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Shashibhusan Dasgupta Obscure Religious Cults As A Background Of Bengali Literature 1946


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  OBSCURE R EL IGI OU S CULTS  AS BACKGROUND OF BENGALI LITERATURE BY SHASH BHUSAN DASGUPTA M A P h   .D Lec u e Calcutta University   UN VERS TY OF CALCUTTA 1946  R*, 15f~.   I , . ., . t r r, I I OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  AS BACKGROUND OF BENGALI LITERATURE BY SHASHIBHUSAN DASGUPTA, M.A., P h .D. Lecturer, Calcutta University UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA 1946  R*, 15f~. Thesis approved by the University of Calcutta for the Degree of Ph.D. > I■■■■■I■">III ..................................  ..  ■ .1—■II ,| 1—  PRINTED IN INDIA  PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY NISHITCHANDRA SEN, SUPERINTENDENT (OFFG.), CALCUrTA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 48, HAZRA ROAD, BALLYGUNGE, CALCUTTA  |4I IB—December, 1946—£. To D r  . SYAMAPRAS&D MOOKERJEE AS A TOKEN OF RESPECT AND ADMIRATION CONTENTS A bbreviations P reface I ntroduction PART I T he  B uddhist  S ahajiya  C ult   and  L iterature CHAPTER I G rowth   of    the  S ahajiya  C ult   and  L iterature ( i )  Information about the Available Literature [Earliest litetarure in Bengali—the Carya-padas— linguistic character of the songs, essentially Bengali— the Dohas are composed in Western Apabhramsa— reasons for the linguistic anomaly—time of composi tion of the songs.] (iQ  History of Buddhism in Bengal [The study of Sahajiya Buddhism in Bengal necessitates the study of the history of Buddhism in Bengal—little trace of Buddhism in Bengal before the Gupta period—Buddhism in Bengal of the Gupta  period—evidence of the foreign pilgrims—the epigraphical records—Buddhism of the Pala period.] (iii) Origin and Development of Tantric Buddhism [Mahayana as contrasted with Hinayana—the quarrel between the elders and the liberals—ideal of Arhathood replaced by that of Bodhisattvahood—  P ag e s xxi xxiii xxxi 1-7 7-13 13-27 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the element of Karuna—the theory of the three Kayas or bodies—predominance of philosophical thought and culture of the Paramitas—degenera tion by too much popularisation—rise of Tantric Buddhism—Mantra-naya or Mantra-yana—tradition about the introduction of Tantricism in Buddhism— -evidence from the  Mahayana-sutralahkara  —Dr. B. Bhattacarya’s view on the introduction of Tantricism in Buddhism untenable—the introduction of the Mantra-element—Mudra, Mandala—rise of Vajrayana from Mantra-yana—Kala-cakra-yana.] (it)) Mode of Transformation of the Main Ideas of  Mahay ana into those of Tantric Buddhism ... 27- [ Transformation of the idea of Sunyata into that of Vajra—Vajra-sattva—Bodhi-citta—Sunyata and Karuna as Prajna and Upaya—Prajna and Upaya as 'the female and the male, the left and the right, the moon and the sun—Advaya and Yuganaddha— Advaya and Samarasa—evolution of the idea of Maha-sukha—positive attributes of Nirvana in ^popular literature—idea of Nirvana-dhatu—idea of Maha-sukha in Tantric Buddhism.] CHAPTER II . T he  G eneral  P hilosophical  S tandpoint   of    the C arya - padas  ... ... 39- [Carya songs represent a mixture of the Madhya- mika, Vijnanavadic and Vedantic thoughts—the dominant note of idealism—idealism explained under various poetic imageries—idealism illustrated—the theory of the four Sunyas—Sunya*—Ati-sunya— Maha-Sunya—Sarva-sOnya—the theory of the Sunyas explained in the Caryas under various imageries.] CHAPTER III T he  G eneral  R eligious  O utlook   of    the  S ahajiyas (r) Salient Features of the Religion Preached in the Buddhist Dohas and Songs : (A) The Spirit of Protest and Criticism [Sahaja-path the most natural path—and at the same time the easiest path.] (B) Aversion to recondite scholarship (C) Scathing Criticism of the Formalities of Life and Religion (and similar spirit found in the  jaina Dohas) (D) Possible Sources of the Spirit of Criticism of  the Sahajiyas [The spirit of the Aranyakas and the Upanisads  —evolution of the conception of Brahman and  the stress on Brahma-realisation—Karma-kanda • • made subservient to Brahma-knowledge—stress on the subjective side of religion—post-Upanisadic spirit of the epics, particularly of the Mahabharata— the spirit of Vedanta—antagonism towards Pflrva- mimamsa—   Brahma-jijiiasa  does not presuppose  Dharma-jijnasa  —no activity is involved in true religion—Brahma-knowledge is no action or the  product of any action—the spirit of Vaisnavism— question of divine mercy, a break in the law of Karma—unconditional self-resignation—the ideal of  passionate love—idealism of Yoga and the stress on the subjective side—heterodoxy of the Tantras— heterodoxy of the early atheistic schools—the Carvak school—ruthless anti-religious criticism—schools that /are atheists but not anti-religious—Jainism and Buddhism—the religious perspective of Jainism—the CONTENTS P  a c e s 58-60 60-62 62-70 70-89 vii-     w viii OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  perspective of Buddhism—strong criticism against Brahminism—monastic orthodoxy and the revolt of the Mahayanists—revolt of Tantric Buddhism against  both Hinayana and Mahayana—the orthodoxy and formalism of Tantric Buddhism and the revolt of the Sahajiyas.] (ri) The Idea of Sabaja [The unspeakable nature of Sahaja—the non-dual and unchanging nature of Sahaja—Sahaja as the underlying reality—Sahaja as the Supreme Being,  both transcendent and immanent.] CHAPTER IV T he  P ractices   of    the  S ahajiyas   and   the  S tate   of   S upreme  B liss  (M aha - sukha ) (i) The Guru-vada [Guru-vada, a salient feature of Indian philosophy and religion—stringency of the esoteric Sadhana responsible for so much stress on Guru-vada in Tantricism.] (if) The Importance of the Body in the Sadhana [Body, the microcosm of the universe—all truth within—the theory of the plexus as associated with the theory of the Kayas—the theory of the nerves.] (»'■) The Esoteric Practice [Production of Bodhicitta—two aspects of  Bodhicitta, SamOrta  and Vivrta.l (iv) The Middle Path in the Esoteric Sadhana [The philosophical view of the middle path— middle path in Yoga—middle path variously described in the Carya-songs—the upward flow of Bodhi-citta through the middle path—four stages of bliss, four Mudras, four moments, etc.] 90-100 101-03 103-07 108-10 110-15 P ag e s (v)  The Yogic Sadhana of the Sahajiyas and the Female Force [Sakti as Candali—nature of Candsll—various transformations of the Candali into Dombl, Nairamani, Savarf, Sahaja-sundarl, etc.] (vi)  The Final State of Bodhi-citta or the State of  Maha-sukha PART II '-''T he  M ediaeval  S ahajiya  S chools CHAPTER V The Vaisnava Sahajiya Cult   • • (i) Transition from Buddhist Sahajiya to Vaisnava Sahajiya [Extent and nature of Vaisnava Sahajiya literature  —general nature of the cult and relation with standard Vaisnava religion and literature—doubtful authorship of the texts and songs—the fundamental tenets of the Sahajiyas and its relation with Tantric- ism, Hindu and Buddhist—the general feature of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas and that of the Buddhist Sahajiyas—probable historical cause of the transition.] (u) The Mode of Transformation [The final state of the Vaisnava Sahajiyls, Buddhist Sahajiyas and the Hindu Tantrikas compared—the idea of the union of Radha-Krsna, Prajna-Upaya and Sakti-Siva—the psychological innovation of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas and stress on it.] (lif) The Psychological Aspect of the Sadhana of the Vaisnava Sahajiyis B-WI1B CONTENTS ix P  a c e s 115-25 125-28 131-39 139-42 X OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (A) The Ideal of Love ... ... 142-55 [The ideal of Love between Radha-Krsna and the  philosophy behind it—the ideal of Parakiya love—  Radha and Krsna combined in Caitanya—Caitanya’s religious attitude as  Radha-bhava  —the eternal  Lila   as conceived by the Vaisnava poets  —Lila  is concrete  —adoption of the theory of  Lila  in the Sahajiya school—the Svarupa-lila  and the  Rupa-ltla  —three aspects of Vrndavana—Vana.-Vrndavana, Mana- Vrndavana and Nitya-Vrndavana—transition from the gross to the spiritual—two currents of Sahaja—  Krsna and Radha as Rasa and Rati and the male and the female.] (B) The Theory of Aropa ... ... 156-61 [Aropa of Svarupa to Rupa—no categorical distinction between human love and divine love—  Kama leads to Prema or rather transforms itself in to Prema—real significance of Aropa  —  a change of  perspective—the importance of Rupa in realising the Svarupa.] (C) The Stringency of Sahaja-Sadhana ... 161-68 The Samanya  and the Visesa  in Rasa and Rati— Kaya-sadhana in Sahaja-sadhana—the transcendental nature of the Sahaja-love—Candldas’s conception of love.] (iv) Sahaja-realisation of the Self and the Not-Self 168-70 CHAPTER VI A N on - sectarian  A pproach   to   the  D octrines * of    the  S ahajiyas P ag e s (#) The Purely Psychological Approach Apart froin the Theological ... ... 17J-80 CONTENTS 4  XI [Most intense love produces a state of arrest— repression of sex replaced by the Sahajiyas by sublimation—liberation through intense emotion— evidence of the Upanisad—of the  Bhagavata  —of the the Padma-purana  —the view of the rhetoricians of the Rasa-school—the view of Kasmira Saivism—the view of the Spanda-kortka  —similar views of the V ijnana-bhairava . ] (ii) Criticism from the Yoga Point of View ... 180-82 CHAPTER VII T he  B auls   of   B engal ( i)  General Nature of the Baul Sect ... 183-87 [Meaning of the word Baul—the restricted denota tion of the word Baul in the present discourse—the reverse path of the Bauls.] (ii)  The Bauls and the Sahajiyas ... 187-91 [The Bauls are Sahajiyas in a general sense— influence of Sufi-ism against the earlier Sahajiya  background—the Sahajiya background—difference with the earlier Sahajiyas—the ‘Man of the heart’— the line of transformation of the conception of Sahaja to that of the ‘Man of the heart’—the Bauls of Bengal and the mediaeval saints of the other  provinces of India.] (irr) The Bauls and the Sufis. (A) A Brief History of Sufi-ism in India and   particularly in Bengal ... 191-93 [A brief history of Sufi-ism in India—reasons fen: its popularity in India—Sufi-ism in Bengal.] P a c e s xii OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (B) Influence of Sufi-ism on the General Nature of Baul sect. (a)  The Influence of Sama ( b)  The importance of the Murshid  [The Murid and the Murshid—excellence of the Murshid-songs. ] (c) Heterodoxy of the Bauls (d)  Body as the Microcosm of the Universe ... (e) The Man of the Heart [What the ‘ Man of the Heart ’ and love towards him really signify—difference with the Vaisnava conception of love—the conception of the ‘ Man of the Heart ’ really represents a mixture of the concep tions of the ultimate truth in the Sahajiya schools and in Sufi-ism—the Sahajiya element in the man of the heart—the Upanisadic background—the conception of the Divinity in Sufi-ism—creation proceeds from love—the cosmos is supported in love—self-realisa tion of God through self-manifestation in creation— as creation has reached perfection in man, he is the  best medium for the self-realisation of God—the dual nature of man as the finite and the infinite—as human and divine—the love of the Sufis is the love  between the human personality and the divine  personality of man—love brings about union between the two—separated in love and again to be united in love-r-imagery of the lover and the beloved— love is the only religious method—the Sufis and the Bauls—the ‘ unknown bird ’—the ‘ unknown ’ to be searched and realised within—divine beauty to be realised through the medium of the human form— love-union really means self-realisation.] (it?) Poet Tagore and the Baul Songs P a g e s 193 193-95 195-98 198-99 199-213 213-15 CONTENTS , •    XUl PART III N ath  C ult CHAPTER VIII L egends   and  H istory (*) Origin of the Nath Cult [Nature of the Nath cult—the Siddha cult of India—the Nath cult as an offshoot of the Siddha cult—the Siddha cult and the school of Rasayana— reasons for the misconception of the crypto- Buddhistic origin of the Nath cult—general similarity in ideas and practices among the esoteric schools— general Saivite air of the Nath cult—confusion about the Nath Siddhas and the Buddhist Siddhacaryas— the Nath Siddhas and the Ajivikas.] (if) Traditions of the Eighty-four Siddhas and the  Nine Naths [The tradition is not probably historical—mystic nature of the number eighty-four variously demons trated—the tradition of the nine Naths—the Nath Gurus—Bengali account of the Nath Gurus.] CHAPTER IX R eligion   of   T he  N ath  S iddhas (i) General Air of Supernaturalism [Asta-siddhi—display of supernatural powers  by the Nath Siddhas—supernatural powers of Hadi- siddha—-general difference in tone between Bengali  Nath literature and Sahajiya literature—‘preponderance of supernaturalism—-spirit of criticism in Nath litera ture.] (ii) The Final End of the Nath Siddhas [Immortality the general aim of Hatha-yoga—   JiVan-mukti  or immortality in a perfect body is the P a g e s 219-32 232-41 242-50 250-63  XIV  OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS P a g e s final aim of the Nath Siddhas—the ripe body and the unripe body—real significance of immortality— this truth demonstrated by the stories of Nath litera ture—molestation'of Yama by Gorakh—the signifi cance of the story ot the downfall of Mlna-nath— the original question of Gauri to Siva—the central  point of the story of Manik-cand—Mayanamatl’s control over death through  Mah&jnana  —the signifi cance of the initiation of Mayanamati by Gorakh into the secret yogic cult—Hadi-siddha’s control over death illustrated through various legends—the key note of Gopi-cand's great renunciation—the quest of immortality—the difference in aim between the  Nath Siddhas and the Sahajiyas.] (ffi) The Means (A) Ulta-sadhana or the Regressive Process ... 263-69 [The Ulta-sadhana of the Nath yogins—the real significance of Ulta-sadhana—spiritual march is Ulta-sadhana in general  —Ksemai  as the yogic control.] (B) Kaya-sadhana (a) The Theory of the Sun and the Moon ... 269-80 [Metaphysical implications of the sun and the moon—the sun and the moon a9 associated with Sakti and Siva—various yogic implications of the union of the sun and the moon—the sun and the moon of the Nath yogins—Maha-iasa and the Dasama-dvara—the process of saving the Maha-rasa from the sun—drinking of nectar—the theory of the Tithis  —the theory of Maha-rasa as the central point of the yogic Sadhana of the Nath yogins.] ( b ) The Sun and the Moon as Woman and  Man ... ... 280-83 CONTENTS xy [Saving of the moon from the sun means in the grosser sense man’s saving himself from the clutches of woman—general attitude of the Naths towards woman—Mayanamati’s reflection on woman’s nature—similar tone in the Nirguna school of Hindi  poetry.] (c) Points of Similarity and Difference in the Practical Aspect of Yoga between the  Nath Cult and other Esoteric Schools ... (io) The Vedic Soma-sacnfice and the Drinking of  Nectar in Yogic Schools (o) The Rasayana School and the Nath Cult PART IY T he  D harma  C ult   and  B engali  L iterature CHAPTER X G eneral  N ature   of    the  C ult   ...297-307 [Dharma cult a local cult of West-Bengal and of some parts of Orissa—prevalent among low-class  people—the composite nature of the cult—the liturgical works of the Dharma cult—and those of later Buddhism—is the Dharma cult Buddhistic in essential nature ?—in what sense can the Dharma cult be said to be crypto-Buddhistic ?—possible Muslim influence on the Dharma cult—causes for amity among the Muslims and the Dharmites— oppression by the Hindus of the Dharmites—the story of the wrath of Niraiijana and its significance  —some Muslim practices in the Dharma cult.] CHAPTER XI S peculations   on   the  C onception   of   D harma P a c e s 283-87. 287-89 289-94 (i) Hindu Conceptions of Dharma ... 308-12 xvi OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS [Dharma personified in various Hindu texts— Dharma as Yama—Dharma as Yama in the Dharma cult.] (ii) Buddhistic Substratum of Dharma [The relation between the conception of Dharma as the supreme deity and the conception of the ultimate reality of the Buddhists is very remote— theistic tendency of Mahayana—the docetic tendency Jthrough the theory of Tri-kaya—all docetic and theistic conceptions of the reality resulting in later times in the conception of a Supreme Being— Dharma and the three jewels, viz.,  Buddha, Dharma and Sangha—the theory of the transformation of Sangha into Sankha is not convincing—the transforma tion of the three jewels—Buddha as Jagannatha— Dharma, the second jewel and Dharma-thakura— Dharma and his Sakti—Dharma identified with Siva—Siva-Sakti and Adi-buddha-Adi-prajna—Adi-  budha as the Dharma-raja.] CHAPTER Xll D harma   as   described   in   the  D harma  L iterature [Sunya or Sunyata as applied to Dharma—  Niranjana, a popular epithet for Dharma.] (i) Dharma—confusedly described as the Lord Supreme in the Liturgical Works [Various descriptions of Dharma in the  Dharma-    puja-Vidhana  —descriptions of Dharma in the Sunya-    purana  —Dharma as the Lord Supreme. ] (ii) Dharma as the Sun-god  (iii) Dharma of the Dharma-mangalas : (A) Dharma as Visnu in general (B) Dharma as Rama 312-28 P a c e s 329-48 332-36 336-39 339-42 342-45 CONTENTS xvii P  a c e s (it))  The Description of Dharma as All-white ... 345-48 [Description of Dharma as all-white in the liturgical works and the Dharma-mangalas—Siva and Sarasvati, the all-white deities of the Hindu Pantheon—significance of white colour—whiteness in Buddhism.] CHAPTER XIII T he  T heory   of    the   Pandiias, Kotalas, Aminis, etc.  349-58 [The theory expounded—chart illustrating the scheme of the Dharmites—chart illustrating the theory of the Panca-tathagatas of the Buddhists— the conception of the gates in the Buddhist Tantras  —correspondence of the theory of the Tathagatas and the Panditas in the Hindu Tantras—the colour scheme.] CHAPTER XIV T he  T heory   of   C osmogony   and  C osmology   in  O ld   and  M ediaeval  V ernaculars (i) A Brief Exposition of the Theories ... 359-73 [Cosmogonical and cosmological accounts of the vernaculars represent mainly a jumbling of older ideas—account given in the Sunya-purana  —in the  Dharma-puja-vidhana  —versions of Sahadev Cakra- vartl and Sitaram-das—of  Anadi-mahgala  of Ram- das Adak—account given by Ghana-ram—by Manik Ganguli—by Narasimha Vasu—account given in the Gajana-songs of West Bengal—in the Candi-mahgala   of Manik Datta—of Mukunda-ram—of Msdhavacarya  —in the  Annads-mangala  of Bharat-candra and C—  hub Kviii OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS others—account given in the Natha literature in texts like  Anadi-purana,  or  Anadi-carita, Hadamala-   tantra,, Yogi-tantra-kalct,  etc.—in Goraksa-oijaya  — in Gopi-candrer Sannyasa  —account found in the Vaisnava-Literature of Orissa—account given by Kabir—by Sundar-das, Tulasi-das and others. (ii)  Analysis of the ideas of Cosmogony and  Cosmology found in the Vernaculars (A) The Primordial Nihil (B) The Conception of Niranjana—a Replica of Prajapati Brahma (C) The Primordial Goddess... [The primordial Goddess in the Upanisads— Prakrti of Samkhya—Ksetra and Ksetrajna of the Gita  —a hotch-potch of the Upanisadic and the Samkhya accounts in the Puranas—the triad,  personification of the three gunas  of Prakrti—the conceptions of the Adi-deva and the Adi-devI of the vernaculars and the conceptions of Siva and Sakti in the Tantras—the triad and the three goddesses associated with them—the story of the test of the triad. ] (iii) Buddhistic Element in the Accounts of Cosmo gony and Cosmology of the Vernaculars [The idea of the primordial Sunyata—Dharma- kaya, the cosmic oneness—mythological account of cosmology in the Karanda-Vyuha  —cosmological implications of Prajna and Upaya—Prajna and Upaya in Nepalese Buddhism.] (; iv)  Similarity of the Descriptions of the Vernaculars with those of other Literatures P a c e s 373-89 374-76 376-79 379-89 389-94 395-96 CONTENTS  XIX  P a c e s APPENDICES A ppendix  (A) The Religious Tenets of the Non-Bengali Mediaeval Saints in relation to the Earlier Bengali Sahajiyas 399-424 (i) The spirit of revolt and criticism ... 400-11 (ii) Guru-vada ... ... 411-12 (iii) All truth within ... ,..412-16 •(it?) The conception of Sahaja ... ... 417-21 (o) Similarity in the literary form and language ... 421 -24 A ppendix   (B) General Informations about the Literature of the  Nath Cult ... ... 425-41 [Discovery of the narratives on Manik-candra and Gopl-candra—the narrative on Gorakh-nath— the ballads and songs popular among the Yugis and the Muslims—probable reason for the popularity of the ballads and the songs among the Muslims— yogic literature of the Muslims—stray songs of the  Nath yogins—popular ceremonies and folk-song on the Nath yogins—the question of the time and authorship of the narratives and songs—Sanskrit literature associated with the Nath cult—Nath- literature in the vernaculars other than Bengali—   Nath movement an All-India movement inspiring literature in many of the vernaculars—the story of Gorakh-nath—the story of Gopl-cand.] A  ppendix   (C) An Account of the Prominent Personalities in the  Nith Literature of Bengal ... ... 442-60  XX  OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS P  a g e s (i) Mina-nath ... 442-47 (ii) Gorakh-nath ... 447-52 (iii)  Jalandhari-pa ... 452-54 (io) Kanu-pa ... 454-55 (o)  Gopl-candra or Govinda-candra ... 456-59 (vi)  Mayanamatl ... 459-60 A ppendix   (D) General Informations about the Dharma Literature of Bengal ... ... 461-76 [The liturgical texts—  Sunya-purana  —problem about Ramai Pandit—time of Ramai Pandit—Ramai Pandit as referred to in the Dharma-mangalas—the  Dharma-puja-vidhana  —the Dharma-mangalas—the nature of the Dharma-mangalas—the story of the Dharma-mangalas. ] A ppendix  (E) Enigmatic Language of the Old and the Mediaeval Poets ... ... .477-90 I ndex *** ... 491-501 ABBREVIATIONS B. N. ... Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris B. S. P. ... Bengal Sahitya-Parisat B. S. P. P. ... Bengal Sahitya-Parisat-Patrika C. L. B. ... Central Library, Baroda C. U. ... Calcutta University Dhm. ... Dharma-mangala G. 0. S.... Gaekwad’s Oriental Series J. A. S. B. ... Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal  j. D.L.... Journal of the Department of Letters, Calcutta University J. R. A. S. ... Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society R. A. S. B. ... Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal Sj. S. ... Sahajiya Sahitya (ed. by Mr. M. Bose) PREFACE The book represents the thesis of the author which was submitted by him in 1940 for the Degree of Doctor of Philoso  phy from the University of Calcutta. -The book was written in 1939 and. submitted to the Calcutta University Press for  publication in 1941. A considerable portion of it was printed  by the year 1942 and then the work of printing was indefi nitely postponed for scarcity of paper caused by the Second World Weir. This will explain the long interval between the submission of the book to the press and the actual publication of it. The aim of the present work is an expository study of the obscure religious cults that inspired Bengali literature in the old and the mediaeval times. Religion has always been one of the main motives of literature. It has been so in all countries and particularly in India which is pre-eminently a land of religion. As a matter of fact, the history of the modern Indian literatures is so intimately related with the history of some of the most important religious movements flourishing in this country that an intimate acquaintance with those religious movements seems indispensable for a thorough study of the vernacular literature. But it is no use treading (he beaten track. Some of the religious schools have already been discussed by scholars; some again are very simple so far as their theological stand  point is concerned. The mere introduction of a Pantheon in literature cannot be the subject of serious study unless the Pantheon in question admits of fruitful theological specula tion. Instead of gleaning in the already harvested field or discussing the obvious, the writer has limited his scope by selecting the more obscure cults, which are noteworthy by nature and have inspired a considerable amount of literature,  but the true nature of which has not yet been thoroughly discussed and clearly determined. The Buddhist Sahajiya cult has been the main source of inspiration of Bengali literature in the earliest period. By the discovery and publication of the songs and DohSs of the Buddhist Sahajiyas, MM. H. P. Sastri had, no doubt, done a memorable service not only to Bengali literature but to modern Indo-Aryan vernacular literatures as a whole ; but the task of making a thorough study of the songs and Dohas in the light of the cults inspiring them has been left out by him. Dr. M. Shahidullah’s  Les Chants Mystiques de Kanha   et de Saraha  and Dr. N. C. Chaudhuri’s  Daarnava  dwell more upon the linguistic than the literary and philosophical aspects of the Dohas. Dr. P. C. Bagchi, M.A., Dr. es Lettres (Paris), in his occasional papers and articles, no doubt emphasises the doctrinal aspect of the Sahajiyas; but no comprehensive and critical study of the cult offering a consis tent and connected interpretation of the songs and Dohas has yet been undertaken. Similar is the case with the Vaisnava Sahajiya movement of Bengal. Mr. M. M. Bose, in his work Post-Caitanya   Sahajiya Cult,  has, indeed, supplied us with valuable infor mation regarding the literature of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas and some of the doctrines and practices preached therein ; but the raison d'etre  of the whole school and the process of evolution of this love religion from the ideology and methodology of the earlier Tantric and Yogic sects remain unexplained. The songs and Dohas of the Buddhist Sahajiyas have important bearing in spirit as well as in form and language on the songs and Dohas of many of the mediaeval saints, who flourished abundantly in many parts of India, and who, for reasons to be discussed later on, were mostly Sahajiyas in a wider sense. In a chapter on the Baul-songs of Bengal the writer has dealt with the question of the relation between the XJC1V OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS PREFACE  XXV  earlier and the mediaeval Sahajiyas. He hew also tried to show how on the spirit of a section of the Bauls, who have stressed the conception of the ‘Man ,of the heart,’ Sufi-istic Islam acted conjointly with the Upanisadic spirit ingrained in the different Sahajiya movements as also with the Vaisnavite spirit of love. In an appendix he has dealt at some length with the religious tenets of the non-Bengalee mediaeval saints of India in relation to those of the earlier Sahajiyas. The nature and history of the Nath cult, which has inspired a considerable amount of literature in Bengal as also in many other parts of India, is still shrouded in the mist of myths and legends. The stray articles found on the subject seem to be inadequate. Dr. Mohan Singh’s work, Gorakh-   nath and Mediaeval Hindu Mysticism,  is hardly a sufficient exposition of the mystic religion of the sect. The recent work of Mr. Briggs, Gorakhnath and the Kanphat Yogis,  is a commendable accumulation of facts and traditions. But the distinctive feature of Nathism remains hitherto unexplained. Hence there is ample scope for serious study in the practically unexplored field of Nathism. The Dharma cult of Bengal also invites attention. The cult is not theologically complex,—but it is queerly compo site. . Different conceptions of godhead have been confusedly amalgamated in the evolution of the Supreme Lord of this Dharma cult. The present writer has in this thesis passed over the simple practices, which are mainly aboriginal, but has centred his attention on analysing its composite nature. The theory of cosmogony and cosmology, which is sub stantially the same in the description of all the vernaculars notwithstanding small deviations of details, also demands serious attention. The tentative suggestions made by different scholars here and there about the nature and significance of this theory seem to be inadequate. The present writer has given a short exposition of the different versions of the theory D-M1IB OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS as found in different types of vernacular literature, analysed ideas composing the main theory, and tried to trace their, sources, Vedic, Puranic, Tantric or otherwise. The above, it is hoped, will give the reader an idea about the exact scope of the present work. To put it more  briefly, the aim of the present work is a thorough study of the Buddhist Sahajiya cult, the Vaisnava Sahajiya cult, the Baul sect of Bengal and other mediaeval sects of India who may be called Sahajiya in a general sense, the Nath cult, the Dharma cult, and the cosmogonical and cosmo logical theories to be found in the Bengali literature of different  periods. The author has thought it convenient not to distract the interest in the main contention by the occasional intro duction of a mass of details, texts and stories ; but as these informations cannot be altogether neglected without making the work defective, they have been included in the appendices. Though dealing essentially with some religious systems the motive behind the present study is more literary than religious. If obscure religious fields are entered into, it is done with a view to understanding and explaining the literary  productions which have cropped up in them. It is, therefore, evident that whatever has been said, has been said mainly in relation to Bengali literature. But it will be observed that the religious cults that have inspired Bengali literature in the old and mediaeval period, have also inspired cognate literature in other vernaculars of India; the present study, therefore, may throw light not only on the comparatively dark period of Bengali literature, but also on the obscure literary spheres of old and mediaeval vernacular literatures of India as a whole. But in the following pages attempt has been made to make the sudy as thorough as possible also from the religious and cultural points of view. This, it is hoped, may add to the importance of the work in so far as it will bring PREFACE xxvii to the notice of the reading public the obscure side-issues of Indian theological thought and esoteric religious practices. 'Whether congenial to our modern taste or not, the fact remains that these religious sects enjoyed, and some of them have still been enjoying, widespread popul arity among the masses of India; it is for this reason that a critical study of these minor religious sects cannot be neglected in the history of Indian religious thought. It may easily be seen that the religious sects, with whom the present writer is dealing, represent mainly the religious views and practices of the masses of the country as opposed to the intelligentsia  belonging to the higher classes. But to understand fully the civilisation and culture of a country as a whole we cannot do without a proper study of the mass-mind. It may be added in this connection that in conducting the study the writer has tried throughout to be guided by the scientific spirit of a truth-seeker, neither defending the theories and practices of the schools, nor passing any personal  judgment on them in respect of their merits. His main aim has been the correct exposition of the schools on textual  basis, and the criticisms that are added are applied only to review the position from different angles of vision. The question of abuses and aberrations, which are to be found in a greater or lesser degree in the history of almost all the religious systems of the world, has been deliberately neglected  by the author; for it is the rationale of a cult or system and not its abuses and aberrations that have academic value. The materials for the work are gathered from both  published and unpublished sources. A good number of manuscripts of texts and commentaries has been utilised in the study of the Buddhist Sahajiya cult; some of these texts are preserved in the University Library of Cambridge, some in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris, and some in the Central Library of Baroda,—and all these manuscripts were available to the writer in rotograph through the courtesy pf  xxviii OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Professor S. N. Dasgupta, M.A., Ph.D. (Cal.), Ph.D. (Cantab.), D.Lit. (Rome), the Indian Philosopher of inter national fame. The indebtedness of the writer to Professor Dasgupta knows no bounds. The indebtedness is not only for the manuscripts which Professor Dasgupta was kind enough to procure for the writer but also for his ungrudging help and guidance which may be regarded as a rare boon to all students of Indian philosophy and literature. The rest of the manuscripts of Buddhistic texts are preserved in the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal and the authorities of the institution deserve cordial thanks of the writer for giving him every facility to utilise them. As for the Bengali manuscripts, the author has consulted them in the Manuscript Library of the University of Calcutta and in the Vanglya Sahitya Parisat, Calcutta. The texts preserved in both the institu tions being generally common, the manuscripts of the University Library have been referred to. The author records his deep sense of gratitude also to the authorities of these two institutions. The sources, whether published or unpublished, from which materials have been gathered, have been indicated everywhere in the form of foot-notes. To make his position clear and convincing, the author has sometimes quoted copiously in foot-notes, particularly when the sources are unpublished. Some books and articles have been published in the recent years containing informations and suggestions about the topics with which the present writer has dealt; but the writer could not utilise them. The reason is twofold : firstly, as indicated before, a considerable portion of the book was  printed by the year 1942 ; secondly, informations cannot be incorporated here and there in the body of the book at will without disturbing the general scheme of the book and the topics therein. A few words must be added in connection with the method of transcription. In transcribing Sanskrit the PREFACE xxix commonly accepted device of diacritical marks has been adopted. The language of the Dohas being unanimously •accepted to be Western Apabhramsa, the propriety of the use of ‘j’ to the exclusion of *y’. and the use of ‘s’ to the exclusion of ‘s’ or ‘s’ cannot  be questioned. But difficulty arises in the choice  between ‘b’ and ‘v’. With the advice of Dr. S. K. Chatterji, M.A., D.Lit., the writer has used V all along in the transcription of the Dohas and ‘b’ initially and *v* medially and finally in the transcription of Bengali songs. Another point to be noticed is that the phonology of modern Bengali, as also of many other modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars, seldom allows the retention of final vowels, and the medial vowel also drops when the word is composed of more than two syllables; but the dropping is never indicated in orthography. The writer has dropped the medial and final vowels in orthography, where they are dropped in actual pronunciation. The principle of transcrip tion has often been adopted in transcribing the proper names,  but rigorous consistency could not be maintained in this matter, as many of the Indian names have already been naturalised in English. Corruptions and mistakes in the spelling of old and middle Bengali texts have never been interfered with. For typographical difficulties nasalisation of vowels had to be indicated by the addition of ‘m’ with the vowels. The writer begs to draw the attention of the reader to another important point. He has found many mistakes and corruptions in the reading of the manuscripts, both Sanskrit and Bengali. These also have not been freely handled unless the mistake or the corruption has been apparent. In fine, the writer acknowledges his debt to Professor Rai K. N. Mitra, M.A., Bahadur, late Ramtanu Lahiri Professor of Bengali, Calcutta University, under whom he had the privilege of working as the Ramtanu Lahiri Research Assistant of the Calcutta University for about four  xxx OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS years, and under whose affectionate care the present work was  prepared. The writer records his deep sense of gratitude towards his examiners, particularly to Mahamahopad hyaya Gopinath Kaviraj, M.A., of Benares, in whom the author has discovered a prodigy of Oriental Learning. His valuable suggestions on various topics have substantially helped the writer in revising some of the chapters of his book. In Dr. Syamaprasad Mookerjee, M.A., D.Litt., Barrister-at-Law, President, Post-Graduate Council of Teaching in Arts, University of Calcutta, the writer found a never-failing source of inspiration. In spite of the multifarious duties he has to attend to in the wider sphere of his life, he remains a true  patron of learning, and the author^ deems it a privilege to have the name of the great man associated with his book. The writer is grateful to Dr. B. M. Barua, M.A., D.Lit., for his suggestions and encouragement. The writer thanks Dr. Satindra Kumar Mukherjee, M.A., Ph.D., Prof. Sudhir Kumar Dasgupta, M.A., Dr. Sudhansu Kumar Sengupta, M.A., Ph.D., Prof. Rabindra Kumar Dasgupta, M.A., and Mr. Naresh Chandra Sen, M.A., B.L., for rendering various help. He thanks also Mr. Pierre Fallon for reading some portions of the proofs and for helping in preparing the index. Thanks are also due to Mr. J. C. Chakravorti, M.A., Registrar, Calcutta University, for the personal interest he took in the publication of the book. The writer cordially thanks the Superintendent of the Calcutta University Press and his staff, but for whose sincere co-operation the book might have taken a longer time to come to light. S. B. D asgupta INTRODUCTION The origin and growth of the modern Indian literatures (we mean the modern Indo-Aryan literatures) are closely associated with the origin and growth of some religious sects, which began to stir the life of the people from about the tenth century onwards. Up till the advent of the nineteenth ' century with a new outlook on life and literature, none of the Indo-Aryan literatures seem to have had the capacity to stand erect without the prop of some religious view, and this again seems to be particularly the case with Bengali. We have no type of literature in Bengali even corresponding to the  Rasau  literature (literature based on the annals of heroic episodes) of Hindi, and poets like Cand Bardai or Bhusan and Lai are almost unknown in old and mediaeval Bengali. In our old and mediaeval' literature man’s glory is seldom depicted in its own grandeur and eulogised independently of divine glory. The versions of the  Ramayana  and the  Mahabharata  that we have in our literature  possess a vein more religious than human; the heroes and heroines of the various Mangala-kavyas are depicted more as toys in the hands of the gods and goddesses than as dignified figures glowing with the heroic grandeur of their  personality. Lausen of the Dharma-mangalas is a mere agent of the Dharma-thakura, Kalaketu of the Candi-mangalas is originally a god, being the son of Indra, and is dragged down from heaven on earth only to glorify the almighty  power of goddess Candi and to establish her worship on earth. The human interest of the life-long struggle of Cand  1The word 4mediaeval *will mean throughout our discussions as belonging to t^ie middle period of the Modern Indo-Aryan literatures, i.e. belonging to the  period roughly between the thirteenth and the eighteenth century A.D, xxxii OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Sadagar of the Manasa-mangalas has been minimised by the Undercurrent of the religious tone—by the fact that it really represents the struggle of decaying Saivism of Bengal against the growth and spread of Saktaism represented by the Manasa cult. During the long period, beginning with the Carya-padas of the tenth, eleventh or twelfth century, the only type of literature that may be said to be free from the influence of religion, is the ballad literature of Bengal dealing purely and simply with the diversified life of rural Bengal and pastoral love-episodes.1 Apart from the general relation of literature with religion and apart from the fact that Bengal is a province of India, which is specially noted as a land of