. Active constituents Bufotenin The beans have been found to contain up to 7.4% bufotenin.[10] At up to 7.4% (74 mg per gram) bufotenin, an effective 40 mg dose of insufflated bufotenin requires little more than 0.5 grams of beans. The intraperitoneal LD50 of bufotenin is between 200–300 mg/kg (in rodents) with death occurring by respiratory arrest. The LD50 in rodents amounts to between 10,000 mg and 15,000 mg for a small 50 kg (110 lb) adult. Based on the intraperitoneal LD50 for rodents, at 74 mg per gram, it would require approximately 135 grams of beans to reach the estimated LD50of bufotenin for a 50 kg (110 lb) adult. Human intravenous tests using bufotenin suggest the LD50 may be much lower in humans with subjects showing signs of peripheral toxicity (purple face, tachycardia, difficulty breathing, etc.) at doses as little as 8 mg in some subjects.[11] Free base bufotenin when insufflated, taken sublingually, orally, or intrarectally, elicits strong hallucinogenic effects with far less side effects. Dimethyltryptamine and 5-MeO-DMT The effects of insufflated DMT and 5-MeO-DMT are relatively short acting, lasting about 1 hour, while the effects of insufflated yopo typically last 2–3 hours. Of the three main compounds present, only insufflated bufotenine lasts 2–3 hours. Claims of Anadenanthera peregrina containing DMT and 5-MeO-DMT as their main active ingredients are based on rare cases where these compounds are found in larger quantities than bufotenine. Typical acid base extraction techniques utilizing strong bases such as sodium hydroxide solution will exclude bufotenin from the extraction, in favor of DMT and 5-MeO-DMT. It is believed[citation needed] that such extractions have contributed to the misconception that bufotenin is a minor alkaloid in yopo. The majority of the extractions confirm that bufotenin is primarily responsible for the effects of yopo with the other compounds usually appearing in quantities too small to 241 Anadenanthera peregrina produce noticeable effects in an average yopo dose of 5-10 grams[citation needed]. The beans have been found to contain up to only 0.04% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.16% DMT. The leaves and bark also contain small amounts of DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds.[12] At up to 0.04% (0.4 mg per gram) 5-MeO-DMT, an effective light 5 mg dose of insufflated 5-MeO-DMT (5-MeO-DMT dosage, would require over 12 grams of beans. It would be extremely difficult to insufflate such a quantity, as tolerance would likely develop before the 12-gram nasal intake could be completed. Individual sensitivity to 5-MeO-DMT varies. It's been documented that the threshold dose in some individuals is as much as 10 mg insufflated[13] requiring over 24 grams of beans for an effective dose of 5-MeO-DMT. At up to 0.16% (1.6 mg per gram) DMT, an effective 40 mg dose of insufflated DMT would require 25 grams or more. It’s likely to be impossible to insufflate the 25 grams of beans required to reach the active dose of DMT present in the beans. An extract of 25 grams of beans could contain up to 1,850 mg of bufotenin, a potentially dangerous dose of bufotenin. With insufflated free-base bufotenin, the maximum published safe dose used has been 100 mg. Unlike bufotenin, both DMT and 5-MeO-DMT are relatively unstable and begin to degrade rather quickly. Schultes and colleges (1977) examined a 120 year old bean collection and found 0.6% bufotenin with no DMT or 5-MeO-DMT present at all. They also examined a batch of beans that contained all three compounds when fresh, but found only bufotenin in the beans after only two years of storage. Oral usage When taken orally by some tribes in South America, small amounts are often combined with alcoholic chichas (maize based beer).[] Moderate doses are unpleasant, producing nausea and vomiting. The beans were a main ingredient in bilca tauri, an oral purge medicine used to induce ritual vomiting once a month. Large amounts are not usually consumed orally; as many tribes believe oral use is dangerous. Use with MAOIs Some South American tribes have been documented to use various bean preparations along with Banisteriopsis caapi, a herb containing MAOIs. Typically Banisteriopsis caapi is chewed in the mouth while the Anadenanthera beans are snuffed or smoked. Occasionally Banisteriopsis caapi is found mixed in with the snuff. Moderate amounts of Banisteriopsis caapi will effectively double the potency of the Anadenanthera beans. Larger amounts of Banisteriopsis caapi will not only double the potency of Anadenanthera beans but also alter the quality of the experience, producing a more relaxed dreamy effect, with possible increased nausea. There are no well documented reports of the beans being used as a major component in ingestion of ayahuasca, a therapeutic tea made with Banisteriopsis caapi. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] PDF (http:/ / www. ibama. gov. br/ ojs/ index. php/ braflor/ article/ view/ 89/ 88) Caracterização da Madeira de Angico-Vermelho J.G. Architectural (http:/ / www. jgarchitectural. com/ species. htm) FAO (http:/ / www. fao. org/ docrep/ W4095E/ w4095e0c. htm) Dr. Duke's (http:/ / sun. ars-grin. gov:8080/ npgspub/ xsql/ duke/ plantdisp. xsql?taxon=72) Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases UNO (http:/ / www. unodc. org/ unodc/ en/ bulletin/ bulletin_1965-01-01_2_page006. html?print=yes) Medicina traditional Ergebnisse einethnomedizinischen ...(German) (http:/ / deposit. ddb. de/ cgi-bin/ dokserv?idn=981893406& dok_var=d1& dok_ext=pdf& filename=981893406. pdf) [7] M. L. Pochettino, A. R. Cortella, M. Ruiz. 1999 [8] Cortella, M. Ruiz. 1995 [9] Juan P. Ogalde, Bernardo T. Arriaza, and Elia C. Soto - Uso de plantas psicoactivas en el north de Chile: evidencia química del consumo de ayahuasca durante el periodo medio (500-1000 d.C.). Latin American Antiquity 21(4), 2010, pp 441-450. [10] Pharmanopo-Psychonautics: Human Intranasal, Sublingual, Intrarectal, Pulmonary and Oral Pharmacology of Bufotenine (http:/ / entheology. org/ edoto/ anmviewer. asp?a=9& z=8) by Jonathan Ott, The Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, September 2001 242 Anadenanthera peregrina [11] TiKHAL, Alexander Shulgin, 1997 [12] Schultes 1976,1977; Pachter et al. 1959 [13] Shamanic Snuffs or Entheogenic Errhines by Jonathan Ott, Page 102, 2001, ISBN 1-888755-02-4 General references • Jonathan Ott - Shamanic Snuffs or Entheogenic Errhines (2001) ISBN 1-888755-02-4 • Richard Evans Schultes - Plants of the Gods (1992) ISBN 0-89281-979-0 External links • Anadenanthera peregrina -- Google Images ( ie=ISO-8859-1&oe=ISO-8859-1&gbv=1&q="Anadenanthera+peregrina"&btnG=Search+Images) • Erowid Anadenanthera Vault ( • Growing Anadenanthera colubrina ( ( • The Preparation of Anadenanthera Snuffs ( ( 243 Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina 244 Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Anadenanthera Species: A. peregrina Variety: A. p. var. peregrina Trinomial name Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina (L.)Speg. Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina is a tree in the Fabaceae family. It is native to Guyana, Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia and it is also found in the Caribbean. Entheogen In South America, Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina is used to make nopolyopo, a shamanic snuff. Chemical components Bufotenine is in the seeds. This variety appears to be much higher in N,N-DMT than other types of Anadenanthera. This strain is best for entheogenic use. References Bufotenin 245 Bufotenin Bufotenin Systematic (IUPAC) name 3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-ol Clinical data Legal status Routes Schedule I (US) Parenteral Identifiers CAS number 487-93-4 [1] ATC code None PubChem CID 10257   [2] IUPHAR ligand 144 [3] DrugBank ChemSpider DB01445 9839 [4] [5]   [6] KEGG C08299 ChEBI CHEBI:3210   [7]   [8] ChEMBL CHEMBL416526 Synonyms N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxy-dimethyltryptamine, bufotenine, cebilcin   Chemical data Formula Mol. mass C12H16N2O 204.268 g/mol Physical data Melt. point 146–147 °C (295–297 °F) Bufotenin 246 Boiling point 320 °C (608 °F)  (what is this?)   (verify) [9] Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, N,N-dimethylserotonin), is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is an alkaloid found in the skin of some species of toads; in mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals.[1] The name bufotenin originates from the Bufo genus of toads, which includes several species of psychoactive toads, most notably Incilius alvarius, that secrete bufotoxins from their parotoid glands.[2] Bufotenin is similar in chemical structure to the psychedelics psilocin (4-HO-DMT), 5-MeO-DMT, and DMT, chemicals which also occur in some of the same fungus, plant, and animal species as bufotenin. The psychoactivity of bufotenin has been disputed, though recent studies suggest it is similar in nature to 5-MeO-DMT. Nomenclature Bufotenin (bufotenine) is also known by the chemical names 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-HO-DMT), N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, dimethyl serotonin, and mappine. History Bufotenin was first isolated, from toad skin, and named by the Austrian chemist Handovsky at the University of Prague during World War I. The structure of bufotenine was first confirmed in 1934 by Heinrich Wieland’s laboratory in Munich, and the first reported synthesis of bufotenine was by Toshio Hoshino and Kenya Shimodaira in 1935. Sources Toads Bufotenin is a chemical constituent in the venom and eggs of several species of toads belonging to the Bufo genus, but most notably in the Colorado River toad (Bufo alvarius) as it is the only toad species in which bufotenin is present in large enough quantities for a psychoactive effect. Extracts of toad venom, containing bufotenin and other bioactive compounds, have been used in some traditional medicines such as ch’an su (probably derived from Bufo gargarizans), which has been used medicinally for centuries in China. The toad was "recurrently depicted in Mesoamerican art," which some authors have interpreted as indicating that the effects of ingesting Bufo secretions have been known in Mesoamerica for many years; however, others doubt that this art provides sufficient "ethnohistorical evidence" to support the claim. In addition to bufotenine, Bufo venoms also contain digoxin-like cardiac glycosides, and ingestion of the venom can be fatal. Ingestion of Bufo toad venom and eggs by humans has resulted in several reported cases of poisoning, some of which resulted in death. Contemporary reports indicate that bufotenine-containing toad venom has been used as a street drug; that is, as a supposed aphrodisiac (it is not an aphrodisiac but definitely is a lethal poison[3]), ingested orally in the form of ch’an su, and as a psychedelic, by smoking or orally ingesting Bufo toad venom or dried Bufo skins. The use of chan'su and love stone (a related toad venom preparation used as an aphrodisiac in the West Indies) has resulted in several cases of poisoning and at least one death. The practice of orally ingesting toad venom has been referred to in popular culture and in the scientific literature as toad licking and has drawn media attention.[4][5] Albert Most, founder of the Church of the Toad of Light and a proponent of recreational use of Bufo alvarius venom, published a booklet titled Bufo alvarius: The Psychedelic Toad of the Sonoran Desert[6] in 1983 which explained how to extract and smoke the secretions. Bufotenin Bufotenin is also present in the skin secretion of three arboreal amphibian species of the Osteocephalus genus (Osteocephalus taurinus, Osteocephalus oophagus, and Osteocephalus langsdorffii) from the Amazon and Atlantic rain forests. Anadenanthera seeds Bufotenin is a constituent of the seeds of Anadenanthera colubrina and Anadenanthera peregrina trees. Anadenanthera seeds have been used as an ingredient in psychedelic snuff preparations by indigenous cultures of the Caribbean, Central and South America. Other sources Bufotenin has been identified as a component in the latex of the takini (Brosimum acutifolium) tree, which is used as a psychedelic by South American shamans, and in the seeds of Mucuna pruriens Pharmacology Uptake and elimination In rats, subcutaneously administered bufotenin (1–100 μg/kg) distributes mainly to the lungs, heart, and blood, and to a much lesser extent, the brain (hypothalamus, brain stem, striatum, and cerebral cortex) and liver. It reaches peak concentrations at 1 hour and is nearly completely eliminated within 8 hours. In humans, intravenous administration of bufotenin results in excretion of (70%) of injected drug in the form of 5-HIAA, an endogenous metabolite of serotonin, while roughly 4% is eliminated unmetabolized in the urine. Orally administered bufotenine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. Lethal dose The acute toxicity (LD50) of bufotenin in rodents has been estimated at 200 to 300 mg/kg. Death occurs by respiratory arrest.[] Effects in humans Fabing & Hawkins (1955) In 1955, Fabing and Hawkins administered bufotenin intravenously at doses of up to 16 mg to prison inmates at Ohio State Penitentiary. A troubling toxic blood circulation effect causing a purpling of the face was seen in these tests. A subject given 1 mg reported “a tight feeling in the chest” and prickling “as if he had been jabbed by needles.” This was accompanied by a “fleeting sensation of pain in both thighs and a mild nausea.” Another subject given 2 mg reported “tightness in his throat”. He had tightness in the stomach, tingling in pretibial areas, and developed a purplish hue in the face indicating blood circulation problems. He vomited after 3 minutes. Another subject given 4 mg complained of “chest oppression” and that “a load is pressing down from above and my body feels heavy.” The subject also reported “numbness of the entire body” and “a pleasant Martini feeling-my body is taking charge of my mind”. The subject reported he saw red spots passing before his eyes and red-purple spots on the floor, and the floor seemed very close to his face. Within 2 minutes these visual effects were gone, and replaced by a yellow haze, as if he were looking through a lens filter. Fabing and Hawkins commented that bufotenin’s psychedelic effects were "reminiscent of LSD and mescaline but develop and disappear more quickly, indicating rapid central action and rapid degradation of the drug". 247 Bufotenin 248 Isbell (1956) In 1956, Dr. Harris S. Isbell at the Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky experimented with bufotenine as a snuff. He reported “no subjective or objective effects were observed after spraying with as much as 40 mg bufotenine”; however subjects who received 10–12 mg injected intramuscularly reported “elements of visual hallucinations consisting of a play of colors, lights, and patterns”. Turner & Merlis (1959) Turner and Merlis (1959) experimented with intravenous administration of bufotenine (as the water soluble creatinine sulfate salt) to schizophrenics at a New York state hospital. They reported that when one subject received 10 mg during a 50-second interval, “the peripheral nervous system effects were extreme: at 17 seconds, flushing of the face, at 22 seconds, maximal inhalation, followed by maximal hyperventilation for about 2 minutes, during which the patient was unresponsive to stimuli; her face was plum-colored". Finally, Turner and Merlis reported that: “on one occasion, which essentially terminated our study, a patient who received 40 mg intramuscularly, suddenly developed an extremely rapid heart rate; no pulse could be obtained; no blood pressure measured. There seemed to have been an onset of auricular fibrillation…extreme cyanosis developed. Massage over the heart was vigorously executed and the pulse returned to normal…shortly thereafter the patient, still cyanotic, sat up saying: ‘Take that away. I don’t like them’.” After pushing doses to the morally admissible limit without producing visuals, Turner and Merlis conservatively concluded: “We must reject bufotenine…as capable of producing the acute phase of Cohoba intoxication”. McLeod and Sitaram (1985) A 1985 study by McLeod and Sitaram in humans reported that bufotenine administered intranasally at a dose of 1–16 mg had no effect, other than intense local irritation. When given intravenously at low doses (2–4 mg), bufotenine oxalate caused anxiety but no other effects; however, a dose of 8 mg resulted in profound emotional and perceptual changes, involving extreme anxiety, a sense of imminent death, and visual disturbance associated with color reversal and distortion, and intense flushing of the cheeks and forehead. Ott (2001) In 2001, ethnobotanist Jonathan Ott published the results of a study in which he self-administered free base bufotenine via insufflation (5–100 mg), sublingually (50 mg), intrarectally (30 mg), orally (100 mg) and via vaporization (2–8 mg). Ott reported “visionary effects" of intranasal bufotenine and that the "visionary threshold dose" by this route was 40 mg, with smaller doses eliciting perceptibly psychoactive effects. He reported that "intranasal bufotenine is throughout quite physically relaxing; in no case was there facial rubescence, nor any discomfort nor disesteeming side effects". At 100 mg, effects began within 5 minutes, peaked at 35–40 minutes, and lasted up to 90 minutes. Higher doses produced effects that were described as psychedelic, such as "swirling, colored patterns typical of tryptamines, tending toward the arabesque". Free base bufotenin taken sublingually was found to be identical to intranasal use. The potency, duration, and psychedelic action was the same. Ott found vaporized free base bufotenin active from 2–8 mg with 8 mg producing "ring-like, swirling, colored patterns with eyes closed". He noted that the visionary effects of insufflated bufotenine were verified by one colleague, and those of vaporized bufotenine by several volunteers. Ott concluded that free base bufotenin taken intranasally and sublingually produced effects similar to those of Yopo without the toxic peripheral symptoms, such as facial flushing, observed in other studies in which the drug was administered intravenously. Bufotenin Association with schizophrenia and other mental disorders A study conducted in the late 1960s reported the detection of bufotenin in the urine of schizophrenic subjects; however, subsequent research has failed to confirm these findings. Studies have detected endogenous bufotenin in urine specimens from individuals with other psychiatric disorders, such as infant autistic patients. Another study indicated that paranoid violent offenders or those who committed violent behaviour towards family members have higher bufotenin levels in their urine than other violent offenders. A 2010 study utilized a mass spectrometry approach to detect levels of bufotenin in the urine of individuals with severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and asymptomatic subjects. Their results indicate significantly higher levels of bufotenin in the urine of the ASD and schizophrenic groups when compared to asymptomatic individuals. Legal status Bufotenine is regulated as a Schedule I drug (ID number 7403) by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance according to the Criminal Code Regulations of the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia. In the UK, the substance is a Class A drug under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act. References [1] CID 10257. (http:/ / pubchem. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ summary/ summary. cgi?cid=10257) PubChem. Accessed on May 6, 2007. [2] Bufo Alvarius. (http:/ / amphibiaweb. org/ cgi/ amphib_query?query_src=aw_lists_soundInclude_& where-genus=Bufo& where-species=alvarius) AmphibiaWeb. Accessed on May 6, 2007. [3] http:/ / www. ehealthstrategies. com/ files/ aphrodisia. pdf [4] The Dog Who Loved to Suck on Toads. (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=6376594) NPR. Accessed on May 6, 2007. [5] Psychoactive toad: Cultural references [6] How ‘bout them toad suckers? Ain’t they clods? (http:/ / www. smokymountainnews. com/ issues/ 11_06/ 11_01_06/ out_naturalist. html) Smoky Mountain News. Accessed on May 6, 2007 External links • Erowid's Bufotenin Vault ( • TiHKAL entry on Bufotenin ( • Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT) entry in TiHKAL • info ( 249 Desmanthus illinoensis 250 Desmanthus illinoensis Desmanthus illinoensis Desmanthus illinoensis Desmanthus illinoensis seeds Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Desmanthus Species: D. illinoensis Binomial name Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill. ex B. L. Rob. & Fernald Desmanthus illinoensis (commonly known as Illinois bundleflower, prairie-mimosa or prickleweed) is a plant in many areas of the south central US. Root bark of D. illinoensis has been found to contain N,N-DMT, NMT, N-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, 2-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, and gramine (toxic). USDA Zones 5-8 are recommended for outside cultivation. Desmanthus illinoensis References External links • Erowid Desmanthus Vault ( 251 Desmanthus leptolobus 252 Desmanthus leptolobus Desmanthus leptolobus Desmanthus leptolobus Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Desmanthus Species: D. leptolobus Binomial name Desmanthus leptolobus Desmanthus leptolobus, commonly known as Prairie mimosa, Prairie bundleflower or Slenderlobed bundleflower, is an inconspicuous plant of the genus Desmanthus, which primarily grows close to the ground. It can be found growing wild in many areas of the south central United States. While easily overlooked, it is often locally abundant over large expanses of rolling prairie. Root bark of D. leptolobus has been found to contain a psychidelic compund called N,N-DMT, and other related tryptamines. While its only reported quantitative analysis was 0.14% (Appleseed), all instances of co-occurrence with Desmanthus illinoensis showed it to be noticeably stronger than D. illinoensis, based on co-TLC of measured amounts of root bark.Wikipedia:Vagueness Desmanthus leptolobus References External links • Erowid Desmanthus Vault ( • Desmanthus leptolobus TORREY & A.GRAY ( • Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs: assembled by Keeper of the Trout ( books_online/ayahuasca_apa/aya_sec3_part2_desmanthus.shtml) 253 Desmodium caudatum 254 Desmodium caudatum Desmodium caudatum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Desmodium Species: D. caudatum Binomial name Desmodium caudatum (Thunb.) DC. Synonyms • • • • • • Catenaria caudata (Thunb.) Schindl. Desmodium laburnifolium (Poir.) DC. Hedysarum caudatum Thunb. Hedysarum laburnifolium Poir. Meibomia laburnifolia (Poir.) Kuntze Ohwia caudatum (Thunb.) H. Ohashi Desmodium caudatum is a deciduous nitrogen fixing plant in the Fabaceae family. It is found in India, China, Taiwan and other parts of Asia. The shrub grows to a height of about 1.5 m tall. The leaves and roots of the plant are used as an insecticide. References Codariocalyx motorius 255 Codariocalyx motorius Telegraph plant Branch during day (left) and night (right) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Codariocalyx Species: C. motorius Binomial name Codariocalyx motorius (Houtt.) H. Ohashi Synonyms Many, see text Codariocalyx motorius (though often placed in Desmodium), known as the telegraph plant or semaphore plant, is a tropical Asian shrub, one of a few plants capable of rapid movement; others include Mimosa pudica and the venus flytrap. It is widely distributed throughout Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. It can even be found on the Society Islands, a remote chain of islands in the South Pacific. It produces small, purple flowers. Telegraph plant contains small amounts of tryptamine alkaloids in its leaves, stemsWikipedia:Verifiability and roots, namely DMT and 5-MeO-DMT. This plant reproduces using seeds. This plant is famous for its movement of small, lateral leaflets at speeds rapid enough to be perceivable with the naked eye. This is a strategy to maximise light by tracking the sun. Each leaf is equipped with a hinge that permits it to be moved to receive more sunlight, but the weight of these leaves means the plant must expend a lot of energy in moving it. To optimise its movement, each large leaf has two small leaflets at its base. These move constantly along an elliptical path, sampling the intensity of sunlight, and directing the large leaf to the area of most intensity. The common name is due to the rotation of the leaflets with a period of about three to five minutes; this was likened to a semaphore telegraph, a structure with adjustable paddles that could be seen from a distance, the position of Codariocalyx motorius 256 which conveyed a message in semaphore, Wikipedia:Verifiability hence the common names. The Tamils call this plant ThozhukaNNi (Tamil: தொழுகண்ணி). The plant is described in detail in Charles Darwin's 1880 The Power of Movement in Plants. Synonyms C. motorius has a considerable number of nomenclatural and taxonomic synonyms: • Codariocalyx gyrans (L. f.) Hassk. • Desmodium gyrans (L.) DC. • Desmodium gyrans (L. f.) DC. • Desmodium gyrans (L.) DC. var. roylei (Wight & Arn.)Baker • Desmodium motorium (Houtt.) Merr. • Desmodium roylei Wight & Arn. • Hedysarum gyrans L. f. • Hedysarum motorium Houtt. • Hedysarum motorius Houtt. • Meibomia gyrans (L. f.) Kuntze References External links • Trout’s Notes on the Genus Desmodium ( Chemistry, ethnomedicine, pharmacology, synonyms and miscellany (pdf) Desmodium triflorum 257 Desmodium triflorum Desmodium triflorum Inflorescence in Kerala Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Desmodium Species: D. triflorum Binomial name Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. Synonyms • • Hedysarum triflorum L. Meibomia triflora (L.) Kuntze Desmodium triflorum is an ornamental plant in the Fabaceae family. It is native to Florida, Hawaii, and some small areas of other southern states of the United States. It is a creeper, a vine that grows along the ground as opposed to growing up trees or buildings. It has three leaves with smooth edges and a white stripe up the middle, ranging from a bright white to a barely visible grey stripe, depending on the nutrients of the soil. The stems of the plants are either green, red, or both, with minuscule hairs along them. The seeds are in pods that cling to clothing and hair, not unlike velcro. The plant relies on this system to spread growth of the plant. D. triflorum is highly resistant to grazing or mowing, which makes it very difficult to get rid of. The plant also contains a significant amount of DMT, or dimethyltryptamine, a powerful psychedelic. Some speculate that the Seminole Indians used this plant ritually to the same degree as peyote. The US Drug Enforcement Administration has attempted to criminalize this plant, but due to its commonness, neglected the effort, saying that too few people knew of its effect to be worried. Desmodium triflorum 258 Foliage References Fruit and seeds Leonurus sibiricus 259 Leonurus sibiricus Leonurus sibiricus Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Lamiaceae Genus: Leonurus Species: L. sibiricus Binomial name Leonurus sibiricus L. Leonurus sibiricus, commonly called honeyweed or Siberian motherwort, is an herbaceous plant species native to central and Southwest Asia, including China, Mongolia, and Russia. It is naturalized in many other parts of the world, including South, Central and North Americas. Description Leonurus sibiricusis an herbaceous annual or biennial with upright stems that grow from 20 to 80 cm tall. Plants have long petioled basal leaves that are ovate-cordate in shape. The leaves have toothed margins and are incised with deeply cut lobes. Typically one or a few flowering stems are produced from short tap-roots. The lower stem leaves are deciduous and wither away as the plants begin blooming. The petioles of the leaves, midway up the stems are 2 cm long. The flowers are produced in many flowered verticillasters, produced in whorls around the top half or more of the stem. The flowers are sessile with 8 mm long calyxs that are tubular-campanulate in shape. The corolla is white or reddish to purple-red, with an upper lip that is oblong in shape and longer than the lower lip. When flowering is done, brown oblong shaped nutlets are produced in good number. Blooming occurs from July into late September, but flowering can occur year round when climate permits. Leonurus sibiricus 260 This species' habitat within its natural range is stony or sandy grasslands or pine forests. Alkaloids Alkaloids isolated from the plant include: • • • • • • • • Cycloleonurinine Leoheterin Leonurine Leonurinine Leuronurine Prehispanolone Preleoheterin Stachydrine Leonurine is one of the active components of Leonurus sibiricus References External links • ( • ( • Herbarium ( Lespedeza capitata 261 Lespedeza capitata Lespedeza capitata Conservation status Secure  (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Faboideae Tribe: Desmodieae Genus: Lespedeza Species: L. capitata Binomial name Lespedeza capitata Michx. Lespedeza capitata is a species of flowering plant in the Fabaceae, or legume family, and is known by the common name roundhead bushclover, or roundhead lespedeza.[1] It is native to eastern North America, including eastern Canada and the eastern half of the United States.[2] Lespedeza capitata This plant is a perennial herb with erect stems growing up to 1.5 meters tall. The taproot may grow over two meters deep into the soil, with lateral roots reaching out one meter horizontally. The alternately arranged leaves are each made up of several leaflets. The plant is coated in silvery hairs. Flowers are borne in somewhat rounded clusters atop each stem. The flower is white with a purple spot.[3] In the wild this plant grows in wooded areas, on prairies, and in disturbed habitat such as roadsides. It is tolerant of drought.[4] It fixes nitrogen. This plant is used as a component of seed mixes for vegetating rangeland. It is a good addition to livestock forage, as it is palatable and nutritious. The seeds are part of the diet of the Bobwhite Quail.[5] The plant can also be used in flower arrangements. This plant had a number of medicinal uses for Native American groups. It was used as a moxa to treat rheumatism. The Comanche used the leaves for tea. The Meskwaki used the roots to make an antidote for poison.[6] The Pawnee people referred to the plant as rabbit foot, while the Omaha and Ponca peoples gave it the name male buffalo bellow plant.[7] The cultivar 'Kanoka' was released by the USDA in 1998.[8] This plant may suffer from the rust pathogen Uromyces lespedezae-procaumbentis and the tar spot fungus Phyllachora lespedezae, as well as herbivory by the insect Pachyschelus laevigatus. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Lespedeza capitata. (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ java/ profile?symbol=LECA8) USDA Plants Profile. Lespedeza capitata. (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?21854) Germplasm Resources Information Network. Lespedeza capitata. (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ factsheet/ pdf/ fs_leca8. pdf) USDA NRCS Plant Fact Sheet. Lespedeza capitata. (http:/ / www. missouribotanicalgarden. org/ gardens-gardening/ your-garden/ plant-finder/ plant-details/ kc/ a241/ lespedeza-capitata. aspx) Missouri Botanical Garden. Lespedeza capitata. (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ plantguide/ pdf/ cs_leca8. pdf) USDA NRCS Plant Guide. Lespedeza capitata. (http:/ / herb. umd. umich. edu/ herb/ search. pl?searchstring=Lespedeza+ capitata) University of Michigan Ethnobotany. Lespedeza capitata. (http:/ / www. ksre. ksu. edu/ library/ hort2/ mf2626. pdf) Kansas State Extension. Lespedeza capitata 'Kanoka'. (http:/ / www. plant-materials. nrcs. usda. gov/ pubs/ kspmcrb10890. pdf) USDA NRCS Manhattan Plant Materials Center. 262 Lespedeza bicolor 263 Lespedeza bicolor Lespedeza bicolor Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Faboideae Tribe: Desmodieae Genus: Lespedeza Species: L. bicolor Binomial name Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. Lespedeza bicolor is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by the common names shrubby bushclover, shrub lespedeza, and bicolor lespedeza. It is native to Asia[1][2] and it is widely grown as an ornamental plant. In some regions, such as the southeastern United States, it grows in the wild as an introduced and invasive species.[3] This plant is quite variable in appearance, and it has been bred into a number of cultivars. In general, this plant is an erect shrub growing to 3 metres (9.8 feet) in height and width, generally remaining smaller in cold climates. It can grow from ground level to 1.5 metres (4.9 feet) in one growing season. It grows from a thick root system. The stems may be 3 centimetres (1.2 inches) in diameter. The leaves are each made up of three oval leaflets up to 5 centimetres (2.0 inches) long. The inflorescence is a raceme of up to 15 open pealike flowers, which are pink and purple in color. There are also cleistogamous flowers which self-pollinate and do not open. The fruit is a flat legume pod nearly a centimeter long which contains one seed. Lespedeza bicolor This species was first introduced to the United States as an ornamental shrub in 1856, and it was likely introduced several times after that. In the 1930s it was recommended for use as erosion control and in the revegetation of abandoned mine sites. It was used to enhance wildlife habitat, particularly for the Northern Bobwhite. The United States Department of Agriculture produced and distributed the seed and many millions were planted. A number of strains and cultivars were developed to improve the plant's drought tolerance and seed production. It can grow in many types of habitat, including disturbed areas. By the 1990s the plant had escaped cultivation and taken hold in many regions of the eastern United States, especially those in the Southeast. In the US, it is now present from New York to northern Florida and as far west as Nebraska and Texas. It can be found as far north as Ontario in Canada. In some areas this plant can form dense stands, becoming an aggressive invader. It has been considered threatening in areas where it has disturbed or prevented the growth of native plants, including grasses and trees. It may spread after fire, interfering in schedules of controlled burns of fire-adapted habitat types. It is still planted as an ornamental. Cultivars include "Little Buddy" and "Yakushima". References [1] Lespedeza bicolor. (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?21847) Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved 11-25-2011. [2] Lespedeza bicolor. (http:/ / www. missouribotanicalgarden. org/ gardens-gardening/ your-garden/ plant-finder/ plant-details/ kc/ x220/ lespedeza-bicolor. aspx) Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 11-25-2011. [3] Gucker, Corey L. (2010) Lespedeza bicolor (http:/ / www. fs. fed. us/ database/ feis/ plants/ shrub/ lesbic/ all. html). In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Retrieved 11-25-2011. External links • USDA Plants Profile ( 264 Mimosa ophthalmocentra 265 Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mimosa ophthalmocentra Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Mimosoideae Genus: Mimosa Species: M. ophthalmocentra Binomial name Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth., 1875 Mimosa ophthalmocentra, Jurema-embira ("Red Jurema") is a tree in the Fabaceae family. It is native to Brazil. It is shrub or small tree about 3 to 5 m tall. Its blossoms come in long, narrow cylindrical spikes having yellowish white petals and a white stamen. The blossoms are sometimes found to have a pink tinge. The fruit is green, sometimes with red or purple, flat, about 8 cm long and about 1 cm wide. The trunk grows to about 20 cm in diameter. Its wood has a density of about 1.12 g/cm³ and it makes good firewood. Traditional use Traditionally in northeast Brazil, for cases of cough and bronchitis, a water extract (decoction) of Mimosa ophthalmocentra is made into a drink. A handful of bark in one liter of water is used by itself or in a syrup. The solution is taken until the symptoms subside. References External links • Microscope slide of Mimosa ophthalmocentra wood sample ( ( tropamerica/fuelwoodprojects.htm) • Mimosa ophthalmocentra herbarium specimen (NY Botanical Gardens) ( imagedisplay.php?irn=188871) Mimosa scabrella 266 Mimosa scabrella Mimosa scabrella Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Mimosoideae Genus: Mimosa Species: M. scabrella Binomial name Mimosa scabrella Benth. Synonyms • Mimosa bracaatinga Hoehne Mimosa scabrella is a tree in the Fabaceae family. It is very fast growing and it can reach a height of 15 m tall in only 3 years. Its trunk is about 0.1-0.5 m in diameter. It has yellow flowers. The tree's seeds number about 65,000–70,000 seeds/kg. Uses Before the advent of jjthe diesel locomotive, M. scabrella wood was grown to fuel railroads in parts of Brazil. Alkaloids Mimosa scabrella contains tryptamine, N-methyltetrahydrocarboline in its bark. N-methyltryptamine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine and Cultivation USDA Zone 9 is recommended for outdoor cultivation, and it is said that Mimosa scabrella is more tolerant of frost than Mimosa tenuiflora. Mimosa scabrella References External links • Mimosa scabrella ( ( php?Spid=1157) • Mimosa scabrella (Purdue University) ( Mimosa_scabrella.html) • Mimosa scabrella ( ( M_scabrella.html) 267 Mimosa somnians 268 Mimosa somnians Mimosa somnians Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Mimosoideae Genus: Mimosa Species: M. somnians Binomial name Mimosa somnians Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Synonyms • • • • • • • Mimosa acutiflora Benth. Mimosa palpitans Willd. Mimosa podocarpa Benth. Mimosa quadrijuga Benth. Mimosa somnians Willd. var. podocarpa (Benth.)Niederl. Mimosa somnians Willd. var. quadrijuga Niederl. Mimosa somniculosa Kunth Mimosa somnians ("Dormideira") is a tree in the Fabaceae family. It is native to the Caribbean, Central America and South America. It is a short, low lying shrub with minuscule thorns lining its stems like hairs. Its leaves are sensitive, meaning that, when touched, they close quickly, similarly to Mimosa pudica. It can be differentiated from Mimosa pudica in that its leaves are bipinnate, there are more than four subbranchlets and these originate from more than one point on the branch. Mimosa sominans's leaflets are 4–5 mm long. The flowers form pink balls. It propagates by seeds. Forms, subspecies and varieties • • • • • • • • • • • Mimosa somnians f. viscida Mimosa somnians subsp. longipes Mimosa somnians subsp. viscida Mimosa somnians var. aquatica Mimosa somnians var. deminuta Mimosa somnians var. diminuta Mimosa somnians var. glandulosa Mimosa somnians var. lasiocarpa Mimosa somnians var. leptocaulis Mimosa somnians var. longipes Mimosa somnians var. lupulina Mimosa somnians • • • • Mimosa somnians var. possensis Mimosa somnians var. somnians Mimosa somnians var. velascoensis Mimosa somnians var. viscida Uses In Guyana, it is used to calm down irritable children via washing.[1] Mimosa somnians contains (whole plant) about 0.029% tryptamine and about 0.029% methyltryptamine. It is also saidWikipedia:Avoid weasel words to contain dimethyltryptamine.