religion and philosophy, there seems to be some historical reason for such predomi nance of religion in Bengali literature. It is through the social and political vicissitudes of a nation that there comes deep unrest in the life and mind of man and man comes more face to face with the world of stern realities which help the growth and development of the potential Man. It is through the continual struggle for existence, fight against the adverse circumstances, conflict with the external powers lhat a nation  becomes conscious of her real worth and learns to hold in high esteem the glories of terrestrial life. The paucity of such noteworthy social or political events happening in the life of Bengal may account for the fact that the history of Bengali literature during its old and mediaeval period is practically the same as the history of the different religious movements 1It should be noted that the authenticity of many of the East Bengal  ballads, as compiled by Dr. D. C. Sen, D. Lilt., in collaboration with Candra Kumar De and some other assistants and published by the University of Calcutta, has been questioned. We have no scope here to enter into the details of the controversy; but our considered opinion oh the point is that though the ballads may not belong to a hoary past (as Dr. Sen holdsl, and though there may be some handling of the verses at the time of collection and compilation, at least the skeleton of some of these verges surely belongs to the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries and some go even earlier, INTRODUCTION xxxiii that flourished in the province for about a decade of centuries.1Even in the nineteenth century the general  practice was to borrow stories either from the  RamSyana   and the  MahabhSrata  or from the annals of the Rajputs, Sikhs and Marhatt&s to introduce heroic grandeur in the epics, novels and dramas - There is a striking uniformity in the historical develop ment of the different literatures of the modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars. The reason behind this fact is that the literary history of almost all the vernaculars is moulded essentially by the religious movements in the different parts of India, which, during the old and the mediaeval periods were strikingly similar. . (jBengali, along with other modern Indo-Aryan languages, grew up with the tenets of some minor religious sects, which rose mostly outside the circle of the .high class people and were characterised by a general tendency of protest against «• current orthodox religious systems. These religious move ments were sponsored by people who had no aristocracy of descent or advantage of culture and education; they rose from among the most common run of people and  preached their doctrines among the masses in their own tongueThe modern Indo-Aryan literatures, as we have indicated in the preface, are, therefore, essentially mass- literature and the religions preached through them represent the mass-religions of India. But this religious zeal of the masses has been responsible for the copious growth of the vernacular literature in spite of the derision and opposition of the higher communities, who sometimes threatened these revolutionaries with curses of hell. 1Of course, in the Caitanya-bhagavata  of VrndSvan-das we find reference to the songs of YogT-pal, Bhogl-pal and Mahl-pal (cf. yogtpal bhogtpal mahtpal gita  I ihai unite sap lok andndita  II Some are of opinion that these songs deal with the life and glory of the Pfila Kings,—but we cannot say anything about them as long as the songs are not discovered. E—141 IB xxxiv OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS The history of Bengali language and literature, so far as it has been explored, begins with the religious doctrines and 'practices of the Sahajiya Buddhists. Sahajiya Buddhism is a particular development of a phase of later Buddhism, widely known as Tantric Buddhism. Investigation reveals that during the reign of the Pala dynasty Buddhism in various Tantric forms gained popularity in Bengal and many Tantric texts and commentaries were written in the different Buddhist monasteries that were established in Bengal. The authors of the Sahajiya Buddhistic songs were mostly inhabitants of Bengal or of the vicinities of Bengal.1 But though an offshoot of popular Buddhism, the real origin of the Buddhist Sahajiya cult is not to be sought exclusively or even mainly in any of the theories and  practices of Buddhism proper either in its Hlnayana or Mahayana aspect. The real origin of the cult lies more outside Buddhism than inside it. The Buddhist Sahajiya cult, notwithstanding the Buddhistic tone and colour which it assumes, is essentially an esoteric yogic cult. /Side by side with the commonly known theological speculations and Religious practices there has been flowing in India an | important religious undercurrent of esoteric yogic practices from a pretty old time; these esoteric practices, when asso ciated with the theological speculations of the Saivas and the Saktas, have given rise to Saiva and Sakta Tantricism; when associated with the Buddhistic speculations, have given rise to the composite religious system of Buddhist Tantricism; and again, when associated with the speculations of Bengal Vaisnavism the same esoteric practices have been responsible for the growth of the esoteric Vaisnavite cult, known as the the Vaisnava Sahajiya movement. It will not be out of place to give here just an idea of the speculations and practices, round which grew all the esoteric 1 Vide infra,  Ch, I, INTRODUCTION  XXXV  schools either within Hinduism or Buddhism. All kinds of esoteric Sadhana (i.e.,  religious endeavours) of India have a common background. In all the esoteric schools the absolute reality is conceived of possessing in its nature the potency of two aspects or attributes. These two aspects or attributes are, again, conceived as the negative and the  positive, the static and the dynamic, rest ( nitirtti)  and activity (  pravrtti ),—the principle of pure consciousness and the principle of activity;—one represents subjectivity and the other objectivity; and, again, the one is conceived as the enjoyer and the other as the enjoyed. In the absolute Being these two aspects lie unified together in a state of  absolute non-duality; but in the process of becoming or   phenomenalisation there comes separation and duality. This process of change or becoming through a state of  duality is bondage and suffering,—and the final escape from it is liberation. The secret of all esoteric Sadhana is to destroy all principles of dualism and to attain the final state of non-duality. This ultimate state of non-duality is variously called in the different esoteric systems as the state of  Advaya, Maithuna, Yttganaddha, Yamala, Sama-rasa,   Yugala,  or the Sahajasamadhi  or Sunya-samadhi,  or simply the final state of Samadhi. In Hindu Tantricism these two aspects of the absolute reality have been conceived as the Siva and the Sakti, or the  primordial male and the female. Again, one of the funda mental tenets of all the esoteric schools is to hold that the human body is the epitome of the universe, all ‘truth’ (tattva)  is contained within the body. Consistent with this view it has been held that Siva resides in the Sahasrara (the lotus of thousand petals situated in the cerebrum region) as the principle of pure consciousness and Sakti as the  principle of world-force resides in the other pole of the Muladhara-cakra in the form of the coiled serpent. Now, the Sadhana consists in raising the coiled force from the one pole  XXXVI OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS to the other and to unite her there with Siva,—and this union of the Siva and the Sakti produces the state of the absolute. Thus the principles of Siva-Sakti or the male and the female are contained within the person of every man and woman. Again it has been held that the principles of the male and the female are contained within the body of a man in the right and the left respectively,—the right half being the masculine part and the left half the feminine part. This will explain the conception of Mahadeva or Siva as  Ardha-   nariivara  or the half-female and half-male deity, and in the sculptural or pictorial representation of the  Ardha-   narisvara  the deity is always depicted as having the left half as the female and the right half as the male.1Thus, there are principles of masculinity and femineity contained in every man and woman,—a man is a man because of the predominance in him of the principle of masculinity, whereas a woman is a woman because of the predominance of the principle of femininity in her. Now as the left and the right represent two aspects of the absolute reality, the two important nerves in the left and the right, viz.,  Ida and Pingala, and the two courses of the vital wind, Prana and Apana, associated with the two nerves, are also associated with these two aspects of the ultimate reality. From this theory follows the Sadhana of controlling the courses of the vital wind in the two nerves and of making them flow together through the middle nerve Susumna. Thus the union of the right and the left through the union of the two courses of the vital wind within the middle nerve Susumna, 1 It rftay be pointed out that in the Sahajiya school of Valtsnavism also Rsdh£ And Krsna are said to reside in the left and the right respectively; Rsdha is often said to reside in the left eye and Krsna in the right. Cf. bdme radha iahine  fersna dekha rasik jan  I ..dui netre btrajaman  I radha-hunda Syama-kunda dot  netra hay  I sajal nayan dvare bhave preme asvaday  I! $ahaja*iattva  of RadhSvailabh Das, Vanga'sahityaparicay,  Vol. H, p. 1658. INTRODUCTION xxxvii is the vital part of the Sadhana of Hatha-yoga, and the state that is attainable through such a process is the state of final non-duality. c/  Again it has been held, particularly in the Tantric and the Sahajiya schools, that the division of the creatures of the world into the male and the female has an ontological reason behind it. The male and the female represent in the visible world the division which is present in the nature of the absolute as Siva and Sakti, and the perfect union of the Siva and the Sakti is the highest reality. Within the physical body of man and woman reside the ontological principles of Siva and Sakti1; therefore to realise the absolute truth, or in other words, to obtain the highest spiritual experience, man and woman must first of all realise themselves as manifestation of Siva and Sakti and unite together physically, mentally and spiritually, and the supreme bliss that proceeds from such union is the highest religious gain. Such a view is the raison d'etre  of all the esoteric Sadhana which are carried on by the male and the female together. As a school of esoteric yoga the Buddhist Sahajiya school is fundamentally based on the speculations explained above. The Absolute is the Sahaja—it is the ultimate reality behind the self and the not-self. The realisation of this Sahaja in and through the self and the not-self is the ultimate aim of the Sahajiyas. Now, in Sahajiya Buddhism Sunyata (voidness) and Karuna (compassion), transformed as the Prajna and the Upaya, are held to be the two primary attributes of the ultimate reality which is Sahaja. As two aspects of the ultimate reality Prajna and Upaya are conceived in the Buddhist Tantras and in Sahajiya Buddhism  just as Sakti and Siva of the Hindu Tantric school. Prajna and Upaya thus represent the principles of dualism and the unification of the two in a supreme non-dual state is the 1 Vide infra , Ch, V, xxxviii OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS final aim of the Buddhist Sahajiyas. The practical yogic method for the realisation of the Sahaja is, therefore, fundamentally based on the principle of the union of Prajna and Upaya. The union of Prajna means, in the first place, the union of the female and the male, who are considered to be the manifestations of Prajna and Upaya respectively. Again, we have seen that the two important nerves in the left and the right also represent the principle of Prajna and Upaya in the microcosm of the human body; therefore the union of Prajna implies the perfect control over these two nerves and the vital process associated with them and to make them function unitedly through the middle nerve which represents the principle of non-duality. The yogic  practice involving this physical and physiological union of the Prajfia and the Upaya will lead the yogin to the inner union of the Prajna and the Upaya. Upaya as the Lord (called Vajra-sattva, or the principle of immutable adamantine existence) resides in the highest pole of the cerebrum region and Prajna as the world-force1resides in the lowest pole (which is the plexus in the navel according to the esoteric Buddhists); the inner union consists in the raising of the Goddess from the navel region and in making her unite with the Lord of the cerebrum region. In the Vaisnava Sahajiya school the two aspects of Sahaja or the absolute reality are explained as the eternal enjoyer and the enjoyed, as Krsna and Radha; and it is further held that all men and women are physical manifesta tions of the ontological principles of Krsna and Radha. When men and women can, therefore, realise themselves as the manifestations of Krsna and Radha through a process 1We may notice here a great anomaly. In Tantric Buddhism the Lord as (Jpfiya always represents the principle of phenomenalism and the consort Prajfifi is generally depicted as the principle of rest or void ; but in the conception of the world-force, we shall see later on, the order was reversed and Prajfia or NairStma herself, as associated with th£ principle of defilement, was conceived as the £akti or the world-force. INTRODUCTION xxxix of attribution (A ropa%  the love of any human couple becomes transformed into the divine love that is', eternally flowing on  between Krsna and Radha; when the union of a human couple thus becomes the union of Krsna and Radha, the highest spiritual realisation dawns in the state of union or Yugala.  The element of love is the innovation of the Vaisnava Sahajiya school; but this element of love is essentially based on the element of yoga in the form of  physical and psychological discipline. In the Nath cult, which seems to be synchronous with the Buddhist Sahajiya movement (though the origin of the cult may be much earlier), the two aspects of the absolute reality are represented by the Sun and the Moon, where the Sun represents the principle of destruction (  alagni ) through the process of change and decay,—and the Moon represents the principle of immutability. The final aim of the Nath Siddhas is the attainment of a non-dual state through the attainment of immortality in a perfect or divine body. This non-dual state of immortality can be attained only through the union or rather the commingling of the Sun and the Moon. In its speculations on the attainment of an immutable and divine body through psycho-chemical process of Hatha-yoga involving the theory of the Sun and the Moon, the Nath cult seems to be akin to the Rasayana school of Indian thought, the main difference being that the medical and chemical science of the Rasayana school became transformed into a psycho-chemical yogic science with the  Nath Siddhas. It may, however, be noted in this connection that though the culture of the body {kay a-sadhana)  through processes of Hatha-yoga for the attainment of physical perfection, was of  paramount importance in the Nath cult, it was more or less common to all the $gpteric schools including the school of Vaisnava Sahajiyaf|j|hich laid emphasis on love. The realisation of Sahaja’either of the nature of ‘supreme bliss’ xl OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (  Maha-suha)  as is conceived by the Buddhist Sahajiyas, or of the nature of *supreme love ’ (as is conceived by the Vaisnava Sahajiyas), presupposes the strength of the physical organism to stand such a supreme realisation. It is for this reason that we shall find that all the esoteric schools spoke of the culture of body through some Hatha-yogic practice. Thus it is clear from the above that all the esoteric schools of India are fundamentally based on the specula tion on the two aspects in which the ultimate reality functions and manifests itself,—and that the religious creed is based on the final aim of the attainment of a state of non-duality. It is to be noticed that this idea of unity of the esoteric systems implies no process of negation; it, on the other hand, implies a process of supreme position through a regressive process of transformation and transubstantiation. It is for this reason that all the schools of Tantra speak of the final state as a state where enjoyment and liberation have become one and the same. The process of  Aropa   which makes the ultimate union possible is not peculiar to the Vaisnava Sahajiyas only,—it is a process common to all the Tantric and Sahajiya schools, either Hindu or Buddhist. We shall see later on that this process of  Aropa   implies no negation; it implies a change of perspective where the physical existence is not denied, but replaced by a permanent spiritual existence, where the gulf between the  physical and the ontological is bridged over in an absolute existence. The Tantric Buddhists have also repeatedly emphasised that the final state is not a state of  Nirvana  as it is not also a state of  BhaVa  (existence); but neither the  Bhava  nor the  Nirvana  is denied of it,—it is a state where  BhaVa  and  Nirvana  become united together in the realisation of the absolute. Closely associated with the religious literature of the different Sahajiya movements of Bengal is the literature of the Bauls. The B5uls as a relegious sect are characterised  INTRODUCTION  by their peculiarly unconventional manners and customs in social as well as religious life. From this point of view the followers of the Vaisnava Sahajiya school and religious  people much akin to such an order bear the general name of Baul. But the Baul songs, which are composed by illiterate masses from both the Hindu and the Muslim communities, and which are familiar 10  us with the theory of the ‘ Man of the heart ’ and man’s love towards him, have a distinctive feature of their own. This ‘Man of the heart ’ is the Divine in man and stands as the eternal Beloved in relation to the human personality, who is the crazy lover. Such songs of the Bauls and similar songs of the mediaeval saints of Northern, Central and Upper India, represent the spirit of Sufi-ism against the background of Indian thoughts. The Dharma cult of Bengal and of some parts of Orissa is, as we have said in the preface, a local cult having no element of esoterism in it; as a religion it consists of extremely popular rites and ceremonies. The literature  belonging to the cult embodies the infiltration and transforma tion of various religious ideas in the untrained mind of the masses. The "cosmogonical and cosmological theories also represent popular jumbling of various older ideas received hrough various sources. As all the above-mentioned obscure religious cults will come directly within the purview of our present study, we need not enter into any further details here. It will not be out of place, we think, to add here a brief outline of the other religious movements which have been strong factors in the evolution of Bengali literature as a whole and which will not directly come within the province of our present study because of the reasons adduced in the preface. The devotional movement in Bengal, as is the case in other provinces also, has given great impetus to our literature, and the beautiful literary fragments, which are F-1411B OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS extant* can be found abundantly in the love-lyrics of the Vaisnava poets. Candl-das, Govinda-das, Jnana-das, among the host of Vaisnava poets, undoubtedly deserve world-wide recognition as first-rate poets. Though we have a fair amount of Ramayanic literature in Bengali and though a deep religious vein runs through many of them, the Rama cult could not gain sufficient ground as a religious faith in Bengal, it being pushed to the corner by the Krsna culL The Vaisnava movement of Bengal, in the line of the Krsna cult, grew along with the traditions of the Puranas like the  Bhagavata-purana, Visnu-purana, Brahma-t)aivarta-purana,   etc., and there was perhaps, through the life of Caitanya and some renowned Gosvamls, some influence also of the devotional movement of the South. 1The first literary record of Bengal Vaisnavism is to be found in the famous lyrical poem the Gita-govinda  of Jaya-deva. After him Candi-das and Vidyapati (who, though a Maithili poet, was more popular in Bengal than in his native province) sang the immortal songs of the eternal love of Radha-Krsna, and were  precursors, as some scholars are disposed to think, of Srl- ' Caitanya, who flourished about a century later and brought with him a devotional movement, which for a long time overflooded Bengal and some of the neighbouring Provinces. Vaisnavite apostles like Madhavendra-purl, Advaitacarya, Srlvasa and others, of course, flourished just before the . advent of Caitanya,—but the advent of Caitanya was some thing like a fruition of all their devotional penances, and it was an event which was really epoch-making in the religion and literature of Bengal. Caitanya, as he is interpreted by his followers, embodies in him the quintessence of both Radha and Krsna, is the realiser and the realised in the same personality. 1See an article,  Bhakit-dharmer Vivartan,  by the present writer in the  Bharata-varfa,  Caitra, B S., 1343. See also an article, Prem-dharma,  by K. N, Mitra, U day an,  B.S., 1341, Agrahlya$J, INTRODUCTION Through his life and teachings Caitanya preached a doctrine of divine love, which was philosophically systematiaed and theologically codified by the six Gosvamls of Vrndivana, Viz.,  Rupa, Sanatana, Raghunath Das, Raghu nath Bhatta, Gopala Bhatta and Jiva Gosvami. The  philosophical and theological system known as Gaudiya Vaisnavism (i.e., the Vaisnavism of Bengal) is really the contribution of these six Gosvamls, who were all religious apostles inspired by the iife and teachings of Caitanya. Pre-Caitanya Vaisnavism of Bengal generally flourished with the legends of Krsna and his dalliances with the cowherd girls of Vrndavana and particularly with Radha ; but in Post- Caitanya Vaisnavism the divinity of Caitanya as the synthesis of the two aspects of the same reality as the lover and the  beloved was recognised and emphasised, and as a result thereof Post-Caitanya Vaisnava literature laid the same stress, if not more, on the life and teachings of Caitanya as on the legends of Radha and Krsna. The other two important cults that have influenced Bengali literature almost from the beginning are the Saiva and the Sakta cults. So far as the religious history of Bengal is concerned, of the two, Saivism seems to be the older and the Sakta cults, which are more often indigenous than Puranic, sprang up later in strong opposition to the former. In our literary records we find the Sakta cults often at daggers drawn with the cults that "centred round the male deities. In this conflict with the other systems, particularly with the Sakta systems, Saivism, the religion centring round the most indifferent and inactive god, had to give way and the Sakta cults gradually gained ground. This conflict seems to have resolved itself in another way in a synthetic transformation in the Radha-Krsna cult of Bengal. If we take a bird’s eye view of the religious history of Bengal as a whole it will appear that among the Hindu deities Siva enjoyed wide popularity in the early and  xliv OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS mediaeval period. In the preliminary chapter of some of the Dharma-mangalas, which belong to the seventeenth and ''the eighteenth century, we find salutation to all the male and female deities of Bengal and also an enumeration of the localities where they were popular. 1A general consideration of these lists of the gods and goddesses of Bengal will reveal the extent of the popularity that Lord Siva enjoyed in Bengal even up to the eighteenth century. It is also to be noticed that though in the Dharma-mangala literature we find Dharma-thakura identified more with Krsna and Rama, yet in religious practice the Dharma cult has got itself amalgamated more with Saivism. It will also appear from a perusal of the different kinds of Bengali Mangala-kavyas (which are practically propaganda literature  belonging to the different religious schools) that the different Sakta cults of Bengal presuppose a Saivite background, against which they thrived, though their origin might have  been earlier. Siva of Bengal, at least as found depicted in Bengali literature, is not exactly the same Siva with whom we are acquainted in the Brahminical literature, particularly in the Puranas. The indigenous elements of Bengalee life and culture have supplied flesh and blood to his Brahminic skeleton and made him a Bengalee through and through. Siva of the period between the tenth and the fourteenth century really represents much of the Lord Supreme of Tantric Buddhism as indiscriminately mixed up with the ancient Lord of India* Siva o'f the later period, as depicted in relation to his troublesome family, composed of two sons, two daughters and a wife, represents, through his wild mode of life and unscrupulous activities, a vivid picture of some of  1See  Dharma Vandan&t   MS, preserved in the Bengali Manuscript Library of the Calcutta University, No. 2470, Also see the firsi chapter of the  Dharma•   mahgala*  by Minik Ganguli, Bfim-das Adak and others. INTRODUCTION xlv the aspects of the social life of mediaeval Bengal. In almost all the literatures belonging to this religious school, huftian interest of the family-life of Siva far outweighs the interest of his divine nature, and in this indigenous character of Siva the Puranic elements have been set here and there with the avowed purpose of giving it a Puranic colouring. The literature of the Saivite cult consists chiefly of the SiVayanas,   which deal with the peculiar life and activities of lord Siva,  particularly in relation to his family. Like the Saivite devotional lyrics of the South or even like the few songs on Hara-Gaurl (i.e.,  Siva and his wife) composed by Vidya-  pati of Mithila, we have no Saivite devotional lyric in' Bengali. A large portion of fragmentary literature concern ing Siva is, however, to be culled from the Mangala-kavyas  belonging to the Dharma cult and particularly to the Candi and the Manasa cults. The Sakta cults of Bengal represent a particularly distinctive feature of the religious life of Bengal and the extent of literature which flourished under the direct influence of those cults is also fairly large. We do not know of any such Sakta influence in the religion and literature of any other  province of India excepting Malabar. The Sakta literature of Bengal generally belongs to the type of Mangala literature, which, as we have said, is the literature of religious propa- ' ganda. Among the Sakta cults, the more important are the cults of Candi (or Kali or Kalika), the consort of Lord Siva, and the cult of Manasa, the serpent goddess. We have also Mangala-kavyas belonging to the cult of goddess Sitala (the goddess of the direful disease of pox), Kamala or LaksmI (the goddess of wealth), Sasthi (the goddess  believed to be in charge of the welfare of children) and others, but the literature belonging to such cults is compara tively negligible both in quality and in quantity. The Mangala literature of Bengal is a continuation in vernacular of the religious literature in Sanskrit, generally OBSCURE RfeLlGlOUS CULTS known as the Puranic literature. The Sanskrit Pflranas are sometimes infused with a spirit of propaganda on behalf of spme half-indigenous and half-traditional religious cult and there is the spirit of glorifying some of the gods and goddesses with the help of a huge network of stories which bear testimony to their irresistible divine power and thus make them acceptable to the Brahminical people. The same spirit is found in the Mangala-kavyas of Bengal, which launched vigorous and continual propaganda on behalf of some god or goddess in question with reference to various episodes where he or she had the supreme power to save the devotee from all sorts of dangers and difficulties and to  bring destruction to all who opposed his or her supremacy. These gods and goddesses of the Mangala-kavyas, in spite of their Puranic garb, are often indigenous in nature. Naturally, therefore, when the worship of these gods and goddesses  began to be introduced in the society at large their divinity was questioned and the move for the introduction of their worship was strongly resisted by different sections of people. The followers of these gods and goddesses had, therefore, to  justify, in keen competition with their rivals, the divinity of the deity in question and the legitimacy of his or her claim for worship on earth; and this will explain the origin of our 'Mangala literature. But it is to be observed that, after once this literary form could gain sufficient currency and popula rity, it became ere long more or less a literary convention. It cannot be said with a sufficient degree of certainty that Mukunda-ram, the greatest among the poets of the Candl- mangalas, was a devotee of Candi or that Bharata-candra,  practically the last and most secular of the poets of the Mangala literature, was a sincere devotee of Annada religious garb was rather a device in mediaeval literature to make literature acceptable to the masses, who were  prompted to listen to these literary works more with a religious fervour than with a literary taste. INTRODUCTION xlvii Mangala literature may be said to have its origin in the fourteenth century, but it developed in the sixteenth and the seventeenth century, after which the old literary convention fell into disuse and literature began to flourish with a new spirit and form. Up till the last quarter of the eighteenth century, Sakta literature consisted exclusively of the different Mangala-kavyas; but by the last quarter of the eighteenth century a new type of Sakta literature flourished in the form of fine devotional lyrics mainly on Syama or Kali (popularly known as Syamasahgit   or songs on Syama, the universal Mother of dark-blue colour) and sometimes also on Uma, or Gaurl, the daughter of the mountain Himalaya, and the young wife of the old, wild and indifferent husband Siva. Ramprasad Sen of the eighteenth century, the greatest devotee of the Mother, a devotee of the most unassuming and non-sectarian type, may be taken to be the represen tative poet of this school. About a century later Ram- krsna Parama-hamsa of Daksinesvara, through his most devoted life and his sweet and simple teachings, gave a new impetus to this cult, and the literature of the Ram-krsna cult should never go unnoticed in the history of our literature. Sri Aurabindo of Pondicherry is at present giving a new orientation to the Mother cult and is also inspiring occasional lyrics on the line. In surveying the general trends of the religious history of Bengal in particular relation to the history of Bengali literature, we cannot neglect the influence which the great religion of Islam exerted on the religion and literature of Bengal. The Mahomedans first came to the land as a conquering nation; but after they had settled here and became natives of the land and succeeded in making a large number of converts, their religious thoughts and ideas began to influence those of their neighbours ; and at the same time the thoughts and ideas of their neighbours also began to affect and modify theirs in their  OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS turn. Some sort of a compromise between the religious ideas and practices of popular Islam and popular Hinduism continued in the rank and file of the two communities through a slow and gradual process of cultural reciproca tion. Islam of Bengal is rather Sufl-istic Islam and the influence of this Sufi-ism on the Indian religious movements is best exhibited in the songs of the Bauls. Besides these, the divinities like Satya-plr, Manik-pir, Gaji and others of  popular Islam represent the continuity of the process of a happy admixture of elements both from Islam and Hinduism. About the influence of Islam on the Dharma cult we shall have detailed discussion in our study of the Dharma cult. The popular religious ceremonies of women-folk,  particularly of the maidens, have also supplied us with nice  pieces of folk literature. The ceremonies, of which there are a good number of varieties, are generally known as the Vratas  (vows) and are accompanied by the recitation of rhymed or unrhymed rhythmic verses (generally known as the Vrata-katha)  which contain fine touches of rural poetry. In the performance of these ceremonies there is always an element of art,—either the art of poetry or the art of  painting. These Vratas  are still adding a subconscious aesthetic pleasure to the conscious religious sentiment of the women-folk of Bengal. The nineteenth century dawned with a new ideal of life, religion and literature. The spirit, form and technique of the old and mediaeval literature, flourishing up to the end of the eighteenth century, grew hopelessly monotonous and roused a subconscious feeling of dissatisfaction in the mind of the people and also an inward demand for a change ; and a change was inevitable in the course of nature. The most important factor, that intensified this demand for a change and accelerated its speed, was the influence of Western thoughts and ideals on our political, cultural and religious life. From the beginning of the seventeenth century INTRODUCTION xlix Bengalees began to come in contact with' the European merch'ants, and clergies and as time went on, the contact  began to be more and more intensified. This began to  bring about a slow and gradual change in our general outlook. This was m'ucK more accelerated by the consolida tion of British' power in Bengal, and the political conquest soon brought with’ it a cultural conquest. Through the  propaganda of the European clergies, whose principal  business was tg point out the illogicality, absurdity and immorality of the mythological Hindu faith, and through the easy accessibility of the theological and philosophical works embodying the spirit of the Western religion and culture, there actually dawned a great change in the mental horizon of the Bengalees. Western education and culture roused a spirit of revolution in the mind of youths and the revolution found expression first through the life and activities of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who by the first quarter of the nineteenth century had, at the very prime of his youth’, the courage of standing against the prevalent religious beliefs of the Hindus, which he called superstitious and mythological. His call for revolution was responded to instantaneously by a section of the educated Bengalees and he did succeed in establishing a new religious school which' was fundamentally based on , Upanisadic monism, supplemented by cognate thoughts of Islam and Christianity. This newly reformed religion soon developed into the religious school known as Brahmoism, which broke asunder the barriers of the caste-system and the orthodox canons of the Hindu Smrtis (canonical texts) and stood'agaiifst all formalities in life and religion. Through the life and activities of Maharsi Devendranath Tagore, Brahmananda Kelav Chandra Sen, Vijay-krsna GosvamI and a host of other staunch followers of this new faith this religion soon gained a strong footing among an educated and cultured section of the Bengalees and it cannot be gainsaid that this new faith' of rationalism has been exerting G—HUB a reformative influence on orthodox Hinduism for more than a century, and that it exerted an appreciable influence also on the literature of the nineteenth century. Among the important literary figures of the last half of the nineteenth' century Bankim Chandra Chatterjee had a religious conception of his own, and the importance of this conception in the history of our literature lies in the fact that many of his novels and essays distinctly presuppose this religious background. Bankim Chandra was essentially a Hindu,—-but he was a staunch rationalist at the same time, ' and this rationalism of Bankim was to a great extent roused in him through' his intimate contact with the thoughts and ideas of the European scientists and philosophers of the eighteenth and the nineteenth century. Though Bankim Chandra had a fair acquaintance with the leading philosophical views of Europe, the two systems that exerted the greatest influence on the formation of his new religious faith are the Positivism of Comte and the Utilitarianism of Mill. Bankim Chandra’s religion is fundamentally based on Positivism and Utilitarianism; but he thought that Hinduism, as represented by the most popular scripture, the Git&  (the Divine Song), ascribed to the authorship of Lord Sri-Krsna, can very well be reconciled with the principles of Positivism and Utilitarianism. He, therefore, interpreted the ideals of the Gita  in the light of Positivism and Utilitarianism and tried to construct a new system of thought by a mixture of the ideas from the East and the West. How far Bankim Chandra succeeded in amalgamating the religious views of the East and the West and how far his new system was placed on a sound basis is a matter of controversy;  but what concerns us here is that not only his essays  but many of his novels also were infused with this new ideal of religion,—characterised by a distinct humanitarian tone, much too in keeping with the general tone o! the time. 1 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS INTRODUCTION li It Kas sometimes teen said tKat the religious attitude and the aesthetic attitude coincide together in their ultimate nature. There is no antagonism or even a relation of contrariety between truth* and beauty; on the other hand truth, beauty and goodness are sometimes viewed as the three attributes of the ultimate reality. This relation of truth with beauty, or of religion with’ art, has best been illustrated in the art-creation of Rabindranath Tagore. There are many songs among the poetical works of Tagore, which keep us in a fix as to whether we should eulogise them as master  pieces of art or as the best expressions of religious ex  periences. Tagore made no distinction between his aesthetic vision and his spiritual realisation, and he has repeatedly declared that as essentially a poet he could never make any distinction between the poet in him and the spiritual aspirer. As a matter of fact, rarely have we seen another  poet sink so deep in the unfathomable mysteries of nature, life and mind and come out with the priceless gems of his intuitional realisation, and at the same time give them the best autistic expression. Tagore sings of an infinite supreme Being underlying the whole cosmic process of finite creation. The world-  process is an eternal process of self-realisation through self-manifestation of that supreme Being. The Infinite is  becoming self-conscious through the eternal art-creation of all finitude,—and the truth of the Finite lies in the ideal of unity which it finds in the deeper relatedness with the Infinite. The Finite and the Infinite have embraced each other in the personality of man and the religion of man, which consists of his realisation of the ultimate truth in him, lies in the perfect evolution of his personality or the exten sion of it into infinity through the increase of knowledge, love and disinterested activities. There is an ideal unity underlying the diversity of the world-process, and the world of inanimate objects is evolving with the same rhythm Iii OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS with which the biological, the psychological and the spiritual  processes of man are moving; and the world-process as a whole is moving towards an ideal end—the ideal of perfec tion, which is to be attained by the realisation of our deeper relatedness with the Infinite Being. In speaking of a vision of his childhood Tagore says in his work,  Religion of Man,   “ The rhythmic picture of the tremulous leaves beaten by the rain opened before my mind the world which does not merely carry information, but a harmony with my being. The unmeaning fragments lost their individual isolation and my mind revelled in the unity of a vision. In a similar manner, on that morning in the village the facts of my life suddenly appeared to me in a luminous unity of truth. All things that had seemed like vagrant waves were revealed to my mind in relation to a boundless sea. I felt sure that some Being who comprehended me and my world was seeking his best expression in all my experiences, uniting them to an ever-widening individuality which is a spiritual work of art.” When this ever-widening individuality or  personality approximates infinity, we realise the divinity in man and that is the ideal realisation of truth. This conception of religion propagated by Tagore,  both through speculative essays and through his art-creations, much akin though it may be to the Hegelian and the neo-Hegelian thoughts in striking points, is, however, fundamentally based on the teachings of the Upanisads, which were ingrained in the heart of poet Tagore from the early days of his childhood. On the Upanisadic canvas the Vaisnava love-poets and the mystic Bauls of Bengal and other mystic poets of upper and northern India, viz   Kabit, Dadu, Raj jab and others, have supplied lines and colours of different shades. But this background and the other probable influences do in no way minimise the indivi dual contribution of Tagore, and it has to be admitted that Tagore, as the seer of truth, has realised something new and  INTRODUCTION liii given something substantial to the religious thought and literature of the world. The world has changed a good deal in this twentieth century of ours. Through the materialistic and positivistic tendencies of centuries we have now learnt to care more for our material life than for anything higher and spiritual. The advancement of positive sciences, the growing keenness in the struggle for existence,—the sternly acute problems of the grossly real life have turned the mind of the general mass away from the problems of the supra-mental reality. This life of flesh and blood, the apparently repulsive naked truths of the mysterious sphere, commonly known as the mind, the real weal and woe with which we are beset in our ordinary daily life,—the suppressed pangs of depressed humanity—the injustice of the powerful, the suffering of the weak—inequity of the social machine, crashing of the innocent heart,—triumph of the bourgeoisie and the cry of the  proletariat—these are the things that are engaging our whole attention,—and these are the things which we think and feel, and the mysteries of which we try to give expression to. The influence of the Continental literature and the closer contact of our life with the rapidly progressive life of the rising powers of the world around are rousing in us almost a craze for realism, and history must have its course. PART I THE BUDDHIST SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS AS BACKGROUND OF BENGALI LITERATURE CHAPTER I G rowth   of    the  S ahajiya  C ult   and   L iterature (/)  Information about the Available Literature The earliest available literature in the Bengali language consists of a number of fifty songs 1composed by different Siddhacaryas (i.e., preceptors who have attained perfection)  belonging to the Buddhist Sahajiya cult. These poems which are popularly known as the ‘ ‘ Carya-padas  _ , , (literally, verses on practices) were first Earliest literature in Bengali—the Carya-  published by MM. H. P. Sastri under the  pddlds caption of ‘ Carya-carya-viniscayah'  , this  being the title found in the Nepalese manuscript. MM. Vidhusekhara Bhattacarya, however, suggested that the correct caption should be ‘ ‘  Ascarya-carya-caya   ’ ’ (a collection of verses on mystic practices), which is found in the commentary of Munidatta on the opening verse.2Dr. P. C. Bagchi has 1These songs were first discovered by the late MahSmahopfidhySya Harsprasada Sastri in the Darbar Library of Nepal in 1907. They were edited by MM &I$tr? and published about ten years later under the auspices of the Vangiya Sshitya Parisad under the general caption of “ Bauddha-Gan-O'Dohii.  