[citation needed] References [1] Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) (http:/ / www. mnh. si. edu/ biodiversity/ bdg/ medicinal/ medplantsgui3. pdf), Retrieved 5-07-08 External links • Herbarium Specimens (NY Botanical Gardens): ( php?irn=193178) ( (http://sweetgum. ( php?irn=193182) • Photos of Mimosa somnians ( ( of CR/cd/MALEZAS/ leguminosas/Mimosa somnians.html) 269 Mimosa verrucosa 270 Mimosa verrucosa Mimosa verrucosa Conservation status Near Threatened  (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Genus: Mimosa Species: M. verrucosa Binomial name Mimosa verrucosa Benth. Mimosa verrucosa 271 Mimosa verrucosa, jurema-branca ("white jurema") or jurema-de-oeiras is a species of legume in the common bean family, Fabaceae, and in the subfamily and genus of Mimosa pudica, the touch me not. It is a shrub or small tree native to Brazil (Bahia, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte). It has "near threatened" conservation status as a result of human induced deforestation in arid to semi-arid regions of Northeastern Brazil. Growth The tree grows to about 2.5 to 5 m tall and has blossoms that are pink cylindrical spikes. The blossom filaments are pink and the anthers are cream colored. Uses The wood of the tree is used for making charcoal, firewood and wooden stakes.[1] The bark is used for medicine. Characteristics Mimosa verrucosa has been proven to be a very important provider of pollen for Apis mellifera, the European honey bee. Chemical constituent The tree contains the hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine in its root bark.[2] References Mimosa vericosa Notes [1] Americas CITES Trees (http:/ / www. unep-wcmc. org/ species/ tree_study/ pdfs/ 2. pdf) [2] UNODC Bulletin on Narcotics 1969 (http:/ / www. unodc. org/ unodc/ en/ bulletin/ bulletin_1969-01-01_4_page004. html) General references • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Mimosa verrucosa ( php/32979/all). 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. ( Downloaded on 19 July 2007. External links • Mimosa verrucosa herbarium specimen (NY Botanical Gardens): ( imagedisplay.php?irn=193195) ( Mucuna pruriens 272 Mucuna pruriens Mucuna pruriens Mucuna pruriens inflorescence Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Faboideae Tribe: Phaseoleae Genus: Mucuna Species: M. pruriens Binomial name Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Synonyms Many, see text Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume known as velvet bean and by other common names (see below), native to Africa and Asia and widely naturalized.[1] The plant is notorious for the extreme itchiness it produces on contact, particularly with the young foliage and the seed pods. It has value in agricultural and horticultural use and has a range of medicinal properties. Mucuna pruriens 273 Description The plant is an annual, climbing shrub with long vines that can reach over 15 m in length. When the plant is young, it is almost completely covered with fuzzy hairs, but when older, it is almost completely free of hairs. The leaves are tripinnate, ovate, reverse ovate, rhombus-shaped or widely ovate. The sides of the leaves are often heavily grooved and the tips are pointy. In young M.pruriens plants, both sides of the leaves have hairs. The stems of the leaflets are two to three millimeters long. Additional adjacent leaves are present and are about 5 mm long. Velvet bean in Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, India The flower heads take the form of axially arrayed panicles. They are 15 to 32 cm long and have two or three, or many flowers. The accompanying leaves are about 12.5 mm long, the flower stand axes are from 2.5 to 5 mm. The bell is 7.5 to 9 mm long and silky. The sepals are longer or of the same length as the shuttles. The crown is purplish or white. The flag is 1.5 mm long. The wings are 2.5 to 3.8 cm long. In the fruit ripening stage, a 4 to 13 cm-long, 1 to 2 cm-wide, unwinged, leguminous fruit develops. There is a ridge along the length of the fruit. The husk is very hairy and carries up to seven seeds. The seeds are flattened uniform ellipsoids, 1 to 1.9 cm long, 0.8 to 1.3 cm wide and 4 to 6.5 cm thick. The hilum, the base of the funiculus (connection between placenta and plant seeds) is a surrounded by a significant arillus (fleshy seeds shell). Mucuna pruriens flowers (colored engraving) seeds. The dry weight of the seeds is 55 to 85 g/100 seeds. M.pruriens bears white, lavender, or purple flowers. Its seed pods are about 10 cm long and are covered in loose, orange hairs that cause a severe itch if they come in contact with skin. The chemical compounds responsible for the itch are a protein, mucunain and serotonin.[2] The seeds are shiny black or brown drift Mucuna pruriens 274 Uses In many parts of the world, Mucuna pruriens is used as an important forage, fallow and green manure crop. Since the plant is a legume, it fixes nitrogen and fertilizes soil. M. pruriens is a widespread fodder plant in the tropics. To that end, the whole plant is fed to animals as silage, dried hay or dried seeds. M. pruriens silage contains 11-23% crude protein, 35-40% crude fiber, and the dried beans 20-35% crude protein. It also has use in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for problematic Imperata cylindrica grass. M. pruriens is said to not be invasive outside its cultivated area. However, the plant is known to be invasive within conservation areas of South Florida, where it frequently invades disturbed land and rockland hammock edge habitats. Mucuna pruriens seeds of two different colors M. pruriens is sometimes used as a coffee substitute called "Nescafe" (not to be confused with the commercial brand Nescafé). Cooked fresh shoots or beans can also be eaten. This requires that they be soaked from at least 30 minutes to 48 hours in advance of cooking, or the water changed up to several times during cooking, since otherwise the plant can be toxic to humans. The above described process leaches out phytochemical compounds such as levodopa, making the product more suitable for consumption. If consumed in large quantities as food, unprocessed M. pruriens is toxic to non-ruminant mammals, including humans. Traditional medicine The seeds of Mucuna pruriens have been used for treating many dysfunctions in Tibb-e-Unani (Unani Medicine), the traditional system of medicine of Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. It is also used in Ayurvedic medicine. Mucuna pruriens seed pod The plant and its extracts have been long used in tribal communities as a toxin antagonist for various snakebites. Research on its effects against Naja spp. (cobra), Echis (Saw scaled viper), Calloselasma (Malayan Pit viper) and Bangarus (Krait) [3] have shown it has potential use in the prophylactic treatment of snakebites. Dried leaves of M. pruriens are sometimes smoked. It has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for diseases including Parkinson's disease. Mucuna pruriens Itching The hairs lining the seed pods and the small spicules on the leaves contain 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) which cause severe itching (pruritus) when touched. The calyx below the flowers is also a source of itchy spicules and the stinging hairs on the outside of the seed pods are used in itching powder.[4] Water should not be used if contact occurs, as it only dilutes the chemical. Also, one should avoid scratching the exposed area since this causes the hands to transfer the chemical to all other areas touched. Once this happens, one tends to scratch vigorously and uncontrollably and for this reason the local populace in northern Mozambique refer to the beans as the mad beans (feijões malucos). They use raw, unrefined moist tobacco to treat the itching. In India, the application of cow dung is very effective to treat the itching caused by the spicules of this herb. Medical research M. pruriens contains L-DOPA, a precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and formulations of the seed powder have been studied for the management and treatment of Parkinson's disease.[5][6][7] In large amounts (e.g. 30 g dose), it has been shown to be as effective as pure levodopa/carbidopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, but no data on long-term efficacy and tolerability are available. Pharmacology In addition to levodopa, it contains minor amounts of serotonin (5-HT), 5-HTP, nicotine, N,N-DMT (DMT), bufotenine, and 5-MeO-DMT. As such, it could potentially have psychedelic effects, and it has purportedly been used in ayahuasca preparations. The mature seeds of the plant contain about 3.1–6.1% L-DOPA, with trace amounts of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), nicotine, DMT-n-oxide, bufotenine, 5-MeO-DMT-n-oxide, and beta-carboline. One study using 36 samples of the seeds found no tryptamines present in them. The leaves contain about 0.5% L-DOPA, 0.006% dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 0.0025% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.003% DMT n-oxide.[8] The ethanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens possesses anticataleptic and antiepileptic effect in albino rats. Dopamine and serotonin may have a role in such activity.[9] Nomenclature and taxonomy Common names • Bieh in the Madurese language • • • • • • • Ci mao li dou 刺 毛 黧 豆 in Chinese Nasagunnikaayi ([ನಸಗೂನ್ಣೆಕಾಯಿ]) in Kannada Kara benguk in the Javanese language Atmagupta (आत्मगुप्ता) or Kapikacchu (कपिकच्छु) in Sanskrit Kiwanch (किवांच) or Konch (कोंच) in Hindi Khaajkuiri in Marathi Alkushi/আলকুশি (Bengali) • Poonaikkaali {பூனைக்காலி) in Tamil • Velvet bean, Cowhage, Cowitch, Donkey eye, monkey tamarind, and Buffalo beans in English (the last also refers to Thermopsis rhombifolia) • Juckbohne (German: "itch bean") • Fogareté (Dominican Republic); Picapica (everywhere), in Spanish • Kapikachu 275 Mucuna pruriens • Werepe or YerepeYoruba • Duradagondi(దురదగొండి) in Telugu • Feijão maluco, "mad bean" (Angola and Mozambique); pó-de-mico, "itching powder", feijão-da-flórida, "Florida's bean", feijão-cabeludo-da-índia, "hairy/pilous Indian bean", feijão-de-gado, "cattle's bean", feijão-mucuna, "mucuna bean", feijão-veludo, "velvet bean", and mucuna-vilosa, "fleecy mucuna" (Brazil and Portugal), in Portuguese • Chitedze (Malawi) • Naykuruna (ML:നായ്ക്കുരണ) (Malayalam) • Mah mui (TH: หมามุ่ย) in Thai language • Đậu mèo rừng, đậu ngứa, móc mèo in Vietnamese language • Kavach beej • Inyelekpe (Nigeria) in Igala • Upupu in Kiswahili • Baidanka in Oriya • Pois mascate (Reunion Island) in French • Wandhuru Mæ in Sinhala • Kway lee yerr thee in Myanmar • Agbala (Nigeria) in Ibo • "Bandar Kekowa" (বান্দৰ কেকোঁৱা) in Assamese • "picapica (puerto rico). Subspecies • Mucuna pruriens ssp. deeringiana (Bort) Hanelt • Mucuna pruriens ssp. pruriens Varieties • • • • Mucuna pruriens var. hirsuta (Wight & Arn.) Wilmot-Dear Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens (L.) DC. [10] Mucuna pruriens var. sericophylla Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) L.H.Bailey is the non-stinging variety grown in Honduras.[11] 276 Mucuna pruriens 277 Synonyms Synonyms of M. pruriens, M. pruriens ssp. pruriens and M. pruriens var. pruriens: Synonyms of M. pruriens var. hirsuta: • Carpopogon atropurpureum Roxb. May also refer to M. atropurpurea • • • • • Carpogon capitatus Roxb. Carpogon niveus Roxb. Dolichos pruriens L. Marcanthus cochinchinense Lour. Mucuna atropurpurea sensu auct. non (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. M. atropurpurea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. is a valid species • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mucuna axillaris Baker Mucuna bernieriana Baill. Mucuna cochinchinense (Lour.) A. Chev. Mucuna cochinchinensis (Lour.) A. Chev. Mucuna esquirolii H. Lev. Mucuna luzoniensis Merr. Mucuna lyonii Merr. Mucuna minima Haines Mucuna nivea (Roxb.) DC. Mucuna prurita Hook. Mucuna velutina Hassk. Negretia mitis Blanco Mucuna prurita (L.) Hook. Stizolobium atropurpureum (Roxb.) Kuntze • • • • • Stizolobium capitatum (Roxb.) Kuntze Stizolobium cochinchinense (Lour.) Burk Stizolobium niveum (Roxb.) Kuntze Stizolobium pruritum (Wight) Piper Stizolobium velutinum (Hassk.) Piper & Tracy • Mucuna hirsuta Wight & Arn. Synonyms of M. pruriens var. sericophylla: • Mucuna sericophylla Perkins Synonyms of M. pruriens var. utilis: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carpopogon capitatum Roxb. Carpopogon niveum Roxb. Macranthus cochinchinensis Lour. Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy) Holland Mucuna atrocarpa F.P. Metcalf Mucuna capitata Wight & Arn. Mucuna deeringiana (Bort) Merr. Mucuna hassjoo (Piper & Tracy) Mansf. Mucuna martinii H. Lev. & Vaniot Mucuna nivea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Mucuna pruriens var. capitata Burck Mucuna pruriens var. capitata (Wight & Arn.) Burck Mucuna pruriens var. nivea (Roxb.)Haines Mucuna utilis Wight Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy Stizolobium deeringianum Bort Stizolobium hassjoo Piper & Tracy Stizolobium pruriens (L.) Medik. Stizolobium pruriens var. hassjoo (Piper & Tracy)Makino Stizolobium utile (Wall. ex Wight) Ditmer References [1] USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.USDA Taxon: Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?24652) [2] Reddy,V.B. et al. Cowhage-evoked itch is mediated by a novel cysteine protease: a ligand of protease-activated receptors (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC2659338/ ) J. Neurosci. 28 (17), 4331-4335 (2008) PMID 18434511 [3] http:/ / sphinxsai. com/ sphinxsaiVol_2No. 1/ PharmTech_Vol_2No. 1/ PharmTech_Vol_2No. 1PDF/ PT=132%20(870-874). pdf [4] G. V. Joglekar, M. B. Bhide J. H. Balwani. An experimental method for screening antipruritic agents. British Journal of Dermatology. Volume 75 Issue 3 Page 117 - March 1963 [5] Lieu CA. Kunselman AR. Manyam BV. Venkiteswaran K. Subramanian T."A water extract of Mucuna pruriens provides long-term amelioration of parkinsonism with reduced risk for dyskinesias." Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 16(7):458-65, 2010 Aug. [6] Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA. Effect of antiparkinson drug HP-200 (Mucuna pruriens) on the central monoaminergic neurotransmitters. 2004. Phytother Res 18:97-101. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1407 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ ptr. 1407) PMID 15022157 [7] Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA. Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens. 2004. Phytother Res 18:706-712. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1514 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ ptr. 1514) PMID 15478206 [8] Chemical Compounds Found in "Mucuna Puriens" (http:/ / www. rain-tree. com/ nescafe-chemicals. pdf) [9] D Champatisingh, P K Sahu, A Pal, and G Nanda. Anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens: A study on role of dopaminergic system in epilepsy in albino rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 43 (2) 2011, [10] Picapica (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091027113426/ http:/ / geocities. com/ lepasil1/ correct. html) [11] http:/ / drugpolicycentral. com/ bot/ index. cgi?xfml=1& max=100 Mucuna pruriens External links • ( • Mucuna pruriens (U.S. Forest Service) ( • Crop Fact Sheets ( html) • Mucuna pruriens (Tropical Forages) ( Mucuna_pruriens.htm) • Mucuna pruriens protects against snakebite venom ( php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=779012) • Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ( (Photos) • Chemicals in: Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases) (http://sun. • Lycaeum ( • Mucuna pruriens a Comprehensive Review ( • Mucuna pruriens Seed L-DOPA Content on the Basis of Seed Color ( ev-31916-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html) • Research Paper Showing Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis ( journal/2002-2-3/Szabo-b.pdf) • Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Mucuna pruriens (Kapikacchu, Atmagupta) as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at 349-kapikachu • Mucuna pruriens ( preview=true&searchTextMenue=Mucuna+pruriens&search=Wikitemplate) in West African plants – A Photo Guide. ( 278 Phyllodium pulchellum 279 Phyllodium pulchellum Phyllodium pulchellum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Faboideae Genus: Phyllodium Species: P. pulchellum Binomial name Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv. Synonyms • • • Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth. Hedysarum pulchellum L. (basionym) Meibomia pulchella (L.) Phyllodium pulchellum is a plant in the Fabaceae family. References Caesalpinioideae 280 Caesalpinioideae WARNING: Article could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) a bug in the pdf-writer software (b) problematic Mediawiki markup (c) table is too wide Caesalpinioideae Royal Poinciana, Delonix regiaBiological classificationScientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae Tribes CassieaeCaesalpinieaeCercideaeDetarieaeSynonym (taxonomy)Synonyms Caesalpiniaceae R. Brown Cassiaceae Vest Ceratoniaceae LinkSappanwood Sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan)Caesalpinioideae is a botanical name at the rank of subfamily, placed in the large family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Its name is formed from the generic name Caesalpinia.The Caesalpinioideae are mainly trees distributed in the moist tropics. Their flowers are zygomorphic, but are very variable. Root nodulesNodulation is rare in this subfamily, and where it does occur nodules have a primitive structure. Because the Papilionoideae and Mimosoideae arose from within the Caesalpinioideae, the Caesalpinioideae is paraphyletic. Therefore, it is likely to be split into several subfamilies, although it is not yet clear what those subfamilies should be.In some classifications, for example the Cronquist system, the group is recognized at the rank of family, Caesalpiniaceae. The subfamily may be classified in four tribes, Caesalpinieae, Cassieae, Cercideae and Detarieae. The tribe Cercideae has sometimes been included in the subfamily Faboideae (aka Papilionoideae) in the past. Tribe CaesalpinieaeAcrocarpusMelanoxylumArapatiellaMoldenhaweraArcoaMora (plant)MoraBalsamocarponMoullavaBatesiaOrphanodendronBurkea (plant)BurkeaPachyelasmaBusseaParkinsonia (= Cercidium)CaesalpiniaPeltophorumCampsiandraPoeppigiaCenostigmaPomaria (plant)PomariaChidlowiaPterogyneColvilleaPterolobiumConzattiaRecordoxylonCordeauxiaSchizolobiumDelonixSclerolobiumDimo locustGleditsiaStuhlmanniaKentucky coffeetreeGymnocladusSympetalandraHaematoxylumTachigaliHoffmannseggiaTetrapterocarponJacqueshuberiaVouacapouaLemuro CassieaeChamaecrista absusSubtribe DialiinaeAndrocalymmaApuleiaBaudouiniaDialiumDicoryniaDistemonanthusEligmocarpusKalappiaKoompassiaMartiodendronMen CassiinaeCassia (genus)CassiaChamaecristaSenna (genus)SennaSubtribe CeratoniinaeCeratoniaSubtribe DuparquetiinaeDuparquetiaSubtribe LabicheinaeLabicheaPetalostylisTribe CercideaeLysiphyllum hookeriSubtribe BauhiniinaeBarklyaBauhiniaBreniereaGigasiphonLysiphyllumPhaneraPiliostigmaSchnellaTylosemaSubtribe CercidinaeAdenolobusCercisGriffoniaTribe DetarieaeTamarindus indicaTamarind flowers About 81 genera of predominantly African distribution. See Detarieaemain article for details. Phylogenetics Caesalpinioideae, as traditionally circumscribed, is paraphylyparaphyletic. Several molecular phylogenymolecular phylogenies have shown that the other two subfamilies of Fabaceae (Faboideae and Mimosoideae) are both nested within Caesalpinioideae.FabalesPolygalaceaeSurianaceaeQuillajaceaeFabaceaeDuparquetia*Cercideae clade* unnamed clade (Barnebydendron, Goniorrachis)* unnamed clade (Schotia)*resin-producing Detarieae cladePrioria (plant)Prioria clade* unnamed clade (Brandzeia, Daniella)*Detarieae sensu stricto clade*Detarieae#Subgroup 2 (59 genera)Amherstieae cladeSaraca clade*Afzelia clade*Tamarindus* unnamed clade (Dicymbe, Polystemonanthus)* unnamed clade (Crudia, Hymenostegia pro parte, Neochevalierodendron, Plagiosiphon, Scorodophloeus)*Amherstia*Zenkerella (plant)Zenkerella*Normandiodendron* unnamed clade (Cynometra, Maniltoa)* unnamed clade (Hymenostegia pro parte, Leonardoxa, Loesenera, Talbotiella)*Humboldtia* unnamed clade (Cryptosepalum, Paramacrolobium)*Brownea clade*Berlinia clade*Caesalpinioideae#Subtribe DialiinaeDialiinae clade* Umtiza clade*Caesalpinia clade*Cassia (genus)Cassia clade*Dimorphandra clade Caesalpinioideae A*Tachigali clade*Peltophorum clade*Dimorphandra group B*Dimorphandra group B*MimosoideaeFaboideaeAsterisks (*) indicate clades traditionally assigned to Caesalpinioideae. ReferencesBruneau, B., F. Forest, P.S. Herendeen, B.B. Klitgaard, and G.P. Lewis. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in the Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) as inferred from chloroplast trnL intron sequences. Systematic Botany 26: 487–514 (link to abstract here) 281 Lauraceae 282 Lauraceae Lauraceae Litsea glutinosa illustration from Flora de Filipinas, 1880-1883, by Francisco Manuel Blanco Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Laurales Family: Lauraceae Juss. Genera Many; see text The Lauraceae are the laurel family, that includes the true laurel and its closest relatives. The family comprises over 3000 species of flowering plants in over 50 genera worldwide. They occur mainly in warm temperate and tropical regions, especially Southeast Asia and South America. Most are aromatic evergreen trees or shrubs, but one or two genera such as Sassafras are deciduous, and Cassytha is a genus of parasitic vines. Overview Cassytha filiformis The family has a worldwide distribution in tropical and warm climates. The Lauraceae are important components of tropical forests ranging from low-lying to montane. In several forested regions, Lauraceae are among the top five families in terms of the number of species present. Lauraceae 283 The Lauraceae give their name to habitats known as laurel forests, which have many trees that superficially resemble the Lauraceae, though they may belong to other plant families such as Magnoliaceae or Myrtaceae. Laurel forests of various types occur on most continents and on many major islands. Although the taxonomy of the Lauraceae is still not settled, conservative estimates suggest some 52 genera worldwide, including 3000 to 3500 species. Compared to other plant families, the taxonomy of Lauraceae still is poorly understood. This is partly due to its great diversity, the difficult of identifying the species, and partly because of inadequate investment in taxonomic work. Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala - (malabathrum or tejpat) Recent monographs on small and medium-sized genera of Lauraceae (up to about 100 species) have revealed many new species. Similar increases in the numbers of species recognised in other larger genera are to be expected. Description Most of the Lauraceae are evergreen trees in habit. Exceptions include some two dozen species of Cassytha, all of which are obligately parasitic vines. Lindera triloba leaves The fruits of Lauraceae are drupes, one-seeded fleshy fruit with a hard layer, the endocarp, surrounding the seed. However, the endocarp is very thin, so the fruit resemble a one-seeded berry. The fruit in some species (particularly in the genera Ocotea and Oreodaphne) are partly immersed or covered in a cup-shaped or deep thick cupule, which is formed from the tube of the calyx where the peduncle joins the fruit; this gives the fruit an appearance similar to an acorn. In some Lindera species, the fruit have a hypocarpium at the base of the fruit. Distribution and uses Because the family is so ancient and was so widely distributed on the Gondwana supercontinent, modern species commonly occur in relict populations isolated by geographical barriers, for instance on islands or tropical mountains. Relict forests retain endemic fauna and flora in communities of great value in inferring the palaeontological succession and climate change that followed the breakups of the supercontinents. • Many Lauraceae contain high concentrations of essential oils, some of which are valued for spices and perfumes. Within the plants, most such substances are components of irritant or toxic sap or tissues that repel or poison many herbivorous or parasitic organisms. Some of the essential oils are valued as fragrances, such as in the traditional laurel wreath of classical antiquity, or in cabinet making, where the fragrant woods are prized for making insect-repellant furniture chests. Some are valued in cooking, for example, bay leaves are a popular ingredient in European, American, and Asian cuisines.[citation needed] • Avocados are important oil-rich fruit that are cultivated in warm climates around the world. • Many species are exploited for timber. • Some species are valued as sources of medicinal material. These genera include some of the best-known species of particular commercial value: • Cinnamomum: cinnamon, cassia and camphor laurel • Laurus: bay laurel Lauraceae 284 • Persea: avocado Loss of habitat and overexploitation for such products has put many species in danger of extinction as a result of overcutting, extensive illegal logging, and habitat conversion.[1][2][3][4] Conversely, some species, though commercially valuable in some countries, are regarded as aggressive invaders in other regions. For example, Cinnamomum camphora, though a valued ornamental and medicinal plant, is so invasive as to have been declared a weed in subtropical forested areas of South Africa.[5] Ecology Lauraceae flowers are protogynous, often with a complex flowering system to prevent inbreeding. The fruits are an important food source for birds, on which some Palaeognathae are highly dependent.[citation needed] Other birds that rely heavily on the fruit for their diets include members of the families Cotingidae, Columbidae, Trogonidae, Turdidae, and Rhamphastidae, amongst others. Birds that are specialised frugivores tend to eat the whole fruit and regurgitate seeds intact, thereby releasing the seeds in favourable situations for germination (ornithochory). Some other birds that swallow the fruit pass the seed intact through their guts. Seed dispersal of various species in the family is also carried out by monkeys, arboreal rodents, porcupines, opossums, and fishes.[citation needed] Hydrochory occurs in [7] Caryodaphnopsis. Wikipedia:Disputed statement The leaves of some species in the Lauraceae have domatia in the axils of their veins. The domatia are home to certain mites. Other lauraceous species, members of the genus Pleurothyrium in particular, have a symbiotic relationship with ants that protect and defend the tree. Some Ocotea species are also used as nesting sites by ants, which may live in leaf pockets or in hollowed-out stems.[8] Lindera melissifolia: This endangered species is native to the southeastern United States, and its demise is associated with habitat loss from extensive [6] drainage of wetlands for agriculture and forestry. Defense mechanisms that occur among members of the Lauraceae include irritant or toxic sap or tissues that repel or poison many herbivorous organisms. Trees of the family predominate in the world's laurel forests[citation needed] and cloud forests,[citation needed] which occur in tropical to mild temperate regions of both northern and southern hemispheres. Other members of the family however, occur pantropically in general lowland and Afromontane forest, and in Africa for example there are species endemic to countries such as Cameroon, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Congo. Several relict species in the Lauraceae occur in temperate areas of both hemispheres. Many botanical species in other families have similar foliage to the Lauraceae due to convergent evolution, and forests of such plants are called laurel forest. These plants are adapted to high rainfall and humidity, and have leaves with a generous layer of wax, making them glossy in appearance, and a narrow, pointed-oval shape with a 'drip tip', which permits the leaves to shed water despite the humidity, allowing transpiration to continue. Scientific names similar to Daphne (e.g., Daphnidium, Daphniphyllum)[9] or "laurel" (e.g.,Laureliopsis, Skimmia laureola) indicate other plant families that resemble Lauraceae. Some Lauraceae species have adapted to demanding conditions in semiarid climates, but they tend to depend on favorable edaphic conditions, for example, perennial aquifers, periodic groundwater flows, or periodically flooded forests in sand that contains hardly any nutrients. Various species have adapted to swampy conditions by growing Lauraceae 285 pneumatophores, roots that grow upward, that project above the levels of periodic floods that drown competing plants which lack such adaptations.[citation needed] Paleobotanists have suggested the family originated some 174±32 mllion years ago (Mya), while others[10] do not believe they are older than the mid-Cretaceous. Fossil flowers attributed to this family occur in Cenomanian clays (mid-Cretaceous, 90-98 Mya) of the Eastern United States (Mauldinia mirabilis). Fossils of Lauraceae are common in the Tertiary strata of Europe and North America, but they virtually disappeared from central Europe in the Late Miocene.[citation needed] Because of their unusual fragility, the pollens of Lauraceae do not keep well and have been found only in relatively recent strata. Deciduous Lauraceae lose all of their leaves for part of the year depending on variations in rainfall. The leaf loss coincides with the dry season in tropical, subtropical, and arid regions. Classification Classification within the Lauraceae is not fully resolved. Multiple classification schemes based on a variety of morphological and anatomical characteristics have been proposed, but none are fully accepted. According to Judd et al. (2007), the suprageneric classification proposed by van der Werff and Richter (1996) is currently the authority. However, due to an array of molecular and embryological evidence that disagrees with the groupings, it is not fully accepted by the scientific community. Their classification is based on inflorescence structure and wood and bark anatomy. It divides Lauraceae into two subfamilies, Cassythoideae and Lauroideae. The Cassythoideae comprise a single genus, Cassytha, and are defined by their herbaceous, parasitic habit. The Lauroideae are then divided into three tribes: Laureae, Perseeae, and Cryptocaryeae. Twig of Ocotea obtusata with unripe fruit with an appearance similar to an acorn The subfamily Cassythoideae is not fully supported. Backing has come from matK sequences of chloroplast genes while a questionable placement of Cassytha has been concluded from analysis of intergenetic spacers of chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Embryological studies also appear contradictory. One study by Heo et al. (1998) supports the subfamily. It found that Cassytha develops an ab initio cellular-type endosperm and the rest of the family (with Cassytha filiformis fruits one exception) develops a nuclear-type endosperm. Kimoto et al. (2006) suggest Cassytha should be placed in the Cryptocaryeae tribe because it shares a glandular anther tapetum and an embryo sac protruding from the nucellus with other members of the Cryptocaryeae. The Laureae and Perseeae tribes are not well supported by any molecular or embryological studies. Sequences of the matK chloroplast gene, as well as sequences of chloroplast and nuclear genomes, reveal close relationships between the two tribes. Embryological evidence does not support a clear division between the two tribes, either. Genera such as Caryodaphnopsis and Aspidostemon that share embryological characteristics with one tribe and wood and bark characteristics or inflorescence characteristics with another tribe blur the division of these groups. All available evidence, except for inflorescence morphology and wood and bark anatomy, fails to support separate Laureae and Perseeae tribes. Lauraceae The Cryptocaryeae tribe is partially supported by molecular and embryological studies. Chloroplast and nuclear genomes support a tribal grouping that contains all the genera circumscribed by van der Weff and Richter (1996), as well as three additional genera. Partial support for the tribe is also attained from the matK sequences of chloroplast genes as well as embryology. Challenges in Lauraceae classification The knowledge of the species comprising the Lauraceae is incomplete. As of 1991, about 25-30% of neotropical Lauraceae species had not been described. As of 2001, embryological studies had only been completed on individuals from 26 genera yielding a 38.9% level of knowledge, in terms of embryology, for this family. Additionally, the huge amount of variation within the family poses a major challenge for developing a reliable classification. Phytochemistry The adaptation of Lauraceae to new environments has followed a long evolutionary journey which has led to many specializations, including defensive or deterrent systems against other organisms. Phytochemicals in the Lauraceae are numerous and diverse. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids include aporphines and oxoaporphines, as well as derivatives of morphinans. Essential oils include terpenoids, benzyl benzoates, allylphenols, and propenylphenols. Lignans and neolignans are present, along with S-methyl-5-O-flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, cinnamoylamides, phenylpyrroles, styryl pyrones, polyketides (acetogenins), furanosesquiterpenes, and germacranolidous, heliangolidous, eudesmanolidous and guaianolidous sesquiterpene lactones.[citation needed] Genera Recent taxonomic revisions of the family include these genera: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Actinodaphne Aiouea Alseodaphne Aniba Apollonias Aspidostemon Beilschmiedia Caryodaphnopsis Cassytha Chlorocardium Cinnadenia Cinnamomum Cryptocarya Dehaasia Dicypellium Dodecadenia Endiandra Endlicheria Eusideroxylon Gamanthera • Hexapora • Hufelandia 286 Lauraceae • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hypodaphnis Iteadaphne Kubitzkia Laurus Licaria Lindera Litsea Machilus Malapoenna Mezilaurus Misanteca Mocinnodaphne Mutisiopersea Nectandra Neocinnamomum Neolitsea Notaphoebe • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nothaphoebe Ocotea Oreodaphne Parasassafras Parthenoxylon Paraia Persea Phoebe Phyllostemonodaphne Pleurothyrium Polyadenia Potameia Potoxylon Povedadaphne Ravensara Rhodostemonodaphne Sassafras Schauera Sextonia Sinopora Sinosassafras Syndiclis Tetranthera Tylostemon Umbellularia Urbanodendron Williamodendron The following genera that have traditionally been considered separate within Lauraceae, have not yet been recently re-evaluated: • Adenodaphne 287 Lauraceae • Temmodaphne References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. iucnredlist. org/ apps/ redlist/ details/ 32642/ 0 http:/ / www. iucnredlist. org/ apps/ redlist/ details/ 33981/ 0 http:/ / www. iucnredlist. org/ apps/ redlist/ details/ 32552/ 0 http:/ / www. iucnredlist. org/ apps/ redlist/ details/ 36328/ 0 Henderson, L. "Alien weeds and Invasive Plants" Agricultural Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria South Africa, ISBN 1-86849-192-7 [6] US Fish and Wildlife Service: Species Recovery Plan: Lindera melissifolia. (http:/ / ecos. fws. gov/ docs/ recovery_plan/ 930923a. pdf) [7] http:/ / es. baixardoc. com/ doc/ 73765287/ Lauraceae [8] Jean Stout 1979. An Association of an Ant, a Mealy Bug, and an Understory Tree from a Costa Rican Rain Forest. Biotropica Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 309-311 first page available (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ discover/ 10. 2307/ 2387924?uid=3738032& uid=2129& uid=2& uid=70& uid=4& sid=47699018941407) Retrieved May 22, 2012 [9] Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 [10] Li et al.2004 • Lauraceae ( in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants. ( • Kostermans, André Joseph Guillaume Henri 1957. Lauraceae. Reinwardtia 4(2): 193-256 • Meissner (né Meisner), Carl Daniel Friedrich 1864. Lauraceae (Ordo 162) in A. L. P. P. de Candolle (ed.), Prodromus Systematis Universalis Regni Vegetabilis 15(1): 1-260, Parisiis [Paris], Victoris Masson et Filii. • Mez, Carl Christian 1889. Lauraceae Americanae Monographice Descripsit. Jahrbuch des Königlichen Botanischen Gartens und des Botanischen Museums zu Berlin 5: 1-556. • Nees von Esenbeck, Christian Gottfried Daniel (1836): Systema Laurinarum, Berlin, Veitii et Sociorum. Until the page 352, available, free, on pdf files in Gallica ( • Rohwer, Jens G. in Kubitzki, K.(Editor) 1993. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol.2: K. Kubitzki, J. G. Rohwer & V. Bittrich, 366-390. ISBN 3-540-55509-9 • Wagner, W. L., D. R. Herbst, and S. H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Spec. Publ. 83. University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press. Bishop Museum. 1854 pp. 288 Malpighiaceae 289 Malpighiaceae Malpighiaceae Galphimia gracilis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Malpighiales Family: Malpighiaceae Juss. Genera See text. Malpighiaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales. It comprises approximately 75 genera and 1300 species, all of which are native to the tropics and subtropics. About 80% of the genera and 90% of the species occur in the New World (the Caribbean and the southernmost United States to Argentina) and the rest in the Old World (Africa, Madagascar, and Indomalaya to New Caledonia and the Philippines). One feature that is found in several members of this family, and rarely in others, is providing pollinators with rewards other than pollen or nectar; this is commonly in the form of nutrient oils (resins are offered by Clusiaceae). Genera Malpighiaceae 290 • Acmanthera • Carolus • Galphimia • Microsteira • Acridocarpus • Caucanthus • Gaudichaudia • Mionandra • Adelphia • Christianella • Glandonia • Niedenzuella • Aenigmatanthera • Coleostachys • Heladena • Peixotoa • Alicia • Cordobia • Henleophytum • Philgamia • Amorimia • Cottsia • Heteropterys • Psychopterys • Aspicarpa • Diacidia • Hiptage • Pterandra • Aspidopterys • Diaspis • Hiraea • Ptilochaeta • Banisteriopsis • Dicella • Janusia • Rhynchophora • Barnebya • Digoniopterys • Jubelina • Spachea • Blepharandra • Dinemagonum • Lasiocarpus • Sphedamnocarpus • Brachylophon • Dinemandra • Lophanthera • Stigmaphyllon • Bronwenia • Diplopterys • Lophopterys • Tetrapterys • Bunchosia • Echinopterys • Madagasikaria • Thryallis • Burdachia • Ectopopterys • Malpighia • Triaspis • Byrsonima • Excentradenia • Malpighiodes • Tricomaria • Calcicola • Flabellaria • Mascagnia • Triopterys • Callaeum • Flabellariopsis • Mcvaughia • Tristellateia • Camarea • Gallardoa Mezia • Verrucularia • References • Davis, C. C., and W. R. Anderson. 2010. A complete phylogeny of Malpighiaceae inferred from nucleotide sequence data and morphology. American Journal of Botany 97: 2031–2048. • Michener, C. D. 2000. The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. 913 pp. (p. 17-18) • Vogel, S. 1974. Ölblumen und ölsammelnde Bienen. [Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt. 7]. 267 pp. External links Media related to Malpighiaceae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Malpighiaceae at Wikispecies • Malpighiaceae ( Malpighiaceae - description, taxonomy, phylogeny, literature, and nomenclature • Malpighiaceae ( in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants. ( Diplopterys cabrerana 291 Diplopterys cabrerana Diplopterys cabrerana Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Malpighiales Family: Malpighiaceae Genus: Diplopterys Species: D. cabrerana Binomial name Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatrec.) B.Gates Synonyms • Banisteriopsis cabrerana Diplopterys cabrerana is a vine native to the Amazon Basin, spanning the countries of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. In the Quechua languages it is called chaliponga or chagropanga; in parts of Ecuador it is known as chacruna—a name otherwise reserved for Psychotria viridis. D. cabrerana and P. viridis are both common admixtures for ayahuasca. Both species are rich sources of N,N-DMT, a tryptamine endogenous in humans and other many other species. D. cabrerana additionally produces 5-MeO-DMT, a less common structural analog. The plant stores the alkaloids N,N-DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, and N-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline in its leaves and stems. Leaf samples were found to be 0.17-1.75% N,N-DMT, but only trace amounts of N-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline occur in the leaves. The leaves also store methyltryptamine and trace amounts of bufotenin.[] Cuttings of D. cabrerana are transplantable. The cuttings are either planted in soil directly, or rooted first in water. References External links • A General Introduction to Ayahuasca ( • Diplopterys cabrerana fruit ( • ( and ( ?page=view&id=29486), herbarium specimens with fruits Myristicaceae 292 Myristicaceae Myristicaceae Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg), Koehler (1887) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae R.Br. genera see text Myristicaceae is a family of flowering plants. The family is present in Europe, Asia and the Americas and has been recognised by most taxonomists. It is sometimes called the "nutmeg family", after its most famous member, Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). The best known genera are Myristica and Virola. The family consists of approximately twenty genera, with about 440 species of trees and shrubs found in tropical areas across the world. Most of the species are large trees that are valued in the timber industry. Myristicaceae 293 They are native to in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, the Caribbean, Guianas, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka.[citation needed] Description They are typically trees with coloured sap (typically a red sap) and essential oils as irritant or toxic defense mechanisms that repel or poison many herbivorous organisms. The wood is pink to reddish due to the coloring of the sap. When cut, the tree trunk exudes a red or yellow resin. The foliage is generally aromatic and the leaves are glossy, dark green, simple, evergreen, and leathery. The flowers are usually small and feature either only three petals or no petals at all. The flowers cluster and emit a pungent odor. The flowers are typically a greenish, whitish or yellowish hue. The female flowers have no staminodes. The male flowers lack a gynoecium. Horsfieldia kingii fruits in India The fruit is fleshy to non-fleshy (leathery), and contains a single seed. The fruits are typically quite large and, in almost all the species, the fruits will break spontaneously when mature (dehiscent fruits). Ecology In South America, Myristicaceae grow in humid lowland Amazonian forests, mountain forests, tropical forests and cloud forest regions, at elevations between 100 meters and 2100 meters. Some of the anatomical characters presented by this family suggest that in the past they could live in xeric (dry) environments, but now their species are linked to tropical rain forests. Horsfieldia amygdalina seeds in Kunming Botanical Garden The species present anthesis at night, and pollination is usually carried out by small beetles from the Anthicidae family that resemble ants and consume pollen (e.g., Myristica fragrans is pollinated by Formicomus braminus[citation needed]). The strong floral scent that attracts beetles emerges from the ends of the connectives of the stamens. However, Myristica is probably pollinated by true ants, a case of myrmecophily . Uses The most important products of the family by far are the nutmeg and mace spices, both derived from the seed of Myristica fragrans), a tree native to Malaysia. The hallucinogen (a derivative of tryptamine) inhaled by Amazon Indians from certain tribes is obtained from the bark of Virola elongata and other closely related species. The wood of some Asian and American species have local commercial use, as is the case of Gabon or cuangare bull's blood (Otoba parvifolia) in South America. Myristicaceae 294 Toxicity Essential oils of Myristicaceae have antifungal action and antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans.[citation needed] The dark-red resin of the tree bark in some genera, such as Virola, contains several hallucinogenic alkaloids. Myristicin poisoning can induce convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain.[citation needed] It is also reputed to be a strong deliriant, and some fatal myristicin poisonings in humans have occurred. List of genera • Bicuiba • Haematodendron • Osteophloeum • Brochoneura • Horsfieldia • Otoba • Cephalosphaera • Iryanthera • Pycnanthus • Coelocaryon • Knema • Scyphocephalium • Compsoneura • Mauloutchia • Staudtia • Endocomia • Myristica • Virola • Gymnacranthera References External links • e-floras ( • NCBI Taxonomy Browser ( id=22274&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock) Media related to Myristicaceae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Myristicaceae at Wikispecies Horsfieldia superba 295 Horsfieldia superba Horsfieldia superba Conservation status Near Threatened  (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Horsfieldia Species: H. superba Binomial name Horsfieldia superba (Hk. f. & Th.) Warb. Horsfieldia superba is a species of plant in the Myristicaceae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, and is threatened by habitat loss. It is used in traditional herbal medicine[1] and contains an alkaloid called horsfiline, which has analgesic effects,[2] as well as several other compounds including 5-MeO-DMT and 6-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline.[3] Source • Chua, L.S.L. 1998. Horsfieldia superba [4]. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [5] Downloaded on 22 August 2007. References [1] Teo LE, Pachiaper G, Chan KC, Hadi HA, Weber JF, Deverre JR, David B, Sévenet T. A new phytochemical survey of Malaysia V. Preliminary screening and plant chemical studies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1990; 28(1):63-101. [2] Alf Claesson, Britt-Marie Swahn, Odd-Geir Berge. Spirooxindole derivatives that act as analgesics. US Patent 6774132 (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?id=4ooRAAAAEBAJ& dq=6774132) [3] Jossang A, Jossang P, Hadi HA, Sevenet T, Bodo B. Horsfiline, an oxindole alkaloid from Horsfieldia superba. Journal of Organic Chemistry 1991; 56(23):6527-6530. DOI 10.1021/jo00023a016 Virola calophylla 296 Virola calophylla Virola calophylla Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. calophylla Binomial name Virola calophylla (Spruce) Warb. Synonyms • • Myristica calophylla Virola incolor Virola calophylla is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. It is native to Central America and South America, namely Panama, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia (Department of Amazonas, Department of Vaupés), Ecuador (Napo, Pastaza, Sucumbios) and Peru (Amazonas Region, Loreto Region, Madre de Dios Region, Puno Region, Ucayali Region). The tree grows 5 to 25 metres (16 to 82 ft) tall and it is found in low altitude evergreen forests. The fruit is ellipsoid to ovoid and subglobular, 19 to 32 millimetres (0.75 to 1.26 in) long and 12 to 20 millimetres (0.47 to 0.79 in) in diameter in groups of 1 to 32. Virola calophylla contains dimethyltryptamine and other tryptamines, and in the Orinoco River region, the Witoto and Bora use it as a snuff. References Virola callophylloidea 297 Virola callophylloidea Virola callophylloidea Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. callophylloidea Binomial name Virola callophylloidea Markgr. Virola callophylloidea is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. References Virola carinata 298 Virola carinata Virola carinata Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. carinata Binomial name Virola carinata (Benth.) Warb.[1] Virola carinata is a New World, tropical evergreen tree in the Myristicaceae family that is indigenous to Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil (Amazonas and Rondônia). It grows to a height of about 30m and its fruit is subglobular, 16-20 mm long and 17-19 mm in diameter, found in groups of 4 to 12. Embryo of V. carinata References [1] This binomial authority comes from the reference; however the references for and credit the authorities as "(Spruce ex Benth.) Warb." and "Warb.", respectively. Virola cuspidata 299 Virola cuspidata Virola cuspidata Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. cuspidata Binomial name Virola cuspidata Warb., 1897 Virola cuspidata is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. References Virola divergens 300 Virola divergens Virola divergens Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. divergens Binomial name Virola divergens Ducke Virola divergens is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. It grows to about 25m tall. The fruits are ellipsoidal and subglobular, 18-38 mm long and 16-33 mm in diameter, grouped 4 to 8. References Virola elongata 301 Virola elongata Virola elongata Virola elongata 1860 Illustration Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. elongata Binomial name Virola elongata Warb. Synonyms • • • • • • • • • • • • • Myristica cuspidata Myristica punctata Myristica membranacea Myristica uaupensis Palala punctata Palala uaupensis Palala cuspidata Palala membranacea Palala elongata Palala uaupensis Virola cuspidata uaupensis Virola cuspidata Virola theiodora Warb. Virola elongata (syn. Virola theiodora ) is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. The tree is native to Panama, Guyana, Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia and Roraima), Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. It is also found in Suriname. Virola elongata is thin and 7.5 to 23m tall, sometimes 30m tall. The trunk is about 43 cm in diameter, cylindrical and has smooth brown and gray bark. The fruit is ellipsoidal to subglobular, 11–20 mm long, 10–15 mm in diameter and comes in groups of 40. The tree is found in evergreen forests and in scrub up to 800 m in altitude. Virola elongata 302 The Yanomami people use the bark sap as an entheogen, but also as an arrow poison. Virola elongata is active against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus.[1] References Virola elongata fruit Virola elongata seeds [1] Antibacterial Activity of Brazilian Amazon Plant Extracts (http:/ / www. scielo. br/ pdf/ bjid/ v10n6/ a08v10n6. pdf) Virola melinonii 303 Virola melinonii Virola melinonii Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. melinonii Binomial name Virola melinonii (Benoist) A.C.Sm., 1938 Virola melinonii is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. References Virola multinervia 304 Virola multinervia Virola multinervia Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. multinervia Binomial name Virola multinervia Ducke, 1936 Virola multinervia is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. It is found in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela and Brazil (Amazonas, Pará). It grows to a height of about 35m. The fruit is ellipsoidal to ovoidal, 26-40 mm long, 19-32 mm in diameter, and is found in groups of 1 to 7. References Virola pavonis 305 Virola pavonis Virola pavonis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. pavonis Binomial name Virola pavonis (A.DC.) A.C.Sm., 1938 Synonyms • • • Myristica pavonsi Palala pavonis Virola elliptica Virola pavonis is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. It is found in Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. The tree grows to a height of about 15-30m tall. Appearance Fruit and flowers The Virola pavonis tree bears an ellipsoidal fruit, 36–42 mm long and 30–34 mm in diameter. The fruit appears to be nut like, with an outer shell with a reddish colored fruit inside. Before the fruit gets to this stage, it is a green unripe nut like in appearance. The Virola pavonis also is a flowing tree, having small reddish yellow flowering bud. Leaves The leaves of the Virola pavonis tree are in an alternate pattern, meaning the leaves spring one node at different levels of the stem. The veins of the leaf are pinnate. There is one main stem or midrib from which the other stems source from. The leaf is elliptically shaped with smooth margins (or edges). Also, the leaves of Virola pavonis are stalked meaning the leaves have a petiole thus meaning it is petiolated. Virola pavonis Occurrences Virola pavonis has the highest concentration as well as the most commonly recorded to be found in various areas of Peru as well as in the Amazon. Chemical components Virola pavonis bears a fruit. The seeds of this fruit contain various neolignans. According to an abstract written by Marcia O.M. Marquesa, Massayoshi Yoshidaa and Otto R. Gottlieba for the Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paul in March 1992,Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include "Virola pavonis was found to contain in the arils of its fruits 8.O.4′,7.O.3′-neolignans (eusiderins A, C and K) and a 8.O.4′-neolignan (of the β-propenylaryloxy-arylpropane type) and in the seed coats of its fruits 8.5′-neolignans (carinatone, carinatol) and 8.5′,7.O.4′-neolignans (dihydrocarinatin, carinatin). Some previous 13C NMR assignments for the latter four compounds are corrected." The leaves of Virola pavonis contain the chemical compounds DMT and pavonisol, according to Pedro H Ferria and Lauro E.S Barataa;Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include "Pavonisol, a new C-1/C-2 oxygenated phenylpropanoid, together with the known eusiderin-E and an 8,4′-oxyneolignan, were isolated from Virola pavonis leaves. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations." References External links • INBIO ( • Vierola Pavonis & Neolignas ( _udi=B6TH7-44J15H2-2P&_user=10&_coverDate=12/31/1992&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway& _origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1661292426&_rerunOrigin=google& _acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=d90364e773093c5f0704cedee13f46a3& searchtype=a) • Pavonisol ( _user=10&_origUdi=B6TH7-44J15H2-2P&_fmt=high&_coverDate=04/30/1992&_rdoc=1&_orig=article& _origin=article&_zone=related_art&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10& md5=d37f01969b1363d8f6a37269edc74f42) 306 Virola peruviana 307 Virola peruviana Virola peruviana Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. peruviana Binomial name Virola peruviana Warb. Virola peruviana is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. It is found in Brazil (Amazonas, Pará), Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. It grows to a height of about 35 m (100 ft). The fruit is ellipsoidal, 14-24 mm long and 11-23 mm in diameter, forming groups of about 5 to 15. Varieties • Virola peruviana var. tomentosa Warb., 1897 References Virola rufula 308 Virola rufula Virola rufula Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. rufula Binomial name Virola rufula Warb. Virola rufula is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. The tree contains alkaloids in its bark, leaves and roots. 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine makes up 95% of the alkaloids.[1]Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources There is about 0.190% 5-MeO-DMT in bark, 0.135% 5-MeO-DMT in root, and 0.092% dimethyltryptamine in the leaves. References [1] (http:/ / www. tryptamines. com/ ) Virola sebifera 309 Virola sebifera Virola sebifera Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. sebifera Binomial name Virola sebifera Aubl. Synonyms • • • • • • • • • • Myristica mocoa Myrica ocuba Myristica panamensis Myristica sebifera (Aubl.) Sw.[1] Virola mocoa Virola panamensis Virola boliviensis Virola uenezuelensis Virola mycetis Virola warburgii Virola sebifera,also known as Myristica sebifera, common names Ucuúba-do-Cerrado[2] and red ucuuba,[1] is a type of tree from the family Myristicaceae, from Central America and South America[3] (Costa Rica to northern Brazil). It is found in evergreen forests and savannas up to about 1400 m in altitude. Virola sebifera Description Virola sebifera is a tall, thin tree, which grows 5 to 30 m tall. The leaves are simple and grow up to 30 centimeters long. The small flowers are single-sexed and are found in panicles. The fruit is reddish, oval-shaped and about 10-15 mm long and about 11 mm in diameter. The individual Virola trees, which include 40 to 60 species, are difficult to differentiate from one another.[4] Chemical constituents The bark of the tree is rich in tannins[3] and also the hallucinogen[5] dimethyltryptamine (DMT), as well as 5-MeO-DMT. The ripe seeds contain fatty acid glycerides, especially laurodimyristin and trimyristin. [6] The bark contains 0.065% to 0.25% alkaloids, most of which are DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.[7] The "juice or gum" of the bark seems to have the highest concentrations of alkaloids (up to 8%). Uses Industrial uses Seeds from Virola sebifera are processed to obtain the fats, which are yellow and aromatic. They smell like nutmeg. The fats also become rancid quickly. They are used industrially in the production of fats, candles and soaps. This virola fat possesses properties similar to cocoa butter[6] and shea butter. The wood of Virola sebifera has a density of about 0.37 g/cm³. Traditional medicine The smoke of the inner bark of the tree is used by shamans of the indigenous people of Venezuela in cases of fever conditions, or cooked for driving out evil ghosts.[4] Myristica sebifera, (Abbreviation: Myris) is derived from the fresh, red juice from the injured bark of the tree. It is especially used for such ailments as abscesses, phlegmon, paronychia, furuncle, anal fissures, infections of the parotid gland, bacterially infected tonsilitis, and others.[3][8][9] References Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Virola sebifera | Henriette's Herbal Homepage (http:/ / www. henriettesherbal. com/ plants/ virola/ sebifera. html) Estudos de áreas naturais fragmentadas (http:/ / www. lapa. ufscar. br/ portugues/ fragmentos. htm) Markus Wiesenauer, Suzann Kirschner-Brouns: Homöopathie - Das große Handbuch, Gräfe & Unzer Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0034-4 Christian Rätsch: Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen. AT Verlag, 2007, 8. Auflage, ISBN 978-3-03800-352-6 Andreas Kelich: Halluzinogene Rauschdrogen: Botanischer Teil: Virola spp.: V. sebifera (http:/ / www. catbull. com/ alamut/ Lexikon/ Pflanzen/ Virola sebifera. htm) Karl Hiller, Matthias F. Melzig, Lexikon der Arzneipflanzen und Drogen, 2 Bände, Genehmigte Sonderausgabe für den area verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-89996-682-1 COMMITTEE FOR VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS VIROLA SEBIFERA SUMMARY REPORT (http:/ / www. emea. europa. eu/ pdfs/ vet/ mrls/ 060499en. pdf) Homöopathisches Repetorium, Deutsche Homöopathie Union (DHU) Mohinder Singh Jus, Praktische Materia Medica. Arzneimittellehre von A-Z, Homöosana, 2004, ISBN 3-906407-05-5 310 Virola sebifera General references • Christian Rätsch: Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen. AT Verlag, 2007, 8.te Auflage, ISBN 978-3-03800-352-6 • Karl Hiller, Matthias F. Melzig, Lexikon der Arzneipflanzen und Drogen, 2 Bände, Genehmigte Sonderausgabe für den area verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-89996-682-1 • Markus Wiesenauer, Suzann Kirschner-Brouns: Homöopathie - Das große Handbuch, Gräfe & Unzer Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0034-4 External links • Virola sebifera - Photo Gallery ( php?key_species_code=LS001444) • Photos of Virola sebifera ( • Three photos of Talgmuskatnußbaum ( htm) • Virola sebifera Aublet ( sebifera.htm) • Climate Change and the effects on Virola sebifera ( 311 Virola surinamensis 312 Virola surinamensis Virola surinamensis Conservation status Endangered  (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. surinamensis Binomial name Virola surinamensis (Rol. ex Rottb.) Warb. Synonyms • • • • • • Myristica surinamensis Rol. ex Rottb. Myristica fatua Palala surinamensis Virola glaziovii fatua Palala surinamensis Virola glaziovii Virola surinamensis (also called Baboonwood and Wild nutmeg) is a species of plant in the Myristicaceae family. It is found in Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. It has also been naturalized in the Caribbean. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, and heavily degraded former forest. It is threatened by habitat loss. Virola surinamensis grows 25–40 m tall. The leaves are 10–22 cm long and 2–5 cm wide. The fruits are ellipsoidal to subglobular, measuring about 13–21 mm long and 11–18 mm in diameter. Virola surinamensis Uses The tree has good wood and it is used industrially because of this. Traditionally, the tree were used to treat worms of the intestine. The Amazon Indians Waiãpi living in the West of Amapá State of Brazil, treat malaria with an inhalation of vapor obtained from leaves of Viola surinamensis.[1] Virola surinamensis is popularly known as "mucuíba", "ucuuba" or "ucuúba do igapó" The fruit contains lauric acid (78,000-115,000 ppm). Notes [1] Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 67, Issue 3, 30 November 1999, Pages 313-319 Other references • Americas Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Costa Rica) 1998. External links • Virola surinamensis ( • 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. ( Downloaded on 24 August 2007. 313 Virola venosa 314 Virola venosa Virola venosa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Magnoliids Order: Magnoliales Family: Myristicaceae Genus: Virola Species: V. venosa Binomial name Virola venosa Warb. Synonyms • • Myristica venosa Palala venosa Virola venosa is a species of tree in the Myristicaceae family. It is found in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil (in Amapá, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia). It grows 5-30 m tall. The fruits are ellipsoidal to subglobular, 19-22 mm long and 16-18mm in diameter. Varieties • Virola venosa var. pavonis (A.DC.) Warb. References Ochnaceae 315 Ochnaceae Ochnaceae Sauvagesia erecta from southern Brazil Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Malpighiales Family: Ochnaceae DC. Genera See Subdivisions The family Ochnaceae, or wild plane family, comprises mainly trees or shrubs, and more rarely herbaceous plants. Species of the Ochnaceae are found from subtropical to tropical regions. They are best represented in South America. The family has about 53 genera and 600 species. Members of the Ochnaceae all have evergreen petiolate leaves, which are sometimes leathery (found at the genus Ochna). The leaves are most often simple and alternate, but can be racemose, paniculate or more rarely pinnate. Pinnate leaves are typical of Godoya. These species are hermaphroditic. Subdivisions Subfamily Ochnoideae This subfamily is characterized by the absence of endosperm in the seed. Tribe Elvasieae Elvasia (also Hostmannia, Trichovaselia or Vaselia) Tribe Lophireae (sometimes stands alone as family Lophiraceae) Lophira Tribe Ochneae Ochna (also Diporidium) Ochnaceae 316 Tribe Ourateeae Ouratea (also Kaieteuria) Subfamily Luxemburgoideae This subfamily is characterized by the presence of endosperm in the seed. Tribe Euthemideae Euthemis Gomphia (also Campylospermum, Idertia, Rhabdophyllum) Tribe Luxernburgieae Godoya Luxemburgia (also Charidion, Hilairella, Epiblepharis, Periblepharis, Plectanthera) Philacra Sauvagesia (also Neckia, Leitgebia, Lavradia, Pentaspatella, Roraimanthus, Vausagesia) - Sauvagesia. This genus is sometimes erected to tribe Sauvagesieae. Schuurmansia Wallacea Other genera Adenarake Blastemanthus Brackenridgea (also Pleuroridgea) Cespedesia (also Fournieria) Fleurydora Froesia (formerly recognized in the Quiinaceae) Godoya Indosinia (also Distephania or Indovethia) Lacunaria (formerly recognized in the Quiinaceae) Lophira Medusagyne (formerly recognized in the Medusagynaceae) Krukoviella (also Planchonella) Perissocarpa Poecilandra Quiina (formerly recognized in the Quiinaceae) Rhytidanthera Schuurmansia Schuurmansiella Sinia Testulea Touroulia (formerly recognized in the Quiinaceae) Tyleria (also Adenanthe) Ochnaceae Taxonomy note This the following families are treated as synonyms of Ochnaceae: • • • • • • Euthemidaceae Van Tiegh. Lophiraceae Endl. Luxemburgiaceae Van Tiegh. Sauvagesiaceae Dum. Simabaceae Horan. (p.p.) Wallaceaceae Van Tiegh. The following families are excluded from Ochnaceae: • Diegodendraceae • Strasburgeriaceae References External links • Ochnaceae ( in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. (http:/ / 317 Testulea gabonensis 318 Testulea gabonensis Testulea gabonensis Conservation status Endangered  (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Malpighiales Family: Ochnaceae Genus: Testulea Species: T. gabonensis Binomial name Testulea gabonensis Pellegr. Testulea gabonensis is a species of plant in the Ochnaceae family. It is found in Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. It is threatened by habitat loss. References • African Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Zimbabwe) 1998. Testulea gabonensis [1]. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [5] Downloaded on 23 August 2007. Pandanus 319 Pandanus Pandanus Fruit of Pandanus utilis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots Order: Pandanales Family: Pandanaceae Genus: Pandanus Parkinson Species See text Pandanus, screw pine, or Pandan is a genus of monocots with about 600 known species. They are palm-like, dioecious trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics and subtropics. They are classified in the order Pandanales, family Pandanaceae. Overview Often called pandanus palms, these plants are not closely related to palm trees. The species vary in size from small shrubs less than 1 metre (3.3 ft) tall, to medium-sized trees 20 metres (66 ft) tall, typically with a broad canopy, heavy fruit, and moderate growth rate. The trunk is stout, wide-branching, and ringed with many leaf scars. They commonly have many thick prop roots near the base, which provide support as the tree grows top-heavy with leaves, fruit, and branches. The leaves are strap-shaped, varying between species from 30 centimetres (12 in) to 2 metres (6.6 ft) or longer, and from 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) broad. Roots They are dioecious, with male and female flowers produced on different plants. The flowers of the male tree are 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) long and fragrant, surrounded by narrow, white bracts. The female tree produces flowers Pandanus with round fruits that are also bract-surrounded. The fruits are globose, 10–20 centimetres (3.9–7.9 in) in diameter, and have many prism-like sections, resembling the fruit of the pineapple. Typically, the fruit changes from green to bright orange or red as it matures. The fruit of some species are edible. Pandanus fruit are eaten by animals including bats, rats, crabs, elephants and monitor lizards, but the vast majority of species are dispersed primarily by water. They are numerous, palm-like, dioecious trees and shrubs of the Old World tropic growing from sea level to 3,300 m. The adventitious roots are large and often branched; the tops have a crown of narrow spiny leaves. They are large shrubs or small trees of cultural, health, and economic importance in the Pacific, second only to coconut on atolls. They grow wild mainly in seminatural vegetation in littoral habitats throughout the tropical and subtropical Pacific, where they can withstand drought, strong winds, and salt spray. They propagate readily from seed, but also are widely propagated from branch cuttings by local people. It grows fairly and quickly.[1] The genus is native to most of the tropical islands. Three species of screwpine are commonly found in Maldives. Species with large and medium fruit are edible. Pandanus is one of the iconic tree genera of the New South Wales north coast. Species growing on exposed coastal headlands and along beaches have thick 'prop roots' as anchors in the loose sand. Those prop roots emerge from the stem, usually close to but above the ground, which helps to keep the plants upright and secure them to the ground. Some species of Pandanus trees can grow up to 6 m high. They have long, thin, light-green leaves, which grow in spirals on the plants' stems. As the plants grow, the leaves drop off, leaving 'scars' on the stems. In some species of Pandanus, the fruits look a bit like a woody pineapple. They hang from the branches, and can stay on the tree for more than 12 months. The genus normally does not have branches, but very old specimens can have branches. Its strange appearance impacts all travelers who find them. The trunk is covered with smooth, mottled bark. The roots forms a pyramidal tract to hold the trunk. While all pandanus palms are distributed in the tropical Pacific islands, they are most numerous on the low islands and barren atolls of Polynesia and Micronesia. The tree is grown and propagated from shoots that form spontaneously in the axils of lower leaves. Its fruit can float and spread to other islands without help from man. Other species are adapted to mountain habitats and riverine forests. The fruit is a drupe. Cultivation and uses Pandan is used for handicrafts. Craftsmen collect the pandan leaves from plants in the wild. Only the young leaves are cut so the plant will naturally regenerate. The young leaves are sliced in fine strips and sorted for further processing. Weavers produce basic pandan mats of standard size or roll the leaves into pandan ropes for other designs. This is followed by a coloring process, in which pandan mats are placed in drums with water-based colors. After drying, the colored mats are shaped into final products, such as place mats or jewelry boxes. Final color touch-ups may be applied. Pandan (P. amaryllifolius) leaves are used in Southeast Asian cooking to add a distinct aroma to rice and curry dishes such as nasi lemak, kaya ('jam') preserves, and desserts such as pandan cake. In Indian cooking, the leaf is added whole to biryani, a kind of rice pilaf, made with ordinary rice (as opposed to that made with the premium-grade Basmati rice). The basis for this use is that both Basmati and Pandan leaf contain the same aromatic flavoring ingredient, 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline. Pandan leaf can be used as a complement to chocolate in many dishes, such as ice cream. They are known as daun pandan in Indonesian and Malay; 斑 蘭 (bān lán) in Mandarin and as ใบเตย (bai teuy) in Thailand. Fresh leaves are typically torn into strips, tied in a knot to facilitate removal, placed in the cooking liquid, then removed at the end of cooking. Dried leaves and bottled extract may be bought in some places. 320 Pandanus Kewra is an extract distilled from the pandanus flower, used to flavor drinks and desserts in Indian cuisine. Also, kewra or kewadaa is used in religious worship, and the leaves are used to make hair ornaments worn for their fragrance as well as decorative purpose in western India. Throughout Oceania, almost every part of the plant is used, with various species different from those used in Southeast Asian cooking. Pandanus trees provide materials for housing; clothing and textiles including the manufacture of dilly bags (carrying bags), fine mats or ‘ie toga; food, medication,[citation needed] decorations, fishing, and religious uses. Selected species • • • • • • • • Pandanus affinis Pandanus aldabraensis Pandanus amaryllifolius – pandan Pandanus apoensis Pandanus atrocarpus Pandanus austrosinensis Pandanus balfourii Pandanus boninensis • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pandanus brosimus (vd. pandanus language) Pandanus butayei Pandanus carmichaelii Pandanus ceylanicus Pandanus christmatensis Pandanus clandestinus Pandanus conoideus Pandanus copelandii Pandanus corallinus Pandanus decastigma Pandanus decipiens Pandanus decumbens Pandanus dubius (syn. Pandanus odoratus)[2] Pandanus elatus Pandanus forsteri Pandanus furcatus Pandanus graminifolius Pandanus gressitii Pandanus halleorum Pandanus humilis Pandanus hornei Pandanus joskei Pandanus kaida Pandanus kajui Pandanus labyrinthicus Pandanus lacuum Pandanus leram • Pandanus linguiformis • Pandanus luzonensis • Pandanus microcarpus 321 Pandanus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pandanus montanus Pandanus multispicatus Pandanus nepalensis Pandanus odoratissimus Pandanus odorifer (Forssk.) Kuntze[3] Pandanus palustris Pandanus papenooensis Pandanus parvicentralis Pandanus parvus Pandanus petersii Pandanus polycephalus Pandanus pristis Pandanus punicularis Pandanus pygmaeus Pandanus pyramidalis Pandanus sechellarum Pandanus spiralis – Australian screwpine • • • • • • • • • • Pandanus taveuniensis Pandanus tectorius – thatch screwpine Pandanus temehaniensis Pandanus teuszii Pandanus thomensis Pandanus thwaitesii Pandanus utilis – common screwpine Pandanus vandermeeschii Pandanus verecundus Pandanus whitmeeanus Further reading • • • • • • • • Germplasm Resources Information Network: Pandanus [4] Sorting Pandanus names [5] Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., & Sohmer, S. H. (1990). Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai`i. Pandanus species of the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia [6] photos and text by Dave Kimble Pneumatophores on Pandanus solms-laubachii [7] - photo essay Northernmost pandanus in the world, in the Azores Islands, photo [8]. Pandanus simplex fruit eaten by Varanus olivaceus, Polillo Island, Philippines. [9] "Hala: The Hawaiian Aphrodisiac" [10] Article by Shannon Wianecki describing Hawaiian cultural uses for pandanus. Maui No Ka 'Oi Magazine Volume 15 Number. 1 (Jan 2011). 322 Pandanus 323 References [1] http:/ / ph. ansp. org/ collections/ pandanaceae/ Lendemer_Macklin. pdf [2] Pandanus odoratus Thunb. (http:/ / www. theplantlist. org/ tpl/ record/ kew-286375) [3] IUCN Pandanus odorifer (http:/ / www. iucnredlist. org/ details/ 199828/ 0) External links • Media related to Pandanus at Wikimedia Commons Poaceae 324 Poaceae Poaceae (true grasses) Temporal range: Late Cretaceous - Recent, 66–0Ma Flowering head of Meadow Foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), with stamens exerted at anthesis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Barnhart Type genus Poa L. Subfamilies There are 12 subfamilies: Subfamily Anomochlooideae Subfamily Pharoideae Subfamily Puelioideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Ehrhartoideae Subfamily Aristidoideae Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Danthonioideae Subfamily Micrairoideae Poaceae 325 The Poaceae (also called Gramineae or true grasses) are a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants. With more than 10,000 domesticated and wild species, the Poaceae represent the fifth-largest plant family, following the Orchidaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Rubiaceae. Though commonly called "grasses", seagrasses, rushes, and sedges fall outside this family. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales. Grasslands are estimated to compose 20% of the vegetation cover of the Earth. Poaceae live in many other habitats, including wetlands, forests, and tundra. Domestication of poaceous cereal crops such as maize (corn),wheat, rice, barley, and millet lies at the foundation of sedentary living and civilization around the world, and the Poaceae still constitute the most economically important plant family in modern times, providing forage, building materials (bamboo, thatch) and fuel (ethanol), as well as food. Description Diagram of a typical lawn grass plant. Grasses generally have the following characteristics (the image gallery can be used for reference): Poaceae have hollow stems called culms plugged at intervals by solid leaf-bearing nodes. Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous (in one plane), and have parallel veins. Each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem and a blade with entire (i.e., smooth) margins. The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals; some, such as sword grass, are sharp enough to cut human skin. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Poaceae Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each spikelet having one or more florets. The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. A spikelet consists of two (or sometimes fewer) bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea. The flowers are usually hermaphroditic-- maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or Parts of a spikelet wind-pollinated. The perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea; these are generally interpreted to be modified sepals. This complex structure can be seen in the image on the right, portraying a wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelet. The fruit of Poaceae is a caryopsis, in which the seed coat is fused to the fruit wall. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Growth and development Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips. This low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown regularly without severe damage to the plant. Three general classifications of growth habit present in grasses: bunch-type (also called caespitose), stoloniferous, and rhizomatous. The success of the grasses lies in part in their morphology and growth processes, and in part in their physiological diversity. Most of the grasses divide into two physiological groups, using the C3 and C4 Grass flowers photosynthetic pathways for carbon fixation. The C4 grasses have a photosynthetic pathway linked to specialized Kranz leaf anatomy that particularly adapts them to hot climates and atmospheres low in carbon dioxide. The C3 grasses are referred to as "cool-season" grasses, while the C4 plants are considered "warm-season" grasses; they may be either annual or perennial. • Annual cool-season - wheat, rye, annual bluegrass (annual meadowgrass, Poa annua), and oat • Perennial cool-season - orchardgrass (cocksfoot, Dactylis glomerata), fescue (Festuca spp.), Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) • Annual warm-season - corn, sudangrass, and pearl millet • Perennial warm-season - big bluestem, Indiangrass, Bermudagrass and switchgrass. 326 Poaceae 327 Ecology Grass-dominated biomes are called grasslands. If only large, contiguous areas of grasslands are counted, these biomes cover 31% of the planet's land. Grasslands include pampas, steppes, and prairies. Grasses provide food to many grazing mammals—such as livestock, deer, and elephants—as well as to many species of butterflies and moths. The evolution of large grazing animals in the Cenozoic has contributed to the spread of grasses. Without large grazers, fire-cleared areas are quickly colonized by grasses, and with enough rain, tree seedlings. Trees eventually shade out and kill most grasses. Trampling grazers kill seedling trees but not grasses. Evolution Until recently, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago. Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. Indeed, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggest a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya.[1] The relationships among the subfamilies Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae and Pooideae in the BEP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more closely related to each other than to Ehrhartoideae.