In the edition of MM. SfistrT three songs, viz.,  the twenty fourth, twenty fifth and the fiftieth songs are missing. Dr. P. C. Bagchi, M.A., Dr. es Lettres (Parish has fortunately been able to discover from Tan-jur the Tibetan translation of ail the fifty songs. (Vide Materials    for Critical Edition of the Old Bengali Carycipadas,  Part I» reprinted from the J. D. L., Vol. XXX.) 2   Vide    the note of MM. BhattScSrya in the Indian Historical Quarterly  , 1928, Vol. IV, No. 2. 4 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS suggested another improvement on the title and according to him the correct title should be ‘‘ Carya-scarya-Viniscaya.’ Though doubt has been cast from some quarters as to whether the linguistic character of the Carya-padas is genuine Bengali,2Dr. S. K. Chatterji, after a thorough examina tion of the linguistic character of these songs, has emphati cally expressed his opinion that “ the Linguistic character . of the songs-essenti- language or the Caryas is the genuine ally Bengali. vernacular of Bengal at its basis.” In spite of sporadic intrusions of a few Maithili and Odiya forms, and also of the influence of SaurasenI Apabhramsa, the essential linguistic nature of these songs cannot but  be admitted to be Bengali.!The language of the Dohas, which are published with the songs, is admittedly Western Apabhramsa. Many names will be found common between the authors of the Western Apabhramsa Dohas and those of , the Bengali songs. The mere commonness The Dohfis are com  posed in Western of names in the list of authors does not, Apabhramsa. . however, establish the identity or these authors, and we have no other positive evidence to be sure that the authors of the Dohas and those of the Carya-padas, where common names are to be found, are identical. But a 1 Vide Some Aspects of Buddhist Mysticism in the Caryapadas  in the Calcutta Oriental Journal,  Vol. I. 2 Mr. B. C. Majumdar, M.A., emphasised the Odiya nature of the Carya-padas. (see  History of Bengali Language,  by B. C. Majumdar, Lecture XIII, also a series of articles contributed by him in the Bengali monthly Vafiga Vant).  Again Mr. Jayaswal, following R. Sankrtyayana, refers to the language of the CaryS-padas as old Biliari in his presidential address to the seventh All India Oriental Conference held in Baroda. 3 The peculiar Bengali nature of the songs will be evident if we consider the  peculiar forms of the language, e.g., the genitive in ** -era, -ara,” dative in **•re,’* locative in “-tapost positional words like “ majha,” “ antara,** “ sarigapast and future bases in “-il-, - ib- ’ and not “-al*, -ab ** of Bihar!; present participle in *-anta> conjunctive indeclinable in -ia/’conjunctive conditional in 11-ite;”  passive in -ia-, which is preserved as a relic in Middle Bengali; substantive toots “ ach ” and " thak,” and not “ thik ” of Maithili or “ thg ” of Odiya; and a number of Bengali idioms. See The Origin and Development of Bengali Lan guage,  by Dr. S. K., Chatterji, Vol. I, p. 112. GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 5 comparison of the Dohas with the Carya-padas will reveal the fact that in their religious attitude, in theories and practices and in the manner of literary representation, in imagery,  phraseology and vocabulary they present a striking similarity, which warrants the belief that the authors of the Dohas and theCaryas, where common names are found, might have been identical;—we must at least admit that both the Dohas and the Caryas represent the same school of thought and they  belong to the same literary school. The anomaly as to why the Bengalee poets,' composing songs in Bengali, should have composed songs also in SaurasenI Apabhramsa on the same subject may be explained by referring to the prominence and popularity that Western Apabhramsa Reasons for the . 1   1  • i 1  i . 1 linguistic anomaly. enjoyed during the period between the ninth century and the twelfth through the  prestige of North Indian Rajput princes, in whose courts dialects akin to the later form of 6aurasenl were used, and whose bards spread and popularised such dialects in almost all parts of Aryan India, from Gujrat, and Western Punjab to Bengal.2But leaving aside the purely linguistic question, if we discuss the nature of these Dohas and songs from the religious, cultural and literary points of view, we shall find that they belong to no particular province of India, but may  be regarded as representative of the earliest stage of Indo-Aryan vernacular religious poetry inasmuch as their influence in thought and presentation on a considerable portion of the mediaeval vernacular literatures of Western, Northern and Eastern India is palpable. Investigation reveals the fact that many of the authors of these Dohas and Carya-padas, besides a good number of writers of Buddhist Tantric texts and commen taries, belong to the province of Bengal or to the close 1See infra . 2 Vide , The Origin and Development    0 /  Bengali Language , by Dr. S. K Chatteiji, p. 113. 6OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS neighbourhood of Bengal.1Though with the insufficient data that are available about the authors of the Dohas and the Carya-padas it is not possible to ascertain the exact time when these Siddhacaryas flourished and composed the Dohas and songs, we have reasons to believe that they flourished during the reign of the Pala kings of Bengal, which extended from the eighth to the twelfth century A.D. Among the ^ Siddhacaryas Lui-pa is taken to be the first. Time of composition i._ inw . i  A of the songs. Lui-pa and Lnpankara Sri~]nana conjointly wrote a book named  Abhisamaya-   Vibhanga.   Sri-jnana was born in 980 A.D. and went to Tibet in 1042 A.D. ;a he preached religion in Tibet for long fourteen years and died in 1056 A. D. So it may be supposed that  Abhisamaya-vibhanga   was written some time by the first quarter of the eleventh century. Lui-pa was senior to Sri-jnana, and therefore, he may reasonably be supposed to have flourished sometime in the second half of the tenth century.1Again, we find in the colophon of the commentary on the  Hevajra-tantra,   called the  Hevajra-    panjikja   or the Y oga-ratna-mala,    preserved in manuscript in the University Library, Cambridge, 1that the commentary was made or rather finished by Panditacarya SrI-kanha-pada in the thirty-ninth year of the reign of Govinda-pala, who flourished in the twelfth century A. D. (1199 A. D). Dr. S. K. Chatterji thinks it possible to 1 Vide  an article on  Buddhist Tantric Literature oj Bengal , by Dr. S. K. De in   the  New Indian Antiquary , Vol. I, No. 1. Vide  also, introduction to the  Bauddha-   Gan-o-Doha,  by MM. H. P. Sastrl. 2 Vide  an article by Mr. N. N Dasgupta in the Vanglya Sahitya-parisaUpatrikd    B.S. 1333, No. 2. 3The Presidential address of MM. H. P. SastrT in the VangTya Sahifya-Pamad in B.S 1329. 4 See  Bahgalara Itihasa  lin Bengali), by Rakhaldas Bandyopadh>ay, p. 318, The colophon of the manuscript referred to here in this book of Mr. Banerjee is taken from a brief notice of the MS. in Bendall’s Catalogue oj Buddhist-Sanskrit Manuscripts   in the University Library of Cambridge.  The MS. is, howe/er, available to the  present writer in rotograph (MS. Add. 1699). There is also a copy of the MS.  preserved in the R, A. S. B. (No 10745), but the colophon is missing there GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 1 identify this Panditacarya Kanha-pada with the Kanha-pada of the Carya-padas and thus to place Kanha-pada of the Carya-padas in the second half of the twelfth century.1 Without entering into the historical controversies it may be held that these poets of the Carya-padas and of the Dohas flourished sometime between the tenth and twelfth centuries A.D. (ii) History of Buddhism in Bengal As we have already hinted, the Carya-padas embody the religious tenets of Sahajiya Buddhism, which was a later offshoot of Tantric Buddhism. It will not be out of place , , „ . here to say a few words about the nature 1he study or oaha-  jiyg Buddhism in and extent of the growth and spread of  Bengal necessitates the , . . study of the history of Buddhism m Bengal at the time or and Buddhism in Bengal. , f , . r i o* 1   1 1  _ i  berore the rise or these biddhacaryas. In all probability Bengal was outside the empire of Asoka and  1The evidence on the strength of which Dr. Chatlerji tries to establish the identity of the author of the commentary  Hevajra-panjifya  with the author of the Carya-padas and that of the  Doha-kp&a  does not seem to be convincing. In the edition of the Carya-padas published by MlM. SSstrl the last couplet of the song No. 36 reads as follows :—  sathi kariva jalandhari patral    pakhi na rahaa mori pandia cade  II The reading is evidently corrupted. The correct reading should, however, be iakhi kariva jalandhari pae  I  pakhi na cahai (or cahaa) mori pandiacae  II which means  ,—** I shall make Jalandhari-pfi (reputed to be the preceptor of Kauha-pa)  bear witness for me ; 1do not find the scholastic preccptors (  panditacarya)  standing  by my side (r.e., holding the same view with me).” Dr. Chatterji, however, inter  prets the lineB in the following manner:—  “ I shall call to witness my Guru Jalandhari-p5da; my Panditacarya (i c  , myself who am a great scholar) does not look at me/’ {The Origin and Development,  etc.,  p. 122). With this interpretation of the couplet Dr. Chatterji thinks that the word **  panditacarya " referred to here can very well be a reference by Kanha to himself. But the interpretation of Dr. Chatterji cannot be accepted without much twisting of the construction of the couplet, and the meaning derived thereby does not conform to the meaning that the commentary on the lines and the Tibetan translation yield. 8 OBSCUKE RELIGIOUS CULTS % Buddhism could have no access to this province during his reign in the third century B. C. Mention is made of various centres of Theravada Buddhism in India from which re  presentative monks went to Ceylon to attend the ceremony of the consecration of the Maha-stupa erected by King Duttha- gamanl in the second century B.C. ; but though in the list of the centres we find mention of many places closely adjacent to Bengal, we find no mention of Bengal.1Traces of Buddhism as a religious faith in Bengal are, however, .. , f n , i. found from the time of the Gupta Little trace of Buddh* >#p ismin Bengal before emperors. The Chinese pilgrim, Fa-Hien, Buddhism in Bengal visited India during the reign of Chandra- of ihe Gupta period. 1 1  r' I ■■l • T’ l- gupta 11. ra-rlien stayed in lamrahpti (modern Tamluk in Midnapore) for two years, copying Sutras and painting images. He noticed the existence of twenty-four Sangharamas in the city, which were all residen tial seats for the Buddhist monks. It was also noticed by the  pilgrim that Buddhism at that time began to command ^ r , reverence with the public in general. Evidence of the foreign pilgrims-the After Fa-Hien another renowned  epigraphical records. . . .. f  Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen lsang, came to India during the seventh century A.D. in the reign of Harsavardhana and visited Bengal. He found ten Buddhist monasteries with more than 1,000 monks residing in them in Tamralipti, twenty Sangharamas with some 3,000 priests who studied both the Little and the Great Vehicle in Pundra- vardhana, thirty or so Sangharamas with about 2,000 priests, all of the Sthavira school in Samatata, and ten Sangharamas or so with about 2,000 priests studying the Little Vehicle of the Samatatiya school in Karnasuvarna. He also spoke of two most notable colleges, rather universities, of his time, one at Pundravardhana and the other at Karnasuvarna,  both renowned as great seats of learning for the Eastern l  Religious Condition Bengal other than Hindu,  by Dr. B. M Barua, M.A. D'.Lit (Lond.) (unpublishedI GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AMD LITERATURE 9 Buddhist scholars. I-tsing, another Chinese pilgrim, speaks of the University of Bha-ra-ha in Tamralipti and gives a vivid picture of its inner life, organisation, discipline, splendour and fame. While speaking of the four tracts of Bengal referred to by Hiuen Tsang, I-tsing referred to the great reverence of people in general for the Buddhist faith and for the monastic life of the Bhiksus (monks living on alms). He also found an Afoka tope and the vestiges of the four past Buddhas. A renowned Buddhist teacher of Bengal of the pre- Pala age was Sllabhadra of Samatata. He was at first a disciple of Acarya Dharmapala of Nalanda and gradually  became the head of that great Buddhist University. He was a friend as well as a preceptor of Hiuen Tsang who had deep reverence for the monk. Buddhabhadra, the nephew and disciple of Sllabhadra, was also a devout Buddhist, and both the uncle and the nephew were reputed as great devotees and profound scholars. Buddhabhadra has  been described as a specialist in Yogacara Buddhism, and tradition says that he derived his inspiration from Avalokites- vara, Maitreya and Manjusri. One thing to be noticed in this connection is that the evidence of the Chinese pilgrims or of the epigraphical and archaeological records does not help us much in ascertaining lhe nature of Buddhism that was current in Bengal before - the Palas. We find mention of Mahayana Buddhism as well as of Hmayana. It seems, however, that in the historical evolution of Buddhism, Mahayana, with its more liberal policy and generous ideal of the final goal, could capture the mind of the public much more than Hmayana with its strict monasticism and ethical rigorism, and as a result Mahayana was fast gaining in popularity. During the time of the Palas, however, a tendency towards esoterism^ was manifest and Buddhism very soon underwent another great change from Mahayana to Vajrayana, 2 J41IB 10 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Coming to the time of the Palas, who were professed Buddhists, we find many Buddhist Ps?a period! °f t,ie monasteries established in different parts of Bengal mainly through the patronage of these Pala kings. The great Vihara of Nalanda was enriched and repaired and some new land-grants were made to it by the Palas, and it was made the meeting place of all sorts of Buddhist scholars from countries within and without India. On the evidence of Taranatha we know that Gopala I founded the Odantapuri or Uddandapura Mahavihara, while according to the  Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang  he was the founder of the monastery of Nalanda. Dharmapala, the son of Gopala, who himself bore the epithet of Vikramasiladeva, founded the monastery of Vikramasila which for some time rivalled the glory of Nalanda. An inscribed clay-seal discovered in Pahadapura bears testi mony to the fact that the M ahavihara of Somapura in North Bengal also was erected by Dharmapala. Close to this important monastery was situated, in the eleventh century A.D., a temple of Khasarpana Avalokitesvara, in which was permanently deposited a manuscript of the Prajna'  paramita in a casket artistically executed by Vipulasrimitra. On four sides of this big temple were built four alms-houses wherein images of the Goddess Tara were installed. Another  big temple of Tara was built in Somapura to ‘ dispel entirely the eight great dreads of the people.’ This monastery of Somapura and also the Vikramasila monastery were probably  brought to perfection by Devapala, son of Dharmapala. The Bstan-hgyur refers to another Vihara of Vikramapuri, which was most probably situated in Vikramapura of East Bengal. Kumara Candra, called Acarya Avadhuta, wrote a Tantric commentary in this monastery of Vikramapuri. Another Vihara which was already in existence in Bengal during the time of Dharmapala was the Traikutaka Vihara, where Acarya Haribhadra wrote his famous commentary on the  Asta-sahasrik'd-prajna-paramita.  Prajna-varman, GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE I 1‘ called Acarya, and his preceptor, Bodhivarman, are said to* have hailed from Kapatya of Bengal, which was either a monastery itself or a-place having a monastery. There was  probably another monastery in Devikot in North Bengal to which Advayavajra, the great Tantric Buddhist scholar, as also Mekhala, a nun, are said to have belonged. The  Pag-   Som-Jon-Zang  mentions the Pandita Vihara of Chittagong, which was a great centre of Tantric learning and culture, and with this Vihara Tilipa as Tilopa or Tailapada is said to have been associated. I ailapada had a disciple of the name of Nada-pada, who again is said to have been the  preceptor of the renowned Bengali Buddhist missionary who went to Tibet and preached Buddhism there for full fourteen years. Nadapa was the author of the commentary on the Vajrapada-sara-samgraha , which is said to have been com  posed by Sakyabhiksu Yasobhadra of Kasmira at the demand of Vinaya-sri~mitra and others belonging to the grand Vihara of Kanakastupa in the city of Pattikeraka. This city of Pattikeraka, frequently found in the ballads on King Gopl- cand or Govinda Candra as the city of Pati-kara, has con vincingly been identified with the  paragana  of Pati-kara, conterminous with Meherkul in the district of Tippera.1 In connection with the Buddhism of the Pala period mention must be made here of Ati.^a Dlparikara, the great Buddhist scholar of Bengal. Of his life and activities in India and in Tibet we now know much, which need not be reproduced here. The grand Vihara of Jagaddala, founded by the last great Pala king, Ramapala, speaks of the last glory of Buddhism in Bengal. The king installed in this Vihara images of Avalokitesvara and Maha Tara. This great monasteiy was situated in a part of Ramavati, the new 1Mr. N. N. Das Gupta, M.A.,  Buddhist Viharas of Bengal, Indian Culture,   Vol. I, No. 2. 12 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS metropolis founded by Ramapala at the confluence of the Ganges and the Karatoya. Bibhuticandra and Danasila were the two most reputed scholars of Jagaddala. Besides, Moksakaragupta of the same Vihara was a good logician and composed in three chapters the Tarka-bhasa.   Subhakaragupta, who lived there for some time, wrote a commentary on the Tantric text Siddhaikavira-tantra.   Dharmakara of the same monastery translated the Samvara - vyakhya  of Krsna. Buddhists from Tibet flocked here to have Sanskrit texts translated into Tibetan.1 In the brief survey made above it must have been noticed that a good number of Fantric scholars of Buddhism flourished during the period of the Palas, and many of the authors of the Dohas and Caryas probably flourished during this time. The art and iconography of the same period will  bear testimony to the fact that by this time Mahayana began to be eclipsed by Vajrayana Buddhism. The icons of various Buddhist gods and goddesses of the period and also the representation of some of the gods (including the Lord Supreme as Hevajra or Heruka or Vajresvara or Vajra-sattva, as he was variously called in esoteric Buddhism) with their respective female consorts in a state of union (  yuganaddha)  will indicate the introduction of the Sakti element in the Buddhist religion of the time. With this brief survey of the history of Buddhism in Bengal before and at the time of the advent of the Buddhist Siddhacaryas of the Sahajiya sect, let us now turn our attention directly to the religious background of the Bengali Carya-padas, which embody the religious doctrines and  practices of the Sahajiya Buddhists. This will naturally lead us to the question of the nature, origin and development of Tantric Buddhism as a whole, of which Sahaja-yana is a later offshoot, and also to the question of the relation  Ibid. GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LIT ERA ! URE 13 and connection beteen the various schools of Tantric Buddhism, viz.,  Vajra-yana, Kalacakra-yana and Sahaja-yana. {iii) Origin and Development of Tantric Buddhism The phase of later Buddhism, widely and roughly known as Tantric Buddhism, may be said to be a popular develop ment of Mahayana Buddhism through a gradual process of centuries having its fullest sway during the period between the eighth and twelfth centuries A.C. Mahayana or the ‘ Great Vehicle/ as contrasted with the ethico-religious rigorism of Hinayana, or the *Little Vehicle,’ was a religion of progress and liberalism. In the  Mahayana-sutra-lankara  of Asariga Hmayana has been characterised as a very iraladwhhaHmVana' narrow system of religion—narrow in its aim of self-liberation, narrow teach ings to realise that aim, narrow method applied for this realisation, insufficiency of equipment and the shortness of time within which final liberation is guaranteed.1On the other hand, the Mahayana school represents the religion of the dissenters and the protestants and was always characterised  by a broadness of outlook and deep sympathy for the suffering beings of the whole universe. Tradition says that after the death of Buddha there arose a great controversy among his followers as to the correct interpretation of the sayings of the master as well as about the rules of discipline indispensable for a monk. To settle these controversies great councils were held. It is said that' in the second council held in Vesali the controversy finally ended in a split among the Buddhists, and the dissenters  Mahay ana-sutra Lnara,  Ch.  I,  Verse 10, Levis edition, 14 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS convened another great assembly (  Mahasangha ) to have a separate school of their own and they were known as the Mahasarighika. In this way, as time passed, the , , controversy between these radicalists and  I he quarrel bet ween the elders and the orthodox elders (  thera ) began to be the liberals. • • l 1 more ana more uncompromising and the  points of dissension were also gradually increasing in number. This controversy between the elders and the radicalists finally resulted in the growth of the two separate schools within the province of Buddhism itself, the canonical tenets of the elders being styled as Hinayana and the tenets of the radicalists as Mahayana.' Among the radical changes in thought and outlook that we find in Mahayana, as contrasted with Hinayana, the ,, , r Ai , most important is the change in the concep- Ideal of Arhathood ^ replaced by that of tion of the final goal. Whereas the  sum - Bodhisattvahood. r i t _     i  mum bonum  or Hinayana is to attain Arhat hood or final liberation of the self from the whirl of existence through strict ethical discipline and the processes of ‘  Jhana  * (Sk.  dhyana , meditation), the final aim of Mahayana was to attain Buddhahood in and through different stages of Bodhisattvahood, which is a state of perfect knowledge about the void-nature of the self and the not-self mixed up with an emotion of universal compassion for the redemption of all the suffering beings. The conception of Bodhisattvahood, very important as it is in Mahayana Buddhism as well as in all forms of Tantric Buddhism, requires some elaboration. The belief of the followers of Mahayana is that every man, nay, every being of the world, is a potential Buddha; he has within him all the potency of becoming the perfectly enlightened one (Samyak-sambuddha ), which latent possi  bility can be made patent only through the attainment of  perfect knowledge, associated with universal compassion, which prompts one to utilise that knowledge in missionary   activities for the uplift of all beings. The ideal of missionary GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 15 life was consequently preferred to the ideal of the attainment The element of of final extinction (nirvana).  Bodhisattva- Karu,?5 hood means the attainment of the Bodhi-mind (Bodhicitta),  which is defined as -a unified state of vacuity (  sunyata ) and universal compassion (karuna),1 The other noteworthy departure in Mahayana was the development of the docetic conception of the three Kayas (bodies) of the Buddha. The Hinayanists conceived the Buddha only as a Historical personage in the life and activities of Sakyamuni; but with the Mahayanists the Buddha is no particular historical personage, he is  but the ultimate principle as the totality three^sywTor bodies! of things and beings in an unquali fied state of all-existence. This ultimate  principle has three aspects, known as the three Kayas of the Buddha, viz.,  the Dharma-kaya (i.e., primordial element, or the ‘ thatness ’ underlying all that exists), the Sambhoga- kaya (the body of bliss, or the effulgent body in the form of the Bodhisattvas) and the Nirmana-kaya (i.e.,  the body of transformation, or the historical personage of Buddha).2With these fundamental changes in outlook and a predominance Predominance of of philosophical thought and the culture and° culture oTThe °f the supreme virtues (paramita)  Mahayana Psramitss Buddhism flowed on side by side with Hinayana for centuries. But as, on the one hand, this freedom of thought, broadness of outlook and spirit of liberalism liberated Buddhism from the walls of narrow scholasticism and raised it from the selfish hankering of personal liberation to the sublimity of a religion for suffering humanity, it, on the other hand, contained the germs of indiscipline and the revelry of wild thoughts which reduced Buddhism to a ' gunyata-karuna hhinnam bodhi-cittam iti smrtam  I $ri'guhya 8amaja~tantra  iG.O S.^, p. 153. 2 Vide infra, 16 OBSCUKE RELIGIOUS CULTS  body of unintelligible m utterings and a system of practices which are definitely unconventional. It should be observed that the pledge of Mahayana was the redemption of suffering humanity as a whole, nay, the liberation of all beings. With this end in view the apostles of Mahayana had to make their religion catholic enough to make it acceptable even to the most ordinary people of the society. In other words, Mahayana, as a religion for all people, had to make  provision within its fold for people of widely different tastes and intellectual calibre. It is for this reason that hetero geneous elements of faith and religious practices began first to creep in and then to rush into the province of Buddhism. For ordinary people religion consists in the Degeneration by  100  much popuiarisa- belief in innumerable gods and goddesses, in time-honoured customs, muttering of mystic formulas, and in the paraphernalia of rites, ceremonies and practices; when through the zeal of liberat ing all the beings from the bondage of existence Mahayana  began to be too much popularised, all these popular religious elements of heterogeneous nature began to be incorporated into Buddhism. Though the general custom is to style this composite religious system of heterogeneous faiths and practices as Tantric Buddhism, the  raison d'etre  of Tantric Buddhism is not to be sought in this popular  phase of the religion. It seems that with the purpose of attaining the final state of Buddhahood a new school deve loped within the province of Buddhism itself with a more forward ^policy? This forwar3~school introduced elements like the Mantras and the Dharanls^ into the ^ovince_of ~this Religion. It is Tor tEIs reason that Buddhism°f T5ntnc in the T attVOHrcitn&vali  collected in the  Allvaya-vajra-samgraha   (edited by MM. H. P. Sastri, G. O. S., No. XL), we find Mahayana sub-divided into two schools, Viz.,   Paramita-naya and M&ntra-naya. The principles of Mantra-naya are said to GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 17  be very deep and subtle and inaccessible to ordinary men; and though the ultimate purpose of the Manfr^ny^ia.aya °r Mantra-sastra is the same as that of other  Sastras, it is said to be distinctly superior to them because of the fact that it is free from delusions and is accessible only to people with a higher intellectual calibre.1 This Mantra-naya or Mantra-yana seems to be the intro ductory stage of Tantric Buddhism, from which all other offshoots, like Vajra-yana, Kalacakra-yana, Sahaja-yana, etc., arose in laier times. In the  Laghu-ala~cakra'tanira-    raja-tikja , entitled Vimala-prabha  “we find that the doctrines of the Paramita-naya are written wholely in Sanskrit, while those ot the Mantra-naya are explained in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsa and even in non-Sanskritic languages like those of the Savaras and others. Tradition holds Asanga, the great exponent of the Tradition about Yogacara school, to be responsible for the introduction of Tantricism in Buddhism; dImm he again, in his turn, is believed to have  been initiated into this mystic cult by Maitreya in the Tusita-heaven. Others, on the other hand, hold that  Napfariuna. the ^ renowned exponent of the Madhyamika school, was the real founder of the esoteric school, and that he, in his turn, received the doctrines from the Celestial Buddha Vairocana through the divine Bodhisattva Vajra-sattva in the “ iron tower ” in South India. Apart from these traditions, some scholars are disposed to think that in the  Mahayana-sutra4ahara  of Asanga there are clear references to the sexo-yogic practice of the Tantric Buddhists. In the Sutra-lah^ara  the word “  paravrtti  ” occurs several times in connection with acts which constitute the supreme greatness of the Buddha. One of these verses 1 Tattva-ratnavall  in  Advaya-vajia sampjaha,  p. 21. *MS., R. A. S. B , No. 4727. 3  —HI IB. runs thus, “ In the  paravrtti  of sexual union supreme great ness is obtained, (namely) in the enjoyment of Buddha- happiness and in looking without impure thoughts at a wife.”1Sylvain Levi in translating this verse suggests that “  paravrtti  of sexual act ” alludes to 41the mystic couples of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas which have so c  . much importance in Tantricism/’ But Evidence rrom the  Mahayana-sutra-   Winternitz in his notes on the “ Guhya- lahkara.  _ , , ^ 18 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS samaja Tantra and the Age of Tantra doubts this interpretation of Levi and suggests that “  paravrtti  ” means nothing but “ turning aside, discard.” The phrase  maiihunasya paravrtti *'  may really refer to the Tantric sexo-yogic practice through which there is the enjoyment of bliss similar to that arising from the sexual act,—and the significance of this mystic union and the consequent enjoyment of blissful union is given in the Sutra-lanl^ara  itself.5If this interpretation of the word M  paravrtti  ” in the present context be accepted, it may be inferred that the Tantric ideas were already prevalent in Mahayana Buddhism in the time of Asanga (4th-5th centuries A.D ), and the tradition of Tantricism being introduced in Buddhism by Asanga himself becomes to a great extent significant. Some scholars are again of the opinion that the Tantric elements were introduced into Buddhism by Lord Buddha himself as a mere provision for the laities whose intellectual calibre and moral equipment would not allow them to follow ^ , lf the path chalked out by him. Thus Dr. Did Buddha himself * ti   1  r> 1  u introduce Tantric ele- B. Bhattacarya says,—“Though Buddha ments in Buddhism? . .  ,r  was antagonistic to all stfrts of sacrifices, necromancy, sorcery or magic, he is credited nevertheless with having given instructions concerning Mudras, Mandalas 1 maithunasya paraVrttau vibhulvam labhyate paratn   I buddha-saukhya-vihare' tha data samkleta-dartane   II 2  Indian Historical Quarterly,  IX. 1. 3 Studies in the Tantras,  Dr. P. C. Bagchi, p. 92. dRQWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 19 and Tantras, etc., so that, by virtue of these, prosperity in this world could be attained by his less advanced disciples, who seemed to care more for this world than for the Nirvana preached by him. India in Buddha’s time was so steeped in superstitions that any religion which dared forbid all kinds of magic, sorcery and necromancy could hardly hope to withstand popular opposition. A cleve1 organiser as Buddha was, he did not fail to notice the importance of incorporating magical practices in his religion to make it popular from all points of view and attract more adherents thereby.”1As a conclusive evidence of this inference Dr. Bhattacarya refers to Buddha's belief in the four “ iddhis  ” (;  rddhi ) or miraculous power obtained by the advanced disciples and also to a verse in the Tativa-samgraha   of Santaraksita and its commentary by Kamalaslla, where Buddha himself is said to have prescribed Mantra, Mudra, Mandala, etc., for his lay disciples. But this view of Dr. Bhattacarya cannot be credited historically because of the fact that he has not demonstrated his view with sufficient evidence. The mere belief in the “rddhi"  is no convincing  proof of Buddha s sanction of Tantricism, and the evidence of Santaraksita and Kamalasila (which too is extremely insufficient by itself) cannot be credited much on the ground that they flourished about fourteen hundred years after the advent of Buddha. Of course, we find occasional references to Tantric practices including the sex-element even in the time of Buddha,2but we find no conclusive evidence in any early record of Buddha’s sanction to Tantricism as the mere policy of a clever organiser. On the whole, we are 1  An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism,  by Dr. B. Bhattacarya, p. 48. See also the introduction to the Sadhana-mala  (Vol. Ill, by Dr. Bhat^acaryaf  pp. xvi-xvii. 2  Dtgha-mkaya, Brahma-jdla-sutta; KaihaVatthu , XVil, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, XXIII. 2;  Majjhima-nikayat   Pali Text-book Society’s F-dition, I, p. 305. 20 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS loath to believe that Buddha, whose life and teachings were a direct revolution against the prevalent religious system of rites and ceremonies, should have himself made  provision for Tantric practices in his religion only to  popularise it among the uncultured, superstitious laity though he himself never believed in the efficacy of any of these practices. A popular tendency is manifest among some of the scholars to determine the priority either of the Hindu Tantras or of the Buddhist Tantras. We have pointed out in the Intro duction the truth, which we shall have many other occasions to repeat, that Tantricism with its heterogeneous nature is neither exclusively Hindu, nor exclusively Buddhist in origin. It is an ancient religious cult of India manifesting itself some times as Hindu being associated with Hindu theology, thoughts and ideas and somstimes as Buddhist in association with later Buddhist theology, thoughts and ideas. In view of this fact it will not be sound to say, as has actually been said by some scholars, that the Hindu Tantras are later in origin and are derived from the Buddhist Tantras. We have seen that Asanga has traditionally been held to be the introducer of Tantricism in Buddhism ; but the tradition of the existence of a vast array of Agamas during the days of Asanga or even in earlier times cannot altogether be neglected. These ancient Agamic texts seem to be the source of all Tantric texts. That an extensive Tantric literature existed in the days of Somananda and Utpala is well-known. Internal evidences show that most of these works, even as they were then known, were very old. Abhinava Gupta’s (10 A.C.) compilation of Tantra-loka  is based on many ancient Agamas, which were accessible to him personally. A study of these will show that between the so-called Buddhist Tantras and Hindu Tantras there are numerous points of contact implying thereby that they had a common   cultural background in the past. GROW IH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 21 It will be very interesting to note that, apart from the theological speculations, which differ in details from one another in different religious spheres, the fundamentals of the Hindu Tantras and the Buddhist Tantras are the same. It is only the colour and tone that are sometimes different. As we shall have more occasions to refer to these points of similarity later on we do not propose to illustrate them here. The Mantra-element seems to have been introduced in , Mahayana Buddhism first in the form of the Ifie ivlantia element J  Dharani, which literally means that by which something is sustained or kept up (  dharyale anaya iti ), i.e., the mystic syllables that have got the capacity of keeping up the religious life of a man. In the  Bodhisattva-bhumi   of Vasubandhu we find a discourse on the nature of the Dharanis and a philosophical explanation for the adoption of these unmeaning Mantras for the realisation of the ultimate truth. According to the  Bodhisattva-bhumi  the Dharanis of the Bodhisattva are of four kinds, viz.,  Dharma-dharanf, Artha- dharani, Mantra-dharani and the Dharani for the attainment of the transcendental merit of forbearance of the Bodhisattva (  Bodhisattva-santi-labhdya ca dharani).  The Dharma-dharani is composed of that kind of Mantras through the hearing of which (even though they are not explained in any Sastra or  by any preacher) the follower attains memory (  smrti ), perfect knowledge (prajna)  and spiritual strength (bala).  Artha- dharani is that type of Mantras through the mystic power of which the correct significance (artha)  of the Dharmas (which significance is never explained in any Sastra or by any  preacher) is revealed to the follower in an intuitive way. The Mantra-dharani enables a man to attain .perfection. The Dharani for the attainment of forbearance (Isanti)  is the Mantra through which the ultimate nature of the Dharmas is revealed to the reciter and through this realisation of the ultimate immutable nature of the Dharmas the follower  22 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS attains generosity of heart which produces in him the merit of forbearance.1 In this connection, however, Vasubandhu gives a philo sophical explanation of how the ultimate immutable nature of the Dharmas can be realised through the Mantras of unmeaning syllables, such as “ iti miti kiti bhiksornti padani    svaha."  He says that these syllables, viz., “ iti miti fyti,   etc.,” have got no meaning whatsoever,—and the follower through concentration should realise the truth that these Mantras can have no meaning at all,—-this unmeaningness is their real meaning. Through this absolute negation of all possible meanings to the Mantra, the real meaning of the Mantra as pure void is intuitively revealed to a man. Thus this realisation of the meaning of the Mantras (as pure negation) helps the man to realise in pure intuition the nature of the Dharmas as essenceless. But through this negation of all meanings to the Mantras a unique transcen dental, immutable meaning is revealed to the heart of the Sadhaka; this immutable nature is the real nature of all things.2Closely associated with this Mantra-element is the Mudra-element, which in Buddhism in general is but the different signs made by the particular position of the , .. , , hands and the fingers.This Mudra-ele- Mudra, Mandala. ment, however, with the Mantra-element and some other esoteric practices has a deeper significance 1  Bodhisattva-bhumi . Ed. by Unrai Wogihara (Tokyo), pp. 272-74. 2  sa esam mantra-padanam eVam samyak pratipanna evam-arthum svayam   evasrutva k^oicit pratipadyati. tad yalha na'sty esam mantra-padanam k&cid     artha-parinispattih. nirartha cvaitc. ayam cva caisam urlho yad uta mrarthata.    sa te&am mantra-padanam artham samyak pratwidhya tenaiva rtha-nusarcna  aarva-dharmanam apy artham samyak pratividhyati svayam evairuiva paratah  | ...............................  ya punar esam nirabhilapya-aVabhaVata. ayam esam svabhava- rthah.  Bodhisattva-bhumi,  p. 273. 3 It should be noted here that the word Mudra in the Tantric and the Yogic literature has got different meanings. Iri the Tantras it often means the woman to GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 23 in the Yogic Sadhana of the Tantrics, and as the Mantra- element contains all the secrecy of the potency of sound, the Mudra-element contains all the secrecy of touch as associated with the potency of the physiological system. With Manlra and Mudra the element of Mandala or describing of mystic circles was also introduced. But once the portals of Buddhism were flung open to let in elements of esoterism, all the traditional beliefs in gods, demi-gods, demons and ghosts, magic, charms and sorcery with all their details rushed in and quickly changed the whole ethico-religious outlook of Buddhism. With these ^ again were joined the elements of Yoga,—Hatha-yoga, Laya-yoga, Mantra-yoga and Raja-yoga. All these elements made for the growth of the elaborate system of Tantric Buddhism. It is to be noticed that in the earlier phase of Tantric Buddhism emphasis was laid generally on the elements of Mantra, Mudra, Mandala, Abhiseka (initiation and the ceremonies associated with it), etc.; but gradually the sexo^yogic practice also began to be referred to. In course of evolution, however, the sexo-yogic practice began to be held as the most important esoteric practice for the attainment of the final state of supreme bliss, all the other practices and   be selected in the secret practice; in Hatha-yoga it refers to practices including control of limbs, muscles, nerves and the vital breath-process. We have again different descriptions of four types of Mudras associated with both processes of Yoga and meditation which are again associated with four types of realisation of bliss (vide   Catur-mudra  of the  Advaya-vajrasamgraha,  G. O. S., XL). In the University Library of Cambridge there is a manuscript with the colophon " Srl-mac-chakyaraja-   sarva-durgati-pari&odhana-mukha-khyana-prathama-diyoga-nama samadhi  ” (MS. Cambridge, Add. No. 1278, available to the present writer in rotogiaph) with as many as one hundred and fifty-eight coloured illustrations of the different kinds of MudrSs. . Of these some seem to be purely postures of the hands and fingers, some on the other hand illustrate the different manners of holding the thunderbolt { vajra ), lotus,  bell, sword, conch-shell, bunch of flowers, garlands, etc. Others again illustrate the manner of offering flowers, water, incense, lamp and other materials of worship. Some again illustrate the different manners of playing on the different musical instruments. All these art* done with the aim of obtaining final purification and final deliverance from the miseries of life, 24 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS ceremonies being held as preparatory accessories. The six kinds of ritual intended for the good or from8MrntraVysJna.yana ev’I anybody (  Abhicara ) and the five accessories of wine (  madya ), meat (mamsa),   fish (  matsya ), woman (?) (mudra)  and sexual intercourse (i  maithuna ) gradually made their way into Buddhism. ^   This composite system of Tantricism with the introduction of the sexo-yogic practice came ii  be known by the general name of Vajra-yana or the Adamantine path.2Kazi Dawa-samdup in his introduction to the Sri-catya-sambhdra-   iantra  divides this Vajra-yana into further parts, Viz  , Kriya-tantra-yana, Carya-tantra-yana and Yoga-tantra-yana ; the last is again sub-divided into Mahayoga-tantra-yana, Anuttara-yoga-tantra-yana and Atiyoga-tantra-yana. The general custom, however, is to divide Vajra-yana into four classes, Viz.,  Kriya-tantra, Carya-tantra, Yoga-tantra, and Anuttara-tantra. The first two classes are called ‘ lower Tantras ’ inasmuch as they are concerned with the rites, ceremonies, worship of gods and goddesses and other  practices; and the latter schools are known as ‘ higher Tantras *inasmuch as they describe yogic processes for the realisation of the ultimate truth and also contain discussions on the nature of the ultimate reality. There is still another customary way of dividing Tantric Buddhism into three schools, viz.,  Vajra-yana, Kala-cakra- 1 We do not, however, find any direct mention of the “ Pahca~ma-k.aras   ” in the Buddhist Tantras; but we find spoiadic mention of wine, fish, meaf, etc., and much of Mudra and sexual intercourse. We also find frequent reference to the Panca-kama-guna   or five objects of desire through the enjoyment of which perfection can be attained. 2 The original name Mantra-yana is also often found used in a general Fense for later Buddhist Tantric schools C/.  HeVajra panjika,  MS. (Cambridge Add. No.  J699j, p. 45(B);  Advaya-Vajra-samgraha,  p. 54 (G. 0. S. >;  commentary on  the  Dohakosa  of Kgnhapada, verse No. 12. 3 In this connection compare also four divisions in the arrangement of the  Vaisnava-tantras (found in the  Padma-tantra), viz.,  jnana-pada, Yoga-p5da, Kriya-pada and Carya-pada. (See J. R. A. S., 1901, p. 900.) GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 25 yana and Sahaja-yana. 1This division seems to us erroneous  because of the fact that Kala cakra-yana and Sahaja-yana seem to us to be schools within the fold of the general name Vajra-yana. MM. H. P. Sastri speaks of Nathism as another school of Tantric Buddhism.2As we shall have to devote separate chapters to the problems regarding the nature, . . origin and growth of Nathism the question rv£la-cakra-yana . . . of its relation to Tantric Buddhism will not be discussed at this stage.8The problem of Kala-cakra- yana, however, appears to us perplexing. About its nature Waddell says in his  Lamaism ,—V In the tenth century A.D., the Tantric phase developed in Northern India, Kasmir and Nepal into monstrous and polydemonist doctrine, the Kala-cakra, with its demonical Buddhas, which in corporated the Manlrayana practices, and called itself the Vajrayana, or the ‘ Thunderbolt-vehicle,’ and its followers were named Vajra-carya, or, ‘ followers of the Thunder  bolt. ’1In another place he says—“The extreme develop ment of the Tantric phase was reached with the Kala-cakra, which, although unworthy of being considered as a  philosophy, must be referred to here as a doctrinal basis. It is merely a course of Tantric development of the Adi-Buddha theory combined with puerile mysticism of Mantrayana, and it attempts to explain creation and the secret powers of nature by the union of the Kali , not only with the Dhyani Buddhas, but even with Adi-Buddha himself.” The account and interpretation given by Mr. Waddell seem to us to be based on confused ideas about Tibetan Buddhism. We have not yet been able to discover the reason behind the general tendency of  1 See the introduction to Sadhana-malci  ,  Vol. II, by Dr. B. Bhattacarya. 2 See the introduction to  Modern Buddhism and its followers in Orissa   of Mr. N. Vasu by MM. H. P. Sastrl. 3 Vide infra. 4  Lamaism,  by Waddell, p. IV 6  Hid. 4—141 IB 26 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS associating the name Kala-cakra-yana with the terrible aspect of Tantric Buddhism. MM. H. P. Sastri, however, says on this point,—“ What is Kala-cakra-yana? The word Kala means time,—death and destruction. Kala-cakra is the wheel of destruction, and Kala-cakra-yana means the vehicle for protection against the wheel of destruction.” 1But this explanation of MM. Sastri is not confirmed by any textual evidence. The traditional view concerning the origin of Srhkala-   cakra-mula-tantra , which is recorded ih the  Abhinisramana   Sutra   2is that it was delivered by the Buddha at Sri Dhanya Kataka. Regarding this system Csoma de Koros says that it was introduced in India from Sambhala at about 965 A.C. We have at our disposal a text of the  $rj-ala-cara-    tantra  ?a study of which does not substantiate the statement that Kala-cakra-yana is that school of Tantric Buddhism, which introduced demonic Buddhas in it,—at least, it is not the main characteristic by which the school should be recognised. In the text at our disposal the Lord has explained how the universe with all its objects and localities are situated in the body and how time in all its divisions and sub-divisions (viz.,  day, night, fortnight, month, year, etc.) is within the body in the processes of the vital wind (prana-Vayu).  In the text Sahaja has been explained and also the details of the sexo-yogic practice for the attainment of the Sahaja. The only thing that strikes the reader is the stress laid on the control of the vital winds (  prana  and  apana)  and the results attained thereby. A study of the commentary on the text (Laghu-^ala-ca^ra-  tantra-raja-lika,  entitled Vimala-prabha)  also reveajs no fundamental difference between the tenets of Vajra-yana Buddhism :md those of Kala-cakra-yana. The stress on '  Modern Buddhism , etc., Introduction, p. 8 >l Pag Sam Jon Zang.,  p 37 3MS. Cambridge Add., 1364, GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CUL.1 AND LITERATURE 27  yoga seems, however, to be the special feature, if there  be any at all, of Kala-cakra-yana. It is interesting to note here that similar doctrines of  Kala-cakra  are elaborately described and explained in a fairly old text like the Tantra-loka  of Abhinava Gupta. The sixth chapter of the Tantra-loa  (which is a fairly big chapter) is devoted to the exposition of the doctrine of Kala (time) and the process of keeping oneself above the influence of the whirl of time. Time (Kala) in all its  phases (day and night, fortnight, month, year, etc.) has been explained here mainly with reference to the functions of the vital wind (mainly  Prana  and  Apana)  spread through the whole nervous system, and the process of controlling time is to control the vital wind in the nerves through yogic  practices. (iv) Mode oj Transformation oj the Main Ideas oj    Mahayana to those oj Tantric Buddhism Before we pass on to the fundamental characteristics of Sahaja-yana, on which the Carya-padas are based, we deem it necessary here to make a very short survey of the mode of transformation of some of the philosophical ideas of Maha- yana Buddhism into those of Tantric Buddhism. Tantricism is neither Buddhist nor Hindu in origin : it seems to be a religious under-current, originally independent of any abstruse metaphysical speculation, flowing on from an obscure point of time in the religious history of India. With these  practices and yogic processes, which characterise Tantri cism as a whole, different philosophical, or rather theological, systems got closely associated in different times, and the association of the practices with the fundamental ideas of Mahayana Buddhism will explain the origin and development of Tantric Buddhism. Being associated with the Tantric system the fundamental ideas of Buddhism underwent a 28 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS great change; or it may also be that the transformation of the fundamental ideas by lay people, who were indis criminately admitted into the school of Mahayana, facilitated the association of Buddhism with Tantricism. There seems to have been a mutual interaction between the cause and the effect in either case. In this mode of transformation the most important point is Transformation of the transformation of the idea of Sunyata !!uoih“of°VaKaiya,S (vacuity) into the idea of Vajra, or the thunderbolt. The Sunyata-nature of the world is its ultimate immutable nature,—as immutable as the thunderbolt, and so it is called the Vajra. It has been said in the  Advaya-vajra-samgraha ,—“ Sonyata, which is firm, substantial, indivisible, impenetrable, incapable of being  burnt and imperishable, is called the Vajra.”JThis trans formation of Sunyata to Vajra will explain the title Vajra- yana and in Vajra-yana all the gods, goddesses, articles for worship, yogic practices and elaborate rituals have been marked with Vajra to specialise them from their originally accepted nature. The supreme deity of Vajra-yana is the Vajra-sattva (vajra = iunyatd   = vacuity ;  sattva —  quintessence), who is of the nature of pure consciousness (vijnapti-matrala   ... of the Vijnana-vadin Buddhists) as associa- Vajra-sattva. ted with Sunyata in the form of the absence of subjectivity and objectivity.2All the other gods of Vajra-yana are generally marked by a miniature figure of the Vajra-sattva in the crest. This Vajra-sattva as the Lord  1  drdham   saram  asauitryam acchedya-bhedya-laksanam  I  adahi avinasi ca iunyata vajram ucyate  II  Advaya-vajra-samgraha  (G.O.S.), p. 37. C/. also, abhedyam vajram Hy ukiam -Hevajra-tantra, MS. (R.A.S.B., No. 11377), p. 2 (A). iunyata vajram ity uktam  —   Jvalavali-vajra-mala-iantra   MS. (B.N. Paris, Sans. No. 47), p. 1 (B). 2  Advaya-vajra-samgraha (G>O.S.),  p. 24. GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 29 Supreme has been described by and invoked with various attributes in all the Tantras belonging to Vajra-yana. The Vajra-sattva is often found in the Buddhist Tantras conceived exactly in the manner of the Upanisadic Brahman. It is the Self in man,—it is the ultimate substance behind the world of phenomena. It is often spoken of as the ultimate reality in the form of the Bodhi-citta. The Mahayanic idea of Bodhi-citta also underwent a change beyond recognition in esoteric Buddhism. Originally it was conceived as the D. mental state in which there is nothing but Bodhi-citta. ^° a strong resolution for the attainment of  perfect wisdom (bodhi)  combined with a strong emotion of universal compassion. Thus Bodhi-citta presupposes two elements in the Citta, viz.,  Sunyata (i.e., the knowledge of the nature of things as pure void) and Karuna (universal compassion). This Bodhi-citta, with the elements of Sunyata and Karuna in it, marches, after it is produced, upwards through ten stages and in the final stage of   Dharmamegha  it attains perfection. In the practice of  Vajra-yana particularly in Sahaja-yana (where Sunyala and Karuna, the two elements to be united together for the production of the Bodhi-citta, were identified with the female and the male or Prajna and Upaya) Bodhi-citta is conceived as the extremely blissful state of mind {produced through the sexo-yogic practice. In yogic practices the union of the seed and the ovum is also known as Bodhi-citta and it has been held that in the process of produc tion this Bodhi-citta acquires the nature of the five elements, o/z., earth, water, fire, air and ether and thus it stands as the ultimate substance of the universe.1 Closely related to the history of the transformation of the idea of Bodhi-citta is the history of the transformation of  1  Dohakota   of KSnha-pada, Doha No. 7. See also  HeVajra-tanira,  MS. (R. A. S. B.,  No. 11317), pp. 37(B)-38(A); also Sampufifca MS. (R. A. S. B., No. 4854),  pp. 4 7(B)-48 (A). 30 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the ideas of Sunyata and Karuna into the ideas of the female and the male. In Mahayana texts we find as^Prajfig and Upsy**  that Sunyata is Prajfia, r.e., perfect know ledge of the void-nature of the self and the Dharmas. Karuna or universal compassion is called the Upaya, i.e., the means or the expedience for the attainment of the Bodhi-citta. These two terms, Prajna and Upaya, are found already used by the Tathatavadin Asvaghosa as well as by Nagarjuna, the exponent of the Madhyamika school.1 Upaya is generally explained in the Mahayanic texts like the Saddharma-puniarika 1  and the  Bodhisattva-bhumi  !as missionary works which are prompted by universal compassion for the suffering beings. This Prajna as perfect wisdom was conceived as absolutely passive, the negative aspect of the reality and the primordial source of all entities ; whereas Upaya, because of its dynamic nature, began to be conceived as the positive and the active aspect of the reality. Upaya brings into existence in the phenomenal world all the entities, the possibility of which lie in the Prajna or the void. Unlike the Samkhya system and the popular Vedantic: thoughts, the negative or passive or the unqualified aspect of the reality as perfect knowledge was conceived as the female in the Buddhist school,—and the positive or active  principle was conceived as the male. When thus the idea of the male and the female could once creep into Buddhism the whole outlook began to change, and the  production of Bodhi-citta through the unification of void- knowledge and universal compassion was transformed into the production of great bliss through the yogic union of the female and the male. 1See Agvaghosa’s  Maha-yana-Sraddho tpada-sulra  translated as the  Awakcti   ing oj Faith in Mahayana  by Suzuki, pp 66, 99. Cj,   also  Madhyamika-vrtii  of N5gSrjuna, Levi’s edition, p. 2. 2 Saddharma-pundartka>  Ch. II, Bibliotheca Buddhica publication, PP. 28-58. 3The  Bodhisattva-bhumi  is but the fifteenth section cf the Y ogacara-bhumi  of Vasubandhu. Edited by Umai Wogihara, Tokyo, pp. 261-72. GROWTH OF THE SAHAJIYA CULT AND LITERATURE 31 We shall see later on that with this identification of Prajna and Upaya with the female and the male the idea of Sakti and Siva was established in the Buddhist Tantras,— P M d U aRd through this transformation of Prajna the female and the and Upaya to the female and the male the male, the left and . . , , • • l ■l the right, the moon sexo-yogic practice could be associated with and the sun. Mahayana philosophy. Again, consistently with the theory of all the Tantras that the human organism is but an epitome of the universe and that all truth is within this body, the Tantric Buddhists had to locate all the  philosophical truths within this physical organism,— and in that attempt Prajna and Upaya have been identified with the two important nerves in the left and the right of the Spinal Chord, and these nerves are known in yoga-literature in general as Ida and Pingala, the moon and the sun  f   the left and the right, vowels and consonants, etc. 1The middle nerve, corresponding to the Sufumna of the Hindu Tantras, is called the Avadhutika through which Bodhi-citta passes in its upward march from the Nirmana-cakra (c/. the  Nirman^-kaya of Buddha), which is situated in the region of the navel, first to Dharma-cakra (c/. Dharma-kaya) in the heart and then to Sambhoga-cakra (c/. Sambhoga-kaya) in the throat and thence it passes to the lotus in the head producing supreme bliss) In this connection we should take notice of the import of the concept of Advaya (non-duality) and Yuga- naddha (principle of union) as we find them in esoteric Buddhism. Originally the word Yuganaddha implies the synthesis of all duality in an absolute principle of unity. This principle of Yuganaddha or union is very clearly explained in the fifth chapter nfddha.' aml 'llen"( Yuganaddha-krama)  of the  Panca-tyrama. It is said there that Yuganaddha is a state of unity reached through the purging off of the 1 See  Infra. 32 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS two notions of the world-process (samsara)  an absolute cessation (  nivrtti ), through the realisation of the ultimate nature of both the phenomenal (sam^lesa)  and the absolute ( vyavadana ), through the synthesis of thought- constructions of all corporeal existence with the notion of the formless. It is the unification of the Grahya (perceivable) with the Grahaka (perceiver), of the temporal with the eternal, of Prajna (perfect knowledge) with Karuna (universal compassion).1To enter into the final abode or the *thatness ’ (  tathata ) in body, speech and mind and thence to come down again and to turn to the world of miseries,—to know the nature of Samvrti (the provisional truth) and the Paramartha (the ultimate truth) and then to unite them together—this is what is called the immutable state of Yuganaddha.2In the Yuganaddha-prakasa  of  Advaya-vajia-    samgraha  we find that the nature of the union of Sunyata and Karuna is incomprehensible; they remain always in union.In the  Prema-pancaa  of the same text Sunyata has been spoken of as the wife and Karuna, which is the manifestation of Sunyata, has been spoken of as the husband and the relation between them is that of conjugal love, which is but natural (sahajam prema).   So inseparable are they in their deep love that Sunyata ' samsara nivrttis ceti k.alpana-dt)aya-varjanal   I ekibhavo bhaved yatra yuganaddham tad ucyatc   II samkle&am vyaVadanan ca jfiaiva tu paramiirihatah   I ekibhaVam tu yo vetti sa Vetti yuganaddhakam   II sakara-bhaVa-samkalpam nirakoratva-kalpanam   I ekikrtya cared yogi sa vetti yuganaddhakam   II grahyafi ca grahakan caiva dvidha-buddhir na vidyatc   I abhinnata bhaved yatra tad aha yuganaddhakam   II s a£vata-c cheda-buddhim tu yah prahaya pravartatc   I yuganaddha-kramakhyam Vai tattvam vetti sa pandiiah   || prajna-karunayor aikyam jna(nam) yatra pravariate   I yuganaddha iti khyiitah kramo'yam huddha-g^cat oh   II Panca-krama  , MS (B, N. Paris, Sans (A  I, p. 3  | (R) rt 81 q  2 Ibid. ■*  Advaya-vajra-samgraha,    -508', C/. also  Dhamma-    pada , crses (203-04 ■. Cf.  also * odhunitva mnlam sabbarp palva nibbana-satnpadaru  I muccati sabba-dukkhehi sa hoti sabba-sampado  il »  Anguttara , IV. 239.  patta te acala-fthanam yatha goiva na socare   I Vimana-Vaithu,  51. nibbana-fthane vimutta te patta te acalam sukham   I  I her'i-gatha,  350. santi-maggam eVa bruhaya mbbanam mgatena desitam   I  Dhamma-pada , 285. See the v^oid nibbana  in  A Dictionary of Pali Language,  by Rhys Davids, and the Pali Dictionary  by Childers. 2 sa eva nasravo dhalur acintyah kusalo dhtuvah  I sukho vimvk.ti~k  MS., p. 5In this connection see  Hevajra-tantra,  MS , p. 36(A). Also Guhya-siddhi,  MS., p. 10(B). Vyakta-bhavanugata-tattva-siddhi,  MS., p. 86(A). 38 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS After this brief account of the general characteristics of Vajra-yana Buddhism or Tantric Buddhism in general, and after indicating the mode of transformation of the cardinal  principles of Mahayana into the esoteric doctrines of Vajra- yana, let us now concentrate our attention on the study of the old Bengali Carya songs and the cognate Dohas, which explain the special features of the Sahajiya school of Buddhism. CHAPTER II T he  G eneral  P hilosophical  S tandpoint   of    the C arya -  padas The general philosophical standpoint of the Carya-padas, as that of Tantric Buddhist literature in general, represents unsystematised notions of Mahayana philosophy including the negativistic tendency of the Madhyamikas and the  positivistic tendency of Asvaghosa and of the Vijnanavada school led by Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu. The influence of monistic thought is not also negligible.1In many  places the Buddhist Tantras, Dohas and songs have frankly accepted the monistic standpoint of the Upanisads and the highest reality, either in the form of the Vajra-sattva or the Bodhi-citta or the Maha-sukha or the Sahaja, has been conceived exactly in the line of the Upanisadic Brahman. It may be observed in this connection that scholars have often discovered something behind the nothingness ( iunyata)   even of Nagarjuna, who has described the reality as neither ~ existent, nor non-existent, nor a combina- Larya songs represent ?, ,,mixtuFe °f. ,he tion of both, nor the absence of both; it is Midhyamika, VijnSna- vsdic and Vedsntic  but what transcends the four logical categories ( catuskoti ). Again, it may be  pointed out that the Abhuta-parikalpa (the increate) or the Vijnapti-matrata (pure consciousness) of the Vijnana-vadin Buddhists approximates the Vedantic conception of the 1For a detailed discussion on the philosophical position of the different schools of MahSyfina Buddhism and its re’ation to the Vedfintic thoughts, and also for a detailed study of the philosophical standpoint of Tantric Buddhist literature in general reference may be made here to the study of the subject in the work  Introduction to Tantric Buddhitm  by the present writer. 40 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Brahman in a striking manner. Of course, subtle points of difference there are, but they can very easily be, and have often actually been, missed by the untrained mind of ordinary thinkers. It is for this reason that the Mahay anic ideas have frequently been confused or blended with the Vedantic ideas; and we shall see that there is practically no difference between the Vedantic idea of the reality and the idea of the Sahaja as conceived by the Sahajiyas. Kanha-  pada says in a song that it will be a gross mistake to think that everything ends with the decay of this body. “My Citta,’' says the poet, ‘‘is perfect in vacuity; don’t be sorry at the disappearance of the  sfyandhas  or the five elements. Say, how it can be that Kanha is no more,—for he is throlbing for ever pervading the whole universe. Only foolish people are sad at the sight of the decay of the perceivable ; —can the flow of waves dry up the whole sea? Foolish people do not see people who are existent (in their subtle Sahaja form), as they do not find the cream that remains pervading the milk. Here, in this world, entities neither come nor go, yogin Kanha revels in these thoughts.”7 i *#" # hhana liaise kjcihnu nahf    I  pharai anudina tailoe pamai  j mud ha diiha natha dekhi kflara  t bhaga-taranga fa sosai saara  II mudha acchante loa na pekhai  I dudha majhem lada acchantc na dc^hai   il etc. •X#ft Song No. 42. As for the reading of the Carya-padas the writer has generally accepted the readings suggested by Dr. P.C. Bagchi with the help of the Tibetan translation (J.D.L., Vol. XXX); but he has often differed from Dr. Pagchi, and the points of differ ence with reasons and the suggested improvements have appeared in an article of the writer in the Bengali Monthly Sri-bharat'i , {Vol. I, No. 7).  Dr. Bagchi’s readings have, therefore, be«n accepted with the improvements suggested therein. PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS „41 The dominating philosophical note of the Cary a songs is, however, of an inherent idealistic vein as associated with the various theories of illusion. As this idealism, associated with the theories of illusion, is common to the o7!deaIism!nant n°te Madhyamika and Vijnana-vada Buddhism as well as to Vedanta, we shall find a mixture of the philosophical views of these schools in the songs of the Buddhist Sahajiya poets. The first song of the Carya-padas begins with the assertion that >our mind (citta)   is solely responsible for the creation of the illusory world. 44In the unsteady mind ” —says Lui-pa in one of his songs,—44enters Time,”1i.e., the disturbed mind is the cause of all our spatio-temporal experiences and the dis turbance of the mind is due to the defiling principle of nature (prafyrty-abhasa-dosa-Vasat cancalyataya , etc.—comm.). The notion of difference proceeds from the notion of existence (bhava).   It is said, 44They,are three, they are three—the three are held different;—Kanhu says,—all (differences) are limita tions due to the notion of existence.”2The world of our expe riences is only provisional (samvrti-satya)   and the provisional nature of the world is revealed to us when we see that every thing that comes also invariably goes,—there is nothing perma nent ; all is an eternal flux of coming and going. It is said,—  Whatever came also went away ; in this (rotation of) coming and going Kanhu has become convinced (of the unsubstan tial nature of the fleeting world).”13But everything is pure in the ultimate nature. Neither existence nor non-existence is impure in the least; all beings, produced in the six 1 cancala cle paifho kola  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 1. This line has been explained in the commentary in an esoteric sense. Vide,    Infra. 2 te tini te tini tini ho bhinna bhanai k^hnu bhava-paricchinna  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 7  je je aila te te gela  I avana-gavane kahnu bimana bhaila  II  Ibid. 42 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS ways {sad-gati^a),  are pure by their ultimate nature.1The empirical world is like a dramatic device ( nadapeda , Skt. nata-peti^S =  basket for holding dress, etc. for the perfor mance of drama) with nothing real in it,—it is merely an artifice of the mind. By pure knowledge the mind must first be tranquillised and when it becomes perfectly controlled all the forces of the illusory world are subdued.2In that ultimate stage external objects of smell, touch, etc., remain as they were, but the perceptual knowledge of the whole world appears to be just like the perception of objects in a waking dream, i.e., the whole universal process seems to be a great dream, though we remain with our outward eyes open.'1In one song of Bhusuka-pada-, the mind (citta)  has  been compared to a fickle rat and it is said to be closely associated with the vital wind. It is said,—“ Dark is the night and the play of the rat begins.”1The dark night is the darkness of ignorance in which the function of construc tive imagination goes on. It is further said,—“ Kill, O Yogin, this rat of the vital wind, whereby you will escape coming and going. The rat causes existence and makes holes; this fickle rat remains inactive only when skilful devices are employed. This rat is Time or death itself (i.e., the fickle mind constructs all temporal existence),—but in it there is no colour. When it rises to the void it moves there and drinks nectar. The rat remains restless (as long as it is not pacified by the instructions of the preceptor);  pacify it through the instructions of the wise preceptor. Bhusuka says,—when the activities of the rat will be des troyed, all bondage will also be destroyed.” 1 chadagai saala sahavc sudha    i bhavabhava balaga na chudha  II  Ibid   , SonghNo. 9. ^ maticm ihakuraka parinivita  I avaia koria bhaVa-bala jiid    II Ibid   , Sontt No. 12. 1 gandha parasa tasa jaisom ta-'som   I nimda bihune suina jaisom  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 13. thanksgiving. Between the first and the second part of the rite is performed the preparation of the holy water. One of the priest’s assistants raises a mirror so that it reflects one of the statues of the divinities ; another takes the vessel  (feuje, Mongolian) filled with water and pours it upon the mirror. The water which flows off and is believed to have caught the image of the divinity is collected in a special dish (k’ris-gc‘os—Tibetan) held by a third acolyte, while a fourth wipes the mirror with a silken napkin (Qadaq Mong.). Fifteen libations are made in this way and at the end of the ceremony the lustial water is poured off into a bum-pa and set on the sacrificial altar. Thereafter it is used for the aspersion of offerings and washing the mouths of the 4Lamas/ while among the laity it serves the same purpose as does holy water among Catholics. ” Introduction by J. Deniker to the Gods of Northern Buddhism  —by Alice Getty, p. xi. 2 Song No. 22. 44 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS 45 and the Vedas explain that, whose colour, sign and form are not known ? By speaking of what, should 1give an exposition of truth? Just like the moon in water it is neither real nor unreal. How should it be thought of?—says Lui,— 1do not see any magnitude or locality of what I am now (i.e., maha-sukha)." 1 Here also the phenomenal world is described as neither existent, as we do not find any reality anywhere by'analysing it,—nor is it non-existent, as non existence itself is unreal (asad-rupatVat) ; it is not real as it has no ultimate nature (  paramartha-satya)  neither is it unreal as it has got its provisional truth ( samvrti-satya );—it is just like the moon in the water. The ultimate truth, however, can never be explained,—for, there is no knower, no know- able—no knowledge in it,2the citta  being perfectly tranquil there. It has been said,—‘ When one practises yoga with one’s mind fixed with pure wisdom, none can ascertain where the citta  goes and where it remains.’3It has also been said by Aryadeva,—“ When the mind, the senses and the vital wind are all destroyed, I do not know where the self  goes and enters .................  As the moon manifests itself as the rays (so also the citta  manifests itself in the various illusory constructions, i.e., vikalpa);  but as the moon having set, all the rays vanish, so also when the citta  is destroyed  1 bhava na hoi abhava na jai   I aisa sambohem k° patiai  II lui bhanai badha dulahkha binana  I tia dhae bilasai vha lage na  I!  jahera bana-cihna ruva na jam   I so k.aise agama beem bahhant   II kahcrc  fo'sa bhani mai divi piriccha  I udaka canda jima saca na miccha  II lui bhanai mai bhaVai k*8a  I  ja lai acchama tahera uha na disa  II Song No. 29. - bhavya-bhavaka-bhavana-hhavena ki™ bhavyam  I  Ibid.,  Com., p. 46. 3 cittam niiciiya bodhena abhyasam kurute yada  I tada cittam na paSyami kt)a gatam koa sihitam bhavet    II Quoted in the Com., p. 46. all its modes and modifications vanish.”1It is again said,—44The moon having set, all her rays vanish indeed; exactly in the same way, when the citta   is merged in the Sahaja-bliss, all the impurities of false constructions are destroyed.”  2  Bhade-pada says in one of his songs,—“Uptil now 1was absorbed in self-illusion,—  but now 1realise the truth through the instruction of my good preceptor. Now my great citta   is not,—it has fallen down into the ocean of the void. I behold the ten quarters all void,—without the citta   there is neither any merit nor any demerit. The wise preceptor has explained to me all the illusions and 1have destroyed them all in the void. Says Bhade,—Taking that which is indivisible (i.e., non-dual), 1 have devoured the great mind.’v) The active mind brings in the question of morality ; but when it is destroyed there is neither any morality nor immorality,—merit and demerit are all provisional/1In another song of Saraha-pada we find,— 44O my mind, to drive away the impurities in the dream of ignorance the sayings of the preceptor are around you,—where shalt thou hide thyself and how ? Curious indeed is the nature of illusion, through which the self and the not-self are seen ; in this water-bubble of the world, the self is void itself in the Sahaja.”0 1  jahi maria india pavana ho nafha  I na jarxami a pa k.ahim gai paiiha  II candare canda-kanti jima padibhasaa  ! cia viharane tahi tali paisaa  <1 Son g No. 31. 2 asiamgate candramasVva nunarn   rtirendavah samharariam prayanti  I cittam hi tadvat sahaje nitine   nasyanty amt sarva-vikalpa-dos&h  11 Quoted in the Com., p. 49. (Sastrfs edition). 3 eta k&la hamu acchile sVa-mohemt   etc. Song No. 35. 1Cf„  Madhyamiko'Vrtti.  Ch. 1. s suine ho avidara arc nia-mana tohore dose  I guru-baana biharem   re thafyva tai ghunda   ll 46 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS 47 In a song of Bhusuka-pada the non-essential nature of the world and its illusory nature as mere subjective construction have been very nicely explained. It is said,—“ Increate is the world from the beginning,—it is through illusion that it appears thus (in this form); but does a serpent actually bite the man who startles at the sight of the rope-snake ? O wonderful yogin,—don’t stain your hands with salt,—if you understand the world to be of this nature, your Vasanas will  be eradicated. It is like a mirage in the desert,—it is like an imaginary city of the Gandharvas,—it is just like the reflection in the mirror,—it is just like the water becoming condensed and solidified by the whirl of wind and thus  becoming (solid like) stone : It is just like the son of a barren woman—sporting and playing various games,—it is like oil coming out of sand,—like the horns of the hare—like the flower in the sky. Rauta says, or Bhusuka says,—Everything is of this nature, if you be a fool, ask your true preceptor for (the solution of) your doubts taking shelter at his feet.”1The world is as increate as the locks of hair (gossamer) seen flying in the sky by a man with defective eyes,—it is a product of constructive imaginations, which are in their turn produced  by the three-fold impurities of the citta .2It has been said,—  adabhua bhava moha re disai para appana  1 e  jaga jala-bimvakare sahajem suna apana  II Song No. 39. 1 aie anuanaem jaga re bhamtiem so padihai  I raja-sapa dekhi jo camakai yare kim tam bodo k,hai  II ak.a(a joia  re ma kora hatha lohna  I aisa sabhavem jai jaga bujhasi tutai bdsana iora  II maru-martci-gandhanaarl-dapana-pativimvu jaisa  I batavattem so didha bhaia apem pathara jaisa  II bandhi-sua jima  fee/i i^arai khelai bahu-hiha khedd   I balua-telem sasara-simge aka&a phulila  II rdutu bhanai  ^a£a bhusuku bhanai k<*ta saala aisa sahaVa  I  jai to mudha acchasi bhdntl pucchatu sadguru pava  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 41. a ke&ondukam yatha  feaie dr&yate taimirikair jartaih  I tatha lokadi-dosena bhavo balair vikolpyote  |i Verse of Acarya Nidattaka, quoted in the Com.  Ibid.t   p. 63. 48 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS I am as much a product of the mind as magic or dreams are,’1As water solidifies itself into hard stones through the whirl of wind,2so also through the disturbance of Vasana voidness itself turns into all existence." Bhusuka-pada says in another song,—" The great tree of Sahaja is shining in the three worlds; every thing being of the nature of void, what will bind what ? As water mixing with water makes no difference, so also, the  jewel of mind enters the sky in unity of emotion. Where there is no self, how can there be any not-self ? What is increate from the beginning can have neither birth, nor death nor any kind of existence. Bhusuka says, or Rauta says,—this is the nature of all;—nothing goes or comes,— there is neither existence nor non-existence there (in Sahaja). Kankana-pada says in a song,—“ When the void {i.e.,  the three-fold void of impurities) will merge itself in the void, (i.e., the fourth or the perfect void)5the ultimate nature of all the objects will come within realisation The birtdu  and  the rtada  do not enter the heart and by seeing one (viz., vacuity) the other (viz.,  mind) is destroyed All clamour, says Kankana, merges into the roaring of Tathata 1  yatha maya yatha svapnam tathasmi , etc. Quoted in the Com.  Ibid.,  p. 64. 2  yatha bata-Vartena liiram api prastaram bhutam,   etc.