[2] This separation occurred within a relatively short time span (about 4 million years). Distribution The grass family is one of the most widely distributed and abundant groups of plants on Earth. Grasses are found on every continent, and are absent only from central Greenland and much of Antarctica. Taxonomy Recent classifications of the grass family recognize 12 subfamilies and a small number of taxa with uncertain placements: • Anomochlooideae Potztal, a small lineage of broad-leaved grasses that includes two genera (Anomochloa, Streptochaeta) • Pharoideae L.G.Clark & Judz., a small lineage of grasses of three genera, including Pharus and Leptaspis • Puelioideae L.G.Clark, M.Kobay., S.Mathews, Spangler & E.A.Kellogg, a small lineage of the African genus Puelia • Pooideae, including wheat, barley, oats, brome-grass (Bromus), reed-grasses (Calamagrostis) and many lawn and pasture grasses Setaria verticillata from Panicoideae • Bambusoideae, including bamboo • Ehrhartoideae, including rice and wild rice • Aristidoideae, including Aristida • Arundinoideae, including giant reed and common reed • Chloridoideae, including the lovegrasses (Eragrostis, about 350 species, including teff), dropseeds (Sporobolus, some 160 species), finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.), and the muhly grasses (Muhlenbergia, about 175 species) • Panicoideae, including panic grass, maize, sorghum, sugarcane, most millets, fonio, and bluestem grasses • Micrairoideae • Danthonioideae, including pampas grass Poaceae 328 Depending on the classification followed, the family includes around 668 genera. Etymology The Poaceae name was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895,[3] based on the tribe Poeae (described in 1814 by Robert Brown), and the type genus Poa (described in 1753 by Linnaeus). The term is derived from the Ancient Greek term for grass. Tragus roxburghii from Chloridoideae Uses Grasses are, in human terms, perhaps the most economically important plant family. Grasses' economic importance stems from several areas, including food production, industry, and lawns. Food production Agricultural grasses grown for their edible seeds are called cereals or grains. Three cereals – rice, wheat, and maize (corn) – provide more than half of all calories eaten by humans. Of all crops, 70% are grasses. Cereals constitute the major source of carbohydrates for humans and perhaps the major source of protein, and include rice in southern and eastern Asia, maize in Central and South America, and wheat and barley in Europe, northern Asia and the Americas. Sugarcane is the major source of sugar production. Many other grasses are grown for forage and fodder for animal feed, particularly for sheep and cattle, thereby indirectly providing more human calories. Industry Grasses are used for construction. Scaffolding made from bamboo is able to withstand typhoon-force winds that would break steel scaffolding. Larger bamboos and Arundo donax have stout culms that can be used in a manner similar to timber, and grass roots stabilize the sod of sod houses. Arundo is used to make reeds for woodwind instruments, and bamboo is used for innumerable implements. Grass fiber can be used for making paper, and for biofuel production. Phragmites australis (common reed) is important in water treatment, wetland habitat preservation and land reclamation in Afro-Eurasia. Poaceae 329 Lawn and ornamental grasses Grasses are the primary plant used in lawns, which themselves derive from grazed grasslands in Europe. They also provide an important means of erosion control (e.g., along roadsides), especially on sloping land. Although supplanted by artificial turf in some games, grasses are still an important covering of playing surfaces in many sports, including football (soccer), tennis, golf, cricket, softball and baseball. Ornamental grasses, such as perennial bunch grasses, are used in many styles of garden design for their foliage, inflorescences, seed heads, and slope stabilization. They are often used in natural landscaping, xeriscaping, contemporary or modern landscaping, wildlife gardening, and native plant gardening. Economically important grasses Grain crops Leaf and stem crops Lawn grasses Ornamental grasses (Horticultural) Model organisms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Barley Maize (corn) Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Wheat Millet Bamboo Marram grass Meadow-grass Reeds Ryegrass Sugarcane • • • • • • • • • • Bahia grass Bent grass Bermuda grass Buffalograss Centipede grass Fescue Meadow-grass Ryegrass St. Augustine grass Zoysia Calamagrostis spp. Cortaderia spp. Deschampsia spp. Festuca spp. Melica spp. Muhlenbergia spp. Stipa spp. • • • • • Brachypodium distachyon Maize (corn) Rice Sorghum Wheat Grasses and society Grasses have long had significance in human society. They have been cultivated as feed for domesticated animals for up to 10,000 years, and have been used to make paper since the second century AD.[citation needed] Also, the primary ingredient of beer is usually barley or wheat, both of which have been used for this purpose for over 4,000 years.[citation needed] Some common aphorisms involve grass. For example: • "The grass is always greener on the other side" suggests an alternate Grass-covered house in Iceland state of affairs will always seem preferable to one's own. • "Don't let the grass grow under your feet" tells someone to get moving. • "A snake in the grass" means dangers that are hidden. • "When elephants fight, it is the grass which suffers" tells of bystanders caught in the crossfire. A folk myth about grass is that it refuses to grow where any violent death has occurred.[4] Poaceae 330 Genera See the full list of Poaceae genera. Image gallery Leaves of Poa trivialis showing the ligules Bamboo stem and leaves, nodes are evident A Chasmanthium latifolium spikelet Wheat spike and spikelet Spikelet opened to show caryopsis Harestail grass Grass Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Roots of Bromus hordeaceus Barley mature spikes (Hordeum vulgare) Illustration depicting both staminate and pistillate flowers of maize (Zea mays) A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers. Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail Oryza sativa, Kerala, India Poaceae References [1] Prasad V, Strömberg CA, Leaché AD, Samant B, Patnaik R, Tang L, Mohabey DM, Ge S, Sahni A. (2011). Late Cretaceous origin of the rice tribe provides evidence for early diversification in Poaceae. Nat Commun. 2:480. PMID 21934664 [2] Wu ZQ, Ge S (2011) The phylogeny of the BEP clade in grasses revisited: Evidence from the whole-genome sequences of chloroplasts. Mol Phylogenet Evol [3] Barnhart, J.H. (1895) Poaceae. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 22: 7. [4] Olmert, Michael (1996). Milton's Teeth and Ovid's Umbrella: Curiouser & Curiouser Adventures in History, p. 208. Simon & Schuster, New York. ISBN 0-684-80164-7. External links • Poaceae ( at The Plant List ( • Gramineae ( at The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA) ( • Poaceae ( at the Encyclopedia of Life ( • Poaceae ( at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website ( • Poaceae Classification ( projectid=10) from the online Catalogue of New World Grasses ( • Poaceae ( at the online Flora of China ( • Poaceae ( at the online Guide to the Flora of Mongolia ( • Poaceae ( at the online Flora of Taiwan (http://www. • Poaceae ( at the online Flora of Pakistan ( • Poaceae ( at the online Flora of Zimbabwe ( • Poaceae ( at the online Flora of Western Australia ( • Grasses of Australia (AusGrass2) - • Gramineae ( aspx?id=_8ae81d6d-1dca-418b-8bcf-4b6e1e5a2f6d&fileName=Flora 5.xml) at the online Flora of New Zealand ( • NZ Grass Key ( An Interactive Key to New Zealand Grasses at Landcare Research ( • The Grass Genera of the World ( at DELTA intkey ( • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora ( at the Royal Botanic Gardens - Kew ( • GrassWorld - 331 Arundo donax 332 Arundo donax Arundo donax Giant Cane (Arundo donax) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Arundinoideae Tribe: Arundineae Genus: Arundo Species: A. donax Binomial name Arundo donax L. Arundo donax, Giant Cane, is a tall perennial cane growing in damp soils, either fresh or moderately saline. Other common names include Carrizo, Arundo, Spanish cane, Colorado River Reed, Wild cane, and Giant reed. Arundo donax is native to eastern and southern Asia, the Mediterranean Basin,[1] and probably also parts of Africa and southern Arabian Peninsula. It has been widely planted and naturalised in the mild temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of both hemispheres (Herrera & Dudley 2003), especially in the Mediterranean, California, the western Pacific and the Caribbean.[2] It forms dense stands on disturbed sites, sand dunes, in wetlands and riparian habitats. Arundo donax 333 Description Arundo donax generally grows to 6 metres (20 ft), in ideal conditions it can exceed 10 metres (33 ft), with hollow stems 2 to 3 centimetres (0.79 to 1.18 in) diameter. The leaves are alternate, 30 to 60 centimetres (12 to 24 in) long and 2 to 6 centimetres (0.79 to 2.36 in) wide with a tapered tip, grey-green, and have a hairy tuft at the base. Overall, it resembles an outsize common reed (Phragmites australis) or a bamboo (Subfamily Bambusoideae). Arundo donax flowers in late summer, bearing upright, feathery plumes 40 to 60 centimetres (16 to 24 in) long, that are usually seedless or with seeds that are rarely fertile. Instead, it mostly reproduces vegetatively, by underground rhizomes. The rhizomes are tough and fibrous and form knotty, spreading mats that penetrate deep into the soil up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) deep (Alden et al., 1998; Mackenzie, 2004). Stem and rhizome pieces less than 5 centimetres (2.0 in) long and containing a single node readily sprouted under a variety of conditions (Boose and Holt, 1999). This vegetative growth appears to be well adapted to floods, which may break up individual A. donax clumps, spreading the pieces, which may sprout and colonise further downstream (Mackenzie 2004). Biology Arundo donax (L.) is a tall, perennial C3 grass species belongs to the subfamily Arundinoideae of the Poaceae family. The hollow stems, 3 to 5 cm thick, have a cane-like appearance similar to bamboo. Mature stands can reach a height up to 8 m. Stems produced during the first growing season are unbranched and photosynthetic. It is an asexually reproducing species due to seed sterility.[3] It needs to be established by vegetative propagation, due to a lack of viable seed production. Underground it produces an extensive network of large, but short rhizomes like bulbs, and fibrous tap roots. In the Mediterranean, where a temperate climate is characterized by warm and dry summer and mild winter, giant reed new shoots emerge around March, growing rapidly in June – July and producing stems and leaves. From late July the lower leaves start to dry, depending to seasonal temperature patterns. Crop drying accelerates during autumn when anthesis occurs from the beginning of October to the end of November. In this phonological stage moisture contents fall significantly. In winter-time giant reed stops its growth because of low temperatures and regrowth occurs in the following springtime. In Central Europe giant reed behaves as an annual energy crop for the low soil temperatures and poor freeze Arundo donax. tolerance lack of the rhizomes. The base growth temperature reported for giant reed is 7°C,[4] and a maximum cut-off is at 30°C. It has a high photosynthetic capacity, associated with absence of light saturation. Carbon dioxide exchange rates is high compared to other C3 and C4 Arundo donax 334 species. Under natural condition, the maximum CO2 uptake ranged between 19.8 and 36.7 µmol m−2 s−1, depending on irradiance, leaf age, and it is regulated by leaf conductance.[5] Genetic background Phyllostachys aurea and Arundo donax. Arundo donax. In most areas where giant reed grows (Mediterranean area and US), viable seeds are not produced.[6] On the other hand, sterility is an obstacle for breeding programs which aim to increase the productivity and biomass quality for energy conversion.[7] Asexual reproduction drastically reduces genetic variability. It is reported that sterility of giant reed is as a result of a failure of the megaspore mother cell to divide.[8] A total of 185 clones of A. donax were collected from California to South Carolina and genetically fingerprinted with the SRAP and TE based markers.[9] Giant reed exhibited no molecular genetic variation despite the wide genomic coverage of the markers used in this study. The molecular data strongly point to a single genetic clone of A. donax in the United States, although multiple introductions of this plant into the United States have been documented. Another study was conducted in the Mediterranean area on sampling giant reed from 80 different sites, and a low gene diversity was detected. Results indicate the occurrence of post-meiotic alterations in the ovule and pollen developmental pathway. AFLP data support a monophyletic origin of giant reed and suggest that it originated in Asia and began to spread into the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology Giant reed is adapted to a wide variety of ecological conditions, but is generally associated with riparian and wetland systems. It is distributed across the southern United States from Maryland to California. Plants can grow in a variety of soils from heavy clays to loose sands and gravelly soils, but prefer wet drained soils where they produce monotypic dense stands. In soil contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and lead, giant reed was found to grow rapidly, showing a strong metal-tolerance with a limited metal translocation from Arundo donax 335 Arundo donax. roots to shoots.[10] In this study it is underlined that accumulation of As, Cd and Pb in shoots of giant reed is low while metal concentration in roots is high, and the anatomical characteristics of stem tissues are thick and homogeneous according to SEM image. In Pakistan, where the detection of arsenic in ground waters has threatened the use of groundwater as major source of drinking water, a research highlighted the phytoremediation potential of A. donax when grown in hydroponics cultures containing arsenic concentrations up to 1000 µg l−1.[11] Giant reed was able to translocate the metals absorbed into the shoot and to accumulate metals in the stalk and leaves above the root concentration without showing any toxic effects up to As concentration of 600 µg l−1. Furthermore, the plant is not consumed by herbivores, a positive trait in phytoremediation plants. Carbon sequestration An increased environmental concern is the health of soil system as one of the main factor affecting quality and productivity of agroecosystems. Around the world, several regions are subjected to a decline of fertility due to an increasing degradation of soils, loss of orgnanic matter and increasing desertification.[12] Recently research was carried out to evaluate, in the same pedological and climatic conditions, the impact of three long-term (14 years) agricultural systems, continuous giant reed, natural grassland, and cropping sequence, on the organic-matter characteristics and microbial biomass size in soil.[13] The study pointed out that a long term Giant reed cropping system, characterized by low tillage intensity, positively affect the amount and quality of soil organic matter. Arundo donax showed Arundo donax. greater values than tilled management system for total soil organic carbon, light fraction carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and microbial biomass carbon. Regarding the humification parameters, there were noticed any statistically differences between giant reed and a cropping sequence (cereals-legumes cultivated conventionally). Management in riparian habitats Arundo is a highly invasive plant in southwestern North American rivers, and its promotion as a bio-fuel in other regions is of great concern to environmental scientists and land managers.[14]Arundo donax was introduced from the Mediterranean to California in the 1820s for roofing material and erosion control in drainage canals in the Los Angeles area (Bell 1997; Mackenzie 2004). Through spread and subsequent plantings as an ornamental plant, and for use as reeds in woodwind instruments, it has become naturalised throughout warm coastal freshwaters of North Arundo donax America, and its range continues to spread. It has been planted widely through South America and Australasia (Boose and Holt 1999; Bell 1997) and in New Zealand it is listed under the National Pest Plant Accord as an "unwanted organism". Despite its invasive characteristics in regions around the world where it is not native, Arundo is being promoted by the energy industry as a bio-fuel crop. Some of the regions, such as the southeastern United States have natural distrubances, such as hurricanes and floods, that could widely disperse this plant. It is among the fastest growing terrestrial plants in the world (nearly 10 centimetres (3.9 in) / day; Dudley, 2000). To present knowledge Arundo does not provide any food sources or nesting habitats for wildlife. Replacement of native plant communities by Arundo results in low quality habitat and altered ecosystem functioning (Bell 1997; Mackenzie 2004). For example, it damages California's riparian ecosystems by outcompeting native species, such as willows, for water. A. donax stems and leaves contain a variety of harmful chemicals, including silica and various alkaloids, which protect it from most insect herbivores and deter wildlife from feeding on it (Bell 1997; Miles et al. 1993; Mackenzie 2004). Grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats may have some effect on it, but are unlikely to be useful in keeping it under control (Dudley 2000). Arundo donax appears to be highly adapted to fires, which are unusual in native Californian riparian habitats. It is highly flammable throughout the year, and during the drier months of the year (July to October), it can increase the probability, intensity, and spread of wildfires through the riparian environment, changing the communities from flood-defined to fire-defined communities.[15] After fires, A. donax rhizomes can resprout quickly, outgrowing native plants, which can result in large stands of A. donax along riparian corridors (Bell 1997; Scott 1994). Fire events thus push the system further toward mono-specific stands of A. donax. A waterside plant community dominated by A. donax may also have reduced canopy shading of the in-stream habitat, which may result in increased water temperatures. This may lead to decreased oxygen concentrations and lower diversity of aquatic animals (Bell 1997). As the impact of Arundo donax increased in the environment and native species various efforts have been taken to reduce its population. It has few natural enemies in its introduced range. Several Mediterranean insects have been imported into the United States as biological control agents (Bell, 1997; Miles et al. 1993; Mackenzie 2004, Goolsby 2007), namely Arundo wasp, Tetramesa romana; the Arundo scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis; and the Arundo fly, Cryptonevra has known to have some effect in damaging the plant. Tetramesa romana and more recently Rhizaspidiotus donacisis were registered in the US as biological control agents. Other remedies like using mechanical force also been employed since Arundo donax doesn’t reproduce by seeds destroying its root structure can be effective also preventing it getting sunlight will deplete the plant (Mackenzie 2004). Systemic herbicides and Glyphosate were also used as chemical remedies. When improperly planted in riparian areas with fast moving flood waters, which has been the experience in California and Texas, there is evidence the A. donax can be carried downstream to establish new colonies. However, There is no evidence of invasiveness when properly planted and managed in non-riparian areas. Additionally, there is no documented evidence of any such 'colonization' by Arundo donax anywhere in the Southeastern United States where A. donax has been present in some cases for over 200 years. Uses Energy crop Energy crops are plants which are produced with the express purpose of using their biomass energetically [16] and at the same time reduce carbon dioxide emission. Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic plant material represent an important renewable energy alternative to transportation fossil fuels.[17] Perennial rhizomatous grasses display several positive attributes as energy crops because of their high productivity, low (no) demand for nutrient inputs consequent to the recycling of nutrients by their rhizomes, exceptional soil carbon sequestration - 4X switchgrass, multiple products, adaptation to saline soils and saline water, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. 336 Arundo donax Giant reed is one of the most promising crop for energy production for the Mediterranean climate of Europe and Africa, where it has showed advantages as indigenous crop (already adapted to the environment), durable yields, and resistance to long drought period. Several field studies have highlighted the beneficial effect of giant reed crop on the environment due to its minimal soil tillage, fertilizer and pesticide. Furthermore it offers protection against soil erosion,[18] one of the most important land degradation processes in Mediterranean and US environments. A. donax bioenergy feedstock has an impressive potential for several conversion processes. Dried biomass has a direct combustion high heating value of 8000 BTUs/lb. In Italy, Arundo donax was used in one instance from 1937 to 1962 on a large-scale industrial basis for paper and dissolving pulp. This interest was stimulated primarily by the desire of the dictatorship, just before World War II, to be independent of foreign sources of textile fibers and the desire for an export product.[19] According to historic record made by Snia Viscosa, giant reed was established on 6 300 ha in Torviscosa (Ud), reaching the average annual production of 35 t ha−1.[20] Today several screening studies on energy crops have been carried out by several Universities in US as well as in EU to evaluate and identify best management practices for maximizing biomass yields and assess environmental impacts. Cultivation The establishment is a critical point of the cultivation. Stem and rhizome have a great ability to sprout after removal from mother plant and both can be used for clonal propagation. The use of rhizomes were found to be the better propagation way for this species, achieving better survival rate.[21] In this field study, it was noticed how the lowest density (12 500 rhizomes ha−1) resulted in taller and thicker plants compared to denser plantation (25 000 rhizomes ha−1). Seedbed preparation is conducted in the spring, immediately before planting, by a pass with a double-disk harrowing and a pass with a field cultivator. Giant reed has the possibility of adopting low plant density. The rhizomes were planted at 10–20 centimetres (3.9–7.9 in) of soil depth, with a minimum plant density of 10 000 plants per ha), while mature stems, with two or more nodes, can be planted 10–15 centimetres (3.9–5.9 in) deep. In order to ensure good root stand and adequate contact with the soil, sufficient moisture is needed immediately after planting. Pre-plant fertilizer is distributed according to the initial soil fertility, but usually an application of P at a rate of 80–100 kilograms (180–220 lb) ha−1 is applied. A. donax maintain a high productive aptitude without irrigation under semi-arid climate conditions. In South Italy, a trial was carried out testing the yields performance of 39 genotypes, and an average yields of 22.1 t ha−1 dry matter in the second year were reached,[22] a comparable result with others results obtained in Spain (22.5 t ha−1) as well as in South Greece (19.0 t ha−1). Several reports underlined that it is more economical to grow giant reed under moderate irrigation. In order to evaluate different management practices, nitrogen fertilizer and input demand was evaluated in a 6-year field study conducted at the University of Pisa. Fertilisation enhanced the productive capacity in the initial years, but as the years go by and as the radical apparatus progressively deepens, the differences due to fertilisation decrease until disappearing. Harvest time and plant density were found to not affect the biomass yields. Due to its high growth rate and superior resource capture capacity (light, water and nutrients), A. donax is not affected by weed competition from the second year. An application of post-emergence treatment is usually recommended. Giant reed has few known disease or insect pest but in extensive cultivation no pesticides is used. To remove giant reed at the end of crop cycle, there are mainly two methods, mechanical or chemical Jackson 1998 Chemical control of giant reed (Arundo donax) and saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). An excavator can be useful to bring out on the surface the rhizomes or alternatively a single late-season application of 3% glyphosate onto the foliar mass is efficient and effective with least hazardous to biota.[23] Glyphosate was selected as the most appropriate product after specific considerations on efficacy, environmental safety, soil residual activity, operator safety, application timing, and cost-effectiveness. However, glyphosate is only effective in fall when plants are actively transporting nutrients to the root zone, and multiple retreatments are usually needed. Other herbicides registered for aquatic use can be very effective in controlling Arundo at other times of the year. 337 Arundo donax Biofuel Arundo donax is strong candidate for use as a renewable biofuel source because of its fast growth rate, ability to grow in different soil types and climatic conditions. A. donax will produce an average of three kilograms of biomass per square metre (25 tons per acre) once established.[24] The energy density of the biomass produced is 17 MJ/Kg regardless of fertilizer usage. Studies in the European Union have identified A. donax as the most productive and lowest impact of all energy biomass crops (see FAIR REPORT E.U. 2004). Arundo donax's ability to grow for 20 to 25 years without replanting is also significant. In the UK it is considered suitable for planting in and around water areas [25] Chemicals Studies have found this plant to be rich in active tryptamine compounds, but there are more indications of the plants in India having these compounds than in the United States.[26] Toxins such as bufotenidine[27] and gramine have also been found. The dried rhizome with the stem removed has been found to contain 0.0057% DMT, 0.026% bufotenine, 0.0023% 5-MeO-MMT. The flowers are also known to have DMT and the 5-methoxylated N-demethylated analogue, also 5-MeO-NMT. The quite toxic quaternary methylated salt of DMT, bufotenidine, has been found in the flowers, and the cyclic dehydrobufotenidine has been found in the roots.[citation needed] A. donax is also known to release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mainly isoprene.[28] Ethnobotany Arundo donax has been cultivated throughout Asia, southern Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East for thousands of years. Ancient Egyptians wrapped their dead in the leaves. The canes contain silica, perhaps the reason for their durability, and have been used to make fishing rods, and walking sticks.[citation needed] The stem material is both strong and flexible. It is the principal source material of reeds for woodwind instruments such as the oboe, bassoon, clarinet, and saxophone. It is also often used for the chanter and drone reeds of many different forms of bagpipes. Giant reed has been used to make flutes for over 5,000 years. The pan pipes consist of ten or more reed pipes. Its stiff stems are also used as support for climbing plants or for vines.[citation needed] This plant may have been used in combination with Harmal (Peganum harmala) to create a brew similar to the South American ayahuasca, and may trace its roots to the Soma of lore.[29] Construction Mature reeds are used in construction as raw material given their excellent properties and tubular shape. Its resemblance to bamboo permits their combination in buildings, though Arundo is more flexible. In rural regions of Spain, for centuries there has existed a technique named cañizo, consisting of rectangles of approximately 2 by 1 meters of weaved reeds to which clay or plaster could be added. A properly insulated "cañizo" in a roof could keep its mechanical properties for over 60 years. Its high silicon content allows the cane to keep its qualities through time. Its low weight, flexibility, good adherence of the "cañizo" fabric and low price of the raw material have been the main reasons that made this technique possible to our days. However, in the last decades the rural migration from countryside to urban centers and the extensive exploitation of land has substituted traditional crops. This has threatened very seriously its continuity. Recently, initiatives are being taken to recover the use of this material combining ancient techniques from the Marshes of Southern Iraq Mudhif with new materials. 338 Arundo donax Diverse associations and collectives, such as CanyaViva, are pioneering in the research in combination with Spanish universities. Woodwind Reeds A. donax is the primary material for most commercial reed makers. The "Var country" in southern France contains the best-known supply of instrument reeds. The cane is rendered into reeds for clarinets, saxophones, oboes, bassoons, bagpipes, and other woodwind instruments. References Notes [1] Dudley, T.L., A.M. Lambert, A. Kirk, and Y. Tamagawa. 2008. Herbivores of Arundo donax in California. Pages 146-152 in Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. [2] http:/ / ucce. ucdavis. edu/ datastore/ detailreport. cfm?usernumber=8& surveynumber=182 University of California website, Agriculture and Natural Resources [3] (Johnson et al. 2006) [4] Spencer, D.F., Ksander, G.G., 2006. Estimate Arundo donax ramet recruitment using degree-day based equation. Aquat. Bot. 85, 282–288. [5] Rossa B, TuAers AV, Naidoo G, von Willert DJ. 1998. Arundo donax L. (Poaceae)—a C3 species with unusually high photosynthetic capacity. Botanica Acta. 111:216–21. [6] Saltonstall, K., Lambert, A., Meyerson, L.A., 2010. Genetics and reproduction of common (Phragmites australis) and giant reed (Arundo donax). Invasive Plant Sci. Manag. 3, 495-505. [7] Mariani C., R. Cabrini, A. Danin, P. Piffanelli, A. Fricano, S. Gomarasca, M. Dicandilo, F. Grassi and C. Soave. 2010 Origin, diffusion and reproduction of the giant reed (Arundo donax L.) a promising weedy energy crop. Annals of Applied Biology. 157: 191–202. [8] Bhanwra R.K., Choda S.P., Kumar S. 1982. Comparative embryology of some grasses. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 48, 152–162. [9] Ahmad R., Liow P.S., Spencer D.F., Jasieniuk M. 2008. Molecular evidence for a single genetic clone of invasive Arundo donax in the United States. Aquatic Botany. 88: 113–120. [10] Guo, Z.H., and Miao, X.F., 2010. Growth changes and tissues anatomical characteristics of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) in soil contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and lead. J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 17:770−777. [11] Mirza, N., Mahmood, Q., Pervez, A., Ahmad, R., Farooq, R., Shah, M.M., Azim, M.R. 2010. Phytoremediation potential of Arundo donax in arsenic-contaminated synthetic wastewater. Bioresour Technol. 101:5815-9. [12] Albaladejo, J., and E. Dı´az. 1990. Degradation and regeneration of the soil in a Mediterranean Spanish coast line: Trials in Lucdeme project (Degradacion y regeneracion del suelo en el. littoral mediterraneo espanol: experiencias en el proyecto Lucdeme). In Soil degradation and rehabilitation in Mediterranean environmental conditions, ed. J. Albaladejo et al., 191–214. Madrid: CSIC. [13] Riffaldi, R., Saviozzi, A., Cardelli, A., Bulleri, F., and Angelini, L. 2010. Comparison of Soil Organic-Matter Characteristics under the Energy Crop Giant Reed, Cropping Sequence and Natural Grass. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41:173–180. [14] Lambert, A.M., Dudley, T.L., Saltonstall, K., 2010. Ecology and impacts of the large-statured invasive grasses Arundo donax and Phragmites australis in North America. Invasive Plant Sci. Manag. 3, 489-494. [15] Coffman, G., Ambrose, R., Rundel, P., 2010. Wildfire promotes dominance of invasive giant reed (Arundo donax) in riparian ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 12, 2723-2734. [16] Lewandowski I, Scurlock JMO, Lindvall E, Christou M. 2003. The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe. Biomass and Bioenergy. 25:335–61. [17] Sanderson K. 2006. US biofuels: A field in ferment. Nature 444: 673-676. [18] Heaton, E., Voigt, T., and Long, S.P. 2004. A quantitative review comparing the yields of two candidate C4 perennial biomass crops in relation to nitrogen, temperature and water. Biomass and Bioenergy. 27:21–30. [19] Perdue RE (1958). Arundo donax – source of musical reeds and industrial cellulose. Economic Botany 12: 368-404. [20] Facchini 1941 La canna gentile per la produzione della cellulosa nobile. L’impresa agricolo-industriale di Torviscosa [21] Christou M, Mardikis M, Alexopoulou E. 2000. Propagation material and plant density effects on the Arundo donax yields. In: Biomass for energy and industry: proceeding of the First World Conference, Sevilla, Spain, June 5–9, 2000. p. 1622–8. [22] Cosentino et al. 2006 First results on evaluation of Arundo donax (L.) clones collected in Southern Italy [23] Spencer, D.F., Tan,W., Liow,P., Ksander,G., Whitehand,L.C., Weaver,S., Olson,J., Newhauser, M.,2008.Evaluation of glyphosate for managing giant reed (Arundo donax). InvasivePlantSci.Manage.1,248–254. [24] Angelini, L.G., Ceccarinia, L., and Bonarib E.; European Journal of Agronomy, 22, 2005, pp 375-389 [25] BS 7370-5 Recommendations for maintenance of water areas [26] Erowid Arundo Donax Info Page 1 (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ arundo_donax/ arundo_donax_info1. shtml) [27] Erowid Arundo Donax Info Page 3 (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ arundo_donax/ arundo_donax_info3. shtml#plentiful) 339 Arundo donax [28] Owen, S.M., Boissard, C., and Hewitt, C. N. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2001, pp 5393–5409 [29] S. Ghosal, S. K. Dutta, A. K. Sanyal, and Bhattacharya, "Arundo donex L. (Graminae), Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation," in the Journal of Medical Chemistry, vol. 12 (1969), p. 480.] General references 1. Alden, P., F. Heath, A. Leventer, R. Keen, W. B. Zomfler, eds. 1998. National Audubon Society Field Guide to California. Knopf, New York. 2. Bell, G. P. 1997. Ecology and Management of Arundo donax, and approaches to riparian habitat restoration in southern California. In Plant Invasions: Studies from North America and Europe, eds. J. H. Brock, M. Wade, P. Pysêk, and D. Green. pp. 103–113. Backhuys, Leiden, the Netherlands. 3. Boose, A. B., and J. S. Holt. 1999. Environmental effects on asexual reproduction in Arundo donax. Weeds Research 39: 117-127. 4. Dudley, T. L. 2000. Noxious wildland weeds of California: Arundo donax. In: Invasive plants of California's wildlands. C. Bossard, J. Randall, & M. Hoshovsky (eds.). 5. Herrera, A., and T. L. Dudley. 2003. Invertebrate community reduction in response to Arundo donax invasion at Sonoma Creek. Biol.Invas 5:167-177. 6. Mackenzie, A. 2004. Giant Reed. In: The Weed Workers' Handbook. C. Harrington and A. Hayes (eds.) 7. Miles, D. H., K. Tunsuwan, V. Chittawong, U. Kokpol, M. I. Choudhary, and J. Clardy. 1993. Boll weevil antifeedants from Arundo donax. Phytochemistry 34: 1277-1279. 8. Perdue, R. E. 1958. Arundo donax – source of musical reeds and industrial cellulose. Economic Botany 12: 368-404. 9. Scott, G. 1994. Fire threat from Arundo donax. pp. 17–18 in: November 1993 Arundo donax workshop proceedings, Jackson, N.E. P. Frandsen, S. Douthit (eds.). Ontario, CA. 10. Tu, M., C. Hurd, and J. M. Randall. 2001. Weed Control Methods Handbook: Tools and Techniques for Use in Natural Areas. The Nature Conservancy. 11. Excerpted from Chapter 15 of TIHKAL, 1997 External links • Project on influence of Arundo donax in California ( 3qt3s5c4;jsessionid=6F9E9228E946562F1F8DFF953EC7D278#page-6) • Arundo as an invasive species in California ( • Arundo donax Info (USDA Forest Service) ( all.html) • The Power in Plants: Biofuels and the Giant Cane Debate (UNC News21: Powering A Nation) (http://news21. • More info on Giant Reed from the Center for Invasive Species Research ( giant_reed_arundo.html) • Species Profile- Giant Reed (Arundo donax) (, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Giant Reed. • Construction of structures with Arundo ( 340 Phalaris aquatica 341 Phalaris aquatica Phalaris aquatica Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Genus: Phalaris Species: P. aquatica Binomial name Phalaris aquatica L. Phalaris aquatica (syn. P. tuberosa) known by the common names bulbous canarygrass and Harding grass, is a species of grass in the genus Phalaris of the Poaceae Family. Description It is an erect, waist-high, stout perennial bunch grass with grayish to bluish green leaves. Flowering heads are dense, spike-like, and usually two to five inches long. It is slow to develop from seed, but can form large bunches after several years.[1] Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) differs from Harding grass in having more distinct rhizomes and an inflorescence that is compact at first but later becomes more open as the branches spread. Hybrids of Harding grass and reed canary grass have been produced. Varieties include 'AQ1', 'Uneta', and 'Australis'. Phalaris aquatica 342 Toxicity Some Phalaris species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep. Leaves and seedlings contain the tryptamine hallucinogens DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds.[2] A raw, dried plant Phalaris aquatica contains approximately 0.1% DMT, 0.022% 5-MeO-DMT, and 0.005% bufotenin.[3] A particular strain of P. aquatica from Italy, labeled 'AQ-1', was reported to contain in excess of 1.0% alkaloid concentration.[4] Invasive species Harding grass is an invasive species in grassland, oak woodland, chaparral, and riparian habitats. Native grasses and grassland habitat in California are affected. References [1] (http:/ / ucce. ucdavis. edu/ datastore/ detailreport. cfm?usernumber=67& surveynumber=182) Seeds [2] Tryptamine Carriers FAQ (http:/ / deoxy. org/ trypfaq. htm#phalaris) [3] Phalaris / DMT FAQ (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ phalaris/ phalaris_faq. shtml#6) [4] Phalaris: Some of the many strains of interest. (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ library/ books_online/ ayahuasca_apa/ aya_sec3_part2_phalaris_strains. shtml) External links • Jepson Manual Treatment (,9179,9181) • Erowid Phalaris Vault ( • The genus Phalaris in Ayahuasca ( aya_sec3_part2_phalaris.shtml) Phalaris arundinacea 343 Phalaris arundinacea Phalaris arundinacea Conservation status Secure  (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Genus: Phalaris Species: P. arundinacea Binomial name Phalaris arundinacea L. Phalaris arundinacea 344 Phalaris arundinacea, sometimes known as reed canarygrass, is a tall, perennial bunchgrass that commonly forms extensive single-species stands along the margins of lakes and streams and in wet open areas, with a wide distribution in Europe, Asia, northern Africa and North America.[1] Other common names for the plant include gardener's-garters in English, alpiste roseau in French, rohrglanzgras in German, kusa-yoshi in Japanese, caniço-malhado in Portuguese, and hierba cinta and pasto cinto in Spanish.[2] Description Phalaris arundinacea in garden of Islington college, Nepal. The stems can reach 2 meters in height.[3] The leaf blades are usually green, but may be variegated. The panicles are up to 30 centimeters long. The spikelets are light green, often streaked with darker green or purple.[4] This is a perennial grass which spreads underground by its thick rhizomes. Uses A number of cultivars of P. arundinacea have been selected for use as ornamental plants, including variegated (striped) cultivars – sometimes called ribbon grass – such as 'Castor' and 'Feesey'. The latter has a pink tinge to the leaves.