—Com, 3 tonyataiva bhaved bhaVo Vasana-Vasita satt   I vata-varte drdhtbhuta apa eva ghano-palah  II Quoted in the Com.  Ibid.,   p. 64. 4sahaja maha-taru phariae tiloe  I khasama-sabhave re banata kfl koe  II  jima jale pania taliya bheda na jaa  I tima mana-raana re sama-rase gaana samaa  II 7 'asu nahi appa tasu parela kahi  I ai-anu ana re jama-marana-bhava nahi  II bhu8uk  .u bhanai kota rautu bhanai kata saala eha sahaVa  I  jai na avai re na tahilm bhavabhava  II  Ibid,t Song  No. 43. 5For threefold void of impurities and the fourth void see infra. PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS 49 (thatness)." 1The bindu  may be explained as the principle of subjectivity ; the principle of objectivity is the nada .2This conception of the Sunyata as the negation of the knower and the knowable is the same as is found in the doctrine of the Vijnana-vaditis. In another song of Kanha-pada the mind has  been compared to a tree of which the five branches represent the five senses, and hopes and passions are the innumerable leaves and fruits. Kanha says,—“ Cut the tree down with the axe of the great preceptor’s instructions so that the tree may not shoot forth any more. The tree grows up in the water of good and evil and the wise cut it down with the instructions of the preceptor. Those fools who do not know how to cut the tree and to split it, go astray and have to accept existence (and bondage with it). The tree is of the (defiled) void, and the axe is of the perfect-void,—cut the tree down, so that no root or branch be left.” {Our mind  becomes deeply entangled in the notion of existence and all the impurities associated with it, and the notion of good and evil acts as the dynamic principle of disturbance behind the realm of the mind. In destroying this mind we should not try only to suppress the modes and modifications of the mind (compared to the branches of the tree), but the roots of the tree, i.e., the Vasanas should also be eradicated. Jayanandi-  pada says in another song that as we perceive in dream or in the mirror objects which have no reality in them, so also is * stine suna milia jaVem  I soala dhama uia tavern  II binda-nada na hie paitha  I ana cahante ana binatha  II bhanai kohana kolaala sadem  I sarVa bicchorila tathata-nadem  II  Ibid,,  Song No. 44. 2Com.  Ibid.,  p. 66. 3 mana taru pafica indi taau saha , etc. lbid.t   Song No. 45. 50 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the illusion of this world. When the mind is free from this illusion, all coming and going are stopped. At that stage none can be burnt, none can be wetted, none can be cut into pieces.1But alas,—inspite of all these, inspite of seeing this, foolish people firmly bind themselves to illusion;—they  perceive it—yet tliey bind themselves to this self-created false world. It is indeed astonishing that people would discard milk and take poison.2 But the wise Kambalambara-pada says in a song,—“ I have filled my boat of compassion with gold (of void) and have left silver (of all false appearances) with the world.'1Kamali (Kambalambara-pada) is steering on towards the sky (void),  —if once birth can be totally annihilated how can it recur again ? 1have (says Kambala) pulled the peg up and lorn the rope of the boat,—and Kamali is steering forward seeking at every step the instructions of the wise preceptor  ."4 Here the peg symbolises the impure principles of the active mind (abhasa-dosani  —com.) and the rope is made of the thread of  book-knowledge ( Vidya-sutram  —com.). Thus, to proceed for ward with the heart full of universal compassion, the Yogin must first uproot all the principles of defilement in his mind and tear off the rope of scriptural knowledge. It has been 1  Ibid.,  Song No. 46. 2 aicaryam etaddhi manusya-loke kfiTdm parityajya visam pibanti  II Quoted in the Com.  Ibid.,    p. 71. 3 There is a beautiful pun on the woid sona  and rupa  here. Sona   may be derived from the Sanskrit word svarna  or suvarna  (gold) or from the word iunya  (c/. sona,  verse 49), and $ unya  may here be very happily compared to gold. Again rupa  may be derived from the Sanskrit word raupya   (silver) and it may also be associated wilh the word rupa  (form) and silver may also be compared to the illusory form when gold is compared to the void. 4sonc bharitt karuna  nat>? I rupa thoi mahike thaV'i  !l (nahika thavi Bagchi) bahatu kamali gaana uvescm  I gelt jama bahudai kaisem  II khunti upadl melili kacchi  I bahatu k<*mali sadguru pucchi  II  Ibid,,  Song No. 8 (1-6). PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS 51 declared by Saraha,—“ The body is the boat, a pure mind is the^oar^—with the instruction of the wise preceptor take the helm (rightly). Make the mind quiet and then direct the boat on,- by no other means can one reach the other shore.”1 The Carya-padas, following the Tantric texts, often speak of four gradations in the doctrine of Sunyata. In the Panca-   tyama   of Nagarjuna-pada the four gradations have been arranged in the following manner :—the first is the Sunya, the second Ati-sunya, the third Maha-sunya four^lunyas^ °f he and the fourth or the final is the Sarva- sunya,—and these are all different accord ing to their cause and effect.2The first stage Sunya has  been explained as light (alo^af  ; it is knowledge (prajna),   and the mind (citta)   remains active in it,—it is relative (para-tantra)    by nature/ In this state there are as many as thirty three impure functions ( dosa ) of the mind; these are sorrow, fear, hunger, thirst, feeling ( Vedana ), sympathy, self-analysis (pratyavefysa),   kindness, affectionate ness, fickleness, doubt, jealousy, etc." /This mental state of Sunya has also been called the woman (stri)   and it has been said that of all illusions the illusion/of the woman is the 1 kaa navadi khanti mana ^cduala  I sadguru-vacnc dhara paiqtVala  II eta thiia h<*ri dharahure nahi  I ana upaye para na jai   H  Ibid.,  Song No. 38 11-4). ® sunyan ca ati-Sunyan ca maha-bunyam trtlya/^am  I calurtham sarva-Sunyan ca phala-hetu-prabhedaiah  II Panca-krama.  MS., p. 20 (A). * Cj.  prajno-tpanna alokah pradurbhutah   I  Lalita-vistara,  Ed. by Dr. S. Lefmam, pp.417-18. * alokam iunyarn prajna ca ciitatn ca  IMS., p. 20. In the commentary ( Panca‘kroTna-tippani  by Pandita-purohita-raksita-pada, MS. B. N. Sans. No 65, 66) Sunya-prajiia  has been explained as light (iutiya-ptaplc   aloka itt yavat).  MS., p. 43 (B). 5 Pahca-kxama.  MS., p. 20tBu 52 OBSCURE REUClOUS CULTS greatest.' It is also called the left ( Vama ), the lotus in the lunar circle,—and the first vowel. The second stage, viz.,   Ati-sunya is said to be the manifestation of light (alal^d-bhdsa),   which shines like moon-rays and proceeds from the former (i.e., aloka-jfidna).  It is called the Upaya and is of the nature of constructive imagination (parikalpila).  It is also called the right (da^rina),  the solar circle ( suiya - mandala)  and the thunderbolt (vajra).  Forty mental functions of defilement, such as passion, contentment, joy, pleasure, wonder, patience, valour, pride, energy, greed, etc., are associated with this state. The third stage, viz.,  Maha-sunya  proceeds from the union of Prajna and Upaya or aloa  and alofyabhasa,  or Sunya and Ati-sunya,—and it is called the intuition of light ( alo^p-palabdhi)  and is of the absolute nature (  parinispanna ); and yet it is called ignorance ( avidya ) and is associated with seven impure mental functions of defilement, Viz.,  forgetfulness, illusion, stupor, laziness, etc. Thus aloka, aloka-bhasa  and alofyo-palabdhi  —these are the three stages of the citia  from which there follow the principles of impurities, numbering hundred and sixty in all.2They function throughout the whole day and night with the flow of the vital wind, which has been said to be the medium ( Vahana ) through which the impurities of nature function.8It has  been said, wherever there is the function of the bio-motor force or the vital wind, nature with all its impurities is also  brought along with it, and so long as there is the function of  1 stri'samjtid ca tatha prok,ta manda-kjaras tathctiva ca  II  Ibid., MS.,  p. 20 (A). Also, sarvesam eVa mayanam strt-mayaiva visisyate  II  Ibid.,  MS., p. 21 (A). 2 The total number of the principles of defilcnrent (prakrti-dosa)  are really eighty ; (thirty-three in the first state of Sunya, seven in the second and forty in the thiid ttalc) ;  but the number is doubled taking into consideration both day and night. 3 ctah prahx^yoh suk^oh iaicm sasthy-uttaram diva  I ratrau ca pi pravartanie Vayu^vahana-heiuna  !l Panca-homa,  MS, pp. 21(A)—21(E). PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS 53 this bio-motor force or the vital wind, the principles of impurity will not cease tp function. The fourth stage, viz.,  Sarva-sGnya (all-void or perfect void) is free from the three-fold impurities mentioned above, and is self-illuminant. It is abfolute purity obtained by transcending the principles of defilement. It is the purified knowledge, the ultimate truth, the supreme omniscience. It is a state which can be said to be neither without beginning, nor with beginning,—neither without middle nor with middle, neither without end nor with end. It is beyond the cate gories of either being or non-being, merit or demerit, or even a combination or the absence of both.1 This theory of the four Sunyas, as expounded in the Panca-tyrama  of Nagarjuna-pada seems to be the reminiscence of a similar doctrine of Sunyas expounded in some Hindu and Buddhist texts. An exposition of the theory of seven Sunyas is found in the old Tantric text Svacchanda,  a theory which found its echo in many of the subsequent texts of the Saiva and Sakta literature. The Svacchanda  contends that there are seven kinds of Sunya, of which the first six are impure and contain the seeds of phenomenalism,2whereas the seventh is the Supreme Reality itself, which is Pure Being and Con sciousness and is free from all the Vifyalpas.  The doctrine of sixteen or eighteen Sunyas as ennumerated by Asanga or Dinnaga (in the  Madhyanta-bibhaga  or the  Asta-sahasrika-    pindartha)  and also by the Natha writers is also of a similar character. The theory of the four Sunyas was accepted both in the Dohas and the Carya-padas. In a Doha of Krsnacarya it has 1  Ibid.,  MS., p. 30(A). 2 urddhva-Sunyam adhah-sunyam madhya-sunyam trtiyakam  I ibnya-trayam calam hy etad adho madhya urddhvatah  II caturtham vyani-ianyam samanaydm ca pahcamam  I unmanayam taiha satfham sad ete samayah sthitdh  II Ch. IV, verses (289-290) (Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies, No. XXV111).  been said that in the abode of Maha sukha there are four  stalks and four leaves.1Here the four leaves are the four  Sunyas, and the four stalks are the four sources.2Sarva- sunya is said to be the effulgent principle,—there is no higher  truth than this. ' It is the abodeof Avadhuti (i.e., the damsel of the nature of perfect bliss), it is the abode of the Jinas/ In the Carya-padas and their commentary we find occa- I he theory of the sional reference to this theory of the fhe^a Caryss ainluider ^our Sunyas and the impurities of nature various imageries. (pralyfti-dosa),  which are the cause of the cycle of birth and death and all the resulting sufferings, and they have always been prescribed to be eradicated. There is a song of Dhendhana-pada, which may be literally translated thus,—“On a lofty height is situated my house; no neigh  bour have I. There is no rice in the earthen pot,—(guests) come every day The bull has given birth, but the cow is  barren. The milk-pot is being filled with milk thrice in the day.”' The esoteric significance of the lines (in light of the commentary) is that when all the hundred and sixty im  purities of nature pertaining to the body, word and mind all vanish away in the Maha-sukha-cakra° (which is 54 ' OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS 1 patta-cati{fha cau-munala thia mahasuha Vase   I Vert>e No. 5, Dr. Bagchi’s edition in the J D. L , Vol. XXVIII. 1935. 2   sunya-tiiunya-mahaiunya-sarvasunyam iti catuh-iimya-svarupena patra-caius(a  - yam, catur adi-svarupena catur-mmala-samsthitah  , ctc., Com. 3 sarVa-iunyam prabhatvaram ato nanyac chunyam tattvam a&tl'ty arthah  ICom. This commentary on the  Dohakp$a  of Kahna pa da is, however, different from the commentary discovered and published by MM. Sastrl. It is found in a MS (B. N. Sans. No. 47, available in rotograph)., p. 43(A). 4 Ibid.,   MS., p. 57(A). 8   taatal mora ghara nahi padiveii   I hadUa bhata nahi niti aVesi   II balada biaela gavia bajmhe   I pifa duhiai e tina sajmhe   II Song No 33. 6   asadrupam kay^-Vak-cittasya $a$ihy-utiara-saia-prakrii-do$am ya&m{i)ri satnayC    tnaha-sukha-cakre layam gatam tad eva mama gfham.,   etc.  Ibid.  Com., p. 51. PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS 55 compared to the house on the height), the neighbours, viz.,  the sun and the moon are gone; 1i.e., with the destruction of the  pratyrti-dosas  all the functions of the sun and the moon are also destroyed. 2The mind with the three principles of impurity ( abhasa-traya ), compared, to the bull, gives rise to th6 notion of the external world, but barren is the non-essential void (compared to the cow). 1The Yogin always tries to destroy all these impurities (plta —plthakam, abhasa-dosam).4 In another place Darika-pada says,—‘Darika revels on the other side of the sky’and this sky (gaana — gagana)   has been explained in the commentary as the three-fold void or light discussed above. ( The final stage is the other side of the three-fold Sunya. In one song of  Kanha-pada it is said   ,—“  On the arm of the void I strike with the ‘thatness’ and 1plunder the whole storage of attachment and take away (all it contains)”.7The image may be explained thus:—The whole storage of attachment was in  possession of the three-fold Sunya; the arms of this three fold Sonya are struck with the perfect-void ( sarva-sunya)   which is ‘thatness*, and the Sunya is thereby undone; then the whole storage of illusory attachment is plundered and all that it contained is taken possession of. In the commentary this three-fold Sunya has been explained as the storage of the VasanSs,8which are responsible for  1Cf. Com,  parivastha-candra-suryau. 2 Candra-surya  may here imply subjectivity and objectivity,—or, the two nerves in the left and the right; about this we shall have detailed discussion later on. ^ balada i'yadi —halam manasad deha-vigraham dadatVti baladas tad eva bodhi-   citta(m) abhasa traya-prastutam  i Com. p 52. (Sastrfs edition). 4dohanam iti nihsvabhdvt-koranam kriyate  I sandhyd-trayam iti ahar-niiam  yoglndrene'ti  I  Ibid.,  Com. p 52. 6 bilasai darika gaanata parimakulcm  II  Ibid.,  Song. No. 34. gaganam iti alokddi-iunya-irayam boddhavyam  I  Ibid.,  Com. p 53. 7 suna baha tathata pahdri  I moha-bhandara lai saala ahdri  II  Ibid.,  Song. No. 36. 8 suna ity adi iunyam iti  I aloko-palabdhi-sandhya-jnanena vasand-garam   boddhavyam  I  Ibid.,  Com. p. 56. 56 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the illusory world. In another song of Kanha-pada it is said   ,—4  Split up the two ; O lord, you are also dead/ ] According to the commentary the two refers to the first two principles of impure knowledge (  abhasa -  dvayam),  i.e., Sunya and Ati-sunya; the lord ( ihaura ) represents the third stage of Maha-sunya or the ignorant mind (avidya-citta ). After splitting up or destroying the two  principles of the defiled void, the third or the  avidya-citta   is also to be killed. It is further said in the same song,—“ First I took the vadia  and killed it by a dash and then taking the great elephant destroyed the five.” ' Here the esoteric doctrine is explained in terms of the game of chess. The vadia  in the game represents the infantry,  but here it represents the hundred and sixty kinds of impu rities.8First the impurities must be shaken off and then raising the mind (gaaVara = gaja-vara~ citta-gajendra)   the five Skandhas are destroyed. Again in a song of Savara-pada we find lhat he has awakened the Nairatma damsel by des troying Sunya, Ati-sunya and also the adjoining house (i.e., Maha-Sunya) by the stroke of the fourth Sunya of his heart/ and by the side of the adjoining house (i.e., Maha-sunya) shines another house lit with moon-rays, and when all the 1 Dr. Shahidullah, however is disposed to explain  madesi  re  fhakura  as 'don't give the lo»d anything’ (ma-don't,  desi = g ive) ; ( Cj . his pamphlet, Dacca Sahitya-Parisad-granthavali, No. 10) but  madesi  may also be explained with refer ence to the Prakrita form  madesi  (< /mr) and the latter derivation gives a more suitable meaning. Dr. Shahidullah in his  Les Chants Mystiques de Kanha et de   Saraha  (p. 113) takes the reading as  —phitau duara dekhi re thakura   (La porte est ouverte. Oh !’ J ai vu le seigneur  Ibid.,  p. 119) Dr. P. C. Bagchi takes the reading aa  —phitau dua maresire thakura.   (Materials  jort    etc , Dr. Bagchi, p. 1 19). 2  pahilem todia badia mariu  I  gaavarem tolia pancajana ghaliu  !l Song No. 12. 3 vadiketi sandhya-bhasaya sasfhy-uttara-sata-prakrtayah,  etc.  Ibid.,  Com. p. 23  4 gaanata gaanata taila badi hefice  ^uraJ? I  kanfhe nairamani bali jaga rite upadt  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 50. PHILOSOPHICAL STANDPOINT OF THE CARYA-PADAS 57 mass of darkness is driven away—the sky shines with lustre.1 This last house is the Sarva-Sunya (all-void). As we have seen, Mahay ana Buddhism do not recognise Sunyata or the knowledge of the essencelessness of the world  to be the highest truth,—the highest truth is a state where Sunyata and Karuna are united together. This element of  Karuna or compassion is emphasised in all the Buddhist Tantras, and all the esoteric practices including the sexo-yogic practice are professed to be undertaken with the avowed intention of liberating the whole world. This emphasis on the element of Karuna side by side with the theory of Sunyata is found also in the Carya-padas. We have seen that Kambalambara-pada filled his boat of Karuna with the gold of vacuity.2In the song where Kanha-pada explains the esoteric doctrine by the metaphor of the chess- game, compassion is made the play-board. *In another song he says that he has realised his body (i.e.,  existence) in a non-dual state of compassion and vacuity.1The commen tary on the Caryas explains that all the Carya-songs were composed by the Siddhacaryas only for the uplift and ultimate deliverance of the beings. The philosophical notions found in the Carya-songs are of a general Buddhistic nature; but the Carya-songs as a whole represent a special school of religious thought with distinctive features of its own. Let us concentrate our atten tion on the study of the special features of the school of reli gious thought, to which the Carya-songs belong, viz.,  the school of Sahajiya Buddhism. 1  tail a badira pasemra johna badl uela  |  phifeli andhari re aka$a phulia  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 50. * Song No. 8. 3  karuna pihadi khelahum naa-bala  ISong No. 12. 4  nta deha karuna name heri  IISon? No. 13. CHAPTER HI T he  G eneral  R  eligious  O utlook    of  THE SAHAJIYAS (i) Salient features of the religion preached in the    Buddhist Dohas and Songs (A) The Spirit of Protest and Criticism The poets of the Sahajiya school laid their whole emphasis on their protest against the formalities of life and religion.. Truth is something which can never be found through mere austere practices of discipline ; neither can it be realised through much reading, philosophising, fasting, bathing, constructing images and painting the gods and goddesses; it is only to be intuited within in the most unconventional way through initiation in the Taliva   and the practice of yoga. This process of yoga is the most natural process for a man; for in the nature of man hunger and sex are recognised by all to be the most primitive and fundamental propensities ; and all religions would pres cribe strict rules for their suppression; but that is a way, say these Yogins, which is absolutely unnatural. The continual suppression of natural propensities only makes a man morbid and neurotic, but never helps him in realising the truth. The Sahajiyas would never prescribe any unnatural strain on human nature, but would take human nature itself as the  best help for realising the truth. It is for this reason that this path has always been described as the easiest and  most natural. It will be totally wrong to suppose that the question of moral discipline was in any way less RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 59 emphasised in the Sahajiya school (barring the cases of abuses anJ aberrations) than in the other schools of religion; but the difference of the view-point of the Sahajiyas from that of other schools lies in the fact that while the other schools recommend the total annihilation of the sexual impulse, the Sahajiyas would recommend the transformation and sublima tion of them. The question of annihilation is regarded by the Sahajiyas as unnatural and impossible, and therefore, the wisest way is the way of transformation and sublimation.1 Thus the name Sahaja-yana is doubly significant; it is Sahaja-yana because its aim is to realise nahjral^ath1he m°Sl the ultimate innate nature (Sahaja)  of the self as well as of the Dharmas, and it is Sahaja-yana also because of the fact that instead of suppress ing and thereby inflicting undue strain on the human nature it makes man realise the truth in the most natural way, i.e.,  by following the path along which the human nature itself leads him. In the Samputika   it has been said that this supreme process of yoga is eternal,—it originates from our sex-passions; our sex-passions are part and parcel of our nature and our nature is never transgressible,—it is, therefore, wise to transform these sex-passions in the yogic process for realising the truth.2What is natural is the easiest; and thus Sahaja, from its primary meaning  And at the same time r 1  • .1   .1  * 1 the easiest path. °*  being natural, acquires this secondary meaning of being easy, straight or plain. In a song Santi-pada says that truth is purely of a self-intuited nature, there cannot be any speculation as to its transcenden tal nature ;■—those who have trodden the straight path have been able to reach the other shore.1Santi-pada 1  For further discussion on the point see injra. 2 Cf.  asau hi bhagaVan yogah sthira-sa&vata-paramah   I  manmaihatah pratyutpannah  (s  add caiva )  svabhavo duratikfamah  II Sampufika , MS. p. 7 lB). 5 *aa samveana sarua vidrerp alak.kha-lakk.ha na jai  I  je je ujuvafe geld anavdfa bhaila soi   II Song No. 15. 60 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS warns the foolish beginners against missing this straight path ( uju~Vata ),—it is called by him the royal road (raja-patha)  for attaining perfection. Again Saraha-pada says in a song,—“O Yogins, do not leave off this straight and easy path and follow the crooked and curved path  ;—bodhi  lies near you,—do not go to Lanka (Ceylon) in search of it. Do not take the glass (dapana)  to see the bracelets in your hands,—realise your own  pure  citta  for yourself (and within yourself). 1If the Sahaja or the Bodhi-citta can once be realised, everything is attained,—and so there remains no more necessity for the muttering of the mantras, or of penances, fir e-sacrifices, Mandala (circle) or the other rites'in the Mandala; the Sahaja or the Bodhi-citta in the form of Maha-sukha is the Mantra, penance, sacrifice, circle (  mandala)  and everything  belonging to the circle. (B) Aversion lo recondiie scholasih-p Thus we see that the Sahajiyas were averse to the elaborate formalities of religion and concentrated their whole attention on the attainment of the blissful ultimate nature as the highest truth, for which attainment they took help of the natural  propensities of man. Deepest was their hatred towards those recondite scholars who would try to know the truth through discursive reason. Tillo-pada (and also Saraha-pada) says that the truth which can fully be realised only by the self, can never be known by the scholars,—for, what comes within the scope of our mind, can never be the absolute 11 uju re uju chadi ma lehu re banka  !  niadi bohi ma jahu re lanka  I!  hathera k^n^ana ma leu dapana  I  apane apa bujhatu niamana  II Song No. 32. ®  na mantra~japo na tapo na homo na mandaleyarn na ca mandalah ca  1  sa mantra-japah sa lap ah sa homah sa maqdaleyam tan maridalafi ca  II  Hevajrp-tantra   MS. p. 30 (A). RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 61 truth.1Kanha-pada also says that the scholars who generally depend on their reason and scholarship, are indifferent to (or rather ignorant of) the true path of religion.J Saraha says,—  Those who go on reciting and explaining, cannot know the truth, it is not only unknown, but also unknowable to them.a Those who do not drink eagerly (to their heart’s content) the nectar of the instructions of the Guru, die of thirst like fools deceived by the mirage of the desert.1Scholars explain the scriptures, but do not know of the Buddha who is residing in their own body; by such scholarship they can never escape the cycle of coming and going,—yet those shameless creatures think themselves to be Pundits.'' Saraha regrets that the whole world is checked in its course of  progress by mere thought-constructions of discursive reason,  —   by the mere functions of the citta ,—   but the acitta   which transcends the function of the mind is not sung  by any one/’The world is rather sick of scholarship,— none is illiterate here,—but Saraha says, all scholarship will  be upset when one will attain that state which transcends all letters (/.e., scholarship).' People pride themselves that the secret of the great truth has long been in their keeping,—  but Kanha says that even out of crores of people rarely 1  saa-samvcana tatta-phala tilapaa bhananli  I (jo mana-goara paitlhai   so  paramattha na honti  II)  Dohakpsa . Dr. P.C. Bagchi’s Edition, No. 9. 2  yo mana-goara so udasa   II Son j No. 7. 3  arc putto vojjhu rasa-rasana susanthia avejja  I vakkhana padhantehi jagahi na janiu sojjha   II  Dohakosa   of Saraha-pada. (Dr. P.C. Bagchi’s Edition). * lbid.t p. 27. 6 pandia saala sattha vakkhdnai   | dehahim buddha Vasanta na janai    II avana~gamana na tena vikhandia   I tovi nilajja bhanai haum pandia    II  Ibid. 6  Ibid. 7 akkhara-Vadha saala jagu nahi nirakkhara kpi   I idea sa akkhara gholia jaVa nirakkhara hoi    II  Ibid  . 62 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS does one become absorbed in perfectly pure truth.1 They read the Agamas, the Vedas and the Puranas and are always proud of their knowledge,—but they are like  bees hovering round the ripe marmelos fruits.2As the  bees outside go on humming at the mere smell of the marmelos fruit but can never break into the hard kernel and have the taste of the fruit thereby,—so also all the scholars boast of their knowledge of the truth, but they can have only a very faint smell of the truth from outside,  but can never break into it and have a direct perception of it. Sahaja is something supreme, declares Kanha to all,—but the Pundits read and hear the scriptures and the Agamas,   and know absolutely nothing. (C) Scathing Criticism of the Formalities of Life and Religion The formal rules and regulations of religion were also severely criticised by the Sahajiyas. The most pene trating and scathing criticism was made by Saraha-pada in his  Dohafyosa.   His first revolt is against the orthodox system of the fourfold division of colours (caturVarna)    placing the Brahmins at the top. Saraha says that the Brahmins as a caste cannot reasonably be recognised to  be the highest of men,—for the saying that they dropped from the mouth of Brahma is a myth invented by a section of clever and cunning people ; if, on the other hand, a man  becomes Brahmin by religious initiations (samsk&ra),   then even the lowest of men may be a Brahmin. If a man be comes a Brahmin by reciting the Vedas, let the people of the lower classes also recite the Vedas and they will also become 1 loaha gavva samuvvahai haum paramatthe pavlna  | kodiha majjhem ekk  u  jai hoi niranjana Ima   II  Doha   No. 2 agama-vea-puranem pandia mdna vahanti   pakka airiphale alia jima Vaheria bhamanti   li RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 63 Brahmins; and they also do read the Vedas, for, they read grammar which contains many words of the Vedas. The Brahmins take earth, water,  uia  grass and recite Mantras and perform fire-sacrifices in their houses,—in vain do they offer ghee to the fire, for thereby their eyes will only be affected with intense smoke.1They become holders of single fold or of three-fold sacred threads,—but this is of no avail unless truth is realised. Deceived is the whole world by false illusion,—none does know the all-excelling truth where both religion and non-religion become one. The devotees of the Lord (Isvara),  again, anoint the whole body with ashes, wear matted hair on the head, sit within the house and light lamps and ring bells seated in a corner; they take a yogic posture (  asana ) with their eyes fixed; they whisper (religious doctrines) into the ears (of credulous people) and deceive them thereby.2The widows, the  Mundis   (women taking the vow ©f fasting for the whole month)nand others taking different vows, get themselves initiated by these devotees who do it only in greed of money (  daksina ). Against the Jaina Ksapanaka-yogins it is said that they keep long nails, put on a pale air, become naked and shave the head; but by all these they merely lead them selves astray and never attain perfection. “ If only the naked attain liberation, the dog and the fox would also attain it; if liberation is attained by tearing off of hairs, the hips of young women would also attain it; if liberation can be attained by merely putting on the feathers of the 1 kajje virahia huaVaha homem   | akkhi uhavia k.aduem dhumem   II  Dohak°?a  of Saraha-pada (Dr. P. C. Bagchi’s Edition). 2 airiehim uddulia ccharc   I sisasu vahia-e jadabharem   II gharahl Vaisl diva jail   | konahim VaitTi ghanda call   i! akkhi nives't asana vandhl   I  kannehim khusukhusai jana dhandhl   II  Ibid. 3 mundl'ti masiko-paVasikl yo  “Com. 64 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  peacock, then the peacock and the deer should themselves attain liberation; if the eating of grass ensure liberation, why should not elephants and horses be liberated ? ” 1The Celias, the Bhiksus and the Sthaviras (i.e., the elders) take the vow of  pravrajya  (i.e., renouncing the world and going away in search of truth); some of them are lost in explaining the Sutras, some again in strenuous thinking and reading. Others again rush into the Mahayana fold,—but none of them get at the ultimate truth. The Lord (Buddha) has prescribed ways according to the capacities of his disciples, but can one attain liberation only by meditation? *What will one do with lamps, offerings, Mantras and services,—what is the good of going to holy places or to the hermitage?—can liberation be attained only by bathing in holy waters? Tear off all these irrational ties of superstition, drive away all doubt,  —no  mo^sa  (liberation) can be compared with Sahaja,—and all kinds of liberation are included in Sahaja. Sahaja is what is read, what is gauged, what is explained in the scriptures and the Puranas. Saraha says, “ The world is  bound to existence by all kinds of nonsense,—the childish Yogins like the Tfrthikas and others can never find out their own nature ; they lead the life of  Pravrajya  without knowing the truth at all. One has no need of Tantra or Mantra, or of the images or the Dharams—all these are causes of confusion. In vain does one try to attain Moksa by meditation,4—by medita tion one will only be entangled in snares. Through self-conceit 1  jai nagga via hoi mutti id  sunaha sialaha  ! lomupadanem atthi siddhi ia juvai niamvaha  !l  picchigahane ditfha mokkha   (fa  moraha camarnha) ucchem bhoanem hoi jana ta koriha iurahgaha  II  Ibid  . 2 The commentary explains  cella   as  da$a-$iksdpadl, bhik*u  as  kpti-iihsd pad   and  athavira   as  da&a-varso-papannah.  mokkha ki labbhai jjhana~{pa)viho  I  Ibid. 4 This  jhana    (i.e., dhyana)    seems to refer to the system of meditation as   promulgated in the scholastic texts like the Vi$uddhi~magga  , etc. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 65 the truth is never perceived,—but the blame is often put wrongly on the  yanas (i.e.,  the ways or schools for attaining  bodhi).  All are hypnotised by the system of the  jhdnas   (meditation), but none cares to realise his own self.1This is the truth which Saraha preaches,—never does he care for any Tantra or Mantra.2 Lui-pa says in a song,—“ Of what consequence are all the  processes of meditation? Inspite of them you have to die in weal and woe. Take leave of all the elaborate practices of Yogic  bandha  (control) and false hops for the deceptive super natural gifts, and accept the side of Sunyata to be your own.”1‘ *Of what use are Mantras, Tantras and the explanation of the different kinds of meditation ?'u   Kanha-pada says in another place that the Sahaja Dombl5 sells the loom (  tanti)  and bamboo-baskets (as is the general custom with the women of the Doma classes). The wprd (tanti)  which is derived from the Sanskrit word (  tantri ) suggests the net-work of the false mental construction which, again, can very well be compared to the loom, the only business of which is to weave; and the basket, referred to here, is symbolical of the superstitious mental complexes. Kanha-pada explains elsewhere that conventional practices and the outward  1  ahimana-dosem na lakkhiu tattva  I  tena dusai saala janu so datta  II  jhanem mohia saala vi loa  I  nia stahava nau lakkhai hoa  II Saraha's  Dohakosa. Veva mane muni sarahem gahiu  I ianta manta nau ekkavi cahiu  II Ibid. :1Song No. 1. 4  kinto manie kinto tante  ^inio  re jhana-bakhanc  I Song No. 34. r>The conception of the Dombi or Sahaja-damsel will be explained later on. * tanti bikanaya domvt avara na camgeda   I Song No. 10. 9 - 141 IB 66 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS -ft garment do not really make a man a Kapalika Yogin. A real Kapalika is he who shakes off all conventionalism and realises the great bliss of the nature of the Bodhi-citta (^am maha-sukham   samvrti-bodhi-cittam palayati'ti i^dpali^ah  —com). The Yogin Kanha says that his nerves are fully under his control and the damaru   of the spontaneous sound 1is rising tremendous ly. Kanha, the Kapalika Yogin, is engaged in his yogic  practices and is roaming about in the city of his body in a non-dual form.2The ali   and the Jja/i8, i.e., the principles of all kinds of duality are made the bell and the anklets ; and the sun and the moon (i.e., Upaya and Prajna) have  been made the ear-rings.4The poet has burnt into ashes all his passions, hatred and false attachment and is rubbing his body with the ashes therefrom; he is wearing the pearl-necklace of final salvation. Again, for his Tantric Sadhana, which requires a female companion, the  poet has the Sahaja-damsel as his female consort. The Yogin says that he has killed the mother in-law of breath (’, and done away with the sister-in-law ( nananda  )  of his consort, which is the senses,6and has also put to dpath 1  The text has  anaha damaru.   The word  anaha   refers to the  anahata   (literally, unobstructed; spontaneous) sound. It is held in the texts on Yoga that when all the senses are shut up and the nerves controlled and the breath suspended through a yogic process, there arises a spontaneous sound, within, which is known as the  anahata dhvani . For this theory of sound see  Introduction to Tantric    Buddhism    by the present writer. Beating of the drums is one of the customs of many sects of Yogins and ascetics. 2  To roam about in different localities, generally in forests, lonely out-skirts of village* and in cremation grounds is a custom with the Kapalika Yogins. 3  For a detailed discussion on the meaning of the pair of words  ali ani     kali   see infra   and also  Introduction to Tantric Buddhism    by the present writer. 4  Some 9 ects of Yogins bear bells, anklets, ear-rings and such other ornaments 6  There is a pun on the word aflsti here wh’ch may be associated with both Sk. ivairu    ( = the mother-in-law) and with Sk. ioSsa    (-breath). 6  Again there is a pun on the word nananda    which may mean the sister-in- law of a woman, or it may n>ean that which gives pleasijre, i.e., the* senses, RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJ1YAS 67 his mother (mda)   of illusion (maya),1 and thus Kanha has  become a real Kapalika.* It is interesting to note here that the Jaina Apabhramsa Dohas which seem historically to synchro- i^JSASr1witK the Buddhist songs and  Dohas, are also strikingly similar in spirit as well as in form to the Buddhist songs and Dohas. The spirit is well exemplified in the collection of Dohas called  Pahuda-doha  of Muni Rama-simha (1000 A.D.) There it is said,—“O the Pundit of Pundits, you are leaving aside the grains of corn and gathering husk instead. You are satisfied with the scriptures and their meaning, but 0 ye foolish people—you know nothing about the ultimate meaning of the world. Those who are proud of their knowledge of bombastic words do not know the  raison    d etre  of things and like a Doma of a very low origin is always at the mercy of others. O fools, what is the utility of reading much? A single flame of real knowledge is sufficient to burn within a moment all virtue and vice. Everyone is impatiently eager to be a perfect man,—but 1  The word used is mda  which may be associated with both the words maid  1mother) and may a  (illusion). 2   nadi 6aktt didha dharia khatfe  I anahd damaru bajai viranade  II kdhna k<*pdlt yogi paitho acare  I deha naari biharai ekdkarem  II dli kali ghanid neura carane  I ravi-sast kundala fau abharane  II rdga desa moha lain chara  I  parama mokha lavae muttahara  II maria idsu nananda ghare iali  I mda maria kahna bhaia kavali  IISong No. 11 '* As verses from this work are quoted by Hemacandra who wrote about 1 0 0 0 A.D,, and as it quotes verses from Ssvaya-dhamma dohfi which was composed about 933 A D. the present work may be taken to have been produced about 1000 A.D.” Preface to the Pahuda-doha  by the editor of the text, Hiralal Jain. Ambfidasa Gavare Di gam bar a jaina Granthamala, No. 3. 68 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  perfection can be attained only through the purity of heart. 1 Much has been read, but foolishness has not been removed,— only the throat has been parched into the bargain. Read a single letter through which alone you may be able to go to the city of supreme goodness. 2Caught up in the meshes of the six systems of philosophy the mind finds no way of getting rid of illusion. The one God is divided in six ways in the six systems, and hence none attains Moksa or liberation through them. 5What can one do with the letters which will shortly die with the times? That is, O fool, called Moksa  by which a man becomes changeless (anaharu)*  What good can the reading of books render to a man whose mind is not  pure? Even the hunter, when hunting a deer bows his head down before the deer (for throwing his arrow). (The idea is that actions have no objective value in the religious sphere,—the value is always subjective). You are getting emaciated by reading books of many kinds,—but even now you have no access to the mystery of coming and going.” ' About going on pilgrimage or wandering in forests and on mountains it is said,—“ Prevent this elephant of the mind from going to the mountain of Vindhya,— for it will trample under feet the forest of Slla (i  e., good conduct of discipline) and once more fall into the pitfall of the world. There are stone-images in the temples, water in the sacred places and poetry in the books; all these will but be fuel to the fire (of decay) Of no avail is travelling from one sacred place to another; for the  body may be cleansed with water, but what about the mind? When the body is being washed with water, the mind is  being made dirty with the filth of sin, which cannot be  j Pahuda~doha,   verses (83-88 ). 2    Ibid.,   verse 97. 3    Ibid. , verse 116. 4   kim kijjai bahu akkbaraham je kali™  /g/iau  jamti  I  jema anakkbaru samtu muni lava vadha mokkbu kahcmti  I!  Ibid  verse 124. 6    Ibid.,   verses 146, 173. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 69 washed away with water. 1What may penances do when there is impurity within? Hold fast your mind t6 the  Niranjana (the Stainless One) and only thereby will the stains of the mind be blotted out. Liberation can be attained only if the mind, stained with worldliness, be fixed on  Niranjana,—the Mantras and the Tantras are of no use. ' The Jinas say,—*Worship and worship;’ but if the self residing within one’s own body be once realised in its ultimate nature, who else remains to be worshipped?” ” Again, it is said about people who are particular about their religious garb.—“ The snake shakes off its slough, but its poison is not destroyed thereby. Putting on of religious dress can never remove the internal desire for worldly enjoyment. O, you, the head of all the shaven-headed,— you have indeed got your head shaven,—but you have not got your heart free from worldly desires;—he who has shaven his heart, i.e., has made his heart free from desires, has indeed done away with this world of bondage." 1 The above will give us an idea of the spirit of Indian literature during the proto-vernacular period and the earliest  period of the vernaculars. This spirit of heterodoxy and criticism that characterises the Buddhist and the Jaina songs and Dohas is a very noteworthy phenomenon in the history of the vernacular literatures of India; for, here we find the inception of a new type of literature, which grew abundantly in many parts of India during the mediaeval  period, and the type is not extinct even in modern times. This type of literature is generally known as Sahajiya or the  Maramiya  school of literature.’The Vaisnava Sahajiyas 1    Ibid.,    Verses 155, 161-163, 178. *  Ibid.,  Verses 61, 62, 206. Vamdahu vamdahu jinu bhanai ko vaqidau hali itthu  I niyadehaham vasamtayaham jai janiu paramaiihu  II  Ibid.,  Veres 41. '  Ibid.,   Verses, 15, 135. Also C/. Verse 154. The popular vernacular word  maramiya   comes from the Skt. word  marma,   which means the vital pari or the very core of anything. The  Maramiya   school is 70 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS of Bengal and the host of village poets roughly known under/the general name of Baul belong directly to the same school of thought1; the Santa-poets of Northern and Upper India and the other devotional lyrists, the mystics of Maratha, and even the Sikh and Sufi poets belong to the same school of heterodoxy and criticism.2Thus we see that this type of literature has a continued history in the vernaculars from the earliest period down to the modern times. As we are now dealing elaborately with the early Sahajiyas and shall also deal later on with different types of mediaeval Sahajiya literature we think it necessary here to discuss in detail the  possible sources of the critical spirit of the various Sahajiya schools. The utility and relevancy of such an elaborate discussion on the point will be clearer, we hope, when the different mediaeval Sahajiya schools will be studied in the succeeding chapters and also in the appendix. (D) Possible Sources of the Spirit of Criticism of the Sahajiyas An analysis of and scrutiny into the nature of the spirit of these different Sahajiya schools of vernacular poetry will reveal the fact that much of their heterodoxy and criticism is a thing of heritage; the ideas found in the vernaculars are  but infiltrations from the older ideas found in the different lines of criticism in the history of Indian religious thought, and these infiltrated ideas have been variously emphasised and have received a new colour and tone from the vernacular  poets. Older lines of criticism of different kinds have got  blended in the critical and revolutionary spirit of the vernacular poetry, and, therefore to make a critical study thus the school that deals with the vital part cr the inner tiuth of religion to the exclusion of the formalities and outward shows. * Vide injra.  Chs. V., VII, 2   Vide injra.  Appendix (A). ' RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 71 of itf it is necessary to make a general survey of the different lines of heterodoxy that have moulded the religious history of India in the different periods of its evolution. The earliest trace of heterodoxy and criticism in the history of Indian religious thought is to be found in the Aranyakas and the Upanisads. In its practical aspect the religion of the Samhitas and the Brahmanas was pre-eminently sacrificial with innumerable accessories of chants, ceremonies and rituals. Though the sacrifices were generally made to some  particular god or gods they were nothing of the kind of an attempt at establishing any sort of personal contact between the god or gods in question and the sacrificer. The desired effect of the sacrifice does not depend on the will of the god to whom the sacrifice is offered,—it depends absolutely on the rigorous correctitude of the sacrificial method in all the minutest details. But when we pass on from the Samhitas and the Brahmanas to the Aranyakas and the . Upanisads we find a remarkable change The spirit cf the t   >  Aranyakas and the in the fundamental religious spirit. In the hymns and ritualistic and sacrificial net-work of the Samhitas we do not find any unified idea of the Brahman or the Supreme Being, though, however, we often find a tendency towards monotheism. In some of the Brahmanas we first have, in a rudimentary foim, the con ception of the Brahman as the ultimate principle and the „ . r . highest reality and the conception was Evolution of the . . - , conception of Brahman established in the Aranyakas and the Upa- and the stress on Brah- , . 1  l* 1  r i ma-realisation or self- nisads. With the establishment or the realisation. *. r 1  n 1  l 1 **f  conception or the Biahman the religion ot the Aranyakas and the Upanisads was no longer the objective and deterministic religion of ritualism and sacrifice,—all these are made subordinate to the final end of self-realisation or Brahma-realisation. In the Aranyakas and the Upanisads ritualism and sacrifice began to be replaced by meditation, and the spirit of sacrifice sometimes began to have a 72 OBSCURE REL GIOUS CULTS  philosophic interpretation.1When we find Maitreyi, wife of the famous seer Yajnavalkya, exclaiming,—“What shall 1 do with that, which will not make me immortal ?”2—we dis cover the key-note of the Upanisadic thought, a hankering, not after any mundane happiness and prosperity,—nor after any enjoyment of bliss in heaven,—-but after the realisation of the self which is of the nature of the Brahman. It has been said that those who know the self or the Brahman and seek  for truth reach the region of the Biahman Karma kanda made ill subservient to Brahma- whererrom they never turn back; but knowledge or self- . . . , k^ i , knowledge. those who acquire better legions through sacrifice or gift or penances roam about from this region to that and constantly suffer under the whirl of coming and going.3It is neither by the making of sacrifices, nor by hearing and memorising the Vedas that one can realise the Brahman or the supreme truth, it is only through the absolute purification of heart,— through the removal of the veil of ignorance that one can realise the self or the ultimate truth. Thus we see that the whole emphasis of the Upanisads is on Stress on the sub- . i I • . • • 1  r 1  • • i • l  jeciivc side of religion, the subjective side ot religion, which seems to be conspicuous by its absence in the Samhitas and the Brahmanas. The Upanisads discourage much reading, erudition and discursive reason and also sacrifices, ritual and worship of the gods;—they on the other hand emphasise absolute purification of heart; for, it is in the absolutely purified and mirror-like heart that the supreme truth reflects itself in its illuminating and blissful effulgence. 1  Thus the  Brhad-aranyaka  begins with a new conception of the horse of the Horse-sacrifice. There it is said that dawn is the head of the horse, the sun is his eye, wind his breath, heaven the back and the intermediate space between heaven and earth the belly; the quarters are the sides, the seasons the limbs, the stars the bones and the sky his flesh. To mediate 0 1 1  such a horse and to realise the truth cf this horse is the real meaning of the Horse-sacrifice. 2  Ibid., 2.4). 3  Bfhad-aranyaka, RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 73 In the post-Upanisadic period a free spirit of religion, Po8t-Upanisadic spirit leaning mainly to the subjective side, lwwXC8Mafibh«’ characterises the early epic literature of  rata*India, particularly the  Mahabharata.   There are stories in the  Mahabharata , where the teachings of true religion are being received from people belonging to the lowest class of the social order. In the  Anusasanika-parva of the  Mahabharata where Bhisma is explaining to Yudhisthira the really sacred places of pilgrimage, we find that the mind with the transparent water of purity and truth, when associated with the lake of patience, is the best of all places of pilgrimage. He, whose body is washed with water, cannot be said to be the really cleansed one; he, who has controlled all his senses, is the really cleansed one, and he is pure within as well as without. To dive into the water of the bliss of Brahma-knowledge in the lake of the pure heart is the best of all bathing, and it is only he, whom the wise recognise to be a real pilgrim. The Upanisadic spirit, however, is found in the post-Upa- The spirit of nisadic period bifurcated into the two main toward* lines of religious thought, Viz  .,  Vedanta and  sa Vaisnavism. The Sankarite and the post- Sankarite Vedantic schools cherished nothing but uncompro mising antagonism towards the school of Purva-mlmamsa, the staunchest advocate of the sacrificial religion of the Vedas. Even Ramanuja, the great exponent of Vaisnavism, tried to make a compromise between dharma-jijnasa   and brahma-jijnasa   and held that the former leads to the latter; but Sankara stoutly denied this relation of succession  between the two; for, he held that the nature and the ulti mate end of the two are diametrically opposite to each other. While the aim of dharma-jijnasa   is the attainment of  10-141 IB i Ch. 108. 74 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  prosperity ( abhyudaya ) in life and the attainment of heaven after death, the aim of brahma-jijnasa   is liberation (mujj/i) ; ind while the function of the former is to induce one to perform various sacrificial and ritualistic duties, the function of the latter is only to induce one to know the Brahman, and to know   the Brahman is to be   the Brahman. A hankering after the knowledge of the Brahman presupposes no performance of scriptural duties,— it follows rather from a discriminative knowledge of what is  permanent and what is transitory ( nitya-nitya-vastu-viveka ), from absolute indifference to the pleasures of life here and hereafter, the capacity for internal and external control and a true desire for being liberated from the fetters of life. As the Mlmamsakas go to the one extreme of saying that religion always involves some kind of activity,—the Vedantins go to the other extreme of saying that true religion involves no kind of activity whatsoever. The aim of all activities is to produce some sort of effect,—but Brahma- knowledge cannot be the effect of any activity ; it is already there, and it is there for all time; it is, however, veiled  by our ignorance—by the world-illusion;—the function of the true knowledge of the scriptures is to remove this veil of ignorance from our mind,—and when this veil of the world-illusion is removed Brahma-knowledge will dawn upon us instantaneously and spontaneously. Brahma- knowledge is not something attainable through human effort,—it is rather self-revealed. Brahma-knowledge is not even a mental function,—for, a mental function pre supposes the fact that the agent has (he power to do or undo it according to his own will,—but we have no such power in the case of Brahma-knowledge. Moreover, as we have noticed  before, to know -the Brahman is nothing but to be the Brahman, and knowing and being being identical here, no action is implied even in the knowing. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 75 The Vaisnavas, however, represent the spirit of hetero doxy in another way. While the whole i.mhe *pmt pf emphasis of the Vedantins is on pure knowledge, the emphasis of the Vaisnavas is on devotion or love. The Vaisnavas always speak very indifferently of heaven and the enjoyment of happiness there,—they discourage even the idea of liberation,— what they want is the blissful realisation of the eternal love of God. It is necessary to remark here that this cult of devotion or love was not and is not limited strictly to the sphere of Vaisnavism,—we have already referred to the Saivite devotional cult of South India, and even in the Sakta cult of later days (we may mention here the exquisite songs of Rama-prasada Sen and others of his time) we find traces of pure devotion and love. But in  Northern India and in Eastern India this devotional cult flourished mostly along the line of Vaisnavism and they are commonly taken to be identical. The innovation made by the Vaisnavas (and all devo-  _ ", tional cults in general) is the introduction of  Question of divine mercy—a break in the the element of divine mercy within the law of Karma. . .... r 1  i r  deterministic view or the law  ot  Karma. Germs of the law of Karma can be traced to the ritualistic and sacrificial religious thought of the Vedas, and it is a  particularly noticeable fact that practically all the systems of Indian thought accept this theory in some foim or other. We have seen that the Samhitas and the Brahmans leave no scope for the interference of the gods in the matter of the fruition of the rites, rituals and sacrifices. But already in the Upanisadic period we come across a statement like this,— “ This self or soul (  atma)  can never be realised through great sayings,—neither by memorising" (the scriptures) nor by listening to the scriptures; it is only by him, to whom it reveals itself of its own accord, that it can be realised, and to him this soul or self reveals its real 76 OBSCURE RELlClOUS CULTS form.”1Herein we find germs of the predominance of the divine will, which reigns supreme over all human efforts, and herein comes the question of divine mercy. Along this line developed the theory of divine mercy of all the devotional cults, and the only religious duty leit, therefore, to the followers of these schools, was unconditional self-resignation to the divine will. Up to the eighth and ninth centuries A.D. the domina ting feature of Vaisnavism was this spirit rerignCaiioii!,0ni11 ^ self-resignation and seeking the haven of  the infinite mercy of God. This very spirit indicates that the elaborate system of religious duties, customs, rituals and ceremonies—strict rules for food and dress could find no prominence in the Vaisnava school; when ever they were adopted they were adopted with the purpose of preparing a mental atmosphere favourable to the growth and development of the spirit of devotion and self-surrender. Already in the  Bhagavata Purana  we find elements of   pure love spoken of as the best and highest method through which the direct communion with God becomes  possible. There the uncultured rustic cowherd girls of  Brndavana are regarded as the best of all religious people for their most sincere and passionate love for Srikrsna, the  perfect incarnation of God. Devotion (bhakti)  in later times was classified under two heads, Viz ., vaidhi bhakti >i.e., devotion that arises through the performance of religious duties, observance of vows and rites, and strict obedience to the rules and regulations laid down in Vaisnava theology ; and the other kind of devotion is called  passionate love! °f raganuga bhakti, i.e.,  passionate devo tion,—or love for God that depends on no extraneous causa,—it is love absolutely for love’s sake. The former kind of devotion has always been spoken of as 1   Kafha  ( 1 . 2 . 2 2 RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 77  being much inferior to the latter and as such the former is never recognised as devotion proper. This exclusive stress on love has naturally minimised to a considerable extent all the formalities, conventionalism and ceremonialism in religion. Even a man of the lowest origin, such, for example, as a Candala, in spite of being a riteless untouchable, has been acclaimed as being much superior to the twice-born (Brahmin),  by being merely a sincere lover of God; on the other hand, a caste Brahmin, inspite of his loyalty to the rites, customs and duties of Brahminic life  minus  his sincerity of love, has  been emphatically declared to be inferior to a Candala,— and this really represents the true spirit of Vaisnavism. Again, the Yoga-school of Indian thought has a religious .. .. , perspective of its own, and its emphasis Idealism or Yoga ^ m and the stress on the is exclusively on the subjective side of  subjective side. ... . in  r  i . religion. 1hough ail sorts or occultism and necromancy prevailed and still now prevail within the school of Hatha-yoga, and though with a large number of Indian Yogins Hatha-yoga has become a science of  physical feats, serenity prevails within the school of Yoga  proper. As a philosophical system Yoga represents a  purely idealistic view and it is the mind in all its states and processes that has been held responsible for the whirl of birth and death and consequent sufferings. Religion, according to Yoga, consists in the final arrest of the states and  processes of the mind, and the final arrest of the mind means the final arrest of the flux of coming and going and that is the state of final liberation. Yogic Sadhana, therefore, consists essentially in a process of psychological discipline against a moral background. It is evident from the very nature of Yoga proper that it leaves no scope for idolatry, ritualism and ceremonialism. The dominant trend of Indian thought is idealism; it is the mind with all its principles of defilement that has been held responsible for the world-  process. It is for this reason that in practical SadhanS 78 obscure  R  eligious   cults elements of Ycga have been adopted in almost all the practical systems of Indian religion ;—even Vaisnavism with all its love-theories is no exception. In the critical spirit of the old and mediaeval vernacular poets we shall find this spirit of Yoga acting strongly in unison with the spirit of the other heterodox systems. Inspite of their heterogeneous practices, ritualism and ceremonialism the Tantric schools (both Ti!ntral0<*0Xy ,hr Hindu and Buddhistic) breathe throughout a spirit of revolt against the orthodox schools,—the Hindu Tantras having the same apathy towards the caste-religion or Varnasrama-dharma - of the Brahminic  people as the Buddhist Tantras have against monasticism. We have already seen that the main emphasis of the Tantrikas is on the practical side of religion, and naturally they discouraged much reading and erudite scholarship, either  philosophical or scriptural. The stress of Tantra proper was on Yoga, where discursive knowledge is of little avail. As for the other practices of Tantra, good or bad, their un conventional nature is palpable, and to have these uncon ventional practices recognised as purely religious practices the Tantras had to decry strongly the conventional practices of both Brahminism and Buddhism. Because of the extremely unconventional nature of the practices, the Tantrikas had to launch the bitterest attack on the commonly accepted  practices and religious views of the orthodox systems. The importance of this critical and revolutionary spirit of the Tantras lies in the fact that the earliest literature of our language (we mean the songs of the Sahajiya Buddhists) inherited much of its spirit of revolt and criticism directly from the Buddhist Tantras. It will be noticed that the above critics of orthodox Heterodoxy of the Brahminism were all theists ; but the severest early atheistic »chool«. attack came from the atheists of whom the Carv&kas, the Jainas and the Buddhists deserve mention here.. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 79 Already in the Upanisads we find mention of schools of naturalism which recognised no ultimate conscious Being as the author of the universe, but thought of the world-process as a  product of the course of nature. The materialists are generally spoken of in early texts as the Lokayata school or the school which admits the truth only of the visible world. In early Pali texts we find mention of many pre-Buddhistic heretical ascetics, of whom mention may be made of Sanjaya, the sceptic, Ajita Kesakambalin, the materialist, Purana-kasyapa, the ir>differentist, Maskarin Gosala, the wandering ascetic, and Kakuda Katyayana.1The Carvaka school of thought deserves special mention here. The Carvakas were not believers in any kind of divinity,—the whole world-process including the psychosis, has been explained by them as the creation of matter. Let a man be happy so long as he lives;—life is short and none can escape the jaws of death ; and if once this  body is burnt to ashes there is no returning back ;2let one, therefore, eat, drink and be merry. The Carvakas strongly defied the authority of the scriptures. It has been said that religion is nothing but a device of the cunning priests for earning livelihood as they have no other resources. It is said,—-“There is no heaven, no emancipation, no soul,— nothing belonging to the after-world,—never are the duties,  prescribed according to the castes and the different stages of life, capable of producing any effect. All fire-sacrifices, the three Vedas, the ascetic practice of holding three sticks (bound together), the practice of rubbing the body with ashes—are inventions of stupid and cowardish people for the earning of their livelihood.”8It has been further said,— “If it be true that an animal, when killed in (he Jyotistoma-sacrifice goes to heaven,—why then should not ' See  A Hittory of Prc Buddhistic Indian Philosophy   by Dr. B. M. Barua,   M.A., D.Lit. 2 Sarva-doriana-tamgraha   (Govt. Oriental [Hindu] Series), Vol. 1, p, 12, » Ibid.,  p. 13, 80 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the sacrificer kill his own father in the sacrifice ? If the funeral rite of offering food, drink and other gifts to the departed may produce satisfaction in them, then the supply of oil to an extinct lamp should also increase its flames. Utterly futile is the contemplation of providing food for those who have departed this life.—for, had there  been any truth in this practice, one might have had his satisfaction on his way while gifts were being offered to him in his house. If those who are in heaven can be satisfied  by offering of gifts here on earth, then why should not offerings be placed on the lower floor of the house for the satistaction of those who are above the roof ? ” 1It is there fore strongly recommended that one should live joyously as long as one lives,—one should borrow money to procure  butter;—if body be once burnt to ashes, it can never return. If after dissociating himself from this particular  body a man goes to a different region, why should not he come back many times again through his deep affection for the relatives ? So, all these are meaningless talks having abso lutely no reality behind. It stands obvious that the Brahmins invented all the funeral rites only to find out a source for their livelihood—they have got absolutely no other justi fication. Those are hypocritical, cunning and demonic  people, who have composed all the Vedas,—and it is really strange that meaningless mutterings like  jarbhari, turphari,   etc., are said to be the sayings of learned Pundits. The obscene practice that the wife of the sacrificer should hold the penis of the horse in the horse-sacrifice and all such 1 Sarva-darsana-samgraha  Govt. Oriental {Hindu] Series), Vol. I, pp. 13-14. It is interesting to note here some of the verses of the Vimu-pvrana    whi. h   breathe exactly the same spirit. nihatasya paior yajne svargil-praptir yadi'syate  I sva-piia yajamanena iada  fo’m na nihanyate  II trptaye jay ate pumso bhvktam anyena cet tatah  I dadyac chraddham sramdyannam na vaheyuh pravasinah  II ( Vimti-purana,  3.18.85, quoted in the commentary on ihe Sarva-darbana-sam -   #raha , p. J3). RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 81 other practices are prescribed by base hypocrites, and all the injunctions in the Vedas regarding the eating of meat are the sayings of none but the goblins and the demons, who are  particularly fond of meat.1 The Buddhists and the Jainas, though atheists, were not Schools that are anti-religious like the Carvakas. From the religious^Jaini^m^nd plane of time-honoured customs, of sacri- Buddhismficial rituals and ceremonies the ground of  religion was shifted to a humanitarian plane and the ethical aspect of religion received a great emphasis. Notwithstanding all the differences in metaphysical and theological view-points Buddhism and Jainism had a common front to push in their defiance against the authority of the Vedas, in their absolute denial of any ultimate reality in the form of any Supreme Being, iii their emphasis on the cardinal ethical virtues,—  particularly on the principle of non-violence. As we have hinted, Jainism viewed religion from a distinctly different  perspective from that of the Upanisadic or the other  Brahminical schools. The ultimate aim is The religious per- , r i    l • 1   1   1 spective of Jainism. salvation (mo^sa ),—which can only be attained by the eradication of the Karmas which stick to the soul like dust particles to a body besmeared with oil, and thus bind the soul to this world of suffer ings. This inrush of Karma is to be stopped by various kinds of control (samvara)  and nirjara  or the purging off of the Karmas from the soul. The controls are generally the vows of non-injury, truthfulness, abstinence from steal ing, sex-control, non-acceptance of the objects of desire, gentle and holy talk, full control over body, speech and mind, habits of forgiveness, humility, penance, meditation on the real nature of the world and man, and principles of right conduct (caritra). Ahimsa  or non-injury is regarded as the highest virtue in Jainism as well as in Buddhism, and in their  1 Sarva-darsana-samgraha  (Govt. Oriental [Hindu] Seiies)* Vol. 1, p. 15. 82 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  practical religious conduct the Jains take the greatest pre caution to avoid the slightest injury to the smallest of insects.1 The rudest shock to orthodox Brahminism came from the Buddhists who brought about a revolution not only in tjie religious sphere, but also in the sphere of Buddhism8peC,Ve °f philosophical thought. The truth, which Sakyasimha realised through his great renunciation and profound meditation and by the realisation of which he became the Buddha or the perfectly enlightened one is the truth of  pratitya-samutpada  or dependent origination which presents an entirely new perspective in the field of  philosophy. The fundamental notions of causality, substance, time and space underwent complete change and the general tendency of all logical and metaphysical enquiries was directed not towards any thesis but towards contradicting all kinds of thesis of the established schools. From the religious side, the authority of the Vedas was openly challenged and the efficacy of the rituals and sacrifices was stoutly denied. Moreover the inhuman cruelties inflicted on the beasts in the different kinds of sacrifices was severely condemned.1The existence of any ultimate reality, at least in the form of the Supreme Being, was denied or at least strict silence was maintained on all such ontological points; the summum   bonum  of life was declared to be the final liberation from 1It is to be noticed that orthodox Jainism like other dogmatic schools incorpora ted various dogmatic beliefs like the self-revealing eternal nature of Jainism as a   religion, the godhood of the Tirthankaras and many others of this nature; and a   fighting within Jainism itself began between the two main sects, viz.,  the SvetSmbaras   (i.e.,  wearers of white cloth,) and the Digambaras (i.e.,  the naked). The peculiar   beliefs of the Digambaras are that the Tirthankaras live without food, that a monk,   possessing pioperty and wearing clothes, cannot attain liberation and that no woman is   entitled to liberation. The Jaina monks generally bear clothes of a blanket, an alms-   bowl, a stick, a broom to sweep the ground, a piece of cloth to cover his mouth lest   any insect may enter it by chance. The Digambaras bear a similar outfit, but they   always remain naked and carry blooms of peacock’s feather or long hairs of the tail   of animals ( camara   The monks have their head shaven; there is often the custom   of plucking the hair out and this plucking of the hair is sometimes regarded as a   cardinal religious practice. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 83 this life of suffering by a strict code of moral discipline and this was declared to be the true meaning of religion. Thus the sacrificial religion of the Vedas was replaced  by the Buddhists by the principles of moral virtues and good conduct ( silacara ).' Leaving aside the innovations of later Mahayana Buddhism or Tantric Buddhism where Buddhism developed innumerable gods and goddesses and the paraphernalia of worship, partly as a reaction against the negativistic regorism, partly through the influence of Hindu idolatry, and mainly through the influence of indigenous religious cults or such other cults of the neighbouring localities, Buddhism denied godhood unreservedly and even the existence of any supreme creator of the universe (cf.  the Brahminic conception of Brahma, the creator of the universe) as no positive evidence of any such being can ever be demonstrated. The spirit of monastic Buddhism on this  point is best illustrated in the Tevijja Sutta  of the  Digha-nikdya   where the belief in the existence of Brahma and the belief in the Brahminical religious systems have been compared to the funny belief of a foolish man in the existence of some  beautiful girl somewhere and his wish to enjoy her without knowing absolutely anything about her and her whereabouts. The Buddhists were strongly opposed to the caste-system and the Varnasrama religion of the caste Hindus. A great campaign against the caste-system is found in the Vajra-suci  of Asvaghosa where the author tried to prove on the basis of the evidences found in the Vedic literature and the standard Brahminical texts like the  Manu-samhita,   the  Mahabharata,  etc., that the Brahmins as a class can never  Cf. nindasi yajha-vidher ahaha iruti-jatam    sadaya-hrdaya-dar&ita-pa&u-ghatam  !  ke&ava dhrta-buddha-sarira    jay a jagadUa hare  II Gita-govinda  of Jayadeva (1, 3). 84 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  be superior to the other castes and that the superiority or the inferiority of man can never be determined by the accidental fact of birth. The orthodoxy and conventionalism of the Sramanas and the Brahmanas 1were constantly criticised by the Buddhists. Whenever and wherever we find mention of the Sramanas and the Brahmanas we find them as representing the mistaken or distorted spirit of religion as contrasted to the true spirit of religion represented by the well-disciplined and  perfectly enlightened Buddhists. ' Without entering into the details, let us give here a few specimen of criticism that were levelled by the Buddhists against these orthodox sects. A good specimen of popular criticism is to be found in the Vatthupama-sutta  where Buddha preached to the audience that a man can be said to have bathed only when he has  become pure in heart.3At this a Brahmin from among the audience asked Buddha,—“Does your Holiness go to the Bahuka river to bathe?” The Lord replied,—“What’s the need of going to the Bahuka river,—what may it doP” The Brahmin said,—“O Gautama, the river Bahuka is known to many and recognised by many as associated with Moksa and virtue and as rendering liberation and destroying sin ; many  people wash away their sin of past deeds in the river Bahuka”. Then the Lord addressed the following verse—“Indeed there are (sacred) rivers like the Bahuka, Adhikakka, Gaya, 1It should be noted here that wherever we find criticis-rn of the Buddhists against   the Brahmins in the Pali texts (and we come across such criticism veiy frequently)   we find mention of the Sramanas as one of the ancient orthodox sects along    with the Brahmanical sect. These Sramanas seem to be an cithcdox ^ect of ascetics   who were somewhat akin to the Buddhists in their insistence on the misery and   sufferings of Samsara, in the emphasis on compassion and Ahimsa and in their dis regard of caste system. But it seems, they were somewhat dogmatic in view and   formality prevailed in their asceticism which made them target of criticism from the   monastic Buddhists. In this connection see an article by Winternitz in the journal    Indian Culture   (Vol. I, No.  2)   ‘Jainas in Indian Literature.’ 2 Cf.  pa gad ha ettha na dissanti eke samana-bahmana  I iarn tu desam na jananti yena gacchanti subbaia  II  Padhsina-&utta. 3 ayam vuccati bhikkhu sinalo ant arena sinanena. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 85 Sundarika, Sarasvatl, Prayaga and the Bahumati; there the fool, the evil-doers take their bath everyday; but surely they are not purified thereby. What will the Sundarika do? What can the Prayaga and the Bahuka do ?  He who does harm to living beings and who is the doer of all evil deeds, is never purified by (the water of) these rivers.”JAnother instance of the criticism of the same nature can be cited from the dialogue between the nun Purmika and a Brahmin in the Theri-gatha . Punnika asks the Brahmin, who was bathing early in the morning in an extremely cold weather,—“ 1 indeed used to plunge into water in cold weather with a view to bring water,—but that was only out of fear of punishment or rebuke from the ladies I serve; but of whom are you so much afraid, O Brahmana, that you plunge into water and bear extreme cold with a shivering body?” “The reason is known to you”,—replied the Brahmin,—“ why then this question ? 1acquire virtue and destroy the effect of my evil deeds (by  bathing). .Whoever performs evil deeds, whether an old man or young, will escape the fruition of such evil acts by taking bath in holy water.” “ Who is the fool of fools ” asked Punnika “that has instructed you that the effects of evil-deeds can be washed away by bathing in the water ? Had it been the fact, all frogs and tortoises and snakes and  porpoises and other aquatic creatures would certainly have gone to heaven. Should all sheep, boar, fish hunters, thieves and murderers and other evil-doers be liberated from all evil deeds by their bathing in water ? If this river should wash away all the sins you have accumulated by your former evil deeds, she should wash away all your merits too;—but what bahukom adhikukkan g<*yarP sundarikam api  sarasvatirn prayagan ca atha bahumaiim nadim   il niccam pi balo toakkhanno kanha-k<*™mo na sujjhati kirn sundanka   fcflrissafi, kirp payaga, kin1bahuka nadi vcrim katakibbisam naram na hi narn sodhaye papakamminarn   t 86 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS shbuld remain then? You do not care to cast away that (i.e., evil deeds) through the fear of which you are plunging every day into water,—the effects of evil deeds will never  be washed away by cold water.”1The nun then adds that if a man is really conscious of the direful effects of the evil deeds and if sin has become something repulsive to him, let him not try to flee from sin or to wash away his sin in water, let him take refuge in the Buddha and adopt his creed and lead a life of discipline and righteousness. But though Buddhism first began with a freedom of thought and spirit of revolt against orthodoxy, orthodoxy in practi cal religious life gradually crept into, Buddhism itself and the ethical regorism, strictness of rules and regulations,—austere  practices of penance, vows and fastings prescribed for the monastic life again made the monks objects of criticism. «We have noticed before that a large section of  Monastic orthodoxy and the revolt of the  people with more liberal views, freedom of  MahaySnist^  philosophic thought and a generous outlook seceded from the orthodox body. But in course of time when Tantricism made its way in Buddhism, the Tantric School again revolted against both the monasticism and scholasticism of Hmayana Buddhism and the intellectual  pedantry of the Mahayanists; the Tantrikas advocated their esoteric practices which were held to be the surest and at the 1nu mate idahkhasi ajanatassa ajanaio   | udokdbhisecana ndma papa kamma pamuccati  1!   saggam nuna gamissanti sabba-mandua~k.acchQpd   | nagd ca susumara ca yc canne udakecara  II orabbhikd sukarikd macchikd miga-bandhakd   j cord ca Vajjhagha(d'ca ye  canne  papa-kammino  j udakabhisecana tc pi pdpa-k.amma pamuccare  II sace imd nadiyo te papam pubbekatam vaheyyum  |  pufinam pi ma vaheyyum tena tvam parivahiro assa  II  yassa brahmana tvam bhtto sada udakam otari  | tarn eva brahme ma kasi ma te sltam chavim hane  II Thcn-gdtha , (xii, 240*244). RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 87 same time the easiest way to liberation. In the Buddhist Revolt of Tantric Tantras we always find that austere Buddhism against both * 1  •n* .• t • 1 * Hinayana and Mahs-  practices and penances mulcting disciplin- yana’ary rigorism on body and mind can never conduce to the attainment of perfection; perfect enlightenment must be attained through an easy process— through the enjoyment of the five objects of desire, and this is often spoken of as a short-cut for the attainment of Buddha- hood.1So the hard rules of discipline, the practices of fast ing, bathing, purifying the body and the mind through strict rules and regulations should all te avoided,2and the most  pleasant and easiest way of attaining perfection is through initiation in the tattva  and the practice of yoga in company with the Prajna or the Sakti (i.e., the female counterpart). The austere penances and vows only make a man sorry, and make his face disfigured; through this pain and sorrow the mind can never be expected to attain  perfection. 5It is, therefore, enjoined,—‘Do not cast away the five objects of desire and do not inflict strain on the body through penance; try to attain ‘ bodhi ’ (i.e., perfect know-  jedge) in a pleasant way by following the injunction of the science of esoteric yoga.1It has been said in the Citta-visuddhi- 1  sarVa-kam°-pabhogati ca sevyamanair yathecchatah  I anena khalu yogcna laghu buddhatvam dpnuyat  II duskarair niyamais twraih sevyamano na siddhati  I  sarva-kaTno-pabhogais tu scvayam§ ca&u siddhati  II $ri-guhya~samaja,   Ch. VII (G. O. Si. 2 na kasta-kcdpandm kuryat upavaso na ca kxiyam  I  snanam iaucam na caivatra grama-dharmam vivarjayet  II Advaya-siddhi    MS. (C.L.B. No. 13124) pp. 35 (B)~36 (A). This verse is also found in the Citta-visuddhi-prakarana,    Verse No. 58. 3 Vajra-daka tantra,   quoted in the Catalogue of Sanskrit Buddhist MSS. J.R.S.B    Vol. I, p. 105. This verse is quoted in the commentary of the Carya-pada,   No. I, and is said to belong to the Srtsamaja;   it is not, however, found in the Sri-    guhya-samaja-tantra   published in the G.O.S. *  Panca-kfama,   Ch. I, MS. (B.N, Sans. No. 65, 66) p. I (A). This verse is   quoted in the commentary of the Carya-pada (No. I) as belonging to the $rl-  samaja   ; but it is not found in the text published in the G.O.S. 88 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  pra^arana of Aryadeva that bathing in the holy water of the Ganges is of no avail; for, if the water of the Ganges had the capacity of purifying man’s body, it would have the capacity of purifying the body even of a dog and the dog also would have been entitled to liberation by bathing in the Ganges. Again, there are fishermen who dive in the water of the Ganges, why should not they be liberated from the fetters of this world ? And there are fish in the water of the Ganges; what prevents these poor creatures from attaining Moksa ? Moksa is never possible through going on pilgri mage or bathing, it is to be attained.only through the purific ation of mind, by purging it of all the blemishes of subjectivity and objectivity.1 But the fun is that though Tantricism condemned ortho doxy in the strongest possible terms, it developed within its  province the most elaborate form of practices. In forma lism, ceremonialism, ritualism, magic, sorcery and in the most complicated system of worship accompanied by the muttering of innumerable Mantras Tantricism superseded all the other orthodox systems. Vajra-yana Buddhism, which is the most general name for Buddhist Tantricism as a whole, developed all possible rites and practices, both conventional and uncoventional. Though the secret yogic practice is often spoken of in Vajra-yana, it was not The orthodoxy and 1  • 1   1  l i i r 1  • formalism of Tantric emphasised as the only method ror reah- Buddhism and the i . .L J L «' revolt Of the Sahajiyas. sing the truth, and hence was the impor- tance attached also to all rules of worship, muttering of the Mantras, describing of the circles and hundred other rituals and ceremonies. Again there arose another group of Yogins within the province of esoteric Buddhism, who revolted against this formal nature of  1Verses (59-68). The text was available to the writer through the courtesy   of MM. Vidhu-Sekhara Bh?ttacarya, Asutosh Professor of Sanskrit, Calcutta   University. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 89 Vajra-yana and stressed some esoteric yogic practice to be the only method for realising the highest truth or attaining perfection; this school is known as Sahajiya Buddhism. We have discussed before at some length the salient features of this Buddhist Sahajiya cult. If we analyse and examine the ideas of the Buddhist Sahajiyas we shall find that, as an off-shoot of Tantric Buddhism, it embodies the heterodoxy of Buddhism in general mixed up with the spirit of Tantricism. In its aversion towards discursive reason and scholastic erudition and in its stress on the practical side of religion we may find the spirit of Tantra and Yoga work ing together on it. Again the influence of the Tantra as well as of the Vedanta is palpable in the view that truth can never be found outside—it is to be intuited within. In the highest stress laid by the Sahajiyas on Sahaja-realisation or self-realisation as the summum bonum  of the religious life we may trace the old Upanisadic spirit under the Buddhistic garb. Ideas, derived from different lines of thought, have merged together in a popular way in the songs and Dohas of these later Buddhist poets. In the Jaina Dohas we have almost a similar admixture against a popular Jaina back ground. The devotional line of thought or the spirit of love is, however, conspicuous by its absence from the Buddhist and Jaina songs and Dohas; but it predominates in the songs and Dohas of the mediaeval period. The fact will be demonstrated when we shall deal with the salient features of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas and the Bauls of Bengal in a succeeding chapter, and with those of the innumerable Sahajiya and Sufi poets of Upper and Northern India in the appendix. Besides the inherited elements from older thoughts the mediaeval poets received cognate thoughts and ideas also from Sufl-istic Islam. As we shall have occasion to turn to the question in detail in future, we need not discuss it now. 90 * OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (ii) The Idea oj Sahaja The criticism made by the Buddhist Sahajiyas, with which the Jaina mystics also joined their voice, defines the Sahajiya school more negatively than positively. In the  positive side, however, the conception of the Sahaja or the ultimate innate nature of all the objects and beings will give us a definite idea about the fundamental tenets of the school. The word ‘ Sahaja ’ literally means that which is born or which originates with the birth or origination of any entity (saha jayate iti sahajah).  It is, therefore, what all the Dharmas  possess by virtue of their very existence, and is thus the quintessence of all the Dharmas. As Maha-sukha is the quintessence of all the Dharmas, this Maha-sukha-nature is the Sahaja-nature of all the Dharmas. In the  HeVajra-   tantra  we find,—“ The whole world is - of the nature of Sahaja—for Sahaja is the quintessence ( sVarupa ) of all; this quintessence is Nirvana to those who possess the perfectly pure Citta.” 1But though this Sahaja in the form of Maha-sukha is realised in and through a physiological process, it should never  be conceived as something belonging to the body; though it is within the body, it is not something physical.' As the quintessence of all, it is the absolute reality, both immanent and transcendent. We find in the Upanisads that the Brahman as the ultimate nature of our self and of the external world transcends all intellectual comprehension and verbal expression. Similar is the position of the Sahajiyas, who hold that the Sahaja 1 tasmat sahajam jagat sarvam sahajam svarupam ucyate  I svarupam cVa nitVanam vi$uddh'a-hara-cetasa{ah  ?) II  Hevajra-tantra,   MS. (R.A.S.B. No. 11317) p. 36(B). Cf. abo, svabhavam sahajam ityuktam sarva-k^oiku-sambaram   I  Ibid.,  MS. p. 30(A). 2 dehastho'pi na dehajah  II  HcVajra-iantra,   MS. p. 3(A). RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 91 nature is neither definable nor accessible to our mind, nor  expressible by speech. As the Brahman nlture of Sahajakable to be realised within, so also this Sahaja- nature is to be intuited within (sva^   samvedya).  We find in the Upanisads that when one realises the self as the Brahman, there is neither the knower (jnata)  nor the knowable (  jneya)  nor the knowledge (jnana ); for, in such a transcendental state, “ where everything  becomes the self, who will see whom and by what means, and who will know whom and by what means?” 1This Upa nisadic principle has also been adopted by the Sahajiyas in speaking of the Sahaja nature. It is said in the  Hevajra-   tantra ,—“ Sahaja can neither be explained by any man nor can  be expressed by any speech; it is realised by the self through the merit of serving at the feet of the Guru.” 2In the Guhya - siddhi  also it is said that this truth is to be attained through  personal intuition,—the tongue can never speak anything of it.a That is an all-pervading supreme state where there is neither  body nor speech nor any work.1It has very nicely been said in a song of Kanha-pada—“ Whatever is related to the mind and to all the Agamas (scriptures) and religious texts and the  beads (for counting the time of taking the name of God)—all are confusing and anomalous. Say, how Sahaja can be explained,—(for) neither body nor speech nor mind can enter into it. In vain does the Guru preach to the disciple, for, how can he explain that which transcends the capacity of all verbal means? Whoever will explain it will misrepresent it; here the preceptor is dumb and the disciple 1  yalra tv asya sarvam atmaiva'bhut tat kena karn paSyct, ketxa karn vijanlyat   !  Brhad-aranyako-panisat,   (4-5-1 -5). ^ na nyena kathyate sahajam na kasminn abhilapyate  I atmana jhayate punyad guru-pado-pasevaya  II  Hevajra-tantra , MS. p. 22(B). 3 svasamvedyam tu tat tattvam valiium na'syah pSryate   I Guhya-siddh:,   MS. (C.L.B. No. 13124) p. 14(A). 4 yatra na karyo na Vak-cittam sthanam yat sarvagam param   I  Ibid..   MS. p. 15(A). is deaf. Asks Kanha,—how then is that jewel of the Jinas?— it is just as the deaf is made to understand by the dumb (i.e., through the movement of the lips, or by the facial expres sions, or by the suggestions by postures and gestures).” 1 Tadaka-pada also says,—“ How can what is beyond the  path of speech be explained? ” 2Again we find,—“ The Sahaja stage can never be explained by the preceptor, neither can it be understood by the disciple,—it is like the flow of nectar ;—to whom and by what means can it be ex  plained?” 8Tillo-pada says in his Dohas,—Sahaja is a state where all the thought-constructions are dead (i.e., destroyed) and the vital wind (which is the vehicle of the defiled Citta) is also destroyed,—the secret of this truth is to be intuited by the self,—how can it be explained (by others)? The truth (tatta  = tattva)  is inaccessible to the ordinary foolish people, and it is also unknown and unknowable to scholars,—but it is never inaccessible to that fortunate and meritorious one who  by services has propitiated the Guru. 4 Saraha-pada also 1  jo mana-goara ala jala     agama pothi ist,a-mala  II bhana kaisem sahaja bola ba jdya  I kaa-Vak’da jasu  na samaya  II ale guru   uesoi slsa  I Vak-pathatita kahiva kisa  II  je taim bolt te tavi tala  I guru bova se slsa kola  II bhanai kahnu jina-raana bi kaisa  I kala bobem samvohia jaisa  II Song No. 40. For the reading of the last line of the verse see the article “ Carya-padcta   Paha"     by the present writer in the Srt-bharati,   Vol. I, No. 7. * Vak-pathatita kahi Vakhartl  II  Ibid.,   Song No. 37. * nau tam vaahi guru kahi nau tam vujjhai slsa  I sahaja-Vattho amia rasa  fcasu kahijjai kisa  II Quoted in the Kriya-samgraha-nama'panjika. MS. (B. N. Sans. No. 3!) p. 37(B). 4 tu marai jahi paVana tahi lino hoi nirasa  I saa   (samveana tatta-phrfu) sa kahijjai kisa  II  92  OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 93 says in his Doha,—What can be known through meditation of that* which  3  without knowability ? How can that be explained which transcends all speech?1In the commentary of the Doha it is said,—whatever is a production of the mind is false; that is the truth, which is never mentally constructed.2Again it is said by Saraha-pada,—where neither mind nor the vital wind moves, nor is there any function of the sun and the moon, there should the Sahaja- citta rest,—this is the advice of Saraha/ Where the mind dies out and the vital wind is also destroyed,—that is the supreme Maha-sukha, it does not remain steady nor does it go anywhere (or, it never becomes expressible through words).1In the Sahaja state the individual mind enters the Sahaja as water enters into water. ’The nature of the self can never be explained by others; it can be caused to be realised only through the instructions of the Guru,—none else can make one realise it.(i The subtle and varied emotions resulting from the realisation of truth is not something capable of being expressed through words,—that stage of bliss is absolutely free from all mental constructions—a supreme world is revealed  vadha ann-loa-agcara-tatta pandia-loa agamma  I  jo guru-pa(a-pasanna tahi fa citta agamma)   II  Dohakosa   of Tillo pada, Verses 7-8, Dr. P. C. Bagclu’s Edition. '  jhana-rahia ki k}a* jhane  I  jo avaa iahi kjahi vakhane   II  Dohakosa   of Saraha-pSda, Dr P. C. Bagchis Edition. 2 Hi tavan mrsa sarvam   ( yavad) yaVad vikalpyate   i tat satyam (tat) tathabhutam tattvam yan na vikalpyate   II Quoted in the Com.  Ibid.   s  jahi mana pavana na sancarai ravi sasi naha pavesa  I tahi vadha cttta visama karu sarahem k<*hia ttesa   II  Ibid  . 4  jahi mana marai pavana ho kkhaa jai  I ehu se parama-mahasuha rahia kahimpi na jai   II  Ibid.   h nia mana munahu re niune joi  I  jima jala jalahi milante soi  !l  Ibid.   nia sahava nau kahiau annem  I d'tsai guru-uvaeserp na annem   II  Ibid. 94 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS ihere.1There intellect fails,—mind dies out, all pride and self-conceit vanish away,—mysterious is that Sahaja, - it is a master magician—how can it be bound by meditation ?2It is free from all the letters and colours and qualities, it can neither be spoken of, nor can it be known.'1That great Lord of transcendental bliss cannot be spoken of,—just as the pleasure derived from sex-union cannot be explained to an unmarried girl who has never personally experienced it.4 Unless the body, speech and mind are destroyed, none can experience the bliss of his Sahaja-nature.cKanha-pada also says in his  Dohafyosa ,—Only he who revels in Sahaja and who realises his jewel of mind (as the Bodhi-citta) can realise the course of religion,—others cannot understand it even if it is explained to them. It is, therefore, clear from what is stated above that the nature of Sahaja cannot be defined,—it can only somehow  be described. It will be evident that this Sahaja is the Brahman of the Upanisads and the Vedanta. It is the  Nirvana-dhatu  of canonical Buddhism, it is the tathata   (lhatness) of Asvaghosa, it is the negatively described absolute reality of Nagarjuna, which transcends the four logical cate gories,—it is the  Abhuta-parikalpa  or the increate absolute with the potency of all objectivity and subjectivity but in itself  bereft of all dualism,—or the pure consciousness ( Vijnapti - matrata)  of the Vijnana-vadins. It is again the Vajra-dhatu or the Vajra-sattva of the Vajra-yanists. It is is the Bodhi-citta in the form of the unity of Sunyata and Karuna, 1 are putto tatlo vicitta rasa k.ahana na sakkai Datthu  ! kappa-rahia suhc-thanu varajngu uajjai tatthu  ll  Ibid. * buddhi vinasai mana marai jahi {tuttai) ahimana  I so mddmaa parama-kalu tahl k.imt)ajj}iai jhana  II  Ibid.   akkhara-vanno parama-guna rahije  I bhanai na janai cmai kahiaje  II  Ibid.  Aso paramesaru kasu kahijjai  I suraa jima padijjai  II  Ibid. s kaa-Vaa-manu jaVa na bhijjai  I sahaja-sahave tdVa na rajjai  II  Ibid. RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 95 it is the Maha-sukha or the Supreme Bliss. All these ideas have merged in the idea of Sahaja of the Sahajiyas. In describing Sahaja Tillo-pada says in his Dohas,—When in the Sahaja stage the Citta and the vacuity enter into an union of bliss all the objects of sense vanish away.' Sahaja is , , without beginning and without end ;—  l he non-dual and # unchanging nature of this non-dual state or Sahaja is only ex  plained by the venerable Guru.2When (in the Sahaja) the Citta vanishes, the Acitta (i.e.,   negation) also vanishes ; the state of non-dual unity ( samarasa)   is free from both existence and non-existence.5This transcendental truth is free f*oin all merit and demerit,— for there cannot be any merit or demerit in what is realisable only within.1It is bereft of all colour and form,—it is perfect in the form of all. ’In Sahaja the self is void, the world is void,—all the three worlds are void ; in pure Sahaja there is neither merit nor sin.' Saraha-pada also says,—“In Sahaja there is no duality; it is perfect like the sky. The intuition of this ultimate truth destroys all attachment and it shines through the darkness of attach ment like a full moon in the night.7Sahaja cannot be heard with the ears, neither can it be seen with the eyes [; it is not affected by air nor burnt by fire; it is not wet in intense rain, it neither increases nor decreases, it neither exists nor does it die out with the decay of the body; the Sahaja bliss is only an oneness of emotions,—it is oneness 1Doha No. 5 (Dr Bagchi’s edition). 2 ai-rahia ehu anta-rahia  I Varaguru-paa a(ddaa-kahia)  II  Ibid.,  Doha No. 6. 5  Ibid.,  Doha No. 11. 4 guna-dosa-rahia ehu paramattha  I saasamveana kevinattha  II  Ibid.,  Doha No. 29. 5 Varna vi vajjai akii Vihunna   I savvaare  so sampunna  II  Ibid.,  Doha No. 32. 6 hau sunna jagu sunna tihua(na) sunna   I (nimmala sahaje na papa na puma)  II  Ibid.,  Doha No. 34. 7 Dohas of Saraha.  p. II, Verses 16-17. in all.1Our mind and the vital wind are unsteady like the horse;—but in the Sahaja-nature both of them remain steady. When the mind thus ceases to function and all other ties are torn aside, all the differences in the nature of things vanish; and at that time there is neither the Brahmin nor the Sudra." Sahaja cannot be realised in any ot its lying Tea iTtyhe under’ particular aspects—it is an intuition of the whole, the one underlying reality pervad ing and permeating all diversity. As the truth of the lotus can never be found either in the stalk, or in the leaves, or in the petals or in the smell of the lotus, or in the filament,—it lies rather in the totality of all these parts,—so also Sahaja is the totality which can only be realised in a perfectly non-dual state of the mind/’From it originate all, in it all rtierge again,—but it itself is free from all existence and non-existence,—it never originates at all.1For such Sahaja a man must do away with the positive as well as the negative functions of his mind and remain like a pure child absolutely depending on the instructions of the Guru,1and when the mind thus remains absolutely inactive in the Sahaja, all the cycles of birth and death are at once stopped.0So long as one does not realise the true nature of the self as the ultimate truth one cannot realise the transcendental reality 1 sanka-pasa todahu guru-vaanem  I na sunai sonau di&ai naanem  II  pavana vahantenau so hallai  I  jalana jalante nau so ujjhai  II ghana varisante nau so mmai  I nau vajjai nau khaahi paissai  II nau va$tai na ianunte na vaccai  I samarasa sahajananda janijjai  II  Ibid.,  p. 12 (Veises 3-6). 2  javvem mana atthamana , etc. I  Ibid. a sanda~puani'dala-kamala-gandha~k.esara-varanalcm  I chaddahu vcnima na karahu sosa na laggahu vadha alcm  II  Ibid. 4  Ibid. 5  Ibid . 6    Ibid. 96 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 97 underlying all phenomena. 1This realisation of the self as the ultimate truth is not possible either through meditation or the muttering of the Mantras. *All the external forms are to be realised as pure void,—and the mind also must be  beheld as pure void; and through this realisation of the essencelessness of the objects ( dharma-rtairatmya ) and also of the subject (pudgaia-nairatmya).  the Sahaja-reality reveals itself in the heart of the Sadhaka. 9This Supreme Lord (of Sahaja) is neither seen coming nor seen going; nor is he seen remaining within; he is a waveless sea of perfect  purity. 1In Sahaja knowledge there is neither *without ’ nor ‘ within,’—it pervades the fourteen worlds in its non-dual form. ’“ There is some one formless hiding himself  within our body,—he who knows him is liberated/’0As a lunar gem in deep darkness brightens all things by its lustre, so also the Supreme Maha-sukha or the Sahaja drives away all the miseries of life at once. 7The truth is neither in the house (i.e., in the body) nor in the forest (z.e., in the external objects),—the truth is in the absolute purity of the Citta which is free from all the Vikalpas. 8 Kanha-pada also says that Sahaja is without any wave, it is free from all the defilements,—it is free from both merit 1  java na appahim para paridnasi   I tdva k.i dchanuttura pavasi    II Ibid. 2 saraha bhanai Oadha janau appa   I nau so dhea na dharana jap pa   II  Ibid. :i  Ibid. 4 avanta na dissai jania nahi acchanta na muniai  I nittarahga paramesuru nikk^lanka dhahijjai   II  Ibid. s  jima Vahira tima avbhantaru  I caudaha bhuvanem thiau nirantaru   II  Ibid. 6 asartra   (^ot) sarirahi luk.k°  I  jo tahi janai so tahi mukk°  U  Ibid. 7 ghofandharem candamani jima ujjoa karei  I  parama-mahasuha ekkM-khane duriasesa harei  H  Ibid. 8 nau ghare nau vanem vohi   f  hiu ehu parian a hit bheu   I nimmala-citta-sahavata karahu avikala seu   II  Ibid. 13 —141 IB 98 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS and sin—there is absolutely nothing in it.1It is unchanging, without thought-constructions, without any transformation or corruption; it neither rises nor sets,—here mind has no function at all, this is what is called Nirvana.2 It is to be noticed in this connection that though Buddhism as a religion began its course as an uncom  promising atheistic school, believing neither in God nor in the self or the soul-substance, it gradually showed a theistic tendency in course of its evolution. Beginning with the Tathata-vada of Asvaghosa and the Vijhapti-matrata  or the  Abhuta-parikalpa  of Asariga and Vasubandhu, Buddhism was coming closer and closer to the Upanisadic conception of the Brahman as the Supreme Being. In the conception of the Vajra-sattva and the Lord SrI-Maha-sukha of the Vajra-yanists we have seen how the monistic conception of the Supreme Being is clearly established. In the conception of the Sahaja or the Svabhavik.a-k.oya  (the Supreme Being of the body of the ultimate nature) of the cend'ent ^and immt Sahajiyas the same tendency of conceiving nent-it just in the image of the monistic Supreme Being is sometimes manifest. Often the Upanisadic description of the Brahman as having hands and legs on all sides,—having eyes, heads and faces on all sides,—having ears in all the worlds on all sides—and as  pervading the whole universe,—are all applied to this Sahaja. 3And this Sahaja is none but the self,—  1  nittarcnga sama sahaja-rua saala-kalusa-virahie  I  papa-punna-rahie huccha nahi hjanhu phuda kohie   II (Dr. P. C. Bagc hi’s Edition) Verse No. 10. * niccala nivviappa niwiara   I uaa'dtthamana-rahia susara   II aiso so nivvana bhanijjai   I  jahim mana manasa   feimpi na kijjoi   II Verse No. 2 0 .  sarvaiah pani-padadyarn sarvato 'k&i-$iromukham  I  sarvatah irutimat loke sarvam aVrtya tislhati  !l RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK OF THE SAHAJIYAS 99 and all the worlds are the transformations of this one Sahaja- self,—all the universe is pervaded by the Sahaja-self,—and nothing else is to be found anywhere.1All the various  phenomena produced by the deeds (karma)  of the  beings are nothing but the modes and modifications of the self-revealed Sahaja; but though they are Sahaja in the ultimate nature, they are produced in their varieties through mentation (bodhanat)  m the form of the subject and the object.2The Sahaja is itself the sustainer ( bharta ), itself the performer ( karta ), itself the king, itself the Lord.3 It is the life of the animate, it is the supreme and immu table,—it is all-pervading and resides in all the bodies,—  csa svabhavikah kdyah iunyata-karuna-dvayah  I napumsaka iti khyato yuganaddha iti kvacit   I Sri-sambara , quoted in the Subhasita-samgraha , Bendall’s Edition. Cj. sarvatah pani-padam tat  , etc. Svetalivataro panisat,  3-16; Gita , 13-13. 1   mad-bhava(m) hi jagal sarvam mad-bhaVam bhuvana-trayam  I may a vyaptam idam sarvam na'nyamayam drsyate jagat   II  Hevajra-tantra,  MS. (RASB. No. 11317, p. 23rA). 3   sva-samvedyam ayam karma vodhanat karma jayate   1  Ibid.,  MS. P 23(B). Cj.  also the Commentary : —   yat kincit drtyate sattvdnam karma-vipaka-janitam vaicitryam sthaVara-jangama - dtkam tad eva karma  I  yady etat karmotpadyate svasamvedyat   I katham iarhi   maha-mudra-siddhih  I tadahumaha('?), bodhanad iti  I bodho grahya-grahaka   rupena pratipattih  I tasmal karmotpadyate  I na p.unah viivasya sahajaika-rasa- bhaVat   I  Hevajra-pahjika  or Yoga-ratna-mald,  M.S. 'Cambridge, Add. No. 1699) P. 32(B). Cj.  also,  Dakarnava  :—  samhha kamma jima bhaVaha rui   bhava nivvana na disai koi  I (Dr. N. C. Chaudhuri’s Edition) p. 144. 1   svayam bharta svayam karta svayam raja svayam prabhuh  |  Hevajra~tantrat   MS. p, 23(B). The reading of the last line as given in the commentary of the  Dohakosa   (Dohg No. 6 ) of Kanha-pada is “ svayam karta svayam harta svayam raja svayam    prabhuh"   and “ harta. "   is furfher explained as the destructive form (svayam eva   samhara-rupah)  of ths Lord. [The MS. of the commentary cn the  Dohako$a  of Kanha-pada in the possession of the writer, MS. Cambridge Add. No. 1699, P. 43(A)]. it is the great life (the vital process)—and the whole universe is imbued with it,—all the existent and the non-existent and everything else proceed from it and it alone. It is the Being of the nature of pure consciousness,—it is the eternal sovereign personality,—it is the Jiva (the individual  personality),—it is time,—it is the ego.1Tillo-pada says in a Doha,—“ I am the universe,—I am the Buddha,—I am  perfect purity,— I am the non-cognition ( amanasiara )—I am the destroyer of the cycle of existence.” ” And this nature of the self is its Sahaja-nature. Saraha-pada also says,— “ One is the Lord explained in all the scriptures and he manifests himself (as the variety of all phenomena) through his own will.” 3In the  Dakarnava  it is addressed to Sahaja,—“ Thou art the cause of all the Dharmas,—but who art thou Sahaja, mysteriously unknown to all ?  ” 4 Again it has been said,—“ Only Sahaja-nature is seen (—nothing else is there),—salute to the Lord of all the Suras (gods) and the Asuras ! The senses do not know where it is,—worship it through the songs (gat ha).”  5 1  sa eva praninam pranah sa eVa parama-k$arah  I  sarva-vyap'i sa eva sau sarva-dehe vyavasthitah  II  sa et)asau maha-pranah sa cvasau jaganmayah  I  bhaVa-bhaVau tad-udbhutau anyani yani tani ca  il  sattvam vijhanarupan ca purmam puranam Uvaram  I  atma jtVahca sarvanca kalah pudgala eva ca  II  Hevajra-tantra , MS. (RASB. No. 11317) p. 27(A). 2   hau jagu hau buddha (hau) niranjana  I (hau amanasiara bhava-bhanjana)  II Tillo-pada s  Dohakosa  (Dr. P. C. Bagchi’s Edition1*, Doha No. 16. n ekku deva vahu a gam a disai  I appanu icche phuda padihasai   II  Dohakosa  (Dr. P. C. Bagchi’s Editionj. 4   karanu sabbha dhammaha tummii   ke acchasi sahaja—sarua na gai  I  DakarnaVa  (Ed. by Dr. N. C. Chaudhuri), p. 138.  ,f>kcvala sahaja-sahau ri disai namahu surasura tihuana nahai  I indiya loa na janai koi parama mahasuha pujahu gahai   II  Ibid,,    p. 143. 100 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS CHAPTER IV T he  P ractices   of    the  S ahajiyas   and    the  S tate   of    S upreme  B liss  (M aha - sukha ) We have said in connection with the nature and function of the Tantras that the Tantric systems, whether Hindu or Buddhist, never profess to discover and preach any truth anew : their main function is 10  indicate practical methods for the realisation of truth. The Sahajiya cult, as an off shoot of Tantric Buddhism, lays the highest stress on the  practical method for realising the Sahaja-nature of the self and of all the Dharmas. From the point of view of literature, however, we are not much interested in the details of the yogic practice of the Sahajiyas, and we, therefore, do not  propose to go into all the details. We shall give here a very brief account of the main practices and also of the state of supreme bliss produced through this process of Sadhana. (i) The Guru-Vada The most important thing in connection with the practical aspect of the Sahajiya religion is the selection of a proper  preceptor. The whole field of Indian philosophy and reli gion is characterised by a unanimous emphasis on the Guru- vada or the doctrine of the preceptor. It will be seen that in a sense all the systems of Indian philosophy and religion are mystic,—for according to all the systems truth always transcends intellectual apprehension or discursive specu lation,—it is to be intuited within through the help of the  preceptor, who has already realised it. Truth is transmitted r   , from the preceptor to the disciple just Liuiu-vada—a salient feature of Indian philo as light from one lamp to the other. The sophy and religion. . , . 1  • 1 only way of knowing the truth is, there fore, to seek the grace of the Guru, who, and who alone, can make a man realise the Supreme Reality. It is believed that the true preceptor in his non-dual state identifies himself with the disciple and performs from within the disciple all that is necessary for the latter's spiritual uplift. The true disciple becomes an instrument in the hands of the true  preceptor. It is for this reason that in Indian religions the Guru is held in the highest esteem. In many of the Indian religious systems the Guru is a substitute even for God, or at least God is to be realised through the medium of the person of the Guru, who stands as the living proof for the existence of God. To ordinary people God is a mere time- honoured belief; but the preceptor opens the eyes of the disciple and makes him realise the existence of God. Tantricism, which lays the greatest emphasis on the practical aspect of religion, naturally, lays equal stress on the function of the Guru. Moreover, many of the Tantric practices are secret practices involving complex processes of esoteric yoga. Because of this stringent nature of the Tantric prac tice the help of the Guru is enjoined to be sought at every step. These intricate esoteric practices, when properly and systematically carried out, may lead a man to the highest spiritual elevation,—on the other hand there is the chance of physical and mental aberration at every step, and if they are not pursued very  cautiously and methodically with the guidance and directions of the experienced Stringency of the Guru they may lead, and are very likely esoteric Sadhana res  ponsible for so much to lead, a man into the darkest abyss stress on Guru vada rill n f l in Tantricism. ot hell. Because ot their stringent nature these practices have repeatedly been declared in all the Tantras as the secret of all secrets (guhyad  102 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS PRACTICES AND SUPREME BLISS 103 guhyam ), and therefore, there is no other way of being initiated into this method of Yoga save the practical help of the Guru. In almost all the Tanlras the Guru is always  praised in the superlative terms and is declared to be the highest reality itself.1Almost all the Carya-songs speak highly of the Guru, who is the only help in the path of Sadhana, and in almost all the songs the yogins are warned of the  pitfalls of the path and are enjoined repeatedly to seek the help of the Guru, wherever there is an iota of doubt in mind and wherever there is the slightest difficulty. So copious, so clear and so emphatic are the references to the preceptor in the Carya-songs that we need not illustrate our statement  by quotations. We shall see later on that the theory of Guru-vada, as we find in the Dohas and the Carya-songs, may be recognised as one of the main characteristics of all the religious sects represented by our old and mediaeval literature.2 [ii) The Importance of the Body in the Sadhana In connection with the practical aspect of the Buddhist Sahajiya cult we should also notice that Body—the micro* i • 1  • • • • r  cosmof the universe, /along with the uncompromising spirit ot revolt against all formalities and orthodoxy in religion, great emphasis is laid in the Sahajiya literature on the human body, which is conceived as a microcosm of the universe. This feature, we have hinted, predominates in all the Tantras in general, wherever the yogic element pre vails; but as the Sahajiyas laid their whole stress on the yogic element this theory of the body being the epitome of the whole universe was most emphasised. In the  HeVajra-tantra   we find^that the Lord (Bhagavan)  was asked by a Bodhisatlva 1  See the first part of the Subhdsitaaamgraha,  edited by Cecil Bendali, where various quotations are to be found from various Buddhist Tgntric texts in  praise of the Guru and also defining the nature of a true preceptor. 2   Vide Infra,  Ch. V, Ch. VII, Appendix 'At. 104 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS whether there was any necessity at all of this physical world and the physical body, everything being in reality nothing  but pure void. To this the reply of the Lord was that without the body there was no possibility of the realisation of the great bliss and here lies the importance of the body.1 But though the truth is within the body and arises out of it, it should never be confused to be something physical.2In the Sn-kala-cakra  we find that without the body there cannot be any perfection, neither can the supreme bliss be realised in this life without the body,—it is for this reason that the body with the nervous system is so important for yoga; if perfec tion (siddhi)  of the body be attained, all kinds of perfection in the three worlds are very easily obtained. *In discourage ing going on pilgrimage and bathing in the sacred rivers, Saraha says,—“ Here (within this body) is the Ganges and the Jumna, here the ‘ Gariga-sagara ’ All truth within. J , (the mouth of the Ganges), here are Prayaga and Benares,—here the sun and the moon. Here are the sacred places, here the Plthas  and the Upa-plthas  —I have not seen a place of pilgrimage and an abode of bliss like my body.” 4The TattVa  is within the house of our body; yet, curious indeed it is, that we generally roam about in the whole world in search of it. It is nicely said by Saraha  ,—“  He is within the house,—but you are enquiring about him outside. You are seeing your husband  1   deha-bhaVe kutah saukhyam,  etc.  Hevajra'tantra , MS. p. 36(A). a dehastho' pi na dehajah. Ibid. 3   kaya-bhave na siddhir na ca parama-sukham prapyate janmam ha  tl tasmat kflya-rtha-hetoli pratidina-samaye bhavayet nadi-yogam  I kaye siddhe anya-siddhis tribhuvana-nilaye k^koratvarn praydti  II Sri-kala-cakra-tantra,  MS. (Cambridge, Add, 2364) p. 33(B). * etthu se surasari jamuna etthu  se ganga-saaru  I ctthu paaga vanarasi etthu se canda divaaru  I! kheitu pltha upapttha etthu maim bhamai pari^hao  I deha-sarisaa tittha maim suha anna na dtffhao  II  Dohakosa  of Saraha. Nos, 47, 48 (Dr. P. C. Bagchi’s Edition). PRACTICES AND SUPREME BLISS 105 within, yet are asking the neighbours as to his whereabouts.’' “Know thyself, O fool,” says Saraha,—“the truth is neither to be meditated nor to be held in the body as a Dharani, neither is it to be muttered as a Mantra.” 1The scholars explain all the scriptures,—but do not know the Buddha residing within the body. 2“ Some one bodiless is hiding himself in the  body,—he who knows him there (in the body) is libera ted.” :{In the Carya-songs also the body is highly spoken of as the abode of truth. Thus Kanha-pada says in a song,— The yogin Kanha has become a Kapall,4and has entered into the practices of yoga, and he is sporting in the city of his body in a non-dual form.” ' Again he says,—“Makethe five Tathagatas the five oars and, O Kanha, steer the  body on and tear off the snare of illusion.” The image of the body being the boat and a pure mind the oar for  proceeding on to the way of realising the truth is very  popular with the poets of the Carya-songs. gharcm acchai vahire pucchai  I  pai dekkhai padivcsl pucchai  II saraha bhanai vadha janau appa  I nau so dhea na dharana jappa  II 2    pandia saala sattha bahhhanai  I dehahim buddha vasanta na janai  II * asarira ( fcoi) sariahi lukko  I  jo tahi  janai so tahi mukko  II 4  Kapall is the general name given to the Tantric Yogins, bul here, in the commentary of the Caryas (and also in the commentary of the  Hevajra-tanlra,   MS. Cambridge, Add. No. 1699) the word is derived in the following way katjt    maha-sukham palayiti'ti kflpalikah , i.e.,  he who nurses “ Ka ” which means Maha-sukha is a Kapalika. 5  Song No. 1 1 6    pahca tathagata kio k^duala  I bahaa kanhila mda-jala  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 13. Cj. kaa navadi khanti mana kcdaala  I sadguru-vaane dhara pntavala  II cia thira  fcari dha{ra)hu  re nai  I ana upaye para na jai  II  Ibid.,  Song No. 38. 14 141 IB 406 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS The body being thus recognised as the abode of all truth the fundamental principles of Mahayana as transformed into Vajra-yana began to be located within the physical system. Thus, corresponding to the six nerve-plexuses ( sat-cakra ), or the six lotuses as they are also called, along the spinal The theory of the cord,1as conceived in the Hindu Tantras SSTthe theory*at 1   11   • o 1 citta. esoteric practice or the buddhist Sahajiyas is the production of this Bodhicitta in the  Nirmana-cakra or the Manipura-cakra (in the region of the navel) through processes of Hatha-yoga and then to give it an upward motion so as to make it pass through the Dharma- cakra and the Sambhoga-cakra and then make it motionless in the Usmsa-kamala where it produces Sahaja of the nature of Maha-sukha. It is held that the Bodhicitta has two aspects ; in the ordinary restless aspect (i.e., in the ~ rr, form of gross sexual pleasure which 1  wo aspects of Bodhi- citta Samvria and accompanies the discharge) it is called  Vivrta Samvrta,  and in the motionless aspect of intense bliss it is called the Vivrta  or the Paramarthika.   This Samvrta  and Paramarthika  aspects of the Bodhicitta represent the Samvrti-safya,  i.e., the phenomenal or the  provisional aspect of reality and the Paramarthika,  i.e., the ultimate reality of Mahayana philosophy. The yogic Sadhana of the Sahajiyas is employed first for the production of Bodhicitta through the union of the Prajna and the Upaya and then for transforming the Samvrta  Bodhicitta into Paramarthika.  The contention of the Sahajiyas is that so long as the intense bliss produced through the union of the Prajna and the Upaya remains in the region of Mani  pura-cakra or in the region of the navel which is the Nirmana- cakra or the gross physical plane of bondage and suffering, it keeps the yogin in the world of grossness. But as accord ing to standard Mahayana philosophy the Bodhicitta, after its production, must march upwards through ten stages known as the  Bodhicitta-bhumis  and reach the highest 110 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS state of  Dharma-megha  and attain Buddhahood there, so according to the view of the Sahajiyas this flow of bliss must be made to march upwards through the different Kayas (corresponding to the  Bhimnis)  and finally reach the region of Vajra-kaya or Sahaja-kaya. In the process of upward march the bliss first produced goes on acquiring a higher nature and when it reaches the Usnisa-kamala or the Vajra-kaya or Sahaja-kaya it becomes Maha-sukha, where all kinds of duality vanish in a unique realisation of supreme  bliss. (id) The Middle Path in the Esoteric Sadhana A dominant feature of Mahayana is its stress on the .... . . . , middle path avoiding the opposite extremes 1 he philosophical vi?w of the middle of views. Thus the philosophical system of Nagarjuna is known as the ‘ Madhya- mika ' system, or the philosophical school of the middle course, and it is held that Nagarjuna’s school is a school of the middle course in the sense that he steered clear a trans cendental path which denies the views of the positivists as well as the negativists. The philosophy of the  Abhuta-    pari^alpa  of Vasubandhu as expounded in his well-known treatise  Madhyanta-vibhaga  is again a challenge to both the extreme realists (like the Sarvasti-vadins) and the extreme negativists (like the Madhyamikas),1and the Vijnana-vadins always professed to be the followers of the middle path. Apart from these philosophical speculations we find in the religious sphere on the whole that the Mahayanists were opposed to the Idea of Nirvana as much as to that of existence in the world of suffering (bhava  or samsara);  and according to them the final state is neither the  Bhava , nor the  Nirvana ,—it is rather a state of non-duality where  BhaVa  and  Nirvana  become one and the same. In connection 1  The Madhyamika school was always criticised by the Vijnana-vadins (as also  by the Vedantins) as a pure negativistic school. PRACTICES AND SUPREME BLISS 111 with the idea of  Advaya  or Yuganaddha  we have seen that the final state is that where all kinds of duality are absorbed in a principle of non-duality. Middle path *n nri •• 1  j . i i i i y 0 ga. 1  nis principle was adopted also by the Sahajiyas in their process of yoga. We have seen that the nerves in the right and the left in the microcosm of the body represent the principles of duality; their separate function which binds one to the world of sufferings must, therefore, be checked by the Yogin and they must unite with the middle nerve and function there con  jointly. The middle nerve is, therefore, the middle path which leads to the non-dual state of Sahaja. The flow of Bodhicitta must be regulated along the middle nerve, and this is the most important and at the same time the most difficult part of the Sadhana, and it is for this reason that in the Carya-padas and the  Dohafcosas  as well as in many of the Buddhist Tantric texts we find repeated warnings to the novice to take practical suggestions from the  preceptor at this stage. If the flow of Bodhicitta moves either left or right, the whole thing is spoiled. In the Carya-padas, therefore, we find repeated warnings not , to go either right or left, but to Middle path vari ously described in the steer clear through the middle path. We arya songs. often find injunctions in the Caryas for  securing perfect control on the two nerves in the right and the left and to join them together (i.e., to make them function together) in the middle nerve. Thus in a song Lui-pa says, “ I have intuited the (non-dual truth) through the suggestion (of the preceptor). I have sat where the couple of the nerves Dhamana (the nerve in the left) and Cam ana (the nerve in the right) are united together.”1Gundari-pada says,—“Destroy the mother-in-law (vital breath) in the house (i.e., the body) and control the Manimula,—and split up the sides of the 1   bhanai lui dmhe sane diiha  I (jhane  dif/ia—Bagchi) dhamana camana beni pandi baifha  II Song No. I. 112 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS sun and the moon.’