[5] When grown, although drought-tolerant, it likes abundant water and can even be grown as an aquatic plant. Reed canarygrass grows well on poor soils and contaminated industrial sites, and researchers at Teesside University's Contaminated Land & Water Centre have suggested it as the ideal candidate for phytoremediation in improving soil quality and biodiversity at brownfield sites.[citation needed] The grass can also easily be turned into bricks or pellets for burning in biomass power stations. Furthermore it provides fibers which find use in pulp and papermaking processes.[6] P. arundinacea is also planted as a hay crop or for forage. This Species of Phalaris may also be used to extract the common compound Dimethyltryptamine. Although the concentration of the compound is very low in the species, large amounts of the grass can be refined to make the Ayahuasca brew. Ecology In many places, P. arundinacea is an invasive species in wetlands, particularly in disturbed areas. It has been reported as an invasive weed in floodplains, riverside meadows, and other wetland habitat types around the world. When P. arundinacea invades a wetland, it inhibits native vegetation and reduces biological diversity.[7] It alters the entire ecosystem.[8] The grass propagates by seed and rhizome, and once established, is difficult to eradicate.[9] Chemical Properties Some Phalaris species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage and kill animals. Leaves of P. arundinacea contain DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds.[10] Levels of beta-Carbolines[11] and hordenine have also been reported. Phalaris arundinacea References [1] Phalaris arundinacea. (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?27512) Germplasm Resources Information Network. [2] Phalaris arundinacea. (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ plantguide/ pdf/ pg_phar3. pdf) USDA NRCS Plant Guide. [3] Waggy, Melissa, A. 2010. Phalaris arundinacea (http:/ / www. fs. fed. us/ database/ feis/ plants/ graminoid/ phaaru/ all. html). In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. [4] Phalaris arundinacea. (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=200025869) Flora of China. [5] Phalaris arundinacea var. picta 'Feesey'. (http:/ / www. missouribotanicalgarden. org/ gardens-gardening/ your-garden/ plant-finder/ plant-details/ kc/ t250/ phalaris-arundinacea-var. -picta-feesey. aspx) [6] Andersson, B. and E. Lindvall. Use of biomass from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) as raw material for production of paper pulp and fuel. (http:/ / www. internationalgrasslands. org/ files/ igc/ publications/ 1997/ 1-03-003. pdf) [7] Kim, K. D., et al. (2006). Controlling Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) with live willow stakes: A density-dependent response. (http:/ / depts. washington. edu/ waipc/ docs/ Phalaris arundinacea. pdf) Ecological Engineering 26 219-27. [8] Lavergne, S. and J. Molofsky. (2004). Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) as a biological model in the study of plant invasions. (http:/ / php53test. uvm. edu/ ~plantbio/ molofsky. ReedCanaryGrass. pdf) Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23(5) 415-29. [9] Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=aEzkrNYyI-4C& pg=PA395& dq="Reed+ canary+ grass"+ invasive& hl=en& ei=_a_STdbKJ8Xn0QGEsdiEDA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8& ved=0CHgQ6AEwBw#v=onepage& q="Reed canary grass" invasive& f=false) By Darold P. Batzer, Rebecca R. Sharitz [10] Tryptamine Carriers FAQ (http:/ / deoxy. org/ trypfaq. htm#67) [11] G. C. Marten, R. M. Jordan and A. W. Hovin; 1976; Biological Significance of Reed Canarygrass Alkaloids and Associated Palatability Variation to Grazing Sheep and Cattle; Agronomy Journal Vol. 68 No. 6, p. 909-914; (https:/ / www. agronomy. org/ publications/ aj/ abstracts/ 68/ 6/ AJ0680060909) External links • Flora Europaea: Phalaris arundinacea ( feout?FAMILY_XREF=&GENUS_XREF=Phalaris+&SPECIES_XREF=arundinacea& TAXON_NAME_XREF=&RANK=) • USDA Plants Database: Phalaris arundinacea ( • Jepson Manual Treatment - taxonomy and distribution within California (,9179,9182) 345 Phalaris brachystachys 346 Phalaris brachystachys Shortspike canarygrass Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Genus: Phalaris Species: P. brachystachys Binomial name Phalaris brachystachys Link Originally from the mediterranean region, Phalaris brachystachys is an annual grass with growth habits and cultural requirements similar to Phalaris aquatica. It grows most actively during the spring and fall, while resting during the heat of midsummer and the short cool days of winter. It also must be protected from heavy freezes. Some Phalaris species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep. While at least one strain showed an extremely strong occurrence of N,N-DMT as the sole alkaloid, other strains indicated the presence of 5-MeO-DMT as well. Strongly positive human bioassays have been reported using some clones.[1] Phalaris brachystachys References [1] Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ library/ books_online/ ayahuasca_apa/ aya_sec3_part2_phalaris_strains. shtml) External links • "Phalaris brachystachys" ( search_value=41339). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. • USDA U.S. Range Maps ( • Erowid Phalaris Vault ( • The genus Phalaris (Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs: assembled by Keeper of the Trout) (http://www. 347 Phragmites 348 Phragmites Phragmites Phragmites australis seed head in winter Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Arundinoideae Tribe: Arundineae Genus: Phragmites Species: P. australis Binomial name Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Phragmites, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. Phragmites australis is sometimes regarded as the sole species of the genus Phragmites, though some botanists divide Phragmites australis into three or four species. In particular the South Asian Khagra Reed – Phragmites karka – is often treated as a distinct species. Phragmites Taxonomy The generally accepted botanical name of common reed is Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.. Dozens of other synonyms have been proposed,[1] a few of which have been widely used. A few of the more important: • Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.., Nomencl. Bot., 2nd ed, 2:324. 1841. • Phragmites communis Trin., Fund. Agrost. 134. 1820. [illegitimate name] • Arundo phragmites L., Sp. Pl. 1: 81. 1753. • Phragmites vulgaris (Lam.) Crep, Fl. Belgique, 2nd ed., 345. 1866 [illegitimate name] Subspecies Recent studies have characterised morphological distinctions Three Phragmites australis seedlings: A.) very young, B.) between the introduced and native stands of Phragmites in juvenile, C.) the oldest (3-4 months). Roman numerals denote North America. The Eurasian phenotype can be different shoot generations. Sc = scutellum. distinguished from the North American phenotype by its (From Om Skudbygning, Overvintring og Foryngelse by Eugen Warming, 1884) shorter ligules of up to 0.9 millimetres (0.04 in) as opposed to over 1.0 millimetre (0.04 in), shorter glumes of under 3.2 millimetres (0.13 in) against over 3.2 millimetres (0.13 in) (although there is some overlap in this character), and in culm characteristics.[citation needed] • Phragmites australis subsp. americanus - Recently, the North American genotype has been described as a distinct subspecies, subsp. americanus,[2] and • Phragmites australis subsp. australis - the Eurasian variety is referred to as subsp. australis. Native and introduced species In North America, the status of Phragmites australis was a source of confusion and debate. It was commonly considered an exotic species and often invasive species, introduced from Europe. However, there is evidence of the existence of Phragmites as a native plant in North America long before European colonization of the continent [citation needed] . It is now known that the North American native forms of P. a. subsp. americanus are markedly less vigorous than European forms. The recent marked expansion of Phragmites in North America may be due to the more vigorous, but similar-looking European subsp. australis. Phragmites australis subsp. australis is causing serious problems for many other North American hydrophyte wetland plants, including the native Phragmites australis subsp. americanus. Gallic acid released by Phragmites is degraded by ultraviolet light to produce mesoxalic acid, effectively hitting susceptible plants and seedlings with two harmful toxins.[3][4] Phragmites are so difficult to control that one of the most effective methods of eradicating the plant is to burn it over 2-3 seasons. The roots grow so deep and strong that one burn is not enough.[5] 349 Phragmites 350 Growth and habitat Phragmites australis, common reed, commonly forms extensive stands (known as reed beds), which may be as much as 1 square kilometre (0.39 sq mi) or more in extent. Where conditions are suitable it can spread at 5 metres (16 ft) or more per year by horizontal runners, which put down roots at regular intervals. It can grow in damp ground, in standing water up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) or so deep, or even as a floating mat. The erect stems grow to 2–6 metres (6 ft 7 in–19 ft 8 in) tall, with the tallest plants growing in areas with hot summers and fertile growing conditions. The leaves are long for a grass, 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in) and 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) broad. The flowers are produced in late summer in a dense, dark purple panicle, about 20–50 cm long. Later the numerous long, narrow, sharp pointed spikelets appear greyer due to the growth of long, silky hairs. It is a halophyte, especially common in alkaline habitats, and it also tolerates brackish water, and so is often found at the upper edges of estuaries and on other wetlands (such as grazing marsh) which are occasionally inundated by the sea. Common reed is suppressed where it is grazed regularly by livestock. Under these conditions it either grows as small shoots within the grassland sward, or it disappears altogether. In Europe, common reed is rarely invasive, except in damp grasslands where traditional grazing has been abandoned. A previously sandy beach 'invaded' by Phragmites australis reeds. Wildlife in reed beds Common reed is very important (together with other reed-like plants) for wildlife and conservation, particularly in Europe and Asia, where several species of birds are strongly tied to large Phragmites stands. These include: • Bearded Reedling (Panurus biarmicus) • Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) • Great Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) Uses Cultivation P. australis is cultivated as an ornamental plant in aquatic and marginal settings such as pond- and lakesides. Its aggressive colonisation means it must be sited with care. Phytoremediation water treatment Phragmites australis is one of the main wetland plant species usavatories and greywater from kitchens is routed to an underground septic tank-like compartment where the solid waste is allowed to settle out. The water then trickles through a constructed wetland or artificial reed bed, where bioremediation bacterial action on the surface of roots and leaf litter removes some of the nutrients in biotransformation. The water is then suitable for irrigation, groundwater recharge, or release to natural watercourses. Phragmites 351 Thatching Reed is used in many areas for thatching roofs. In the British Isles, common reed used for this purpose is known as Norfolk reed or water reed. However "wheat reed" and "Devon reed", also used for thatching, are not in fact reed, but long-stemmed wheat straw. Music no music Food Numerous parts of Phragmites can be prepared for consumption. For example, the young stems "while still green and fleshy, can be dried and pounded into a fine powder, which when moistened is roasted [sic] like marshmallows." Also, the wheat-like seeds on the apex of the stems "can be ground into flour or made into gruel." Rootstocks are used similarly.[6] Other uses Some other uses for Phragmites australis and other reeds in various cultures include baskets, mats, pen tips, and a rough form of paper.[7] Additionally, the reeds are used as nesting tubes by individuals keeping solitary bees such as mason bees. In the Philippines, Phragmites is known by the local name "tambo". Reed stands flower in December, and the blooms are harvested and bundled into brooms called "walis". Hence the common name of household brooms is "walis tambo". In Australian Aboriginal cultures, reeds were used to make weapons like spears for hunting game.[8] In Romania it is used to produce paper Legend and literature When Midas had his ears transformed into donkey's ears, he concealed the fact and his barber was sworn to secrecy. However the barber could not contain himself and rather than confiding in another human, he spoke the secret into a hole in the ground. The reeds that grew in that place then repeated the secret in whispers. Moses was "drawn out of the water where his mother had placed him in a reed basket to save him from the death that had been decreed by the Pharaoh against the firstborn of all of the children of Israel in Egypt" (Exodus 2:10).[9] However, the plant concerned may have been another reed-like plant, such as papyrus, which is still used for making boats. One reference to reeds in European literature is Frenchman Blaise Pascal's saying that Man is but a 'thinking reed' — roseau pensant. In Jean de La Fontaine's famous fable The Oak and the Reed — Le chêne et le roseau, the reed tells the proud oak: "I bend, and break not" —"Je plie, et ne romps pas", "before the tree's fall." Reed stems in flower, in France Reed growth in early summer Roadside reed left from previous year, in Hungary Reed stems in autumn, in Virginia Phragmites Common reed in winter, Sudbury, MA, USA 352 Phragmites in Juybar, Iran Phragmites in Amsterdam, Netherlands References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / eol. org/ pages/ 1114576/ names/ synonyms Saltonstall, Peterson, and Soreng issg Database: Ecology of Phragmites australis (http:/ / www. issg. org/ database/ species/ ecology. asp?si=301& fr=1& sts=) Changing Climate May Make 'Super Weed' Even More Powerful (http:/ / newswise. com/ articles/ view/ 553035/ ) Newswise, Retrieved on June 4, 2009. [5] Stop Invasive Species - Phragmites (http:/ / stopinvasivespecies. com/ phragmites/ phragmites-p) [6] Peterson, Lee, "A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America",page 228, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York City,accessed the sixth of September, 2010. ISBN 0-395-20445-3 [7] Phragmite (http:/ / www. marbleheadconservancy. org/ invasives/ phragmite. htm) [8] Unaipon, D. (2001) Legendary Tales of the Australian Aborigines, p. 138, The Miegunyah Press, Melbourne. ISBN 0-522-85246-7. [9] (http:/ / cc. usu. edu/ ~fath6/ Moses. htm) External links • The Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative ( • Online Field guide to Common Saltmarsh Plants of Queensland ( qld_saltmarsh_plants/herbarium/grasses-rushes-and-sedge-plants/common-reed) • Invading ( Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters • Species Profile- Common Reed (Phragmites australis) ( commonreed.shtml), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Common Reed. • Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America (http:// (pdf file) • Phragmites australis swamp and reed beds. On the MarLIN website. ( Bio_BasicInfo_IMU.NVC_S4.htm) • Brandweiner O. et al., Phragmites australis as Alternative Fuel for Clinker Production, DeopTech 2006, Leoben, Austria ( cmd2=TOPVIEW5839&keyword=) • Phragmites australis ( REED GRASS.pdf) Photos, drawings, description from Nature Manitoba Polygonaceae Polygonaceae WARNING: Article could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) a bug in the pdf-writer software (b) problematic Mediawiki markup (c) table is too wide Polygonaceae Polygonum persicariaBiological classificationScientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Core eudicots Order: Caryophyllales Family: PolygonaceaeAntoine Laurent de JussieuJuss. Subfamilies Polygonoideae Eriogonoideae The Polygonaceae are a Family (biology)family of flowering plants known Common nameinformally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States. The Botanical namename is Basionymbased on the genus Polygonum, and was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum.Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. 1789. Genera plantarum: secundum ordines naturales disposita, juxta methodum in Horto regio parisiensi exaratam. page 82. Herrisant and Barrois: Paris, France. (see External links below) The name refers to the many swollen Node (botany)nodes the stems of some species have. It is Etymologyderived from Greek languageGreek; poly means many and goni means knee or joint.The Polygonaceae comprise about 1200 speciesDavid J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4 distributed into about 50 genera. The largest genera are Eriogonum (240 species), Rumex (200 species), Coccoloba (120 species), Persicaria (100 species) and Calligonum (80 species).Craig C. Freeman and James L. Reveal. 2005. "Polygonaceae" pages 216-601. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (editors). Flora of North America vol. 5. Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-522211-1 (see External links below)John Brandbyge. 1993. "Polygonaceae". pages 531-544. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor); Jens G. Rohwer, and Volker Bittrich (volume editors). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume II. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany ISBN 978-3-540-55509-4 (Berlin) ISBN 978-0-387-55509-6 (New York) The family is present worldwide, but is most Biodiversitydiverse in the North Temperate Zone.Several species are Horticulturecultivated as Ornamental plantornamentals.Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set). A few species of Triplaris provide lumber. The fruit of the sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera) is eaten, and in Florida, Fruit preservesjelly is made from it and sold Commercecommercially.George W. Staples and Derral R. Herbst "A Tropical Garden Flora" Bishop Museum Press: Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. (2005) The seeds of two species of Fagopyrum, known as buckwheat (sarrasin in French), provide Food graingrain (its dark flour is known as blé noir (black wheat) in France). The Petiole (botany)petioles of rhubarb (Rheum (genus)Rheum rhabarbarum and hybrids) are a food item. The leaves of the common sorrel (Rumex acetosa) are eaten in salads or as a potherb.Vernon H. Heywood, Richard K. Brummitt, Ole Seberg, and Alastair Culham. Flowering Plant Families of the World. Firefly Books: Ontario, Canada. (2007). ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4.Polygonaceae contain some of the worst Ruderal speciesweeds, including species of Persicaria, Emex, Rumex, and Polygonum, such as Japanese knotweed.Taxonomy Polygonaceae are very well-defined and have long been universally recognized. In the APG III system, the family is placed in the Order (biology)order Caryophyllales. Within the order, it lies outside of the large clade known as the core Caryophyllales.Samuel F. Brockington, Roolse Alexandre, Jeremy Ramdial, Michael J. Moore, Sunny Crawley, Amit Dhingra, Khidir Hilu, Douglas E. Soltis, and Pamela S. Soltis. 2009. "Phylogeny of the Caryophyllales sensu lato: Revisiting hypotheses on pollination biology and perianth differentiation in the core Caryophyllales". International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(5):627–643. It is sister taxonsister to the family Plumbaginaceae, which it does not resemble Plant morphologymorphologically.Peter F. Stevens. 2001 onwards. 353 Polygonaceae Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links below).Polygonum plebeium or small knotweedThe last comprehensive revision of the family was published in 1993 by John Brandbyge as part of Kubitzki systemThe Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Brandbyge followed List of systems of plant taxonomyearlier systems of History of plant systematicsplant classification in dividing Polygonaceae into two subfamilies, Eriogonoideae and Polygonoideae. Since 1993, the Circumscription (taxonomy)circumscriptions of these two subfamilies have been changed in light of phylogenetic Researchstudies of DNA sequences.Adriana Sanchez, Tanja M. Schuster, and Kathleen A. Kron. 2009. "A large-scale phylogeny of Polygonaceae based on molecular data". International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(8):1044–1055. Genera related to Coccoloba and Triplaris were moved from Polygonoideae to Eriogonoideae. The genus Symmeria does not belong to either of these subfamilies because it is sister to the rest of the family.Janelle M. Burke, Adriana Sanchez, Kathleen Kron, and Melissa Luckow. 2010. "Placing the woody tropical genera of Polygonaceae: A hypothesis of character evolution and phylogeny". American Journal of Botany 97(8):1377–1390. Afrobrunnichia might constitute a new subfamily as well.Adriana Sanchez and Kathleen A. Kron. 2009. "Phylogenetic relationships of Afrobrunnichia Hutch. & Dalziel (Polygonaceae) based on three chloroplast genes and ITS". Taxon 58(3):781-792.Brandbyge wrote descriptions for 43 genera of Polygonaceae in 1993. Since then, a few more genera have been erected, and some Segregate (taxonomy)segregates of Brunnichia, Eriogonum, and Persicaria have been given generic Taxonomic rankstatus in major works.Anjen Li, Bojian Bao, Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina, Suk-pyo Hong, John McNeill, Sergei L. Mosyakin, Hideaki Ohba, and Chong-wook Park. 2003. "Polygonaceae" pages 277-350. In: Zhengyi Wu, Peter H. Raven, and Deyuan Hong (editors). Flora of China volume 5. Science Press: Beijing, China; Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Some of the genera are not monophyletic and their limits will eventually be revised. These include Ruprechtia, Eriogonum, Chorizanthe, Persicaria, Aconogonon, Polygonum, Fallopia, and Muehlenbeckia.Description Ochrea of Persicaria maculosaMost Polygonaceae are Perennial plantperennial Herbaceous plantherbaceous plants with swollen Glossary of botanical terms#Nnodes, but trees, shrubs and vines are also present. The leaves of Polygonaceae are Leaf#Divisions of the bladesimple, and arranged Phyllotaxisalternately on the Plant stemstems. Each leaf has a peculiar pair of fused, sheathing stipules known as an ochrea. Those species that do not have the nodal ocrea can be identified by their possession of Involucral bractinvolucrate Head (botany)flower heads. The flowers are normally Plant sexuality#Terminologybisexual, small, and Floral symmetryactinomorphic, with a perianth of three to six sepals. After Anthesisflowering, the sepals often become thickened and enlarged around the developing fruit. Flowers lack a Glossary of botanical terms#Ccorolla and in some, the sepals are petal-like and colorful. The androecium is composed of three to eight stamens that are normally free or Connationunited at the base. The Ovary (plants)ovary consists of three united carpels that form a single locule, which produces only one ovule. The ovary is superior ovarysuperior with basal or free-central Placentation#Placentation in plantsplacentation. The gynoecium terminates in 1 to 3 style (botany)styles, each of which ends in a single Stigma (botany)stigma.Samuel B. Jones and Arlene E. Luchsinger. 1979. Plant systematics. McGraw-Hill series in organismic biology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Page 254. ISBN 0-07-032795-5Walter S. Judd, Christopher S. Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Peter F. Stevens, and Michael J. Donoghue. 2008. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Third Edition. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2Armen L. Takhtajan (Takhtadzhian). Flowering Plants second edition (2009), pages 155-156. Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-9608-2. (see External links below)Persicaria capitata or pink knotweedGenera Lists of genera of Polygonaceae can be found on the internet.List of Genera in Polygonaceae. At: Polygonaceae. At: Peter F. Stevens. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links below).List of Genera in Polygonaceae. At: Vascular Plant Families and Genera. At: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. At: Electronic Plant Information Center. At: Website of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (see External Links below).List of genera in Polygonaceae. In: Polygonaceae. In: List of families. In: "Families and genera in GRIN. (see External links below) In the list below, the first three columns are the 43 genera described by Brandbyge in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. The fourth column is an incomplete list of genera that have been recognized in recent 354 Polygonaceae 355 works.AntigononGoodmaniaPersicariaAcanthoscyphusAristocapsaGymnopodiumPodopterusAconogononAtraphaxisHarfordiaPolygo (genus)RheumParapteropyrumDedeckeraMuehlenbeckiaRumexPteroxygonumDodecahemaNemacaulisRuprechtiaRubrivenaEmexNe The following phylogenetic tree is based on two Academic publishing#Scholarly paperpapers on the molecular phylogenetics of Polygonaceae.PolygonaceaeSymmeriaAfrobrunnichia  EriogonoideaeBrunnichiaAntigononNeomillspaughiaCoccolobaPodopterusLe (genus)RheumEmexRumexKnorringiaAtraphaxisPolygonellaPolygonumReynoutriaFallopiaMuehlenbeckiaReferences External links Polygonaceae In: FNA volume 5 In: Family List In: Flora of North America At: eFloras Polygonaceae In: Genera Plantarum (Jussieu) At: Genera Plantarum At: Search At: List of Genera in Polygonaceae At: Polygonaceae At: Caryophyllales At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missoure Botanical Garden Website List of genera in family Polygonaceae At: Dicotyledons At: List Genera within a Family At: Vascular Plant Families and Genera At: About the Checklist At: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families At: Data Sources At: ePIC At: Scientific Databases At: Kew Gardens List of genera At: Polygonaceae At: List of families At: Families and Genera in GRIN At: Queries At: GRIN taxonomy for plants non-core Caryophyllales At: Caryophyllales At: Root of the Tree (Life on Earth) At: Tree of Life web project Polygonaceae In: Flowering Plants (Takhtajan) Polygonaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. Family Polygonaceae Flowers in Israel Polygonaceae of Mongolia in FloraGREIF Punica 356 Punica Punica Punica granatum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Myrtales Family: Lythraceae Subfamily: Punicoideae (Horan.) Graham, Thorne & Reveal Genus: Punica L. Species See text. Synonyms Socotria G.M.Levin Punica is a small genus of fruit-bearing deciduous shrubs or small trees. Its best known species is the pomegranate (Punica granatum). The only other species in the genus, the Socotra pomegranate (Punica protopunica), is endemic to the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit. Although previously placed in its own family Punicaceae, recent phylogenetic studies have shown that Punica belongs in the family Lythraceae, and it is classified in that family by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. The name is derived from the Latin word for the pomegranate, malum punicum, meaning "Carthaginian apple". Punica 357 Species • Punica granatum L. • Punica protopunica Balf. Flowers of P. granatum This is not fruit of P. protopunica but of P. granatum References • Graham, S. A., Thorne & Reveal (May 1998). "Validation of subfamily names in Lythraceae". Taxon (Taxon, Vol. 47, No. 2) 47 (2): 435–436. doi: 10.2307/1223775 ( JSTOR  1223775 ( • Graham S. A., Hall J., Sytsma K., Shi S. (2005). "Phylogenetic analysis of the Lythraceae based on four gene regions and morphology". Int. J. Pl. Sci 166 (6): 995–1017. doi: 10.1086/432631 ( 432631). • Little S. A., Stockey R. A., and Keating, R. C. (2004). "Duabanga-like leaves from the Middle Eocene Princeton chert and comparative leaf histology of Lythraceae sensu lato". American Journal of Botany 91 (7): 1126–1139. doi: 10.3732/ajb.91.7.1126 ( PMID  21653468 (http://www.ncbi. Pomegranate 358 Pomegranate Pomegranate Punica granatum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Myrtales Family: Lythraceae Genus: Punica Species: P. granatum Binomial name Punica granatum L. Synonyms Punica malus Linnaeus, 1758 Pomegranate 359 The pomegranate /ˈpɒmɨɡrænɨt/, botanical name Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between 5–8 meters (16–26 ft) tall. The pomegranate is widely considered to have originated in Iran and has been cultivated since ancient times.[1][2][3] Today, it is widely cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, the Middle East and Caucasus region, northern Africa and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and the drier parts of southeast Asia. Introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769, pomegranate is also cultivated in parts of California and Arizona. In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to February. In the Southern Hemisphere, the pomegranate is in season from March to May. Young pomegranate trees The pomegranate has been mentioned in many ancient texts, notably in Babylonian texts, the Book of Exodus, the Homeric Hymns and the Quran. In recent years, it has become more common in the commercial markets of North America and the Western Hemisphere. Pomegranates are used in cooking, baking, juices, smoothies and alcoholic beverages, such as martinis and wine. Description The Punica granatum leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3–7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red, 3 cm in diameter, with four to five petals (often more on cultivated plants). Some fruitless varieties are grown for the flowers alone. The edible fruit is a berry and is between a lemon and a grapefruit in size, 5–12 cm in diameter with a rounded hexagonal shape, and has thick reddish skin. The exact number of seeds in a pomegranate can vary from 200 to about 1400 seeds, contrary to some beliefs that all pomegranates have exactly the same number of seeds. Each seed has a surrounding water-laden pulp—the edible sarcotesta that forms from the seed coat—ranging in color from white to deep red or purple. The seeds are embedded in a white, spongy, astringent membrane.[4] Cultivation Punica granatum is grown as a fruit crop plant, and as ornamental trees and shrubs in parks and gardens. Mature specimens can develop sculptural twisted bark multi-trunks and a distinctive overall form. Pomegranates are drought-tolerant, and can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates. In wetter areas, they can be prone to root decay from fungal diseases. They can be tolerant of moderate frost, down to about −12 °C (10 °F).[5] Unripened Pomegranate fruit on a small tree in India Insect pests of the pomegranate can include the pomegranate butterfly Virachola isocrates and the leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus. Pomegranate grows easily from seed, but is commonly Pomegranate 360 propagated from 25–50 cm hardwood cuttings to avoid the genetic variation of seedlings. Air layering is also an option for propagation, but grafting fails. Varieties Punica granatum var. nana is a dwarf variety of P. granatum popularly planted as an ornamental plant in gardens and larger containers, and used as a bonsai specimen tree. It could well be a wild form with a distinct origin. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The only other species in the genus Punica is the Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica), which is endemic to the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit. Scientists at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, India, are in the process of developing disease resistant superior cultivars. Illustration by Otto Wilhelm Thomé, 1885 Cultivars Punica granatum has more than 500 named cultivars, but the pomegranate evidently has considerable synonymy in which the same genotype is named differently across regions of the world. Several characteristics between pomegranate genotypes vary for identification, consumer preference, preferred use, and marketing, the most important of which are fruit size, exocarp color (ranging from yellow to purple, with pink and red most common), seed-coat color (ranging from white to red), hardness of seed, maturity, juice content and its acidity, sweetness, and astringency. Pomegranate blossom before petal fall Etymology and terms for pomegranate in other languages The name pomegranate derives from medieval Latin pōmum "apple" and grānātum "seeded".[6] This has influenced the common name for pomegranate in many languages (e.g. granada in Spanish, Granatapfel or Grenadine in German, grenade in French, granatäpple in Swedish, pomogranà in Venetian). Mālum grānātus, using the classical Latin word for apple, gives rise to the Italian name melograno, or less commonly melagrana. Perhaps stemming from the old French word for the fruit, pomme-grenade, the pomegranate was known in early English as "apple of Grenada"—a term which today survives only in heraldic blazons. This is a folk etymology, confusing Latin granatus with the name of the Spanish city of Granada, which derives from Arabic. An opened pomegranate The genus name Punica refers to the Phoenicians, who were active in broadening its cultivation, partly for religious reasons. Pomegranate 361 Garnet comes from Old French grenat by metathesis, from Medieval Latin granatum, here used in a different meaning: "of a dark red color". This meaning perhaps originated from pomum granatum because of the color of pomegranate pulp, or from granum in the sense of "red dye, cochineal". The French term grenade for pomegranate has given its name to the military grenade.[7] Soldiers commented on the similar shape of early grenades and the name entered common usage. While most European languages have cognate names for the fruit, stemming from Latin granatum, exceptions are the Armenian term nur, Albanian term shega, Bulgarian nar and the Portuguese term romã which is derived from Arabic ruman, and has cognates in other Semitic languages (e.g. Hebrew rimmon) and Ancient Egyptian rmn. Cultural history The pomegranate is native to Persia (modern day Iran). Pomegranates also thrive in the drier climates of California and Arizona, and have been cultivated in Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Russia, Bangladesh and the Mediterranean region for several millennia. Carbonized exocarp of the fruit has been identified in Early Bronze Age levels of Jericho in the West Bank, as well as Late Bronze Age levels of Hala Sultan Tekke on Cyprus and Tiryns.[citation needed] A large, dry pomegranate was found in the tomb of Djehuty, the butler of Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt; Mesopotamian cuneiform records mention pomegranates from the mid-Third millennium BC onwards. Pomegranate sepals and drying stamens after fertilization and petal fall It is also extensively grown in South China and in Southeast Asia, whether originally spread along the route of the Silk Road or brought by sea traders. Kandahar is famous in Afghanistan for its high quality pomegranates. Although not native to Korea or Japan, the pomegranate is widely grown there and many cultivars have been developed. It is widely used for bonsai because of its flowers and for the unusual twisted bark that older specimens can attain. The term "balaustine" (Latin: balaustinus) is also used for a pomegranate-red color. Pomegranate cultivation in Italy is diffused throughout the south, A pomegranate fruit especially in Olevano sul Tusciano and the rest of Campania's area. The ancient city of Granada in Spain was renamed after the fruit during the Moorish period. Spanish colonists later introduced the fruit to the Caribbean and Latin America, but in the English colonies it was less at home: "Don't use the pomegranate inhospitably, a stranger that has come so far to pay his respects to thee," the English Quaker Peter Collinson wrote to the botanizing John Bartram in Philadelphia, 1762. "Plant it against the side of thy house, nail it close to the wall. In this manner it thrives wonderfully with us, and flowers beautifully, and bears fruit this hot year. I have twenty-four on one tree... Doctor Fothergill says, of all trees this is most salutiferous to mankind." The pomegranate had been introduced as an exotic to England the previous century, by John Tradescant the elder, but the disappointment that it did not set fruit there led to its repeated introduction to the American colonies, even New England. It succeeded in the South: Bartram received a barrel of pomegranates and oranges from a correspondent in Charleston, South Carolina, 1764. John Bartram partook of "delitious" pomegranates with Noble Jones at Wormsloe Plantation, near Savannah, Georgia, in September 1765. Thomas Jefferson planted pomegranates at Monticello in 1771: he had them from George Wythe of Williamsburg.[8] Pomegranate 362 Culinary use Pomegranate in cross section After the pomegranate is opened by scoring it with a knife and breaking it open, the seeds are separated from the peel and internal white pulp membranes. Separating the seeds is easier in a bowl of water because the seeds sink and the inedible pulp floats. Freezing the entire fruit also makes it easier to separate. Another very effective way of quickly harvesting the seeds is to cut the pomegranate in half, score each half of the exterior rind four to six times, hold the pomegranate half over a bowl and smack the rind with a large spoon. The seeds should eject from the pomegranate directly into the bowl, leaving only a dozen or more deeply embedded seeds to remove. The entire seed is consumed raw, though the watery, tasty sarcotesta is the desired part. The taste differs depending on the subspecies of pomegranate and its ripeness. The pomegranate juice can be very sweet or sour, but most fruits are moderate in taste, with sour notes from the acidic tannins contained in the juice. Pomegranate juice has long been a popular drink in Armenian, Persian and Indian cuisine, and began to be widely distributed in the United States and Canada in 2002. Grenadine syrup long ago consisted of thickened and sweetened pomegranate juice, but nowadays it is usually a salesname for a syrup based on various berries, citric acid and food coloring, mainly used in cocktail mixing. In Europe, Bols still manufactures grenadine syrup with pomegranate. Before tomatoes (a New World fruit) arrived in the Middle East, pomegranate juice, molasses and vinegar were widely used in many Iranian foods, and are still found in traditional recipes such as fesenjān, a thick sauce made from pomegranate juice and ground walnuts, usually spooned over duck or other poultry and rice, and in ash-e anar (pomegranate soup). A bowl of ash-e anar, a Persian soup made with pomegranate juice Green salad with roast beef, pomegranate vinaigrette, and lemon juice Pomegranate 363 An Indian pomegranate Wild pomegranate seeds are used as a spice known as anardana (from Persian: anar + dana, pomegranate + seed), most notably in Indian and Pakistani cuisine, but also as a substitute for pomegranate syrup in Persian cuisine. Dried whole seeds can often be obtained in ethnic Indian subcontinent markets. These seeds are separated from the flesh, dried for 10–15 days and used as an acidic agent for chutney and curry preparation. Ground anardana is also used, which results in a deeper flavoring in dishes and prevents the seeds from getting stuck in teeth. Seeds of the wild pomegranate variety known as daru from the Himalayas are regarded as quality sources for this spice. Dried pomegranate seed, found in some natural specialty food markets, still contain some residual water, maintaining a natural sweet and tart flavor. Dried seeds can be used in several culinary applications, such as trail mix, granola bars, or as a topping for salad, yogurt, or ice cream. Chocolate covered seeds may be added to desserts and baked items. In the Caucasus, pomegranate is used mainly for juice.[9] In Azerbaijan, a sauce from pomegranate juice (narsharab) is usually served with fish[10] or tika kabab. In Turkey, pomegranate sauce (Turkish: nar ekşisi) is used as a salad dressing, to marinate meat, or simply to drink straight. Pomegranate seeds are also used in salads and sometimes as garnish for desserts such as güllaç. Pomegranate syrup or molasses is used in muhammara, a roasted red pepper, walnut, and garlic spread popular in Syria and Turkey. In Greece, pomegranate (Greek: ρόδι, rodi) is used in many recipes, including kollivozoumi, a creamy broth made from boiled wheat, pomegranates and raisins, legume salad with wheat and pomegranate, traditional Middle Eastern lamb kebabs with pomegranate glaze, pomegranate eggplant relish, and avocado-pomegranate dip. Pomegranate is also made into a liqueur, and as a popular fruit confectionery used as ice cream topping, mixed with yogurt, or spread as jam on toast. In Cyprus and Greece, and among the Greek Orthodox Diaspora, ρόδι (Greek for pomegranate) is used to make koliva, a mixture of wheat, pomegranate seeds, sugar, almonds and other seeds served at memorial services. In Mexico, they are commonly used to adorn the traditional dish chiles en nogada, representing the red of the Mexican flag in the dish which evokes the green (poblano pepper), white (nogada sauce) and red (pomegranate seeds) tricolor. In Ayurvedic medicine In the Indian subcontinent's ancient Ayurveda system of medicine, the pomegranate has extensively been used as a source of traditional remedies. Pomegranate seeds on a plate. The rind of the fruit and the bark of the pomegranate tree is used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery and intestinal parasites. The seeds and juice are considered a tonic for the heart and throat, and classified as having bitter-astringent taste plus a range of taste from sweet to sour, depending on ripeneness. Thus Pomegranate is considered a healthful counterbalance to a diet high in sweet-fatty (kapha or earth) components. Especially when sweet, pomegranate fruit is nourishing for (pitta or fire) systems and is known as a blood builder. The astringent qualities of the flower juice, rind and tree bark are considered valuable for a variety of purposes, such as stopping nose bleeds and gum bleeds, toning skin, (after blending with mustard oil) firming-up sagging breasts, and treating hemorrhoids. Pomegranate juice (of specific fruit strains) is also used as an eyedrop, as it is believed to Pomegranate 364 slow the development of cataracts. Ayurveda differentiates between pomegranate varieties and employs them for different remedies. Pomegranate has been used as a contraceptive and abortifacient by means of consuming the seeds, or rind, as well as by using the rind as a vaginal suppository. This practice is recorded in ancient Indian literature, in medieval sources, and in modern folk medicine. Nutrients and phytochemicals Pomegranates, raw Pomegranate seeds Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 346 kJ (83 kcal) Carbohydrates 18.7 g - Sugars 13.67 g - Dietary fiber 4g Fat 1.17 g Protein 1.67 g Thiamine (vit. B ) 0.067 mg (6%) Riboflavin (vit. B ) 0.053 mg (4%) Niacin (vit. B ) 0.293 mg (2%) 1 2 3 Pantothenic acid (B ) 0.377 mg (8%) Vitamin B 0.075 mg (6%) 5 6 Folate (vit. B ) 38 μg (10%) Choline 7.6 mg (2%) Vitamin C 10.2 mg (12%) Vitamin E 0.6 mg (4%) Vitamin K 16.4 μg (16%) Calcium 10 mg (1%) Iron 0.3 mg (2%) 9 Pomegranate 365 Magnesium 12 mg (3%) Manganese 0.119 mg (6%) Phosphorus 36 mg (5%) Potassium 236 mg (5%) Sodium 3 mg (0%) Zinc 0.35 mg (4%) [11] Link to USDA Database entry Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. [12] Source: USDA Nutrient Database Pomegranate seeds provide 12% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin C and 16% DV for vitamin K per 100 g serving, and contain polyphenols, such as ellagitannins and flavonoids (section below). Pomegranate seeds are excellent sources of dietary fiber which is entirely contained in the edible seeds. People who choose to discard the seeds forfeit nutritional benefits conveyed by the seed fiber and micronutrients.[11] Phenolic content The most abundant polyphenols in pomegranate juice are the hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins formed when ellagic acid binds with a carbohydrate. Pomegranate ellagitannins, also called punicalagins, are tannins with free-radical scavenging properties in laboratory experiments and with potential human effects. Punicalagins are absorbed into the human body and may have dietary value as antioxidants, but conclusive proof of efficacy in humans has not been shown. During intestinal metabolism by bacteria, ellagitannins and punicalagins are converted to urolithins, which have unknown biological activity in vivo. The different punicalagins present in P. granatum are granatin A and B, punicacortein A, B, C and D, 5-O-galloylpunicacortein D, punicafolin, punigluconin, punicalagin, 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin, punicalin and 2-O-galloyl-punicalin.[citation needed] Other phenolics include catechins, gallocatechins, and anthocyanins, such as prodelphinidins, delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin. Many food and dietary supplement makers use pomegranate phenolic extracts as ingredients in their products instead of the juice. One of these extracts is ellagic acid, which may become bioavailable only after parent molecule punicalagins are metabolized. However, ingested ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not accumulate in the blood in significant quantities and is rapidly excreted. Accordingly, ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not appear to be biologically important in vivo. Potential health benefits In preliminary laboratory research and clinical trials, juice of the pomegranate may be effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation. In mice, "oxidation of LDL by peritoneal macrophages was reduced by up to 90% after pomegranate juice consumption...". Making pomegranate juice at a stall in Turkey In a limited study of hypertensive patients, consumption of pomegranate juice for two weeks was shown to reduce systolic blood pressure by inhibiting serum angiotensin-converting enzyme. Juice consumption may also inhibit viral infections while pomegranate extracts have antibacterial effects against dental plaque. Despite limited research data, manufacturers and marketers of pomegranate juice have liberally used evolving research results for product promotion, especially for putative antioxidant health benefits. In February 2010, the Pomegranate FDA issued a Warning Letter to one such manufacturer, POM Wonderful, for using published literature to make illegal claims of unproven antioxidant and anti-disease benefits. Clinical trial rationale and activity Metabolites of pomegranate juice ellagitannins localize specifically in the prostate gland, colon, and intestinal tissues of mice, leading to clinical studies of pomegranate juice or fruit extracts for efficacy against several diseases. In 2013, 44 clinical trials were registered with the National Institutes of Health to examine effects of pomegranate extracts or juice consumption on a variety of human disorders, including: • • • • • • • • • prostate cancer prostatic hyperplasia diabetes lymphoma rhinovirus infection common cold oxidative stress in diabetic hemodialysis atherosclerosis coronary artery disease • • • • • • • • infant brain injury hemodialysis for kidney disease male infertility aging memory pregnancy complications osteoporosis erectile dysfunction One pilot study in adult subjects found that daily consumption of pomegranate juice over two weeks increased salivary testosterone levels by 24% and had other effects on blood pressure, mood, anxiety or emotions. Symbolism Ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptians regarded the pomegranate as a symbol of prosperity and ambition. According to the Ebers Papyrus, one of the oldest medical writings from around 1500 BC, Egyptians used the pomegranate for treatment of tapeworm and other infections. Ancient Greece Although the pomegranate was mentioned in the Ancient Greek history prior to the founding of Ancient Rome, the Greeks were familiar with the fruit far before it was introduced to Ancient Rome via Carthage. In the Ancient Greek mythology, the pomegranate was also known as the "fruit of the dead," and to have sprung from the blood of Adonis. The wild pomegranate did not occur in the Aegean area in Neolithic times. It originated in eastern Iran and came to the Aegean world along the same cultural pathways that brought the goddess whom the Anatolians worshipped as Cybele and the Mesopotamians as Ishtar.[citation needed] The myth of Persephone, the goddess of the Underworld, also prominently features the pomegranate. In one version of Greek mythology, Persephone was kidnapped by Hades and taken off to live in the underworld as his wife. Her mother, Demeter (goddess of the Harvest), went into mourning for her lost daughter and thus all green things ceased to grow. Zeus, the highest ranking of the Greek gods, could not allow the Earth to die, so he commanded Hades to 366 Pomegranate return Persephone. It was the rule of the Fates that anyone who consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there. Persephone had no food, but Hades tricked her into eating six pomegranate seeds while she was still his prisoner and so, because of this, she was condemned to spend six months in the Underworld every year. During these six months, when Persephone is sitting on the throne of the Underworld next to her husband Hades, her mother Demeter mourns and no longer gives fertility to the earth. This became an ancient Greek explanation for the seasons.[12] Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Persephona depicts Persephone holding the fatal fruit. It should be noted that the number of seeds that Persephone ate varies, depending on which version of the story is told. The number of seeds she is said to have eaten ranges from three to seven, which accounts for just one barren season if it is just three or four seeds, or two barren seasons (half the year) if she ate six or seven seeds.[citation needed] The pomegranate also evoked the presence of the Aegean Triple Goddess who evolved into the Olympian Hera, who is sometimes represented offering the pomegranate, as in the Polykleitos' cult image of the Argive Heraion (see below).[citation needed] According to Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, the chambered pomegranate is also a surrogate for the poppy's narcotic capsule, with its comparable shape and chambered interior. On a Mycenaean seal illustrated in Joseph Campbell's Occidental Mythology 1964, figure 19, the seated Goddess of the double-headed axe (the labrys) offers three poppy pods in her right hand and supports her breast with her left. She embodies both aspects of the dual goddess, life-giving and death-dealing at once. The Titan Orion was represented as "marrying" Side, a name that in Boeotia means "pomegranate", thus consecrating the primal hunter to the Goddess. Other Greek dialects call the pomegranate rhoa; its possible connection with the name of the earth goddess Rhea, inexplicable in Greek, proved suggestive for the mythographer Karl Kerenyi, who suggested that the consonance might ultimately derive from a deeper, pre-Indo-European language layer.[citation needed] In the 5th century BC, Polycleitus took ivory and gold to sculpt the seated Argive Hera in her temple. She held a scepter in one hand and offered a pomegranate, like a 'royal orb', in the other. "About the pomegranate I must say nothing," whispered the traveller Pausanias in the 2nd century, "for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery." In the Orion story Hera cast pomegranate-Side (an ancient city in Antalya) into dim Erebus — "for daring to rival Hera's beauty", which forms the probable point of connection with the older Osiris/Isis story.[citation needed] Since the ancient Egyptians identified the Orion constellation in the sky as Sah the "soul of Osiris", the identification of this section of the myth seems relatively complete.Wikipedia:No original research Hera wears, not a wreath nor a tiara nor a diadem, but clearly the calyx of the pomegranate that has become her serrated crown.[citation needed] The pomegranate has a calyx shaped like a crown. In Jewish tradition it has been seen as the original "design" for the proper crown.[13] In some artistic depictions, the pomegranate is found in the hand of Mary, mother of Jesus.[citation needed] A pomegranate is displayed on coins from the ancient city of Side, Pamphylia. Within the Heraion at the mouth of the Sele, near Paestum, Magna Graecia, is a chapel devoted to the Madonna del Granato, "Our Lady of the Pomegranate", "who by virtue of her epithet and the attribute of a pomegranate must be the Christian successor of the ancient Greek goddess Hera", observes the excavator of the Heraion of Samos, Helmut Kyrieleis.[14] 367 Pomegranate In modern times the pomegranate still holds strong symbolic meanings for the Greeks. On important days in the Greek Orthodox calendar, such as the Presentation of the Virgin Mary and on Christmas Day, it is traditional to have at the dinner table "polysporia", also known by their ancient name "panspermia," in some regions of Greece. In ancient times they were offered to Demeter[citation needed] and to the other gods for fertile land, for the spirits of the dead and in honor of compassionate Dionysus.[citation needed] When one buys a new home, it is conventional for a house guest to bring as a first gift a pomegranate, which is placed under/near the ikonostasi (home altar) of the house, as a symbol of abundance, fertility and good luck.[citation needed] Pomegranates are also prominent at Greek weddings and funerals.[citation needed] When Greeks commemorate their dead, they make kollyva as offerings, which consist of boiled wheat, mixed with sugar and decorated with pomegranate.[citation needed] It is also traditional in Greece to break a pomegranate on the ground at weddings and on New Years.[citation needed] Pomegranate decorations for the home are very common in Greece and sold in most home goods stores.[15] 368 Girl with a pomegranate, by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1875 Judaism Pomegranates were known in Ancient Israel as the fruits which the scouts brought to Moses to demonstrate the fertility of the "promised land".[16] The Book of Exodus describes the me'il ("robe of the ephod") worn by the Hebrew High Priest as having pomegranates embroidered on the hem. According to the Books of Kings the capitals of the two pillars (Jachin and Boaz) that stood in front of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem were engraved with pomegranates. It is said that Solomon designed his coronet based on the pomegranate's "crown" (calyx). It is traditional to consume pomegranates on Rosh Hashana because the pomegranate, with its numerous seeds, symbolizes fruitfulness. Also, it is said to have 613 seeds, which corresponds with the 613 mitzvot or commandments of the Torah. This particular tradition is referred to in the opening pages of Ursula Dubosarsky's novel Theodora's Gift.[17] The pomegranate appeared on the ancient coins of Judea. When not in use, the handles of Torah scrolls are sometimes covered with decorative silver globes similar in shape to "pomegranates" (rimmonim). Some Jewish scholars believe that the pomegranate was the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden.[] Pomegranates are one of the Seven Species (Hebrew: ‫שבעת המינים‬, Shiv'at Ha-Minim) of fruits and grains enumerated in the Hebrew Bible (Deuteronomy 8:8 [20]) as being special products of the Land of Israel. The pomegranate is mentioned in the Bible many times, including this quote from the Songs of Solomon, "Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, and thy speech is comely: thy temples are like a piece of a pomegranate within thy locks." (Song of Solomon 4:3). Pomegranates also symbolize the mystical experience in the Jewish mystical tradition, or kabbalah, with the typical reference being to entering the "garden of pomegranates" or pardes rimonim; this is also the title of a book by the 16th-century mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero. Pomegranate 369 Christianity In the earliest incontrovertible appearance of Christ in a mosaic, a fourth-century floor mosaic from Hinton St Mary, Dorset, now in the British Museum, the bust of Christ and the chi rho are flanked by pomegranates.[18] Pomegranates continue to be a motif often found in Christian religious decoration. They are often woven into the fabric of vestments and liturgical hangings or wrought in metalwork. Pomegranates figure in many religious paintings by the likes of Sandro Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci, often in the hands of the Virgin Mary or the infant Jesus. The fruit, broken or bursting open, is a symbol of the fullness of Jesus' suffering and resurrection. Detail from Madonna of the Pomegranate by Sandro Botticelli, ca. 1487 (Uffizi Gallery, Florence) In the Eastern Orthodox Church, pomegranate seeds may be used in kolyva, a dish prepared for memorial services, as a symbol of the sweetness of the heavenly kingdom. Islam According to the Qur'an, pomegranates grow in the gardens of paradise (55:68). The Qur'an also mentions pomegranates three times (6:99, 6:141, 55:68) as examples of good things God creates. Armenia The pomegranate is one of the main fruits in Armenian culture (the others being apricot and grapes). Its juice is famous with Armenians in food and heritage. The pomegranate is the symbol of Armenia and represents fertility, abundance and marriage. For example, the fruit played an integral role in a wedding custom widely accepted in ancient Armenia: a bride was given a pomegranate fruit, which she threw against a wall, breaking it into pieces. Scattered pomegranate seeds ensured the bride future children. In Artsakh, it was accepted to put fruits next to the bridal couple during the first night of marriage. The pomegranate was among those fruits, and was said to ensure happiness. Along with that, it is believed the newlyweds enjoyed pomegranate wine. The symbol of the pomegranate is connected with insemination. It protected a woman from infertility and protected a man's virile strength. Currently, pomegranate juice is popular with Armenians in food and heritage. The Color of Pomegranates (1968) is a movie directed by Sergei Parajanov. It is a biography of the Armenian ashug Sayat-Nova (King of Song) that attempts to reveal the poet's life visually and poetically rather than literally. Pomegranate 370 Azerbaijan Annually in October, a cultural festival is held in Goychay, Azerbaijan known as Pomegranate Festival. The festival features Azerbaijani fruit-cuisine mainly the pomegranates from Goychay. At the festival, a parade is held with traditional Azerbaijani dances and Azerbaijani music.[19] Iran and ancient Persia Pomegranate was the symbol of fertility in ancient Persian culture.[citation needed] In Persian mythology, Isfandiyar eats a pomegranate and becomes invincible. In the Greco-Persian Wars, Herodotus mentions golden pomegranates adorning the spears of warriors in the phalanx. Even in today's Iran, pomegranate may imply love and fertility.[citation needed] Iran produces pomegranates as a common crop.[citation needed] Its juice and paste have a role in some Iranian cuisines, e.g. chicken, ghormas and refreshment bars. Pomegranate skins may be used to stain wool and silk in the carpet industry.[citation needed] Pomegranate Festival is an annual cultural and artistic festival held during October in Tehran[citation needed] to exhibit and sell pomegranates, food products and handicrafts. Hinduism Black pomegranate In some Hindu traditions, the pomegranate (hindi: Beejapuram, literally: replete with seeds) symbolizes prosperity and fertility, and is associated with both Bhoomidevi (the earth goddess) and Lord Ganesha (the one fond of the many-seeded fruit). The Tamil name maadulampazham is a metaphor for a woman's mind. It is derived from, maadhu=woman, ullam=mind, which means as the seeds are hidden, it is not easy to decipher a woman's mind. Pomegranate 371 China Introduced to China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), the pomegranate (Chinese: 石 榴; pinyin: shíliu) in olden times was considered an emblem of fertility and numerous progeny. This symbolism is a pun on the Chinese character 子 (zǐ) which, as well as meaning seed, also means "offspring" thus a fruit containing so many seeds is a sign of fecundity. Pictures of the ripe fruit with the seeds bursting forth were often hung in homes to bestow fertility and bless the dwelling with numerous offspring, an important facet of traditional Chinese culture.[20] References [1] Analysis of genetic diversity among wild pomegranates in Western Himalayas, using PCR methods (http:/ / xa. yimg. com/ kq/ groups/ 22176678/ 1153755907/ name/ Narzary) Retrieved May 5, 2013. [2] http:/ / naldc. nal. usda. gov/ download/ 7460/ PDF [3] http:/ / om. ciheam. org/ om/ pdf/ a42/ 00600252. pdf [4] Floridata: Punica granatum (http:/ / www. floridata. com/ ref/ P/ puni_gra. cfm) [5] M.D. Sheets, former research assistant, M.L. DuBois, former research assistant, J.G. Williamson, professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, JCooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida Gainesville FL 32611 - "The Pomegranate" (http:/ / edis. ifas. ufl. edu/ pdffiles/ MG/ MG05600. pdf)([PDF]) - Retrieved December 24, 2012 The pomegranate is regarded as a symbol of fertility in China [6] medieval latin etymology of pomegranate on etymonline http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?term=pomegranate& allowed_in_frame=0 [7] Harper, Douglas (8 Oct 2011) "Grenade" (http:/ / etymonline. com/ ?term=grenade) Online Etymology Dictionary [8] Leighton, American Gardens, p. 272. [9] Bulletin — Page 52 by United States Bureau of Plant Industry, Division of Plant Industry, Queensland [10] Culinary cultures of Europe, Council of Europe, 2005, p. 72 [11] Nutrition data for raw pomegranate (http:/ / nutritiondata. self. com/ facts/ fruits-and-fruit-juices/ 2038/ 2), [12] Ovid, Metamorphoses V 385-571 [13] Parashat Tetzaveh (http:/ / www. bj. org/ parashat_hashavua/ parashat_tetzaveh_5765. php), Commentary by Peninnah Schram, Congregation B'nai Jeshurun, New York [14] Kyrieleis, "The Heraion at Samos" in Greek Sanctuaries: New Approaches, Nanno Marinatos and Robin Hägg, eds. 1993, p. 143. [15] Christmas Traditions in Greece (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060111025311/ http:/ / www. christmasmagazine. com/ en/ spirit/ xmas_greece. asp) by folklorist Thornton B. Edwards [16] Why Hebrew Goes from Right to Left: 201 Things You Never Knew about Judaism, Ronald H. Isaacs (Newark, 2008), page 129 [17] "Theodora's Gift" retrieved July 6, 2012 [18] Paul Stephenson, Constantine, Roman Emperor, Christian Victor, 2010:1 and fig. 1. [19] (http:/ / iguide. travel/ Goychay/ Activities/ Pomegranate_Festival) Goychay Activities: Pomegranate Festival [20] Vol V p. 722 Further reading • Seeram, N. P.; Schulman, R. N.; Heber, D., eds. (2006). Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-9812-4. • Olaniyi Amos Fawole and Umezuruike Linus Opara (2013). Developmental changes in maturity indices of pomegranate fruit: A descriptive review. ( S0304423813002434) Sci.Hort.159:152-161 Pomegranate External links • Pomegranate ( in "Wild Flowers of Israel" • Pomegranate Fruit Facts ( • Potential Pomegranate Drug Interactions ( pom_interaction.htm) • Pomegranate - Trusted Health Information (MedlinePlus) ( natural/392.html) • Pomegranate Council (California, US) - Recipes, News, and Info ( •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Pomegranate". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press • Pomegranates used in artworks of Krikor Agopian ( 372 Rubiaceae 373 Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Luculia gratissima Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Juss. Type genus Rubia L. Subfamilies • • • Cinchonoideae Ixoroideae Rubioideae Rubiaceae is a family of flowering plants, variously called the coffee family, madder family, or bedstraw family. The group contains many commonly known plants, including the economically important coffee (Coffea), quinine (Cinchona), and gambier (Uncaria), the medicinal ipecacuanha (Carapichea ipecacuanha), and the horticulturally valuable madder (Rubia), west Indian jasmine (Ixora), partridgeberry (Mitchella), Morinda, Gardenia, and Pentas. Members of the coffee family tend to be concentrated in warmer and tropical climates around the world. Currently, about 611 genera and more than 13,000 species are placed in Rubiaceae.[1] This makes it the fourth-largest family of flowering plants by number of species, and fifth-largest by number of genera. Rubiaceae Etymology The family takes its name from the madder genus Rubia, which derives from the Latin word ruber, meaning "red".[2] Rubia as a name for madder was coined by Pliny.[3] (The well-known genus Rubus (blackberries and raspberries) is unrelated and belongs to Rosaceae, the rose family.) Distribution Although Rubiaceae are found in nearly every major region of the world (with the exception of continental Antarctica, the high arctic, and portions of central Africa and Asia), diversity is highest in the humid tropics. The pattern of diversity in the family is very similar to the global distribution of plant diversity overall. The greatest number of species occurs in Colombia, Venezuela and New Guinea. When adjusted for area, Venezuela is the most diverse, followed by Colombia and Cuba. A large number of poorly studied species exist as understorey shrubs in Madagascar and are threatened with habitat destruction. Characteristics Rubiaceae are an easily recognizable family characterized by opposite leaves that are simple and entire, with interpetiolar stipules, tubular sympetalous corollas and an inferior ovary. Exceptionally, there are some plants that have only a single leaf at each node, alternating from one side to the other. In these cases, the alternate leaf arrangement is produced through the suppression of one leaf at each node. A wide variety of growth forms are present in the Rubiaceae. While shrubs are most common, members of the family can also be trees, lianas or herbs. The flowers, which are usually bisexual, have a 4–5 lobed calyx and generally a 4–5 lobed corolla, 4 or 5 stamens and two carpels. Evolution The fossil history of Rubiaceae goes back at least as far as the Eocene. The geographic distribution of these fossils, coupled with the fact that they represent all three subfamilies, is indicative of an earlier origin for the family, probably in the Late Cretaceous or Paleocene. Although fossils dating back to the Cretaceous and Palaeocene have been referred to the family by various authors, none of these fossils have been confirmed as belonging to Rubiaceae. The oldest confirmed fossils, which are of fruit that bear strong resemblance to the genus Emmenopterys were found in Washington State and are 48–49 million years old. A fossil infructescence and fruit found in 44-million-year-old strata in Oregon were assigned to Emmenopterys dilcheri, an extinct species. The next oldest fossils after these date to the Late Eocene and include Canthium from Australia, Faramea from Panama, Guettarda from New Caledonia, and Paleorubiaceophyllum, an extinct genus, from the southeastern United States. Fossil Rubiaceae are known from three regions in the Eocene (North America north of Mexico, Mexico-Central America-Caribbean, and Southeast Pacific-Asia). In the Oligocene they are found in these three regions plus Africa. In the Miocene they are found in these four regions, plus South America, and Europe. Ecology Rubiaceae are tolerant of a broad array of environmental conditions (soil types, altitudes, community structures, etc.), and do not specialize in one specific habitat type (although genera within the family often specialize). The plants tend not to be eaten by the larvae of butterflies, but some sphingids (Semanophorae) do appear to prefer them. The genera Myrmecodia and Hydnophytum are interesting, as they are epiphytes that have evolved mutualistic relationships with ants. 374 Rubiaceae Uses The most economically important member of the family, and the world's second most important commodity (after petroleum) is the genus Coffea used in the production of coffee. Coffea includes 103 species, but only three species are cultivated for coffee production: C. arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica. The bark of trees in the genus Cinchona is the source of a variety of alkaloids, the most familiar of which is quinine, one of the first agents effective in treating malaria. Woodruff (Galium odoratum) is a small herbaceous perennial that contains coumarin—a natural precursor of warfarin—and the South American plant Psychotria ipecacuanha is the source of the emetic ipecac. Psychotria viridis is frequently used as a source of dimethyltryptamine in the preparation of ayahuasca, a psychoactive decoction. Originally from China, the common gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) is a widely grown garden plant and flower in frost-free climates worldwide. Several other species from the genus are also seen in horticulture. The genus Ixora also contains plants seen cultivated in warmer climate gardens. The New Zealand native Coprosma repens is a commonly used plant for hedges. The South African Rothmannia globosa is seen as a specimen tree in horticulture. Rose madder, the crushed root of Rubia tinctorum, yields a red dye, and the tropical Morinda citrifolia yields a yellow dye. Taxonomy The family was described for the first time by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789. Currently, a number of traditionally accepted families (Dialypetalanthaceae, Henriqueziaceae, Naucleaceae, and Theligonaceae) are included in Rubiaceae following molecular phylogenetic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. Subfamilies and tribes Rubiaceae were "classically" divided into two subfamilies, Coffeoideae, which have placentas bearing a single ovule, and Cinchonoideae, which have more than one ovule per placenta. However, as early as 1893 Hans Solereder identified this system as artificial, since individuals with a single species of Tarenna had placentas with one or more ovules. During the twentieth century other characteristics were used to delineate subfamilies including the distribution of raphides, the absence of endosperm or heterostyly. On this basis, three, five or eight subfamilies were recognised. In 1988, Elmar Robbrecht divided the Rubiaceae into four subfamilies: Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae, Antirheoideae and Rubioideae. While the limits of Rubioideae remained almost unchanged in the face of molecular studies, Antirheoideae was shown to be polyphyletic, while Ixoroideae was broadened and Cinchonoideae narrowed. Currently three subfamilies (Cinchonoideae, Ixoroideae and Rubioideae) and 52 tribes are recognised. Elmar Robbrecht and Jean-François Manen, however, have proposed that only two subfamilies be recognised, an expanded Cinchonoideae (that includes Ixoroideae, Coptosapelta and Luculia) and Rubioideae. One tribe, Coptosapelteae Bremek. ex Darwin, and one genus, Luculia Sweet, have not been placed within a subfamily and are sister to the rest of Rubiaceae. 375 Rubiaceae • 376 Cinchonoideae Raf. • • • • • • • • • Chiococceae Benth. & Hook.f. Cinchoneae DC. Guettardeae DC. Hamelieae A.Rich. ex DC. Hymenodictyeae Razafim. & B.Bremer Hillieae Bremek. ex Darwin Isertieae A.Rich. ex DC. Naucleeae DC. ex Miq. Rondeletieae • Ixoroideae Raf. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Airospermeae Kainul. & B.Bremer Alberteae Hook.f. Aleisanthieae Mouly, J.Florence & B.Bremer Augusteae Kainul. & B.Bremer Bertiereae (K.Schum.) Bridson Coffeeae DC. Condamineeae Hook.f. Cremasporeae Benth. Crossopterygeae F.White ex Bridson Gardenieae DC. Greeneeae Mouly, J.Florence & B.Bremer Henriquezieae Bremek. Ixoreae A.Gray Jackieae Korth. Mussaendeae Hook.f. Octotropideae Bedd. Pavetteae Dumort. Posoquerieae Delprete Retiniphylleae Hook.f. Sabiceeae Bremek. Scyphiphoreae Kainul. & B.Bremer Sipaneeae Bremek. Steenisieae Kainul. & B.Bremer Trailliaedoxeae Kainul. & B.Bremer Vanguerieae Dumort. Rubioideae Verdc. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anthospermeae Cham. & Schltdl. ex DC. Argostemmateae Bremek. ex Verdc. Coussareeae Benth. & Hook.f. Craterispermeae Verdc. Danaideae B.Bremer & Manen Gaertnereae Bremek. ex Darwin Knoxieae Hook.f. Lasiantheae B.Bremer & Manen Morindeae Miq. Ophiorrhizeae Bremek. ex Verdc. Paederieae DC. Psychotrieae Cham. & Schltdl. Putorieae Rubieae Schradereae Spermacoceae Bercht. & J.Presl Theligoneae Urophylleae Verdc. Genera For a full list, see List of Rubiaceae genera According to the World Checklist of Rubiaceae, 611 genera and 13,143 species were accepted as of 2009. Psychotria, with 1834 species, is the largest genus within the family, and the third-largest genus of the angiosperms, after the legume Astragalus and the orchid Bulbophyllum. Twenty-nine other genera also have more than 100 species. On the other hand, 211 genera are monotypic. Together these account for more than a third of all genera in Rubiaceae, but only around 1% of all species. Phylogeny Relationships of the three subfamilies of Rubiaceae, together with the tribe Coptosapelteae and the genus Luculia. The placement of these two groups relative to the three subfamilies has not been fully resolved. Rubioideae Ixoroideae Rubiaceae Cinchonoideae Coptosapelteae Luculia Rubiaceae 377 Future Research In comparison to other families, minimal research has focused on understanding the evolutionary history of the Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae is large; the number of species in the Rubiaceae is more than double that of mammals, and its fossil record is incomplete. Apart from Coffea, Rubiaceae includes relatively few genera of economic importance, providing little economic incentive to stimulate research concerning a systematically difficult family.[4] Pictures Alberta magna Arachnothryx leucophylla Asperula tinctoria Bikkia philippinensis Chiococca alba Coffea arabica Galium uliginosum Gardenia thunbergia Ixora javanica Luculia gratissima Mitragyna Speciosa Morinda pubescens Nertera granadensis Psychotria poeppigiana Sherardia arvensis Rubiaceae References [1] [2] [3] [4] Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008. http:/ / www. mobot. org/ MOBOT/ research/ APweb/ Wiktionary. "Ruber". Searched November, 2011. http:/ / en. wiktionary. org/ wiki/ ruber Plant Systematics by Michael G. Simpson Robbrecht, E. (1995). Advances in Rubiaceae Macrosystematics. Opera Botanica Belgica 6, 50(2), 435 – 437. External links • Rubiaceae ( at The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist. org/) • Rubiaceae (, Dialypetalanthaceae (http://delta-intkey. com/angio/www/dialypet.htm), Henriquezaceae (, Naucleaceae (, Theligonaceae ( angio/www/theligon.htm) at The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA) ( • Rubiaceae ( at the Encyclopedia of Life ( • Rubiaceae ( at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website ( • Rubiaceae ( at the online Flora of China ( • Rubiaceae ( at the online Flora of Pakistan ( • Rubiaceae ( at the online Flora of Zimbabwe ( • Rubiaceae ( at the online Flora of Western Australia ( • Rubiaceae ( aspx?id=_22034db9-2fe7-40b1-8b2d-3633d3d683dc&fileName=Flora 1.xml) at the online Flora of New Zealand ( • Rubiaceae ( at Christian Puff's ( online Rubiaceae Flora of Thailand • Rubiaceae ( at the Integrated Taxonomic Information System ( • Rubiaceae ( at the USDA NRCS PLANTS database • Rubiaceae Research ( at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium ( • World Checklist of Rubiaceae ( at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew ( 378 Mitragyna speciosa 379 Mitragyna speciosa Mitragyna speciosa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Mitragyna Species: M. speciosa Binomial name Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. Synonyms[1] • • • • Nauclea korthalsii Steud. nom. inval. Nauclea luzoniensis Blanco Nauclea speciosa (Korth.) Miq. Stephegyne speciosa Korth. Mitragyna speciosa (ketum,[2] kratom or kratum,[3] Thai: กระท่อม) is a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Southeast Asia in the Indochina and Malesia floristic regions. Its leaves are used for medicinal properties. It is psychoactive, and leaves are chewed to uplift mood and to treat health problems. M. speciosa is indigenous to Thailand and, despite growing naturally in the country, has been outlawed for 70 years and was originally banned because it was reducing the Thai government's tax revenue from opium distribution. Kratom behaves as a μ-opioid receptor agonist like morphine and is used in the management of chronic pain, as well as recreationally. However, its effects differ significantly from traditional opiates such as morphine. Kratom use is not detected by typical drug screening tests, but its metabolites can be detected by more specialized testing. The pharmacological effects of kratom on humans, including its efficacy and safety, are not well-studied. Mitragyna speciosa 380 Taxonomy and description It was first formally described by the Dutch colonial botanist Pieter Korthals. The genus was named Mitragyna by Korthals because the stigmas in the first species he examined resembled the shape of a bishop's mitre. It is botanically related to the genera Corynanthe and Uncaria and shares some similar biochemistry. Mitragyna speciosa trees usually grow to a height of 12–30 ft (3.7–9.1 m) tall and 15 ft (4.6 m) wide, although some species can reach 40–100 ft (12–30 m) in height. Mitragyna speciosa can be either evergreen or deciduous depending on the climate and environment in Young M. speciosa tree which it is grown. The stem is erect and branching. The leaves of the kratom tree are a dark green colour and can grow to over 7 inches (180 mm) long and 4 inches (100 mm) wide, are ovate-acuminate in shape, and opposite in growth pattern. The flowers are yellow and round and tend to grow in clusters at the end of the branches. The leaves of M. speciosa are elliptic and are smaller at the end of the branchlets and are pointed at the tip. The leaves have a round and heart-shape at the base with the petioles between 2 to 4 centimeters long. The flowers are crowded in a round terminal inflorescences which are three to five centimeters long. The calyx-tube is short and cup-shaped, with round lobes. The corolla-tube is five millimeters long with three millimiter long lobes and smooth and revolute in between.[4] Chemistry There are 40 compounds in M. speciosa leaves, including many alkaloids such as mitragynine (once thought to be the primary active constituent), mitraphylline, and 7-hydroxymitragynine (which is currently the most likely candidate for the primary active chemical in the plant). Other active chemicals in M. speciosa include raubasine (best known from Rauwolfia serpentina) and some yohimbe alkaloids such as corynantheidine. Mitragyna speciosa also contains at least one alkaloid (rhynchophylline) that is a calcium channel blocker, and reduces NMDA-induced current. The amount of mitragynine within the leaves depends highly on many factors, one major factor is the location of the tree. When trees are grown in Southeast Asia, the levels tend to be higher but when grown elsewhere (even in greenhouses) the levels tend to be low or non-existent. One analysis of products marketed as kratom leaf found, using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), mitragynine at levels of 1–6% and 7-hydroxymirtrogynine at levels of 0.01–0.04%. The chemical structure of mitragynines incorporate the nucleus of the tryptamine, and these may be responsible for the molecules which are observed in the serotonin and adrnergic systems. In mitragynine, the phenolic methyl ether is considered to be stronger in analgesic paradigms according to some studies. Moreover, studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of M. speciosa in humans has not been well studied and various aspects such as the half-life, protein binding properties and other properties such as the elimination or metabolism is not known. Mitragyna speciosa Use and Safety Kratom has been traditionally chewed, in raw leaf form, by people in Thailand and especially in the southern peninsula. Kratom is also used in neighboring countries in Southeast Asia where it grows naturally. As traditionally used, kratom is not seen as a drug and there is no stigma associated with kratom use or discrimination against kratom eaters. In southern Thailand, kratom has been a part of traditional culture for thousands of years and is common in traditional cultural performances and in agriculture. In southern Thailand, kratom chewers generally start at around the age of 25 and many continue to chew the leaves for the rest of their lives. The average number of leaves consumed is between 10 and 60 leaves consumed daily, but even more than this is Kratom leaves common. In southern Thailand, upwards of 70% of the male population uses kratom on a daily basis in some areas. Some users consume M. speciosa along with dextromethorphan-containing cough syrup, amphetamines, or benzodiazepines. Kratom has seen therapeutic use in Thai ethnomedicine as an antidiarrhoeal, as a treatment for opioid dependence, and rarely to increase the duration of coitus. Kratom and its derivatives have been used as a substitute for opium as well as an aid for the management of opium withdrawal. Data on the incidence and prevalence of its use are lacking, as physicians are generally unfamiliar with it, and its use is not detected by typical drug screening tests. Kratom metabolites can be detected by specialized mass spectrometry tests. Incidence of kratom use appears to be increasing among those who have been self-managing chronic pain with opioids purchased without a prescription and are cycling (but not quitting) their use. As of 2011[5], there have been no formal clinical trials performed to study the efficacy or safety of kratom to treat opioid addiction. The pharmacological effects of kratom on humans are not well studied. Its metabolic half-life, protein binding, and elimination characteristics are all unknown. Kratom behaves as a μ-opioid receptor agonist, similar to opiates like morphine, although its effects differ significantly from those of opiates. Kratom does not appear to have significant adverse effects, and in particular appears not to cause the hypoventilation typical of other opioids. Compulsive use has been reported among drug users who inject opioids, and those who use opioids to manage pain without direction from medical professionals. Side effects associated with chronic kratom use include loss of appetite and weight loss, constipation, and darkening of the skin color of the face. Chronic use has been associated with bowel obstruction. Chronic users have also reported withdrawal symptoms including irritability, runny nose and diarrhea. Withdrawal is generally short-lived and mild, and it may be effectively treated with dihydrocodeine and lofexidine. Three case reports document deaths involving kratom. Other drugs were used in all cases, and in one, kratom was speculated to possibly be the primary cause of death. In 1975, there was an isolated report of serious adverse effects such as psychosis, convulsions, hallucinations, and confusion, among five individuals who had used kratom daily for 10–35 years. 381 Mitragyna speciosa Media attention Kratom, like other herbs with drug-like properties, is frequently a concern of politicians, journalists and regulatory officials. Regulation Thailand Prohibition Possession of kratom leaves is illegal in Thailand, despite the tree being native to the country. The Thai government passed the Kratom Act 2486 which went into effect on August 3, 1943. This law made planting the tree illegal and requires existing trees to be cut down. This law was not found effective, since the tree is indigenous to the country. A large aspect of Thai culture supports kratom, however despite this fact the Thai government had initiated a program of destroying kratom trees by burning forests or chopping large sections of kratom forests down. Eradication campaigns often destroy not only the trees but also other trees and wildlife in these areas, which are often untouched rainforests with sensitive ecosystems. A general consensus exists in southern Thailand, where the use of kratom is endemic, among leaders, public health officials, academics and policymakers that kratom use and dependence causes little, if any, health risks. Proposed decriminalization In 2010, the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board proposed decriminalizing kratom and affirmed its use as an integral part of Thai culture. The ONCB concluded that decades of unproblematic use, and an absence of health and social harm, make prohibiting the leaf unnecessary and counterproductive. According to the ONCB's report, kratom was in fact banned for economic reasons, not for health or social concerns. In a snippet from a book written by Cassandra Hoffman: "In Thailand, kratom was first scheduled for control in 1943 under the Kratom Act. At the time, the government was levying taxes from users and shops involved in the opium trade. Because of the increasing opium costs, many users were switching to kratom to manage their withdrawal symptoms. However, the launch of the Greater East Asia War in 1942 and declining revenues from the opium trade pushed the Thai government into action to curb and suppress competition in the opium market by making kratom illegal."[] As of October 2, 2013 the justice ministry of Thailand suggested removal of Kratom from the narcotic drug list relating to Category 5 of the Narcotic Drug Law of 1979, though still recommended regulating kratom in other ways due to its effects on the nervous system. This recommendation will be made to the Ministry of Public Health, which can move forward with the removal from the list or not.[5] Malaysia The use of kratom leaves (locally known as 'ketum') is prohibited in Malaysia under Section 30 (3) Poisons Act 1952 and the user may be penalized with a maximum compound of MYR 10,000 (USD 3,150) or up to 4 years imprisonment. Certain parties have urged the government to penalize the use of kratom under the Dangerous Drugs Act instead of the Poisons Act which will carry heavier penalties.[6] United States Kratom itself is not regulated by the United States federal government. However, the Drug Enforcement Administration once included it in a list titled "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern".[7] Indiana House of Representatives HB1196, sponsored by Edward DeLaney, Steve Davisson, Terri Austin, Vernon G. Smith, and David Yarde during the 2012 regular session as a response to increasing synthetic drug use, made 382 Mitragyna speciosa Indiana the first and only state to ban chemicals in kratom, although indirectly.[8] The text of the bill added kratom's two active alkaloids—mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine—to the state's list of controlled substances, though kratom itself is not synthetic and was not specifically addressed by the authors of the bill. Due to kratom not being on the banned plants list nor being a synthetic, kratom is still legal in Indiana.[citation needed] Iowa legislators grouped Mitragyna speciosa as a synthetic cannabinoid when a bill was proposed that would reclassify nearly all controlled substances in their state.[9] The Louisiana legislature proposed an age limit of 18 to be able to legally purchase, possess and consume kratom. Violators would have been assessed a penalty of no more than $500, or sentenced to six months in jail, or both.[10] Massachusetts Representative Daniel K. Webster sponsored legislation in 2011 that would have included compounds of Mitragyna speciosa in the state's controlled substance classification list.[11] Advocacy The Transnational Institute has argued that while continued research is needed, the criminalization of kratom is unfounded and is based on economic control and disinformation. This group has argued that few records are available showing negative health or social consequences from kratom consumption, but despite this fact kratom is becoming increasingly subject to actions of law enforcement in numerous countries. The criminalization of kratom has created numerous barriers for research. In Thailand, the eradication campaigns have made it especially difficult for academics and researchers to adequately research the medicinal benefits of kratom. This group has concluded that the criminalization of kratom is unnecessary, problematic and counter-productive, and has summarily recommended that kratom be decriminalized. It also concluded that the evidence showing the health benefits of kratom, especially in treating drug and alcohol dependence, should serve as an important point to consider. References [1] Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. is an accepted name (http:/ / www. theplantlist. org/ tpl/ record/ kew-128805). Retrieved on 2013-12-26. [2] Erowid Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Vault (http:/ / www. erowid. org/ plants/ kratom/ kratom. shtml). Retrieved on 2013-12-26. [3] Mitragyna speciosa information from NPGS/GRIN (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?417532). Retrieved on 2013-12-26. [4] Philippine Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Plant Industry: Eintrag Mambog (http:/ / www. bpi. da. gov. ph/ medicinalplant_m. php)) [5] สำนักข่่าวแห่งชาติ : Kratom to be removed from the narcotics list (http:/ / thainews. prd. go. th/ centerweb/ newsen/ NewsDetail?NT01_NewsID=WNSOC5610030010004). (2013-10-03). Retrieved on 2013-12-26. [6] Pengasih wants abuse of kratom leaves penalised under Dangerous Drugs Act (http:/ / www. themalaysianinsider. com/ malaysia/ article/ pengasih-wants-abuse-of-kratom-leaves-penalised-under-dangerous-drugs-act). The Malaysian Insider. October 28, 2012. [7] DEA Diversion Control – Drugs and Chemicals of Concern (https:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20130215072513/ http:/ / www. deadiversion. usdoj. gov/ drugs_concern/ index. html). US DOJ. [8] Bill Text: IN HB1196 | 2012 | Regular Session | Enrolled (http:/ / legiscan. com/ gaits/ text/ 603106). LegiScan. Retrieved on 2013-12-26. [9] Bill Text: IA SF2341 | 2011–2012 | 84th General Assembly | Introduced (http:/ / legiscan. com/ gaits/ text/ 635604). LegiScan. Retrieved on 2013-12-26. [10] Bill Text: LA SB130 | 2012 | Regular Session | Chaptered (http:/ / legiscan. com/ gaits/ text/ 651753). LegiScan. Retrieved on 2013-12-26. [11] Bill Text: MA H526 | 2011–2012 | 187th General Court | Introduced (http:/ / legiscan. com/ gaits/ text/ 166358). LegiScan. Retrieved on 2013-12-26. 383 Mitragyna speciosa External links • Mitragynine on ToxNet CASRN: 4098-40-2 ( hsdb:@[email protected]+7901) • Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) (, from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction 384 Psychotria carthagenensis 385 Psychotria carthagenensis Psychotria carthagenensis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. carthagenensis Binomial name Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq.[1] Synonyms Psychotria carthaginensis (lapsus) Photos: [2][3][4][5] [6][7][8] Psychotria carthagenensis, also known as Amyruca, is a South American rainforest understory shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. It grows from the tropics of South America to Mexico. Containing the hallucinogenic indole alkaloid DMT, it is primarily known as an ingredient in the entheogenic tea Ayahuasca, although its use is less common than Diplopterys cabrerana or its close relative Psychotria viridis. Psychotria carthagenensis References [1] Catalogue of Life (http:/ / www. catalogueoflife. org/ show_species_details. php?record_id=4087482) External links • Catalogue of Life ( 386 Psychotria expansa 387 Psychotria expansa Psychotria expansa Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. expansa Binomial name Psychotria expansa Blume Psychotria expansa is a West Sumatran rainforest understory shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. Psychotria forsteriana 388 Psychotria forsteriana Psychotria forsteriana Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. forsteriana Binomial name Psychotria forsteriana A. Gray Psychotria forsteriana is a South American rainforest understory shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. References Psychotria insularum 389 Psychotria insularum Psychotria insularum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. insularum Binomial name Psychotria insularum Gray Psychotria insularum is a South American rainforest understory shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. External links • Psychedelic plants References Psychotria poeppigiana 390 Psychotria poeppigiana Psychotria poeppigiana Flowering plant Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Subclass: Asteridae Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Subfamily: Rubioideae Tribe: Psychotrieae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. poeppigiana Binomial name Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. Synonyms Many, see text Psychotria poeppigiana is a plant species in the family Rubiaceae; a common name is Sore-mouth Bush,[1] though it is not very often used. It ranges widely in the tropical Americas, from Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz in Mexico to the very north of Argentina. It does not occur on the Pacific side of the American cordillera however, and is thus absent from El Salvador and Chile. It is probably also absent from Uruguay and Paraguay. P. poeppigiana is a large shrub. The inflorescences are carried upright or semi-erect and are surrounded by large bracts, colored a conspicuous red, that attract pollinators. The flowers themselves are inconspicuous, with the small yellow petals and sepals forming a narrow corollar tube. Pollinators are mainly hummingbirds, namely small hermit (Phaethornithinae) species like the Black-throated Hermit (Phaethornis atrimentalis), Straight-billed Hermit (P. bourcieri) and Reddish Hermit (P. ruber). They do not insert their bills deeply into the small flowers, and thus the pollinators of the Sore-mouth Bush include curved- and straight-billed species alike.[2] Psychotria poeppigiana Taxonomy and names The scientific name honours the botanist Eduard Friedrich Poeppig. This widespread plant has been described under a variety of names, today all considered synonyms: • • • • • • • • • Callicocca tomentosa (Aubl.) J.F.Gmel. Cephaelis hirsuta M.Martens & Galeotti Cephaelis tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl Cephaelis vultusmimi Dwyer Evea tomentosa (Aubl.) Standl. Psychotria hirsuta (M.Martens & Galeotti) Müll. Arg. ex Mart. Tapogomea tomentosa Aubl. Uragoga poeppigiana (Müll. Arg.) Kuntze Uragoga tomentosa (Aubl.) K.Schum. A subspecies has been named:[3] • Psychotria poeppigiana ssp. barcellana (Muell. Arg.) Steyerm. Local names include: • Carib languages: • Guiana Carib: yo-nu-ne-mah (Akuriyó), ku-ri-lu eh-nah-pe-da (Tiriyó) • North Amazonian Carib: kaia-eno-mio (Akawaio) • Central Carib: pe-yah-o-tih-puh (Wayana) • Creole languages: radie zore (French Guiana Creole), soldier's cap (Guyanese Creole) • Tupí–Guaraní languages: tapi'i-kanami (Ka'apor), meaning "tapir-kanami". Kanami is the Ka'apor term for poison used in fishing prepared from Clibadium. The name references both plant's (real or presumed) property of making animals more accessible to hunters (see below).[4] Use by humans The Ka'apor people of Maranhão (Brazil) use its flowers as a "hunting fetish", a magical talisman to facilitate hunting. As the Tulane University anthropologist and historical ecologist William Balée describes it, "... flowers of Psychotria poeppigiana [...] are wrapped in a piece of cloth and affixed to a dog's collar so that it may more easily find the enormous, highly desirable, and decidedly uncommon tapir" Psychotria poeppigiana has several uses in folk medicine; it is widely used as a painkiller besides having some more specialized applications.[citation needed] The Tiriyó of Surinam crush and boil the plant and use the resulting decoction to treat headaches, sprains, rheumatism, muscular pains and bruises.[citation needed] The Wayana, also of Surinam, grind the bark and apply it raw to a particular rash known to them as poispoisi. The bracts are crushed to release the sap, which is then applied into the ear canal to relieve earaches.[citation needed] The decoction from the inflorescence, boiled whole, is credited with antitussive qualities and used as a whooping cough remedy and more generally to treat respiratory tract infections, as are decoctions of the leaves of ssp. barcellana. It also contains dimethyltryptamine,[citation needed] though as suggested by the use native peoples make of it probably not in quantities to render it strongly psychedelic. 391 Psychotria poeppigiana Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] USDA (2006) Rodríguez-Flores & Stiles (2005) DeFilipps et al. (2004): p.247 Balée (1994): p.105 References • Balée, William (1994): Footprints of the Forest: Ka'apor Ethnobotany – the Historical Ecology of Plant Utilization by an Amazonian People. Columbia University Press, New York. • DeFilipps, R.A.; Maina, S.L. & Crepin, J. (2004): Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. PDF fulltext ( • Rodríguez-Flores, Claudia Isabel & Stiles, F. Gary (2005): Análisis ecomorfológico de una comunidad de colibríes ermitaños (Trochilidae, Phaetorninae) y sus flores en la Amazonia colombiana. [Ecomorphological analysis of a community of hermit hummingbirds (Trochilidae, Phaethorninae) and their flowers in Colombian Amazonia]. Ornitología Colombiana 3: 7-27 [Spanish with English abstract]. PDF fulltext (http://www. • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2006): Germplasm Resources Information Network – Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. ( Version of 2006-AUG-21. Retrieved 2008-DEC-21. External links Images: • ( – Psychotria poeppigiana ( 392 Psychotria rostrata 393 Psychotria rostrata Psychotria rostrata Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. rostrata Binomial name Psychotria rostrata Blume Psychotria rostrata is a South American rainforest understory shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. External links • Psychedelic plants References Psychotria rufipilis 394 Psychotria rufipilis Psychotria rufipilis Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. rufipilis Binomial name Psychotria rufipilis De Wild. Psychotria rufipilis is an African rainforest understory shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. External links • Psychedelic plants References Psychotria viridis 395 Psychotria viridis Psychotria viridis A potted, young Psychotria viridis plant shortly after its leaves were clipped for propagation. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Gentianales Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Psychotria Species: P. viridis Binomial name Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pav. Synonyms • • • • • • • • Palicourea viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Schult. Psychotria glomerata Kunth Psychotria microdesmia Oerst. Psychotria trispicata Griseb. Uragoga glomerata (Kunth) Kuntze Uragoga microdesmia (Oerst.) Kuntze Uragoga trispicata (Griseb.) Kuntze Uragoga viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze Psychotria viridis is a perennial shrub of the Rubiaceae family. In the Quechua languages it is called chacruna or chacrona. In Quechua, chaqruy is a verb meaning "to mix". P. viridis is a close relative of Psychotria carthagensis (aka samiruka or amiruca) of Ecuador. Whether P. viridis and P. carthagensis are not actually the same species is a matter of dispute. Psychotria viridis 396 In parts of Ecuador,Wikipedia:WikiProject Countering systemic bias the name chacruna refers to Diplopterys cabrerana.[citation needed] Description P. viridis grows to a height of approximately 5 m. Its branches span a diameter of about 2 m. Stems In the middle and lower parts of the stem, situated between the insertion points of the two opposite leaves there is a horizontal scar 0.3-1 mm wide that extends between the leaves (or leaf scars) and sometimes also connects over the tops of these scars, and along the top side of this scar there is a dense, usually furry line of fine trichomes (i.e., plant hairs) usually 0.5-1 mm long that are reddish brown when dried (Figure 4A). This combination of features is diagnostic for many species in the genus Psychotria, though not for any individual species [i.e., these features distinguish Psychotria L. Subg. Psychotria; other subgenera of Psychotria lack the well developed reddish brown trichomes inserted above the stipule scars]. On the upper stems of Psychotria viridis these features are obscured by a stipule (see below), which covers the trichomes; the scar actually marks the point where this structure has fallen off. Stipules These are leafy structures that cover and protect the young developing leaves, then fall off leaving scars on the stem. The stipules are produced in pairs, and their form is distinctive for Psychotria viridis: They are 5–25 x 4–12 mm, elliptic in outline, sharply angled at the apex, papery to membranaceous in texture, ciliate (i.e., fringed) along the upper margins, and longitudinally flanged or winged along the middle (Figure 4A). However, stipule shape and size is quite variable among different plants, and also depends on the stipule's developmental stage and other factors such as whether the stem that produced it is reproductive or vegetative. Psychotria viridis Psychotria viridis Leaves These (Figure 4B) are opposite in arrangement (i.e., produced in pairs along the stems), generally 5–15 x 2–6 cm, in outline generally elliptic or often widest above the middle, usually sharply angled at base and apex, papery in texture, overall smooth or infrequently with microscopic plant hairs on the lower surface, have 5–10 pairs of secondary veins, and on the lower surface usually have foveolae (see next item). The leaves are borne on petioles (i.e., leaf stalks) generally 1–10 mm long. When dry, the leaves of Psychotria viridis usually are gray or reddish brown. The leaves of Psychotria viridis are similar to a few other New World species of Psychotria. Foveolae These are small pockets found on the lower leaf surface near the junction of the secondary (i.e., side) veins with the central vein. They function as shelter for tiny invertebrates such as mites that live on the plant leaf. These mites apparently often are symbiotic with the plant, taking shelter in these structures and eating fungi and herbivorous invertebrates that can damage the leaf. The foveolae (also called domatia) are distinctive for Psychotria viridis and a few related species: They are generally 1.5-5 mm long and 0.5-1 mm wide at the top, conical and tapered to a closed base, open and truncate or variously ornamented at the top, and situated along the sides of the central vein with the opening usually near a secondary vein (Figure 4C). These foveolae vary in shape among different plants (Figure 4C, 4D, 4E, 4F), and in number on individual leaves, and may not even be present on some leaves. Most often each leaf bears at least one pair of foveolae, which may be close to the apex; the foveolae are often more numerous on leaves from vegetative stems than on those from reproductive stems.[1]Wikipedia:Link rot Cultivation Psychotria viridis is hardy in USDA zone 10 or higher.Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources Cultivation from cuttings is easiest. A single leaf (or even part of a leaf slightly covered with soil) can be sufficient for a cutting. Propagation from seed is extremely difficult. The germination rate can be as low as 1%. There are approximately 50 seeds/g.Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources Alkaloids Dried Psychotria vidris contains about 0.10–0.66% alkaloids.[2]Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources Approximately 99% of that is dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Other alkaloids such as beta-carbolines and N-methyltryptamine (NMT) have been found. The alkaloid content is said to be highest in the morning. Traditional medicine The Machiguenga people of Peru use juice from the leaves as eye drops to treat migraine headaches. Hallucinogenic Psychotria viridis contains the hallucinogenic—or entheogenic—indole alkaloid dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in level varying from 0.1 to 0.61% dried mass.[3]Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources It is known primarily as an additive to the ayahuasca brew used in South and Central America. The mechanism of action is via the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) present in Banisteriopsis caapi, which allows ayahuasca to be effective in oral doses (unlike smoking DMT crystals which requires no conditioning partner drug). This use is legal in Brazil among native tribes and followers of some syncretic religions.[citation needed] Vegetalistas, healers in the Amazon regions of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, recognize different sub-varieties of Psychotria viridis, based on the location of glands on the back of the leaves.[citation needed] 397 Psychotria viridis References [1] Psychotria Viridis – A Botanical Source of Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) – DEA Microgram Journal (http:/ / www. dea. gov/ programs/ forensicsci/ microgram/ journal_v1/ mjournal_v1_pg3. html) [2] Psychotria viridis (http:/ / www. tryptamind. com/ psychotria_viridis. html) [3] Amazing Nature (http:/ / www. amazing-nature. com/ -i-36. html?osCsid=38ad41e62a454589a0afd2d17ae0fa40) External links • Growing Psychotria viridis ( ( • A General Introduction to Ayahuasca ( 398 Rutaceae 399 Rutaceae Rutaceae Skimmia japonica Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Juss., 1789 Subfamilies Rutoideae Spathelioideae Dictyolomatoideae Toddalioideae Flindersioideae Aurantioideae Diversity About 160 genera, totaling over 1600 species. Rutaceae, commonly known as the rue[1] or citrus family,[2] is a family of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales. Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and small trees. The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus, which includes the orange (C. sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit (C. paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key lime). Boronia is a large Australian genus, some members of which are plants with highly fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil production. Other large genera include Zanthoxylum, Melicope and Agathosma. There are approximatively 160 genera in the family Rutaceae:List of Rutaceae genera Rutaceae 400 Characteristics Most species are trees or shrubs, a few are herbs (Boenninghausenia and Dictamnus), frequently aromatic with glands on the leaves, sometimes with thorns. The leaves are usually opposed and compound, and without stipules. Pellucid glands, a type of oil containing cavitiesWikipedia:Please clarify, are found on the leaves responsible for the aromatic smell of the family's members; traditionally they have been the primary synapomorphic characteristic to identify the Rutaceae. Flowers are bractless, solitary or in cyme, rarely in raceme, and mainly pollinated by insects. They are radially or (rarely) laterally symmetric, and generally hermaphroditic. They have four or five petals and sepals, sometimes three, mostly separate, eight to ten stamen (five in Skimmia, many in Citrus), usually separate or in several groups. Usually a single stigma with 2 to 5 united carpels, sometimes ovaries separate but styles combined. The fruit of Rutaceae are very variable: berries, drupes, hesperidiums, samaras, capsules and follicles all occur. Seed number also varies widely. Classification The family is closely related to Sapindaceae, Simaroubaceae and Meliaceae, and all are usually placed into the same order, although some systems separate that order into Rutales and Sapindales. The families Flindersiaceae and Ptaeroxylaceae are sometimes kept separate, but nowadays generally placed in Rutaceae, as are the former Cneoraceae. The subfamilial organization has not been fully resolved, but the subfamily Aurantioideae (=Citroideae) is well supported; the placement of several genera remains unclear. Notable species The family is of great economic importance in warm temperate and sub-tropical climates for its numerous edible fruits of the Citrus genus, such as the orange, lemon, calamansi, lime, kumquat, mandarin and grapefruit. Non-citrus fruits include the White sapote (Casimiroa edulis), Orangeberry (Glycosmis pentaphylla), Clymenia (Clymenia polyandra), Limeberry (Triphasia trifolia), and the Bael (Aegle marmelos). Other plants are grown in horticulture: Murraya and Skimmia species, for example. Ruta, Zanthoxylum and Casimiroa species are medicinals. Several plants are also used by the perfume industry, such as the Western Australian Boronia megastigma. The genus Pilocarpus has species (P. jaborandi, and P. microphyllus from Brazil, and P. pennatifolius from Paraguay) from which the medicine pilocarpine, used to treat glaucoma, is extracted. Spices are made from a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum, notably Sichuan pepper. various Citrus fruits Rutaceae 401 References [1] RUTACEAE (http:/ / www. botanical-dermatology-database. info/ BotDermFolder/ RUTA. html) in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database [2] http:/ / www. plantsystematics. org/ taxpage/ 0/ family/ Rutaceae. html • Singh, Gurjaran (2004). Plant Systematics: An Integrated Approach. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers. pp. 438–440. ISBN 1-57808-342-7. • Chase, Mark W.; Cynthia M. Morton & Jacquelyn A. Kallunki (August 1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of Rutaceae: a cladistic analysis of the subfamilies using evidence from RBC and ATP sequence variation" (http:// American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America) 86 (8): 1191–1199. doi: 10.2307/2656983 ( JSTOR  2656983 (http://www. PMID  10449399 ( Retrieved 2007-08-30. External links • • Media related to Rutaceae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Rutaceae at Wikispecies Limonia acidissima 402 Limonia acidissima Limonia acidissima Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Subfamily: Aurantioideae Tribe: Citreae Genus: Limonia L. Species: L. acidissima Binomial name Limonia acidissima L. Limonia acidissima (syn. Feronia elephantum, Feronia limonia, Hesperethusa crenulata, Schinus limonia) is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia. It is native in the Indomalaya ecozone to Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and in Indochinese ecoregion east to Java and the Malesia ecoregion. Vernacular names in English include: wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit; and listed below are the variety of common names in the languages of its native habitat regions. Limonia acidissima 403 Vernacular names The common names of Limonia acidissima include: • • • • • • English: Wood Apple, Elephant Apple, Monkey Fruit or Curd Fruit Assamese: Bal, Bael (বেল) Bengali: Koth Bael (কদবেল) Gujarati: Kothu Hindi: Kaitha (कैथा), Kath Bel or Kabeet Javanese: Kawis or Kawista • Khmer: Kvet (ខ្វិត) • Kannada: Belada Hannu / Byalada Hannu (ಬೇಲದ ಹಣ್ಣು), balulada hannu (ಬಳೂಲದ • • • • ಹಣ್ಣು/ಬಳೂಲಕಾಯಿ/ಬಳೂಲ) Malaysia : Belingai Malayalam: Vilam Kai (വിളാങ്കായ്) Marathi: KavaTH (कवठ). Oriya: Kaitha or Kaintha • Sanskrit: Billa, Kapittha (कपित्थ),[1] Dadhistha, Surabhicchada, Kapipriya, Dadhi, Puṣpapahala, Dantasātha, Phalasugandhika, Cirapākī, Karabhithū, Kanṭī, Gandhapatra, Grāhiphala, Kaṣāyāmlaphala.[2] • Sinhalese: Divul. (දිවුල්) • Tamil: Vilam Palam (விளாம் பழம்) • Telugu: Vellaga Pandu (వెలగ పండు) Description Limonia acidissima is a large tree growing to 9 metres (30 ft) tall, with rough, spiny bark. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets, each leaflet 25–35 mm long and 10–20 mm broad, with a citrus-scent when crushed. The fruit is a berry 5–9 cm diameter, and may be sweet or sour. It has a very hard rind which can be difficult to crack open, and contains sticky brown pulp and small white seeds. The fruit looks similar in appearance to fruit of Bael (Aegle marmelos). Tree in the Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India. Limonia acidissima 404 Uses The rind of the fruit is so thick and hard it can be carved and used as a utensil such as a bowl or ashtray. The bark also produces an edible gum. The tree has hard wood which can be used for woodworking. Bael fruit pulp has a soap-like action that made it a household cleaner for hundreds of years. The sticky layer around the unripe seeds is household glue that also finds use in jewellery-making. The glue, mixed with lime, waterproofs wells and cements walls. The glue also protects oil paintings when added as a coat on the canvas. Ground limonia bark is also used as a cosmetic called thanakha in Southeast Asia. The fruit rind yields oil that is popular as a fragrance for hair; it also produces a dye used to colour silks and calico. Close-up view of fruit. It is a hedge plant favored for its rapid growth; especially when cuttings from a faster growing individual are grafted to a hardily rooted plant, fruit, foliage and shade can quickly be obtained. In Tamil Nadu leaves and fruit traditionally have been used for elephant food, while the branches were used as brooms for rough work in connection with animal care. Culinary The fruit is eaten plain, blended into an assortment of drinks and sweets, or well-preserved as jam. The scooped-out pulp from its fruits is eaten uncooked with Close-up view of trunk and bark. or without sugar, or is combined with coconut milk and palm-sugar syrup and drunk as a beverage, or frozen as an ice cream. It is also used in chutneys and for making jam. A drink, Bael-panna made by blending the fruit with water and spices, is drunk during summers. Indonesians beat the pulp of the ripe fruit with palm sugar and eat the mixture at breakfast. The sugared pulp is a foundation of sherbet in the subcontinent. Jam, pickle, marmalade, syrup, jelly, squash and toffee are some of the foods of this multipurpose fruit. Young bael leaves are a salad green in Thailand. Indians eat the pulp of the ripe fruit with sugar or jaggery. The ripe pulp is also used to make chutney. The raw pulp is varied with yoghurt and make into raita. The raw pulp is bitter in taste, while the ripe pulp would be having a smell and taste that's a mixture of sourness and sweet. Nutrition Limonia acidissima 405 A hundred grams of fruit pulp contains 31 grams of carbohydrate and two grams of protein, equivalent to nearly 140 calories. The ripe fruit is rich in beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A; it also contains significant quantities of the B vitamins thiamine and riboflavin, and small amounts of vitamin C. [citation needed] View of fruit and branching, in the Talakona forest, Chittoor District, India. Genera taxonomy A number of other species formerly included in the genus are now treated in the related genera Atalantia, Citropsis, Citrus, Glycosmis, Luvunga, Murraya, Microcitrus, Micromelum, Naringi, Pamburus, Pleiospermium, Severinia, Skimmia, Swinglea, and Triphasia. References [1] Feronia elephantum on treknature (http:/ / www. treknature. com/ gallery/ Asia/ India/ photo170636. htm) [2] S G Joshi, Medicinal Plants, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 2004, ISBN 81-204-1414-4, p.347 External links • Germplasm Resources Information Network: Limonia ( pl?6846) • Germplasm Resources Information Network: Limonia acidissima ( html/ • genus page (, Flora of Pakistan: L. acidissima species page ( • Purdue-hort_edu: The Wood Apple ( • Pandanus Database - Limonia ( sort=ka&display=20&lat=&skt=&pkt=&hin=&ben=&tam=&mal=&eng=on&start=340) pandus database limqa Zanthoxylum procerum 406 Zanthoxylum procerum Zanthoxylum procerum Conservation status Endangered  (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Genus: Zanthoxylum Species: Z. procerum Binomial name Zanthoxylum procerum Donn. Sm. Zanthoxylum procerum is a species of plant in the Rutaceae family. It is found in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. References • Nelson, C. 1998. Zanthoxylum procerum [1]. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [5] Downloaded on 24 August 2007. Urticaceae 407 Urticaceae Nettle family Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Rosales Family: Urticaceae Juss., 1789 Synonyms Cecropiaceae C. C. Berg Urticaceae /ɜrtɨˈkeɪsiː/, or the nettle family, is a family of flowering plants. The family name comes from the genus Urtica. Urticaceae include a number of well-known and useful plants, including the aforementioned nettles, ramie (Boehmeria nivea), māmaki (Pipturus albidus), and ajlai (Debregeasia saeneb). The family includes approximately 2600 species, grouped into 54 to 79 genera according to the database of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The largest genera are Pilea (500 to 715 species), Elatostema (300 species), Urtica (80 species), and Cecropia (75 species). Urticaceae can be found worldwide, apart from the polar regions. Taxonomy APG II system puts Urticaceae in order Rosales, while older systems consider it part of Urticales, along with Ulmaceae, Moraceae and Cannabaceae. APG still considers "old" Urticales a monophyletic group, but does not recognise it as an order on its own. Description Male and female flower of Urtica Urticaceae can be shrubs (e.g. Pilea), lianas, herbs (e.g. Urtica, Parietaria), or, rarely, trees (Dendrocnide, Cecropia). Urticaceae 408 Leaves are usually entire and bear stipules. Urticating (stinging) hairs are often present. Urticaceae have usually unisexual flowers and can be both monoecious or dioecious. They are pollinated by the wind. Most disperse their pollen when the stamens are mature and their filaments straighten explosively, a peculiar and conspicuously specialised mechanism. Genera (Partial list) • Aboriella • Forsskaolea • Parietaria • Achudemia • Gesnouinia • Pellionia • Archiboehmeria • Gibbsia • Petelotiella • Astrothalamus • Girardinia • Phenax • Australina • Laportea • Pilea • Boehmeria • Lecanthus • Pipturus • Cecropia • Leucosyke • Poikilospermum • Chamabainia • Maoutia • Pouzolzia • Coussapoa • Meniscogyne • Procris • Cypholophus • Metatrophis • Rousselia • Debregeasia • Myriocarpa • Sarcochlamys • Dendrocnide • Nanocnide • Sarcopilea • Didymodoxa • Neodistemon • Soleirolia • Discocnide • Neraudia • Touchardia • Droguetia • Nothocnide • Urera • Elatostema • Obetia • Urtica - nettle • Oreocnide Image gallery Pilea cadierei Pilea pumila Dendrocnide sp. Elatostema umbellatum Urtica dioica Boehmeria nivea Parietaria judaica, flowers Urtica dioica, stinging hairs Urticaceae References • Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006 [and more or less continuously updated since]. ( • (Italian) Sandro Pignatti, Flora d'Italia, Edagricole, Bologna 1982. 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Hardyplants, Hare, Hesperian, Hi878, Horselover Frost, Huon, Imc, Imhallef, IronChris, Jay1279, Jedinow, Jmgarg1, JoJan, JohnnyMrNinja, Josh Grosse, Julia Rossi, Khalid Mahmood, Kingdon, Koyaanis Qatsi, Krasanen, Lethe, MPF, Magioladitis, Mani1, Mareino, Marshman, Mashford, Mav, Melburnian, Mgiganteus1, Mnenno, Montrealais, MrDarwin, Mygerardromance, Neelix, Nihongo250, Ninjatacoshell, Nono64, Nyh, Oliver Pereira, Olivierd, Onco p53, Orbis 3, Ortolan88, PDH, Papa November, Paul H., Penarc, Peter Chastain, Pexego, PierreAbbat, Pion, Plantsurfer, Police man11, Quercusrobur, Renato Caniatti, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rocastelo, Slambo, Sortior, Stan Shebs, Stefeyboy, Stemonitis, Sylverfysh, TDogg310, Takowl, TeunSpaans, Thingg, TonyClarke, TravisTX, Ulric1313, Unyoyega, UpstateNYer, Vicki Rosenzweig, Vinayaraj, Vortexrealm, Vuong Ngan Ha, Wakablogger2, Wavelength, Xensyria, Zaphod-XII, Zerstuckelung, Zfr, Zidonuke, Александър, 77 anonymous edits Acacia acuminata  Source:  Contributors: Callophylla, Canyq, David Hedlund, Grant65, Hesperian, JMK, Jenks24, JoJan, Jonkerz, Jungle Ruins, McGeddon, Nen888, Nickspacetree, Orderinchaos, Pdgeo, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, SatuSuro, That Guy, From That Show!, The-Pope, WriterHound, 6 anonymous edits Acacia alpina  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Diádoco, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, JoJan, Melburnian, Pegship, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, WriterHound, Ytrottier, 5 anonymous edits Acaciella angustissima  Source:  Contributors: Editor2020, Emijrp, ExplosiveTornado, Hesperian, Hqb, JoJan, Mjs1991, Ninjatacoshell, Pillitterin, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Thelmadatter, VQuakr, WriterHound, Xezbeth, YUL89YYZ, 1 anonymous edits Vachellia aroma  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, CarolSpears, Gene Nygaard, Irvan Ary Maulana, JoJan, Jonkerz, Mjs1991, Ninjatacoshell, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, WriterHound, 9 anonymous edits Acacia auriculiformis  Source:  Contributors: Bobby Awasthi, Bzdarko, Bùi Thụy Đào Nguyên, Cacycle, CommonsDelinker, Emijrp, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Hewyii78, Jaguarlaser, Jclemens, Jmgarg1, JoJan, Nenwiki, Pc1878, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rojypala, StAnselm, WriterHound, 11 anonymous edits Acacia baileyana  Source:  Contributors: Abu Shawka, Agüeybaná, Altenmann, Andres, B.d.mills, Benjamint444, Bezapt, Bidgee, Camerong, Casliber, DanielCD, Darorcilmir, David Hedlund, Dbenbenn, EvaK, Gene Nygaard, Groogle, Hesperian, JackofOz, Jason Recliner, Esq., JoJan, Jonkerz, Jusdafax, Kukini, L.parrot, Look2See1, MPF, Marshman, Melburnian, Mitch Ames, Nipisiquit, No1lakersfan, Oculi, Owen, PDH, RDBrown, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Roke, Seb35, Securiger, Snowolf, Suz5757, The Banner Turbo, UtherSRG, WriterHound, Ü, 19 anonymous edits Acacia beauverdiana  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Colonies Chris, Eug, Finetooth, Gene Nygaard, Grutness, Hesperian, Irvan Ary Maulana, JoJan, Mjs1991, Pegship, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, WriterHound Senegalia berlandieri  Source:  Contributors: Abductive, Antares red, Asarelah, Badagnani, Cacycle, Chem-awb, Danelo, Eloil, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, JoJan, Jonkerz, KEK, Mmcannis, Nightphoenix90, Ninjatacoshell, Peterusso, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Smalljim, TDogg310, WriterHound, Xprofj, Yonskii, 20 anonymous edits Senegalia catechu  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Cacycle, CommonsDelinker, D6, Danaman5, DandelionSteph, Dineshkumar86, Editor2020, GDibyendu, Gene Nygaard, Hoffmeier, Jesse V., Jmgarg1, JoJan, Jonkerz, Krish Dulal, Mogism, Niceguyedc, Ninjatacoshell, Nono64, NotWith, Prabinepali, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, SONI R. G., Sanjeev.singh3, Sankalpdravid, Sbblr geervaanee, Sbharris, Tassedethe, Teammm, Waacstats, WriterHound, Zawthet, 22 anonymous edits Vachellia caven  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, CarolSpears, Dthomsen8, Gene Nygaard, Ghart27, JoJan, Jonkerz, Kimon, Kman543210, Look2See1, Ninjatacoshell, Ohnoitsjamie, Onjacktallcuca, Panek, Pegship, Penarc, Plasticup, Rcsprinter123, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Umbertoumm, WriterHound, 6 anonymous edits Senegalia chundra  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Cacycle, D6, Editor2020, Gene Nygaard, Hessamnia, IceCreamAntisocial, JoJan, Ninjatacoshell, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, WriterHound, Zhangt2413, 6 anonymous edits Acacia colei  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Gene Nygaard, Grutness, Hesperian, JoJan, Nen888, Pegship, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Sainsf, Thaurisil, WriterHound, 4 anonymous edits Acacia complanata  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Dtrebbien, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, JoJan, Pegship, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, WriterHound, 2 anonymous edits Acacia confusa  Source:  Contributors: AnkhMorpork, Asarelah, Cacycle, Chun-hian, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Cuaxdon, Danelo, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Hu12, InMemoriamLuangPu, Iokseng, JoJan, Jonkerz, Michael Bailes, Ottawahitech, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Seidenstud, TDogg310, WriterHound, Ü, 30 anonymous edits Vachellia cornigera  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Cacycle, Chunchucmil, Cuaxdon, D6, David Latapie, Donner60, Dr CyCoe, EncycloPetey, Eugene van der Pijll, Fama Clamosa, GameKeeper, Hatmaskin, Hesperian, HorsePunchKid, IronChris, Jdogysiku, Jeffery A. Davis, JoJan, Kaliadia, Lear's Fool, Materialscientist, Moowgly, Ninjatacoshell, Oatmeal batman, Pseudomyrmex, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Richard001, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rpyle731, Sbharris, Snow Blizzard, Stemonitis, Stubblyhead, TDogg310, The Thing That Should Not Be, Tide rolls, Webclient101, Wknight94, WriterHound, 23 anonymous edits Acacia cultriformis  Source:  Contributors: Alperen, AngoraFish, Cacycle, ChrisGualtieri, DanielCD, EncycloPetey, Gil the Grinch, Hectorthebat, Hesperian, JoJan, Jonkerz, Look2See1, Melburnian, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Reflex Reaction, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, WriterHound, 15 anonymous edits Acacia cuthbertsonii  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Edward, Euryalus, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Grutness, Hesperian, Jonkerz, Pegship, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Sainsf, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Acacia decurrens  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, AussieLegend2, Cuaxdon, David Hedlund, EncMstr, Gene Nygaard, Gigemag76, GreenZmiy, Hesperian, JoJan, Jonkerz, Pegship, Poyt448, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Vinayaraj, Wldnjs547, Wouterstomp, WriterHound, 7 anonymous edits 411 Article Sources and Contributors Acacia delibrata  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Gene Nygaard, Grutness, Hesperian, JoJan, Pegship, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, SatuSuro, SchmidtRJ, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Acacia falcata  Source:  Contributors: Casliber, Choess, David Hedlund, Euryalus, Gene Nygaard, Grutness, Hesperian, JoJan, Jonkerz, Leandrod, Melburnian, Milton Stanley, Pegship, Pinethicket, Poyt448, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Sharktopus, Sminthopsis84, Stepp-Wulf, Wetman, WriterHound, 2 anonymous edits Vachellia farnesiana  Source:  Contributors: Altairisfar, Arturoramos, D6, Derek R Bullamore, Difu Wu, Dysmorodrepanis, EncycloPetey, Ethel Aardvark, Flubeca, GreenZmiy, Hesperian, JoJan, Karduelis, Kenraiz, Kleopatra, LilHelpa, Lotje, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mithril, Niceguyedc, Nightphoenix90, Ninjatacoshell, Peterusso, Philmarin, Ping, Pol098, Rcsprinter123, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, Ruggiero, Sbharris, TDogg310, Tatianadms, Woohookitty, WriterHound, Xprofj, YVSREDDY, 33 anonymous edits Acacia flavescens  Source:  Contributors: Casliber, Ceoil, Circeus, Kimse Acacia floribunda  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Casliber, ChrisGualtieri, DuncanHill, Dysmorodrepanis, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Hortiphoto, JoJan, Jonkerz, Melburnian, Pegship, RDBrown, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, Trappist the monk, WriterHound, 5 anonymous edits Acacia georginae  Source:  Contributors: Berichard, Cacycle, Edgar181, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, JoJan, Jonkerz, JustAGal, Mark Marathon, Pegship, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, WriterHound Vachellia horrida  Source:  Contributors: Blechnic, Cacycle, Edmundohgsilva, Gene Nygaard, JoJan, KaiKemmann, Lotje, Ninjatacoshell, Rgimilio, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Stemonitis, TAnthony, Trappist the monk, WriterHound, 3 anonymous edits Acacia implexa  Source:  Contributors: Abu Shawka, ColourBurst, DVernon, FoCuSandLeArN, Harriv, Hesperian, JoJan, Jonkerz, Katharineamy, Maias, Maustrauser, Melburnian, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rkitko, WriterHound, 3 anonymous edits Mimosa tenuiflora  Source:  Contributors: ***Ria777, Alexcount, Alpha19766, AxelBoldt, BW95, Bfesser, Catgut, Chowbok, Cmdrjameson, Colonies Chris, Cwmhiraeth, DMacks, DanielCD, Davidg221, Deli nk, Deville, Dysmorodrepanis, Edgar181, Eeekster, Fibo1123581321, Flakinho, Fluidhomefront, Götz, Heah, Hilarleo, Iscruwithu, JForget, Jace1, Jaguarlaser, Jprg1966, Lensim, Magister Mathematicae, Mejkravitz, Miserlou, MolBioMan, Murple, Ninjatacoshell, Nono64, Oddity-, Ottawahitech, Pere prlpz, RDBrown, Reedy, Rehiska, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, Sharavanabhava, Simon Peter Hughes, Stemonitis, Steve Quinn, Thehappysmith, U-571, Welsh, WriterHound, Zarnivop, Δ, 73 anonymous edits Vachellia karroo  Source:  Contributors: Androstachys, Asarelah, AssegaiAli, Cacycle, CarolSpears, CommonsDelinker, Dollyagrawal, Ekabhishek, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Jim1138, JoJan, Jonkerz, Lucyin, MPF, Makecat, Masem, McSly, Ninjatacoshell, Paul venter, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, Ruigeroeland, TammyWilmans, WriterHound, 11 anonymous edits Senegalia laeta  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Hamamelis, Jonkerz, Look2See1, MPF, Marco Schmidt, Ninjatacoshell, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, WriterHound, 3 anonymous edits Acacia longifolia  Source:  Contributors: Abu Shawka, Berichard, Cacycle, Cgoodwin, Emijrp, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Jesse V., JonRichfield, Luna Santin, MPF, Maias, Melburnian, Nen888, Pegship, RDBrown, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, WriterHound, 10 anonymous edits Acacia sophorae  Source:  Contributors: Maias, Melburnian, WriterHound, 2 anonymous edits Acacia macradenia  Source:  Contributors: Arjayay, Art LaPella, Bruce1ee, Casliber, CommonsDelinker, Eumolpo, Gaius Cornelius, Gourami Watcher, Jonesey95, Melburnian, Melchoir, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Ruigeroeland, SwisterTwister, Tabletop, William.chan Acacia maidenii  Source:  Contributors: Alan Rockefeller, Alphamuchi, Cacycle, Colonies Chris, D6, EncycloPetey, Flakinho, Gavia immer, Gene Nygaard, Heah, Hesperian, Jackjk1011, Jonkerz, Mayur, Mejor Los Indios, Melburnian, Mikebrown77, Mild Bill Hiccup, Nono64, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, SchuminWeb, Siebrand, Spoonlegs, Sumoeagle179, Wiki wiki1, WriterHound, Zane10023, Δ, 6 anonymous edits Acacia mangium  Source:  Contributors: Bearcat, Berichard, Bgwhite, Cacycle, CommonsDelinker, DeadEyeArrow, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Jacob.jose, Jmgarg1, Jonkerz, Langbein Rise, LigerThai, Magioladitis, Mwng, Nuttycoconut, Ongjyhseng, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Schwepat, Sophus Bie, TDogg310, Ted1712, VonTasha, WriterHound, 9 anonymous edits Acacia melanoxylon  Source:  Contributors: Alan Liefting, Alex Bakharev, Alperen, Amaury, Andres, Anthony Appleyard, Arcadian, Baf87, Berkeleybernie, Bogong, Bongwarrior, Breno, Burntsauce, CarolGray, Casliber, Cruccone, Dantadd, David Hedlund, Dick Bos, Emijrp, Eric in SF, FidockHD, Franz Xaver, Grafen, GreenZmiy, Greensheep, Hesperian, JJ Harrison, JWB, Jacksonj04, JoJan, Jonkerz, KnightRider, Leithal92, Look2See1, MegaSloth, Moondyne, NTDOY Fanboy, Naught101, NeriumKristina, Neutrality, Nicke L, PDH, Paul foord, Pedant, Prodego, Rcsprinter123, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, SDC, SheepNotGoats, Sherbie182, Stephenpratt, Sumoeagle179, WriterHound, Yurell, Zangala, பரிதிமதி, 14 anonymous edits Senegalia mellifera  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Cacycle, Chirundu, CommonsDelinker, Cuaxdon, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, JMK, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mukogodo, Nick Number, Ninjatacoshell, NoahElhardt, Ongava, Pegship, Pompilid, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, TubularWorld, WriterHound, 9 anonymous edits Vachellia nilotica  Source:  Contributors: Abrahami, Aksha67, Anaxial, Arcendet, Asarelah, Avicenna Fellows, BD2412, Baajhan, Bamyers99, Barticus88, Cacycle, CanadianLinuxUser, Dollyagrawal, DrFO.Jr.Tn, Dysmorodrepanis, Ekabhishek, Espoo, Ethel Aardvark, Gene Nygaard, Gidip, Gold heart, Helmoony, Hesperian, JMK, JaGa, JamesAM, Jamesx12345, Jayadevp13, Jmgarg1, JoJan, Krish Dulal, Look2See1, MPF, Marco Schmidt, Mark Marathon, Martian, Mbell, Mgiganteus1, Mwng, Navudt, NawlinWiki, Neutrality, Ninjatacoshell, Nono64, Ntsimp, PM800, Polinizador, QuiteUnusual, RDBrown, Rcsprinter123, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Saguamundi, Saravask, Satdeep gill, Sbharris, Scientizzle, Shadowjams, Slats Naair, Stemonitis, Thricecube, Trixie05, Verne Equinox, WriterHound, ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪﻋﻠﯽ ﺑﺨﺘﯿﺎﺭﯼ‬, आशीष भटनागर, 35 anonymous edits Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Hesperian, JoJan, Mwng, Ninjatacoshell, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, Stemonitis, WriterHound Acacia obtusifolia  Source:  Contributors: Berichard, Cacycle, D6, Derek Andrews, Entheogeninfo, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Jonkerz, Melburnian, Nen888, Nick Number, Nickspacetree, Nono64, OrenBochman, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, WriterHound, 3 anonymous edits Vachellia oerfota  Source:  Contributors: Agüeybaná, Cacycle, Editor2020, Gene Nygaard, Grutness, Michael Hardy, Ninjatacoshell, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, WriterHound Acacia penninervis  Source:  Contributors: Beeswaxcandle, Berichard, Cacycle, Cargoking, D6, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, JoJan, Jonkerz, Melburnian, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Royall, WriterHound Acacia phlebophylla  Source:  Contributors: Alan Rockefeller, Cacycle, CarlTurney, ChrisCork, Crusoe8181, Derek Andrews, Flakinho, France3470, Gene Nygaard, Heah, Hesperian, Infinium, Insanelineman, Jjron, Melburnian, Rcsprinter123, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Sphilbrick, Steiger, Tassedethe, The Banner Turbo, WriterHound, 12 anonymous edits Acacia podalyriifolia  Source:  Contributors: Bidgee, Cacycle, CommonsDelinker, Crusoe8181, Ercé, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Jonkerz, Ken Gallager, Look2See1, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Verbum Veritas, VonTasha, WriterHound, 2 anonymous edits Senegalia polyacantha  Source:  Contributors: AfadsBad, Cacycle, Dysmorodrepanis, Editor2020, Fafnir1, Faizan, Flakinho, Hessamnia, Imc, JMK, Linqi.linqi, Marco Schmidt, Ninjatacoshell, Nono64, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, SwisterTwister, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Vachellia rigidula  Source:  Contributors: 97198, Edgar181, Editor2020, Emijrp, Felix Folio Secundus, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Götz, Hesperian, Joel7687, Kweeket, Magioladitis, Mike19772007, Miserlou, Newmatt3, Nightphoenix90, Ninjatacoshell, PigFlu Oink, Pinethicket, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, TDogg310, UltraMagnus, WriterHound, Xprofj, 11 anonymous edits 412 Article Sources and Contributors Acacia sassa  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Gene Nygaard, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, WriterHound Acacia schaffneri  Source:  Contributors: Bodnotbod, Docu, Editor2020, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Jonkerz, Melburnian, Moswento, PigFlu Oink, R'n'B, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, WriterHound Senegalia senegal  Source:  Contributors: Alan Liefting, Asarelah, BD2412, Cacycle, ChrisGualtieri, CommonsDelinker, ConcealMyIPAddress, DanielCD, Download, EncycloPetey, Erodium, Eugene van der Pijll, Flakinho, Hesperian, IceCreamAntisocial, Kaarel, Keitsist, Kmoksy, Marco Schmidt, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mipadi, Neha.Vindhya, Ninjatacoshell, NotWith, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Sxoa, Tom Radulovich, WriterHound, 27 anonymous edits Vachellia seyal  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Djhaskin987, Dv82matt, Gene Nygaard, JoJan, Jonkerz, Keitsist, Koavf, L Kensington, Look2See1, Marco Schmidt, Mukogodo, Ninjatacoshell, NoahElhardt, Nono64, Plantdrew, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, SchmidtRJ, TAnthony, The Man in Question, Valley2city, Welsh, WriterHound, Xufanc, 8 anonymous edits Vachellia sieberiana  Source:  Contributors: Alan Liefting, Asarelah, Casliber, D6, Drakenwolf, Gene Nygaard, JMK, JoJan, JonRichfield, Jonkerz, Marco Schmidt, Ninjatacoshell, Ohnoitsjamie, Qmwne235, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, WriterHound, 4 anonymous edits Acacia simplex  Source:  Contributors: Chronoos, Colonies Chris, Gene Nygaard, Ninjatacoshell, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, TDogg310, Tauʻolunga, WriterHound, 4 anonymous edits Vachellia tortilis  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Ato 01, Autumnalmonk, Bender235, Ctesiphon7, Cuaxdon, Delfeye, Deor, Eliyak, Em3rald, Esculapio, Flakinho, Gdr, Geichhorn2000, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, JMK, Jonkerz, Koavf, Little Savage, Look2See1, Makecat, Marco Schmidt, Ninjatacoshell, PDH, Paul venter, Philip Trueman, Pjacobi, Quadell, R'n'B, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Roburq, Roeyan, Schmatt, T L Miles, WriterHound, 19 anonymous edits Acacia vestita  Source:  Contributors: Berichard, Bidgee, Bodnotbod, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Hesperian, Jonkerz, Lightmouse, Look2See1, Majestic Pyre, Melburnian, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rkitko, Some jerk on the Internet, Tim1357, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Acacia victoriae  Source:  Contributors: Bambinn, Berichard, C.Fred, Cacycle, CommonsDelinker, DRyan, Difu Wu, EdJohnston, Ekotkie, Ethel Aardvark, Flakinho, Grutness, Hesperian, John Moss, Jonkerz, Lienc, Mark Marathon, Melburnian, Mlpearc, Nen888, Pegship, Rcsprinter123, Rkitko, Soumyasch, Tiroloco980, Traveler100, WriterHound, Xezbeth, 4 anonymous edits Albizia inundata  Source:  Contributors: Cacycle, Circeus, Difluoroethene, Dysmorodrepanis, Flakinho, Gene Nygaard, Quadell, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, Sluzzelin, TubeWorld, WriterHound Anadenanthera colubrina  Source:  Contributors: AManWithNoPlan, BaconBean, Billycuts, C6541, Cacycle, Cbrescia, Cmdrjameson, CommonsDelinker, DanielCD, Dentren, Einheit3, Emijrp, EncycloPetey, Flakinho, Götz, Heah, Jonkerz, Keenan Pepper, Kelly Martin, Noodlez84, OAC, Pappa, Proofreader77, RDBrown, Rhode Island Red, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Ron Delipski, Sainsf, Sharavanabhava, The lifted lorax, U-571, Woohookitty, WriterHound, Yikrazuul, 23 anonymous edits Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Danelo, Dysmorodrepanis, Jonkerz, Keilana, Rcsprinter123, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, WriterHound, 6 anonymous edits Anadenanthera peregrina  Source:  Contributors: Alan Liefting, Alan Rockefeller, Bobblehead, Brockert, Cacycle, Coaster420, Dalf, Dysmorodrepanis, Edgar181, FlowingVisions, Grimlock, Gulielmus Cumrotae, Gyrofrog, Heah, Hmains, Hooperswim, Invest in knowledge, J.delanoy, J04n, JYolkowski, Jamesontai, Jason7825, Jonkerz, Junglebabies, Kelly Martin, Kintetsubuffalo, Leslieee 08, Lothar von Richthofen, Magioladitis, Metalhead94, Miserlou, Mleonard85032, Mmcannis, NickBush24, Noodlez84, Ohnoitsjamie, Olleicua, Pappa, PierreAbbat, Rhode Island Red, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Ron Delipski, Rtcoles, Sainsf, Sharavanabhava, Smartse, Sonett72, Soporaeternus, Stemonitis, TAnthony, TimBentley, Twas Now, Twisturbed Tachyon, U-571, Wayne Roberson, Austin, Texas, WriterHound, Xanzzibar, Yungcanadian, 94 anonymous edits Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina  Source:  Contributors: Coelacan, Dysmorodrepanis, Hesperian, Jonkerz, MZMcBride, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Sainsf, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Bufotenin  Source:  Contributors: 1000Faces, 1dragon, A C Williams, Aenar, Anypodetos, Arcadian, Avaragado, Avicennasis, Beetstra, Bryan Derksen, C6541, Cacycle, Chemgirl131, DMacks, David Hedlund, Dcirovic, Dratman, Dysmorodrepanis, Edgar181, Eloil, Enix150, FlowingVisions, Gene Nygaard, GregorB, Guitarmankev1, Gustavb, Gyrofrog, Götz, Hailey C. Shannon, Halogenated, Heah, Hede2000, James086, Jenks24, JonRHanna, Jü, Kelly Martin, Lilac Soul, Louisajb, MARQUIS111, Materialscientist, Meco, Melaen, Meodipt, Mitch Ames, NTK, Nick Number, Nikos 1993, Ninjawailer, Nirmos, OAC, Pappa, Porkins8888, Pro bug catcher, ProxyChemist, Psychonaut25, RDBrown, Rafaelamonteiro80, Ranma9617, Raymond Keller, Rhode Island Red, Rich Farmbrough, Rich257, Rjwilmsi, Ron Delipski, STGM, Saxbryn, Sbrools, Seppi333, Sharavanabhava, Simon Peter Hughes, Skorpion87, Sochaos, Stonemaccas, Su-no-G, Supspirit, TheBaur, Thermalite, Tillbury, Wayne Roberson, Austin, Texas, Zinnmann, ‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻂ‬, 97 anonymous edits Desmanthus illinoensis  Source:  Contributors: Flakinho, Muhandes, Nightphoenix90, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Desmanthus leptolobus  Source:  Contributors: Entheogeninfo, Flakinho, HitroMilanese, IceCreamAntisocial, Ihatelife12312, Jim62sch, Lostandfoundbooks, MER-C, Rkitko, Skankyfish, Syed Ather 4578, Tim1357, Twsx, WriterHound, 5 anonymous edits Desmodium caudatum  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Cuaxdon, Nonenmac, Rkitko, Stemonitis, TDogg310, WriterHound, 2 anonymous edits Codariocalyx motorius  Source:  Contributors: Antony css, Cacycle, Caeonosphere, Callowschoolboy, Chris Capoccia, Cmdrjameson, DanielCD, Dinosaurdarrell, Dysmorodrepanis, Flakinho, Hanacy, Hesperian, Joshi, Kaarel, MPF, MrLogic, Psychonaut, Pwjb, Raghith, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rkitko, Sct72, Slaweks, Someone97531, Stemonitis, Theoboyd, Tim Peterson, VBGFscJUn3, VictorianMutant, Vlmastra, Weedgarden, Woohookitty, 23 anonymous edits Desmodium triflorum  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, CommonsDelinker, Jkadavoor, Jmgarg1, Nightphoenix90, Peter coxhead, RXRX, Rkitko, Smartse, Stemonitis, TDogg310, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Leonurus sibiricus  Source:  Contributors: BillyPreset, Bowiesk8ter91, Ceyockey, Cuaxdon, Deli nk, DrJunge, Eugene van der Pijll, Galoubet, Hafliger, HappyInGeneral, Hardyplants, Hesperian, JaGa, Jonesey95, Jrockley, Lagunacounter, Look2See1, Niduzzi, Pegship, Rajb245, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rjwilmsi, RodneyO01283283, Signalhead, Stemonitis, Super-plantes, Tauʻolunga, ThomasPusch, Woohookitty, WriterHound, 19 anonymous edits Lespedeza capitata  Source:  Contributors: 1300131E5, IceCreamAntisocial, Kimse, Nightphoenix90, Rcej, Stemonitis, The Bushranger, Woohookitty Lespedeza bicolor  Source:  Contributors: Circeus, Cwmhiraeth, IceCreamAntisocial, Rcej, Stemonitis Mimosa ophthalmocentra  Source:  Contributors: Brenont, Rkitko, TDogg310, WriterHound, 4 anonymous edits Mimosa scabrella  Source:  Contributors: Cwmhiraeth, Flakinho, Jaguarlaser, Masebrock, Rkitko, Tn9005, Trexpro, WriterHound, 2 anonymous edits Mimosa somnians  Source:  Contributors: Cwmhiraeth, Flakinho, Jaguarlaser, Mild Bill Hiccup, Rkitko, WriterHound, 2 anonymous edits Mimosa verrucosa  Source:  Contributors: Berton, Cuaxdon, Cwmhiraeth, Hesperian, Jaguarlaser, Lguipontes, PDH, Quadell, Rkitko, Squids and Chips, WriterHound, Yikrazuul, 3 anonymous edits Mucuna pruriens  Source:  Contributors: Agong1, Aldert, Alvis, Amalas, Amigo33, AntonioFlare, BD2412, Brimba, Broshious, Cacycle, CharlotteWebb, CommonsDelinker, Cvpillai, Cyanolinguophile, DanielCD, Deli nk, Deproduction, Dmarquard, Dmw, DrJGMD, Drakmed, Dysmorodrepanis, Eleassar, Erianna, Erik Kennedy, Estwordenn, Fiber B, Flakinho, Fuzzform, Gene Nygaard, Guaráwolf, Hashemi1971, Headbomb, IceCreamAntisocial, Ivan Shmakov, Jadentanmedia, Jambolik, Jeremykemp, Jfdwolff, Jmgarg1, JonRichfield, JorisvS, Judicatordex, Jytdog, Klemen Kocjancic, Krish Dulal, LRBurdak, Lguipontes, Lothar von Richthofen, MKar, Macellarius, Marco Schmidt, Mayor mt, Michael Bailes, Mike19772007, Mmortal03, Nbhowmick, Nikpapag, Okiefromokla (old), Pjrich, Pratap.sps, Psychonaut, Rhode Island Red, Rhombus, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rosarinagazo, Rssaddict, Silenceisgod, Soaringhawk21, Stemonitis, Stepa, SteveIndigo, Takowl, Taric25, Tumacama, Untrue Believer, Updatehelper, Vietlong, Warut, Wikiphrenia, WriterHound, Xeno, 413 Article Sources and Contributors Xhienne, 100 anonymous edits Phyllodium pulchellum  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Dawynn, Flakinho, Rkitko, Stemonitis, WriterHound Caesalpinioideae  Source:  Contributors: AS, Alvinyh, Brya, Bulas, CanisRufus, Codiferous, DanielCD, DrFO.Jr.Tn, Dysmorodrepanis, EncycloPetey, Fatasskidleslie, Glenn, Hesperian, Hydro, JMK, Jmgarg1, JoJan, Kingdon, MPF, Magioladitis, Maksdo, Marshman, Mgiganteus1, Mmcannis, MrDarwin, Naddy, Ninjatacoshell, Nipisiquit, NotWith, PDH, PierreAbbat, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rickjpelleg, Rkitko, Rsabbatini, Seglea, Shoefly, Silja, Sortior, Tom Radulovich, Tvarnoe, Vuong Ngan Ha, Winterfromme101, WormRunner, Wtmitchell, Yath, Yonaa, ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬, 13 anonymous edits Lauraceae  Source:  Contributors: Abychan, AfadsBad, Alarics, Alexandrov, AnnaP, Auró, BD2412, Bazonka, Benjamint444, Berton, Bgwhite, Brya, CRGreathouse, CanisRufus, Casliber, Curritocurrito, DanielCD, Dominus, EnSamulili, FTPlus, Finlux, Gigemag76, GoingBatty, Gulielmus Cumrotae, Hesperian, Hydro, Jmgarg1, JonRichfield, Jonkerz, Josh Grosse, Kahuroa, Kaiwen1, Kls0, Kpjas, KrisWood, Lindera benzoin, Loniceas, MPF, Marshman, Matthew Stannard, Mike Dallwitz, Mike hayes, Mmcknight4, Naddy, Nadiatalent, NaySay, Neumeiko, Nick Number, Nipisiquit, Nixve, Ocotea, Olorin28, PaleCloudedWhite, Pethan, Pibolata, Pinethicket, Plantdrew, R'n'B, Ready, Rhanyeia, Rjwilmsi, Sanya, SchreiberBike, Smallweed, Sminthopsis84, Sonia Murillo Perales, Stan Shebs, Thestraycat57, Tom Radulovich, Ufwuct, Vrenator, Vuong Ngan Ha, Wlodzimierz, WormRunner, Xololo348, 95 anonymous edits Malpighiaceae  Source:  Contributors: A bit iffy, AfadsBad, Bff, Bjankuloski06en, Fanghong, Hede2000, Hesperian, Jmgarg1, MPF, Maxima m, Mike Dallwitz, Mmcknight4, Muriel Gottrop, Nono64, Rkitko, Stemonitis, TDogg310, Vuong Ngan Ha, Waacstats, 4 anonymous edits Diplopterys cabrerana  Source:  Contributors: ***Ria777, BD2412, Bunnyhop11, Cacycle, Charangito, Flakinho, Heah, Iridescent, Leinad, MPF, Martpol, Perencake, Rich Farmbrough, Ringbang, Rkitko, Sniperz11, Stemonitis, Sverigekillen, U-571, Waacstats, WriterHound, 9 anonymous edits Myristicaceae  Source:  Contributors: AfadsBad, Andew, Balti054, Berton, Brya, CommonsDelinker, Curritocurrito, Dewritech, EncycloPetey, Fanghong, Hairy Dude, Hesperian, Jaytwist, Jmgarg1, MPF, Maxima m, Michaplot, NotWith, PDH, Peter coxhead, Qwertzy2, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Saurabh.g.123, Sminthopsis84, Vojtěch Zavadil, Vuong Ngan Ha, Welsh, Wlodzimierz, WriterHound, 9 anonymous edits Horsfieldia superba  Source:  Contributors: Hesperian, Meodipt, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola calophylla  Source:  Contributors: Dysmorodrepanis, Flakinho, Gobonobo, Hesperian, Lilac Soul, OlEnglish, WriterHound, 3 anonymous edits Virola callophylloidea  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Dawynn, Hesperian, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola carinata  Source:  Contributors: Hamamelis, Hesperian, Quadell, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola cuspidata  Source:  Contributors: ArakisTheKitsune, Asarelah, Dawynn, Hesperian, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola divergens  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Dawynn, Hesperian, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola elongata  Source:  Contributors: Colonies Chris, David Hedlund, Dysmorodrepanis, Hesperian, Jeff3000, Rkitko, WriterHound, 3 anonymous edits Virola melinonii  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, Dawynn, Flakinho, Hesperian, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola multinervia  Source:  Contributors: Hesperian, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola pavonis  Source:  Contributors: BD2412, Dewritech, Gaius Cornelius, Hesperian, Rkitko, Steelkittens, TimBentley, WriterHound, 4 anonymous edits Virola peruviana  Source:  Contributors: Bunnyhop11, D6, Derwig, Hesperian, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Virola rufula  Source:  Contributors: Asarelah, ChrisGualtieri, Dawynn, Hesperian, Rkitko, WriterHound, 3 anonymous edits Virola sebifera  Source:  Contributors: 2over0, Bob Burkhardt, Drviveksakthi, Flakinho, Iridescent, Look2See1, Pinkville, Topbanana, WriterHound, Yikrazuul, 5 anonymous edits Virola surinamensis  Source:  Contributors: EncycloPetey, Hesperian, Michael Bailes, Nadiatalent, TubularWorld, We hope, WriterHound, 5 anonymous edits Virola venosa  Source:  Contributors: Bongwarrior, Bootquick, Colombiano21, Hesperian, PigFlu Oink, Rkitko, WriterHound, 1 anonymous edits Ochnaceae  Source:  Contributors: 1978, AfadsBad, Ahoerstemeier, Bff, DanielCD, Flakinho, GTBacchus, Hesperian, MPF, Mike Dallwitz, Million Moments, ProveIt, Qwertzy2, Rkitko, WolfmanSF, 8 anonymous edits Testulea gabonensis  Source:  Contributors: Hesperian, Pzrmd, Rkitko, Stemonitis, The Founders Intent, TubularWorld, WriterHound Pandanus  Source:  Contributors: 21655, Abby, Adam.fathuhy, AdjustShift, Ahoerstemeier, Arsen, Aschwole, Auntof6, Aymankamelwiki, Badagnani, Bearcat, Bluemin, Bodox, BrianBlauch, Brya, Chiswick Chap, Ciput, Curb Chain, Daderot, DanielCD, DaveKimble, David.Monniaux, Deli nk, Derek R Bullamore, Download, DrJGMD, Dryman, Dtrebbien, Dysmorodrepanis, EagleFan, EncycloPetey, Eugene van der Pijll, Exxolon, Flowerparty, Fuzzform, Gihan Jayaweera, Grzegorj, Hamamelis, Hesperian, Honeydew, IP Singh, Idleguy, Ipaat, Islandbaygardener, JGKlein, Jamesbamba, Jmrowland, Kanguole, KeithH, Kevmin, Kintetsubuffalo, Kwamikagami, La goutte de pluie, Langra, LastChapter, Look2See1, MPF, Maestlin, Maias, Mampam, Mani1, Marshman, Martin6758, Mazefang, Merbabu, Mothperson, Mxn, Nashville Monkey, NewEnglandYankee, Nil Einne, Nzhamstar, Oculus42, PRanXz, Pekinensis, Peter Delmonte, Pkloink, Plantdrew, Prakash Nadkarni, Reywas92, Rkitko, Roychai, Shannon.wianecki, Shirimasen, Sjschen, Snowmanradio, Sonia Murillo Perales, Stemonitis, Sting, TDogg310, Takeaway, Tauʻolunga, The Rambling Man, Thierry Caro, Tnxman307, Tommy Kronkvist, TonyTheTiger, Typotracker, UberScienceNerd, Wikicentral, WolfmanSF, WriterHound, Yoviana, ธวัชชัย, 77 anonymous edits Poaceae  Source:  Contributors: 12345benz, 1984, Aelwyn, AfadsBad, Alan Liefting, Alexei Kouprianov, Alphathon, Alvis, Anthony Appleyard, Atubeileh, Azhyd, BCM NZ, BD2412, Ben-Zin, Benchamas, BerneyBoy, Blainster, Blokenearexeter, Bmackcw, Britzingen, Brockert, Brya, CNWG, CTZMSC3, Cmapm, Connormah, Curtis Clark, DanielCD, Dankarl, Dendodge, Dinoguy2, Dj Capricorn, DocWatson42, Donarreiskoffer, DrMicro, Dustball, Dysmorodrepanis, Easchiff, El C, Eleassar, Eric Kvaalen, Euchiasmus, Eug, Ewen, Famartin, Fir0002, Folypeelarks, Friendlyliz, FrummerThanThou, Gene Nygaard, Geniac, GerardM, Gigemag76, Glenn, Gob Lofa, GorillazFanAdam, Graminophile, Ground Zero, Gruekiller, Hamamelis, Hardyplants, Hesperian, Imc, IronGargoyle, J.delanoy, Jaknouse, Jason M, Jauhienij, Jhbdel, Jht4060, Jkadavoor, Jmgarg1, JoJan, Joel7687, Julienvr, Jóna Þórunn, Kahkonen, Karl-Henner, Kate, Kelvinsong, Kingdon, Knutux, LOL, Lady Tenar, Lambiam, Lenticel, LilHelpa, Lockesdonkey, Logan, Look2See1, MPF, Magioladitis, Marknesbitt, Marshman, Masterthomas, Mgiganteus1, Miaow Miaow, Michaplot, Mike Dallwitz, Miss Madeline, Morwen, MrDarwin, Munita Prasad, NTox, Ngstanton, Nipisiquit, Nono64, NotTires, Nurg, OlEnglish, Paalexan, Peanutcactus, Pedro Onativia, Pekinensis, Phatom87, PierreAbbat, Piolinfax, Pion, Quebec99, Qwertzy2, RandomP, Redvers, Renato Caniatti, Richard New Forest, RichardMills65, Rob Hooft, Robin S, Rosser1954, RoyBoy, Satellizer, Shattered Gnome, Sin-man, Skizzik, Sluzzelin, Smartse, Sminthopsis84, Smith609, SoilMan2007, Sonelle, Stan Shebs, Stevertigo, Storkk, Taranet, Tauʻolunga, Template namespace initialisation script, TheOldJacobite, Think outside the box, Tim1357, Tjunier, Toby Bartels, Tony Sidaway, UtherSRG, Vina, Viscious81, Vuong Ngan Ha, Watcharakorn, Weedgarden, Wetman, Weyes, Wysprgr2005, Youssefsan, Zeamays, 137 anonymous edits Arundo donax  Source:  Contributors: Ad.minster, Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Altairisfar, Anastrophe, Andrew Dalby, AndrewBuck, Antandrus, Apgeraint, Arundodonax, Arundodonax100, Arunesh85, Bjh21, Borevitz, Brutaldeluxe, Caegb, Curtis Clark, Daboss6, Deaconcty, Dragonfly101, Edgeplot, Edward, Eeee, Elie plus, Evelyn Z, Ficusndc, Floscuculi, Frotz, Hamamelis, Hesperian, Hmains, Ipoellet, JDrolet, Jboltonnal, JoJan, Johngoolsby, Justincram, Khazar2, Kl4m, Kullg4r, Lignomontanus, Look2See1, MKoltnow, MPF, Mac, Mandarax, Mathematiks, Mayor mt, MdReisman, MrOllie, Muriel Gottrop, Murtasa, Neko-chan, Neutrality, NotWith, ONAR, PBG250, PaleCloudedWhite, Picapica, Pinky sl, Proedits1, Qazwix, Reaper Eternal, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Shizhao, Spettro9, Stangetz66, Stemonitis, Sugeesh, Tdynes, Trachemys, Trappist the monk, Velho, Verdatum, Vuong Ngan Ha, Wavelength, Wighson, Wiki skylace, Woohookitty, WriterHound, Þjóðólfr, 74 anonymous edits 414 Article Sources and Contributors Phalaris aquatica  Source:  Contributors: AzseicsoK, Black.monolith, Danelo, EncycloPetey, Entheogeninfo, Eugene van der Pijll, Harbinary, Heah, Hesperian, IceCreamAntisocial, Look2See1, MunkyJuce69, Peripitus, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Stemonitis, Tortie tude, WriterHound, 11 anonymous edits Phalaris arundinacea  Source:  Contributors: ABC123, Active Banana, Aenar, Alan Rockefeller, Altenmann, Anhalonium, Atubeileh, Avegab, AzseicsoK, Badmusician, Bobo192, CanisRufus, Circeus, DanielCD, Derlaffe, EncycloPetey, Entheogeninfo, EugeneZelenko, Glane23, Grafen, Heah, Hesperian, IceCreamAntisocial, Inky, KBYU, Kaarel, Kerelsk, Keri, Krish Dulal, Look2See1, MPF, Milton Stanley, Neutrality, Open2universe, Poohole12, PostScript, PurpleHz, Pzrmd, Raz1el, Ribesspp, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Romanskolduns, SB Johnny, Sam Hocevar, Sharavanabhava, Stemonitis, Sten, U-571, Valfontis, VictorianMutant, Wingedsubmariner, WriterHound, 55 anonymous edits Phalaris brachystachys  Source:  Contributors: AzseicsoK, Droll, Elie plus, Entheogeninfo, Flakinho, Hesperian, Ka Faraq Gatri, Musicman4534, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, WriterHound, ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻠﺜﻮﻡ‬, 2 anonymous edits Phragmites  Source:  Contributors: 2D, Ablax222, Ajcheema, Amlambert, Anthony Appleyard, Apclass123, Atubeileh, Bgwhite, Blokenearexeter, Bobblewik, Brian Crawford, Caponer, Colchicum, Craigsjones, Curtis Clark, Danmichaelo, Darorcilmir, Daven200520, DeadEyeArrow, Denisarona, Dougher, Download, Dysmorodrepanis, Elie plus, Emijrp, Epipelagic, Eric, Eugenwpg, Evelyn Z, Fanghong, First Light, Flakinho, Flamingpheonix, Gonduin, Graham87, Gruzd, Hairy Dude, Hardyplants, HarveyTW, Heah, Hesperian, HeteroZellous, Hhbruun, Hugo.arg, J. Spencer, JGerretse, Jackhynes, Janke, Jboltonnal, Jkransen, Joseph Laferriere, Juybari, K.C. Tang, Katimawan2005, Khafesho, Krsont, Look2See1, Loren.wilton, M4gnum0n, MPF, Materialscientist, Meotrangden, Mick Barber, Nadiatalent, NaySay, Nentuaby, Nickid12, Nightphoenix90, Nipisiquit, Noder4, OlEnglish, Panxenia, Penarc, Raven in Orbit, Rich Farmbrough, Richard New Forest, Rick Block, Rkitko, Rlevse, RoS, Roisterer, Rtateson, Salgueiro, SchreiberBike, Seb az86556, Shao, Slawojarek, Smallweed, Snommit, Stausifr, TDogg310, Thayts, TheAlphaWolf, TheObtuseAngleOfDoom, Timma258, Tinton5, Unionhawk, Vanished user 39948282, Vuong Ngan Ha, WAS 4.250, Wavelength, Wiki skylace, Willseychew, Wlodzimierz, WriterHound, ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻠﺜﻮﻡ‬, 94 anonymous edits Polygonaceae  Source:  Contributors: Aelwyn, AfadsBad, AnnaP, Atubeileh, Ben-Zin, Brya, Cetp, Chaitea123, Conversion script, DMacks, Daderot, DanielCD, Dj Capricorn, DrFO.Jr.Tn, EncycloPetey, GTBacchus, Gdr, Gigemag76, Glenn, Grendelkhan, Hardyplants, Hesperian, JJ Harrison, Jerry, Jmgarg1, JoJan, Josh Grosse, Kingdon, LarryJeff, LucasVB, Mattsop, Melchoir, Menchi, Meotrangden, Mike Dallwitz, Moflg, Nk, Nono64, Peterlewis, PierreAbbat, Qwertzy2, Rich Farmbrough, Rkitko, Rmky87, SB Johnny, Sahfrei, Seglea, Some jerk on the Internet, Srtxg, Stan Shebs, TeunSpaans, Tomchiukc, Tusbra, UpstateNYer, Vuong Ngan Ha, 28 anonymous edits Punica  Source:  Contributors: Abanima, Addere, Bearcat, Erutuon, Flakinho, Gigemag76, Kazvorpal, MPF, Melchoir, MkhitarSparapet, Nadiatalent, Neddyseagoon, Omar hoftun, Plantdrew, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Rmky87, Stan Shebs, Stemonitis, Stupid girl, TDogg310, Victor Korniyenko, Vojtěch Zavadil, Vuong Ngan Ha, Wetman, Wknight94, Yesuitus2001, Zimriel, ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬, 16 anonymous edits Pomegranate  Source:  Contributors: 007bistromath, 2004-12-29T22:45Z, 28bytes, 4blossoms, 7noahsark, 8472, A8UDI, AVM, Abanima, Abrahami, Acalamari, AciSpades, AdamBlack, Adashiel, Ahkond, Ahoerstemeier, Aiden p1, Ajh16, Akendall, Alansohn, Alatius, Alborztv, Aldaron, AlexGWU, AlexOlsen, Alfie66, Alhutch, AliaGemma, Alireza 80, Aljlasefhkadshf, Allpomegranate, Alradiox, Alvesgaspar, Alvis, AmarantaEntertainment, Amazonien, Amir85, Andel, Andres, Andrew c, Andycjp, Animum, Ann Stouter, Anna Lincoln, Anna05, Anne the webkinz, Anomalocaris, AntanO, Antandrus, Anush137, Aquamelli, Arcadian, Armenian King, Artaxiad, ArticunoZapdosMoltres, Ashkani, Atabəy, Athaenara, Avdav, Avoided, Azaz.sayyad, B9 hummingbird hovering, BD2412, Backgammon11, Badagnani, Badger Drink, Barticus88, Bellerophon, Bellus Delphina, Bender235, Bernadi, Bernfarr, Beyond My Ken, Bgwhite, Big ossan, Birchhale, Biruitorul, Blah3, Blake-, Blarghyblargh, Blehfu, Bnsmurthy, Bob Burkhardt, Bobo192, Bodox, Boffob, Bogey97, Boing! 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416 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:Salvia divinorum - Herba de Maria.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ayacop, Phyzome, Quadell File:Cannabis flowering.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Banana patrol, D-Kuru, Photohound, 1 anonymous edits File:Dimethyltryptamine.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Bryan Derksen File:Dimethyltryptamine-3d-sticks.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Sbrools File:Delosperma cooperi1.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Eugene van der Pijll File:M. 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