*1Again Catilla-pada says,—“Thedeep river of existence is flowing on in a tremendous flow; there is mud on either side of the river, but the middle is unfathom able. For the sake of 1Dharma 5(i.e., for the realisation of the non-essential nature of all the Dharmas) Catilla has  built up a bridge, and people, desirous of going to the other  shore, can now cross (the river of existence) fearlessly • After walking up the bridge go neither right nor left,—near is the  Bodhi , do not go far.” 2From the yoga point of view this river of existence refers to the nervous system mainly with the three principal nerves, which are described in the Commentary as  abhasa-iraya (viz.,  Sunya, Ati-sunya and Maha-sunya), which are the principles of defilement and therefore also the cause of all existence. The two sides, i.e., the two nerves on the left and the right are muddy, i.e., they are the paths which lead to the  principles of defilement,{—and the middle nerve leads to the depth of the truth and so it is unfathomable. The bridge however, signifies the establishment of the unity between the two aspects of the Bodhicitta, viz ., Samvrti  and  Para -  marthika ,4in other words, it is the way to realise as well as demonstrate how the physical Bodhicitta can be transformed into the ultimate Bodhicitta through processes of yoga. Catilla-pada warns that when one is on the bridge, i.e., when one is engagad in transforming the Samvrti  Bodhicitta into the 1   sasu gharem ghali kofica tala  I canda-suja-beni pakha phala  II Song No. 4.  A bhavanai gahana gambhira vegem baht   I duante cikhila mdjhe na lhahi  II dhamarthe catila sankama gadhai  I  paragdmi loa nibhara tarai  II scnkomata cadile dahina bama ma hohi  I niyadi bohi dura ma jdhi  IISong No. 5. * vama-daksinam cikhilam iti prakrti-dosa-panka-nuliptam  IComm. 4Cf,  Comm. aa(m)kramam iti samvrtti-paramdrihayor aikyam, PRACTICES AND SUPREME BLISS 113  Paramarthika  through the yogic process, one should go neither left nor right,*—the  Bodhi is  to be attained through the middle nerve. Kanha-pada says in one of his songs,—“ The path (i.e., the right path) is obstructed by the  Ali  and the  Kali." 1 Again we find,—he (Kanha) enters the lotus-pool of Sahaja by breaking the two posts of ‘e* (representing Prajna, or the left nerve) and (representing Upaya or the right nerve).2Again we see that after entering into the yogic practice Kanha has made the  Ali  and the  Kali  the anklets of his legs and the sun and the moon his earrings. Both these metaphors signify that Kanha has got full control over the  Ali  and the  Kali  or the moon and the sun (which refer to the two principles of Prajna and Upaya as well as to the two nerves). Kanha says that he has realised the wave (i.e.,  the vibration of bliss) in the middle course.1In his Dohas also he says that he has  broken off the two nerves lalana-rasana  or  ravi-sasl   in the two sides.’Kambalambara-pada says that after pressing the left and the right (nerves) and keeping close to the middle way he has been able to realise supreme bliss/’ Again Dombl-pada says in a song,—“ The boat is steered through the middle of the Ganges and the Jumna ; there the exhilerated lady (i.e., Nairatma, absorbed in the Sahaja-  bliss) smoothly carries her children (i.e., the yogin) to the other shore. Steer on,—steer on, Oh Dombi, (exclaims the  poet,) time is high up in the way ; through the (blessings of the) lotus-feet of the Guru we shall go to the land of the Jinas (i.e., the self-controlled ones). Five oars (taken in the 1Song No. 7. * Song No. 9. 3   ali kflli ghanta neura carave  I ravi sas kundala   fo'ti abharane   IISong No. 11. 4   majha bent tarnngama munia   IISong No. 13. r> lalana-rasana ravi-sasi iudia venna vipase  IDoha No. 5. 6   bama-dahina capi mili tnili manga  I batata milila mahasuha sanga   IISong No. 15-141 IB 1)4 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS commentary to indicate the five-fold instructions given in the  Panca-krama)  are moving ;—when in the way tie up the rope of the boat with the  pitha , (i.e., arrest the flow of the Bodhi citta, which is compared here to the boat, in the Mani-mula). Throw out water with the pot of void, so that water may not enter through the joint. The moon and the sun are the two wheels, and (the unity of) creation and destruction is the mast (  pulinda ); the two paths to the left and the right are not seen, -steer the boat at your own pleasure.”1 Sanli-pada also says that he is roaming avoiding the two ways in the left and the right.“In another song of Vina-pada he says that he has made a Vina  (i.e., lyre) of which the sun is the gourd {lau)  and the moon is the string and Avadhuti is the stand. On hearing the tune of the  Ali  and the  Kali , he says, the mighty elephant has entered Samarasa. Here the sun which is said to be the gourd and the moon which is said to be the string, are but the two nerves in (he lvo sides, and the stand (danda)  is the middle nerve. When the two nerves in the left and the right are controlled and filled to the middle one, an  anahata  sound 1is produced and it leads the elephant {i.e., citta)  to the state of Samarasa. Saraha-  pada says, “ In the right and the left are canals and falls,— the straight path is the safe path. ” We need not multiply the instances and the analogies given in connection with the yogic process of controlling the two nerves on the two sides and the raising of the Bodhi-citta along the middle nerve. But what is the process for giving 1  Song No. 14. 2Song No. 15. 3   stija lau sasi lageli tanti  | anaha dandi eki ki^ta avadhuti  II **** ali kfili beni sari sunid   I gaavara samarasa sandhi gunia  IISong No. 17. 4  See  Introduction to Tantric Buddhism  by the present writer. , 6   bama dahina jo khala bikhala  I saraha bhanai bapa ujuv^fa bhaila  II Song No. 32. PRACTICES AND SUPREME BLISS 115 the Bodhi-citta an upward motion? The  Apana  wind, it is held, has always a downward motion and the  Prana  an upward motion ; the yogin, therefore, BodM-cktra cl n°W°f should arrest the course of both the  Prana and the  A pana  and then make them flow through the middle nerve and with this flow of the vital wind within the middle nerve the Bodhi-citta will also flow upward and reach the Usnlsa-kamala,—and thereby Maha-sukha will  be produced. The Bodhi-citta should then be made steady  by making steady the breath, and this state of Yoga is the ultimate stage for the yogin. In this production of the Bodhi-citta four stages, asso ciated with the four Capras  or lotuses, fom°LdX.8fourbmo’are distinctly marked, and on the basis ments, etc. four stages we find mention of  the four Mudras (viz., Karma-mudr a, Dharma-mudra ,  Maha-mudra  and Samaya-rnudra ), which are the four stages of yoga. There are again four mental states called the four moments (viz,, Vicitra , Vipafya, Vimarda  and Vilafysana,1 and four kinds of bliss, viz., Ananda, Parama -  nanda , V'iramananda  and Sahajananda. Ananda  is the  bliss when the Bodhi-citta is in the Nirmana-cakra,  Parama -  nanda  ia the Dnarma-cakra, Viramananda  in the Sambhoga- cakra and Sahajananda  in the Maha-sukha-cakra.  Ananda   means light pleasure,  Paramananda  is more intense; Virama  nanda  means the detachment from the worldly pleasure, and Sahajananda  is the final bliss.2 (tf) The Yogic Sadhana of the Sahajiyas and the  Female Force. Another thing that deserves special attention in connection with the yogic practice of the Sahajiya Buddhists 1   Vide Catur-mudra  in the  Advaya-vajra-samgraha  (G O S.). Also Sampufika*  MS., p. 10 (A) ;  Hevajra-panjika,  MS.. p 2 (B), 2   Srt-kala-cakra-tantra,  MS., p. 57(A);  Hevajra-tantra,  MS., p. 27(B). is the conception of the female force. In the Carya-songs we find frequent references to this female force variously called as the Candali, Dombl, Savarl, YoginI, Nairamani, /Sahaja-sundari, etc. and we also find frequent mention of the union of the yogin with this personified female deity. This Yogini or the Sahaja-damsel should not be confused with the woman of flesh and blood, associated with the actual yogic practices; she is but an internal force of the nature of vacuity ( Sunyata)  or essencelessness (  nairatma ) and great  bliss residing in the different plexuses in different stages of yogic practice. In the Hindu Tantras we find that in the Muladhara- cakra (which is the lowest of the Cakras) remains coiled an electric force known as the Serpent-power (coiled like a serpent) or the Kula-kundalini Sakti, and the Sadhana consists in rousing this Sakti, lying dormant in the Muladhara, and in making her unite with the Siva in the Sahasrara ; and we have seen that the union of the Sakti with the Siva is what is meant by perfection in Tantric Yoga. Corresponding to this Kula-kundalini Sakti of the Hindu Tantras we find the conception of a fire-force of the Buddhists in the . . Nirmana-kaya, and she is generally des- Sakti as Candali _ i ? cribed as the Candali. Thus it is said by Kanha-pada in one of his songs,—“ One is that lotus, sixty- four are the petals,—the Dombi climbs upon it and dances.”1 In the  Hevajra-tantra  we find, “The Candali burns in the navel and she burns the five Tathagatas and the goddesses like Locana and others, and when all is  burnt, the moon pours down the syllable  hum."'2  This Candali is the goddess Nairatma or Avadhutika or Prajna, 1   eka Sadhana and it s-eems a puzzle to us why Avadhfiti should represent dualism. His a«sertion that Bengal has always stood paiticularly for non dual knowledge does not also seem to be historical. 1 prathamam mar'icikdkdram dhumrakdram dvitiyakam   1 trtiyam kbadyotakdram caturtham dlpavaj jvalam    It paftcaman tu   s a4d-loam nirabhram gagana-sannibham   I Srbguhya-samdja-tantra,  Ch. XVIII. p. 164, (G. O. S.;. 126' OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS nature of the world, which at that time appears to the yogin to be as illusory as a mirage. When the illusory nature of the Dharmas is thus realised, there remains no appearance (  pratibhasa ) and, therefore, everything appears to be smoky, a mere illusory happening through the collocation of the causes and conditions like the origination of an elephant in magic; this dependent origination (pratitya-samutpada)  is the smoky nature of the world and hence is the second sign.' Again, as for the third sign it is said that as the firefly shines in the sky now and then for a single moment, so also in this stage perfect knowledge appears through the void-nature of the Dharmas like momentary flashes and hence is the appropriateness of the third sign. ' In the fourth stage knowledge becomes as  bright as a burning lamp and in the fifth or the final stage it  becomes like the clear blue mid-day sky of autumn, These signs are referred to also by the Sri-kala-calirct-tantrci ; ’but there as well as in the Sadahga  it is found that smoke is the first sign and mirage is the second.1 But what is the condition of the yogin when the Bodhi citta is produced and the ultimate realisation is obtained ? It is said in the Vyakta-bhavanugata-lattva-siddhi  ' that at 1  maya-gajadiva't) mayd gajah pratltya-samutapanno nihsVabhaVa iti visvam   eVa pratltya-samutpada-rupam dhumam pa&yatiiyarihah  I Com. on the  Marma-kalikd-lantro,  MS. {BN. Sans. No. 83), p. 45(B), 2    yatha khadyotah k.he  afca^e ^sanam ^sanam dyotate tathaiva ..............   bhavena sunyatdyam jfidna(m) yati    .......................   iti trllyam dhnam   I  Ibid.,  MS., p. 45 (B). C/. iunye dhumadi, etc.  MS. (Cambridge, Add. 1364) p. 33(B). dhumadlnam nimitta-grahanam api,  etc.,  Ibid.,  p. 110 (A). 1   Cf iunyad dhumo maricih prakota-vimala-khadyota eva pradlpah  I  Ibid   , MS, pp. 109(A)-110(A). Also Cf. tatra gurupadcscna prathamam yogi dhumam pasyati na mattcikdm iti  I Sadanga  quoted in the com. on the  Marma-kalikjd-iantra , MS, p 45'AK  •r»1he text is ascribed in the Subhdsila-sarngraha    (p 63) to Saraha pada, but we do not find mention of   the author anywhere in the MS. of the text we have at our disposal. PRACTICES AND SUPREME BLISS 127 that time all the senses are absorbed within, all thought- constructions are destroyed, all the seeds of existence ate annihilated ; it is full of lustre of bliss,—it is like the vacant sky and yet cool and congenial.1It is said elsewhere that at that stage it seems as if the senses are all asleep,— the mind enters within,—and the body completely absorbed in supreme bliss seems to be without any function.2In the Carya-padas we find many songs describing this ultimate state of perfection or the realisation of the Sahaja-nature in the form of Maha-sukha. Kanha-pada in a song compares himself, when absorbed in the Sahaja bliss, to an intoxicated elephant; like the elephant he has trampled down all the  posts of ‘ e ’ and ‘ vam  ’ or the moon and the sun and torn asunder all the various ties, and like the elephant under strong intoxication has entered the lake of the lotus and  become perfectly pacified there.' Mahidhara-pada says in a song that he has identified himself with the three wooden boards (i.e.,  the three kinds of bliss as belonging to the body, speech and mind), or, in other words, he has identified the bliss of the body with that of the speech and that again with that of the mind and finally identified all with the self,' and there follows a tremendous roar of the spon taneous  anaha  (  anahata)  sound ;—on hearing that sound the arch-enemy, Mara, and all the desires and afflictions of the body vanish away. The exhilarated elephant of Citta is marching on—and in the sky it is always rubbing the sun and  1 vinivistendriya-vargo nasta-vikalpah samapta-bhava-bljah   I anandahhamayo'sau{   ?) gagana-samo py adahah sHalah sVaduh    II Vyakia-bhavanugata-tattva siddhi,   MS (C. L. B. No. 13124), p. 89 (B). 2 indriyani svapantl'va mano’ntarvisatVva ca  I  nasta-cesta iva'bhati  fcaya/i  sat-sukha-murcchitah  II Quoted in the  Kriya-samgraha-pafijika,   MS. (BN. Sans. No. 31) p. 76 (B>; also in   the Com. on the Carya pada No. 1(Sastil a Edition). 3  kanhu vilasaa asava-mata  I  sahaja nilini-vana paist nivita.  II Carya-pada, Song No. 9. 4C/. Sri-guhya samaja  , Ch. II, p. 11 (G. O. S.), 12ft OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the moon (i.e., all principles of duality). Both vice an merit are destroyed, the chain is torn away—the posts trampled, and the sound of the sky is rising—the Citta enters into Nirvana. The Citta neglects all the three worlds, drinks the great liquor (of Maha-sukha) and revels in intoxi cation; thus he becomes the lord of the five objects, i.e.,  becomes the Vajra-sattva himself,—and no enemy is then to be found anywhere. In the scori hing heat of the rays (of Maha-sukha) he has entered the skirt of the sky. Mahl- dhara says, “When here I sink within—nothing is seen by me.” 1Bhusukapada says in a song," “ The clouds of com  passion are shining always after pressing down the duality of existence and non-existence. The wonderful has risen up in the sky,—behold, Bhusuka, the Sahaja-nature! On seeing and hearing it (i.e., the Sahaja-nature) all the senses are destroyed and the mind within revels in solitude.” ' As all darkness vanishes with the rise of the bright moon in the sky, so also all darkness of ignorance is removed through the rise of the Bodhi-citta and through the realisation of the Sahaja-bliss the ultimate reality underlying the objects is also realised. 1 Carya-pada, Song No. 16. 2 Ibid.,  Song No. 30.  3 The text is— nihure nia mana na de ulasa   II But the Commentary says,— nibhrtena nirtikalpakarena nijamanah bodhi    cittam vijra guroh prasadat sahajollasam dadati'ti   ISo in light of the Commenlaty    the leading of the text should be,— nihurc nia mana de ulasa   IIC/. also the Sanskrit   rendering of the Tibetan version of the line by Dr. Bagchi - riija-manasi ullavam dadati   II Materials for, ctc.,  p. 67. PART II THE MEDIAEVAL SAHAJIYA SCHOOLS CHAPTER V T he  V aisnava  S ahajiya  C ult   • * (i) Transition from Buddhist Sahajiya to VaisnaVa Sahajiya The Vaisnava Sahajiya movement of Bengal marks the evolution of the Buddhist Sahajiya cult in a different channel as strongly influenced by the love-religion of Bengal Vaisnavism. The Vaisnava Sahajiya cult has a considerable literature to its credit. As many as two hundred and fifty manuscripts of small texts containing the various doctrines and practices of the cult are preserved in the Manuscript Library of the Calcutta University and about an equal number of texts (many of them being common with those  preserved in the Manuscript Library of the Calcutta University)  belong to the Manuscript Library of the Vanglya Sahitya-  parisad. These texts, however, do not possess much intrinsic literary value and as such their contribution to Bengali literature would not have been of much importance but for the fact that they help us in the study of a large number of lyrical songs belonging both to the Sahajiya Vaisnava and the standard Vaisnava cults, both of which accepted the ideal of Paraklya love as contrasted with the ideal of Svalyya love in their doctrines.1 These love-lyrici, belonging to the province of Vaisnavism, . combine in them a genuine poetic vein General nature of ^, the cult and relation of an absorbing human interest with an  with standard Vais- . . , , nava religion and avowedly religious sentiment and as such 1era ure’they offer a good specimen of how far it may be possible for aesthetic sentiment and religious senti- 1 For the ideals of Svaklya and Paraklya see infra  ♦p. 144. 13Z OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS ment to combine in popular poetry. In the history of the Vaisnava literature of Bengal the most important factor is the ideal of Parakiya love; but whereas the ideal of Parakiya love was merely recognised as a theological speculation in standard Vaisnavism, it was accepted even in its practical  bearing by the Sahajiyas. In the history of Bengal Vaisnav ism there seems to have been a process of interaction  between the two sects—the practice of the Sahajiyas influencing to a great extent the ideal of the Vaisnava poets, and the ideal of the Vaisnavas in its turn influencing the  practices of the Sahajiyas. Though the story of the love- episodes of Candidasa, the greatest love-poet of Bengal, with the washer-woman, Rami, is still now shrouded in mystery and as such cannot be credited historically as sapplying proof of Candidasa himself being an exponent of the Sahajiya practice, yet we should remember that tradition always indicates possibility. Judging from the heaps of tradition centering round the figure of poet Candidasa and also from the number of Sahajiya poems ascribed to him, it will not b^ far out of the mark to hold that there might have been some truth in the tradition of Candidasa himself being a Sahajiya Sadhaka and that his practical culture of the divinisation of human love had supplied him with the deep inspiration that made him the immortal poet of the Radha- rCrsaa songs. The indebtedness of Sri-Caitanya to the love- lyrics of Jayadeva, Vidyapati and Candidasa is well-known through the Caitanya-caritamrta  (a standard biography of Caitanya) and the songs of some other poets; the inspiration derived from these songs was not negligible in moulding Caitanya’s ideal of divine love. Apart from the controversy over the religious view-point of Candidasa and its influence on Caitanya’s ideal of love, it may be held that the gensral history of the Vaisnava Sahajiya movement with its stress on Parakiya love was closely related to the general love* movement of Bengal; it is because of this close relation THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 133  between the two that the rich field of Bengali lyrics cannot  be fully and properly studied without a proper study of the Sahajiya religion and literature. The lyrics belonging to the Vaisnava Sahajiya school are generally ascribed to the well-known poet Candidasa and to some other poets like Vidyapati, Rupa, Sanatana, Vrndavana-dasa, Krsna-dasa Kaviraja, Narahari, Narottama, Locana, Caitanya-dasa and others, and the innumerable Sahajiya texts are also ascribed to their authorship. Such assignment, which was evidently made with a view to securing authoritative support from the great Vaisnava poets and thinkers for the unconventional practice of the Sahajiyas, need not be credited historically. In their zeal for propaganda these Sahajiyas have held all the great  poets like Jayadeva, Vidyapati, Candidasa and others, and the great Vaisnava apostles like Ropa, Sanatana, Svarupa Damodara, Jiva Gosvami and others to be the exponents of Sahajiya practice. Even Sri-Caitanya himself has been held by some of the Sahajiyas as having practised Sahaja Sadhana with female companions and attained perlection through it,1as lord Buddha was held by the Buddhist Sahajiyas as having practised Sahaja Sadhana in company of his consort Gopa. It seems, however, that almost all 1 II is curiously held by a section of the Sahajiyas that Caitanya practised Sah it ja Sadhana in company of Sathi, daughter of Sarvabhauma, and it was because of this fact thnt the mother of Sathi once said that she would have her daughter a  widow. (C/. Caitanya-raritamrta  , Madhya-llla   ;  Ch XV). The Sahajiyas hold that all the great Vaisnava apostles of standard Vaisnavism practised Sahaja Sadhana  with some female companion. Thus it is said in the Vivarta-vilasa    of Akincana-dasa — sri rtip k^rila sadhana mirar salute   I hhatta raghu-nath kada k.arn-bdi saihe   ii/a^smr   htra sane k.arila gomsai sanatan   I mahamanira premc. seVa sada acaran   II gosani    lokanath candalinl-kanya sange   I doha jan anurag premer tarahgc   II goyalirii pihgala    se braja dev'i sama   I gasani kfWa-das sadai acarana   'I syamd napitdnlr sahgc Srhjiv    gom8di   I parama se bhav   ^ai/a yar sima nai   II raghu-nath gosoami plriti ullase   I mira-bai sange teha radha kunda-hase   II gaur-priya sahgc gopdl-bhafta gomsai    I karaye sadhan anya kichu nai   II ray ramananda yaje deva-konya sahge    I aropcte    sthiti teha kjiyar tarahgc    II Yahga sahitya-paricaya,    Vol. II, p. 1650. 134' OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the songs (including the enigmatic songs ascribed to Candi- dasa well-known as the  Ragatmik.a Padas)  and the texts were composed by the exponents of the Sahajiya cult in the  post-Caitanya period, and mostly in or after the seventeenth century A.D. We have hinted on several occasions that the secret , yogic practices, round which grew the 1 he fundamental o l •• tenet of the   Sahajiyas  paraphernalia of the different Sahajiya and its relation with - . . . - i n l 1 1   • Tantricism, Hindu and cults, belong neither strictly to the Buddhist Buddhist. exclusively lo the Hindu fold; they are essentially yogic practices, which by their association with different theological systems, either Buddhist or Hindu, have given rise to different religious cults. The most impor tant of the secret practices is the yogic control of the sex-  pleasure so as to transform it into transcendental bliss, which is at the same time conducive to the health both of the  body and the mind. This yogic practice with its accessories,  being associated with the philosophy of Siva and Sakti, stands at the centre of the net-work of the Hindu Tantric systems, and when associated with the speculations on Prajna and Upaya of later Buddhism, has given rise to the Tantric Buddhist cults including the Buddhist Sahajiya system; and again, when associated with the speculations on Krsna and Radha conceived as Rasa and Rati in Bengal Vaisnavism, the same yogic practice and discipline has been responsible for the growth and development of the Vaisnava Sahajiya movement of Bengal. It will, therefore, be incorrect to say, as has really been said by some scholars, that the Vaisnava Sahajiya movement of Bengal is a purely post- Caitanya movement having no relation whatsoever with the earlier Buddhist Sahajiyas and that the two cults are distinct fundamentally. A close study of the literature of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas will leave no room for doubting the clear fact that it records nothing but the spirit and practices of the earlier Buddhist and Hindu Tantric cults, of course in a distinctly THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 135 transformed form wrought through the evolution of centuries in different religious and cultural environments. The psycho-  physiological yogic processes, frequently referred to in the lyrical songs of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas and also in the innumerable short and long texts, embodying the doctrines of the cult, are fundamentally the same as are found in the Hindu Tantras as well as in the Buddhist Tantras and the Buddhist songs and Dohas. There are sometimes discre  pancies only in details and differences more often pertain to terminology and phraseology than to conception.1 1 We may point out here that in the literature of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas we find reference not only to the sexo-yogic practices of the Tantrics, but also to the important yogic practice of drinking the nectai cozing from the moon situated beneath the lotus of SahasrSra, which practice was emphasised by the Ngtha-yogins (vide  infra  , Ch. IX.) Cj.  : — candra uday hailv sudhamrta k?ore   I pite na paiya cakpr pipasate mare   II * **# sahasra-dal hay mastak bhitarc   I aksay namete tatha achc sarovare   I! iidar bhitar ache mana sarovare   I tatha haitc phul gcla sahasra-dal upare   !!   urddhva-mukhe adho mul^he haiya nasar   I sarva-kal mul bastu achc tar bhitar   !l ctc. Ananda-bhairava, vide Sahajiya-sahiiya   (edited by M. M. Bo&e, M.A., pp.   132-133.)  Again, haile saday ivala-jvalan nay  bisamrta ache tatha   I bis mdre gay amrte jiyay  ck,i adbhut k.atha   II Amrta-rasaVall, Ibid  , p. 163. Cj.  also:— cander koche avala yc ache  sei ye raseri sar   II bisete amfte milan ek.atre  kc bujhe marama tar   f|  Ragatmika Pada,   ascribed to Candidisa (No 16 of Bose’s edition). These principles of bisa poison) and amrta   ^nectar), which represent the principles   of the Sun and the Moon of the yogins (vide injra,  Ch. IX.) were transformed by the    Vaisnava Sahajiyfis into the principles of koma   (carnal desire) and prema   (pure love). Cj. bis kheye yeva jarite pare   I sei se sadhak ragete tare   II sSdhane sadhak pakvita nay   I bis khele seho nai bacay   II bisete qmrte   e^tir hay   1  jari kafe amrtamay   II Vide Sj.  5., Song: No. 8?. 136 . OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS It is very interesting to note in this connection that like some of the texts of the Sahajiya Buddhists some of the Bengali texts on Sahajiya Vaisnavism, composed some time  between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries, are introduced in the form of a dialogue between Siva 'and Sakti, who are depicted as discussing the secrets of the Vaisnava Sahajiya Sadhana,1and in the  Ananda-bhairava   it is hinted that Hara or Siva himself practised this Sahaja Sadhana in the company of the different Saktis in the country of the Kucnls (women belonging to the Koc tribe).“ We have discussed before at length the salient features The general fenture of the Buddhist Sahajiya cult and litera- ture. The Vaisnava Sahajiyas, like other Buddhist Sahajiyas mediaeval schools who were Sahajiyas in a broader sense, and of whom we shall speak in detail in the next chapter, harped on the same string. But we have seen that the angle of vision from which the different schools of Indian religious thought criticised one another was different. Consequently, whereas the criticism of the Buddhist Sahajiyas represents an admixture of the spirit of Buddhism, Vedanta, Tantra and Yoga, the criticism of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas is marked by a dominating spirit of love, which is the watchword of their Sadhana, although, however, the lurking influence of Yoga and Tantra is not altogether missing. The Buddhist Sahajiyas, we have seen, inherited from the Yogic and Tantric schools in general the spirit that all truth underlying the universe as a whole is contained in the microcosm of the human  body; this belief, we shall presently see, was brought 1 See  A gama-grantha   and  Ananda-bhairava   edited by Mr. M. M. Bose in   Sj. S.  ; see also the bibliography of seventy-nine Sahajiya texts with short notes cn   them by Mr. M. M. Bose in a pamphlet reprinted from the J. D. L.,  Vol XVI. 2 ek. ek gune k^ila ekek prakt  ** I harake bhajaye save bhaV upapaii  II iakti jane rasa-tattva dr jane fanfare  I sahaj bastu asvadila kucani nagare  II The dalliances of Siva with the Kucnls it very well known in the Sivdyanas   of Bengali   literature and there are also Puranic episodes with them.  by the Vaisnava Sahajiyas to a deeper significance, which inspired them to declare to the world abroad, 4‘ Hearken men, my brothers,—man is the truth above all truths,—there is nothing above that.”1Again, the same spirit of Guru- vada that characterises the songs, Dohas and other Sanskritic texts of the Buddhist Sahajiyas as also the literature of the mediaeval saints, characterises also the songs and other texts of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas.”Again, as many of the Buddhist Siddhacaryas and mediaeval saints employed an extremely enigmatic and paradoxical style in their songs in describing the secrets of their Sadhana, so also it was the custom with the Vaisnava Sahajiyas to couch the secrets of their cult under a similar enigmatic style. Many of the songs ascribed to Candidasa are good specimens of such an enigmatic style. Thus it is clear that in spirit as well as in literary representation the relation between the Buddhist Sahajiyas and the Vaisnava Sahajiyas clearly shows an easy gliding from the one to the other. Historically it seems that the fail of the Pala dynasty of Bengal marked also the fall of Buddhism causeof’fhe transition' in the province and that there was something like a Hindu revival during the reign of the Senas, who succeeded the Palas. Vaisnavism,  based mainly on the love-dalliances of the cowherd Krsna with the cowherd girl Radha, began to gain popularity during the reign of the Senas and the first Bengali Vaisnava  poet to sing the sweet immortal songs of Radha-Krsna was Jayadeva, who is said to have been the court-poet of the last Sena King Laksmanasena in the last half of the 1 iuna he maniif hhat   I saVar upare manus satya  iShar upare nai   II Song ascribed to Candidasa. 2 Vide   the songs on Guru collected in threpresent the original concrete type of the Lrl« is concrete. two aspects of the nature of the absolute as the lover and the beloved having their eternal dalliances in the supra-natural land of Vrndavana.1The historical personages of Radha and Krsna as the cowherd boy and the cowherd girl in the geographical area of Vrndavana are but the temporal manifestation of the eternal type, a condescension of the supra-natural in the natural form so as to help man to understand the eternal in terms of the temporal.2The Vaisnava poets sang of the historical Iove-episodes of Radha and Krsna with the belief that corresponding to these love- episodes on earth there are the eternal love-episodes of Radha- Krsna in the  Aprafyta  or supra-natural Vrndavana and the historical episodes will enable them to form an idea of and to have a peep into the eternal episodes, the realisation of which is the summum bonum  of the spiritual life. THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 147 • • 1   Cj . sekh&ne hay k  * 11   rxitya r5s hay  II niiya mahotsav hay  II etc.  Deha-kodaca  by Narottam, B. S. P. P., Vol. IV, No. I. Again, radhH-kfffla rasa-prem  efeut se hay  I niiya niiya dhvamsa nai nitya birajay  II Sahaja-upasanS-tattva  by Tarunl*raman, B. S. P. P., B. S. 1335, No. 4. Again, nitya~hla  fcf?ner nShikfl parapar   I aviiram bahe lild. yena gangS dhSr   II Siddh&nta-candrodaya   of Mukunda-dSs, (Published by ManTndra-nandl, p. 58; See also, pp. 58*64). nija-iakti irt-rsdhikfi laM nanda-suta  I bfndavane nitya-lilii kjaraye adbhuta  H  Ibid.,    p. 9K se krsna radhikjar haycn  prana-pati  I radha saha nitya“hla   fcore diva rati  II  Ibid. 8  Vide,  Rati vilaia-paddhati,  MS. (C. U., 572). 148 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS We have seen that the religious approach of SrI-Caitanya, as depicted by Krsnadas Kaviraj in his work, the Caitanya-   caritamrta,  was somewhat different from that of the Vaisnava  poets. The post-Caitanya Vaisnava poets stuck mainly to the tradition of the pre-Caitanya Vaisnava poets in their  poetic treatment of the love-episodes of Radha and Krsna and the Vaisnava Sahajiyas received their philosophy of Radha- Krsna from these Vaisnava poets. The Sahajiyas believed in the eternal dalliances of Radha-Krsna in the highest spiri tual land,—but they further held that the eternal concrete , spiritual type manifested itself not only  Adoption of  the  . . , ' theory of Lila in the in the historical personages of Radha and  Sahajiya school—the fyr 1   1  • 1  • ir • i Sarupa-lils and the Krsna, but that it reveals itself m actual Rupa-lils. i it ri men and women themselves. Lvery man has within him the spiritual essence of Krsna, which is his Svarupa (real nature) associated with his lower existence, which is his physical form or Rupa, and exactly in the same way every woman possesses within her a lower self associated with her physical existence, which is her Rupa,—but within this Rupa resides the Svarupa of the woman, which is her ultimate nature as Radha. It is none but Krsna and Radha who reside within men and women, and it is this Krsna and this Radha that are making dalliances as men and women.1 These rupa-hla  and svarupa-lila  of Radha-Krsna have also been explained as the  prarta-lila  and aprakrta-iila (i.e.,  sports in the natural plane and the supra-natural plane).2This view of holding men and women to be nothing but physical manifesta tion of Radha and Krsna seems to have been inherited by the 1 prakata haite jadi kabhu mane hay   I , rupaVesa hayia tave lild asVaday    II sarva para-rasa-tattva k.ariya ah ay    I rasamay deha dhari ras dsvaday    II  Doipako-jjvala *MS. (C. U. No. 564), P. 13(A) Again  ,—manufya svarupe hare kautuk<* bihur   II Campaka-kohkS,  B.S.P.P., B.S. 1307, No. I. ®See  Rati-vilasa-paddhati,  &1S. (C. U. No. 572), pp. 3(A)-3lBj. Vaisnava Sahajiyas from the earlier Tantric philosophy. In the Hindu Tantras, we have seen, all men and women have been held to be nothing but the incarnations of Siva and Sakti manifested in the physical form,—and in the Buddhist philosophy they have been spoken of as the embodiment of Upaya and Prajna respectively, and this  philosophy has most probably influenced the Vaisnava Sahajiyas in their belief of men and women being Krsna and Radha in their Svarupa. We have pointed out before that many of the Vaisnava Sahajiya texts are introduced in the form of the earlier Agamas and  Nigamas, and in these texts Krsna and Radha have always  been explained as nothing but the different forms of Siva and Sakti, and we have also pointed out that Siva has sometimes been described as practising the Sahaja Sadhana with Sakti as Krsna with Radha. Even in a popular Vaisnava text like the  Brahma-samhita,   which was brought by Sri-Caitanya himself from South India, the Tantric influence on Vaisnavism is palpable. In the fifth chapter (which only is available now-a-days) of the  Brahma-samhita  we find that the lotus of thousand petals in the cerebrum-region is described as Gokula, the abode of Krsna. Within the lotus we find description also of the Tantric  yanira  (the physiological machinery through which truth is to be realised) as also of the laa  (the wedge, the support). Siva of the nature of the linga  (the symbol of the male productive energy) is described as ~the Lord  Narayana and Sakti of the nature of the  yoni  (the symbol of the female productive energy) is described as Rama Dev! (the consort of Narayana).1Again it has been said in the Sri-haya-s'irsa-pancaratra,  “Hari (the saviour) as the Para na atman is the Lord, Sri is called his power (satyi ); goddess Sri is the Prakrti and Kesava is the Purusa ; the goddess can never be without Visnu and Hari (Visnu) cannot be without 1  See  Brahma-sarphita , Ch. V, verses (2-10). (Baharampur edition) THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 149 « * ISO OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the goddess, born in the lotus.1It has also been said in the Visnu-purana ,—“The mother of the world is eternal and she remains inseparable with Visnu; as Visnu is all-  permeating so also is she.”2 It is very interesting to note in this connection that there is a small poetical work, entitled Sadhaka-ranjana ,8by Kamala-kanta (who flourished in the first half of the nineteenth century) where the yogic Kula-kundalinf Sakti has been conceived exactly in the image of Radha; she is described in exactly the same way with the same imageries and even in the same diction as Radha is described in the Vaisnava literature. The rise of the Sakti to meet Siva in the Sahasrara has been sung as the coming out of Radha to meet her beloved in private.4The philosophical 1  paramatma harir devas tac chaktih &rtr ihodita  I Srlr devt prakftih prokta ke&avah purusah smrtah  II na vi$nuna vina dev i na batik padmajam vina   11 Quoted in the  Bhagavat-sandarbha   of the Saf-sandarbha   of Jlva GosvSml. 2   nityaiva   sa  jagan-mata   Oisno/i £rtr anapayint    I  yathU sarva-gato visnus tathaiveyam dvijottama  II Cj,  also ;  —aparam tv ak$aram ya sa prakrtir jada-rupika   I irih para prahjtih prokta cetana vi§nu~samiraya  II Quoted in the  Bhagavat-sandarbha. 3  Edited jointly by Messrs. Basanta Ranjan Ray and Atal Bihari Ghosh. Sfihitya parisad-granthavali, No. 71. *We are quoting here a few specimens :—  gaja-patvnindita gati avilambe   I kuncita ke&a niveia nitambe   II c aru car ana gati abharana-Vfnde   I nakhara-mukura-kara himakara ninde   H urasi sarasi-ruha hama   I kari-kara iikhara nitambini rama   II mfga-paii dura iikhara-mukha cay a   i kap-tafa kfina *ucaficala, bay a   I   nab hi gabhira niraja-bihSra   I ??at btkaca   ^ama/a*^aca bhara   II baha-lat& alase sakhi ange   I dolita deha suncha tar ange   If  Bumadhura hasa prakaiai b&la   I balatapa-ruci nayana biiala   II tbncepts of the pairs Siva-Sakti and Kf§na-Radha were generally confused; and as a matter of fact Purusa-Prakrti, Siva-Sakti and Krsna-Radha mean all the same in popular theology. This fact has helped the development of the theological  belief in the Vaisnava Sahajiya school that men and women are but the Rupa of the Svarupa as Krsna and Radha. But the important point to be remembered in this connection is that while in the Sahajiya Sadhana the Krsnahood of man Has  been admitted, it has never been admitted in the Standard Vaisnava school under any circumstances. According to the Vaisnava Sahajiyas the region of Three aspects of Vm- Sahaja is an ideal transcendental region »”d il is generally styled as (he‘landof and Nitya-Vrndivana. eternity' {nityer desa )—this is the Nitya- Vrndavana or the eternal Vrndavana as contrasted with the other two kinds of Vrndavana, viz.,  Mana-Vrndavana and Nava-Vrndavana or Vana-Vrndavana. By Nava- Vrndavana the Sahajiyas refer to the geographical Vrndavana, and by Mana-Vrndavana the Vrndavana of the mental  plane of the Sadhaka, and the Nitya-Vrndavana- transcends  both. In this Nitya-Vrndavana (also called the gupta-candra-  ratana-vedi para sura-taru-mula   I  manimaya mandira iahi anukpla   II  sahacari sang a praveiai narl    I  kamaldkonta heri balihari   il Sadhaha-ranjana , pp. 3*4.  Again,—  kadamva kusuma janu Batata sihare tana  yadavadhi nirafyhilam tare   I  jadi pa&arite cat apana pasari jai  ena dukha kflhiva kflhdre   II  sei se jlvana mor rasikera mana-cor ramant raser Biromani  I    parihari loka-laje rakhiva hjrday majhe na chsdiva divasa-rajant   II hena anumani tare bandht hfdi kjardgare nayana pahari diye rak.hi, 1 v^  kamint kariye ctiri hfdaya paHjare pari  ..  animekhe  etc.,  Ibid. p. t H e   vaisnava   sahajiya   c I  jlt  I5l OBSCURE fcELIGIOUS CULTS  pura)  resides Sahaja of the nature of pure love whic& flows between Radha and Krsna in and through their  eternal dalliances. This Sahaja as the Supreme Delight is the ultimate substance underlying the whole world1and it can never be realised as such in the gross material world of ours.2But how should then men and women of this world attain Sahaja ? It is said in reply that there is a  pafcsage or transition from this world to the other,  —or rather this gross world can itself be transformed into the Nitya-Vrndavana by the process of spiritual culture, and the principle of nescience, which is responsible for the grossness of the world can thus be removed. This removal of the fundamental principle of nescience and of the principle of grossness with it through a process of  continual psychological discipline, is the primary requisite for Sahaja Sadhana,—and when this is ■JETJ1' « U revealed to the Ssdhaka that the difference between this world and that is more imaginary than real. At that moment there remains no distinction between our physical existence Again,— cancala capala jiniye prahald abald mrdu madhu hase  I sumani unmani laiye sahgin'i dhaila brahma-nivase  II unmata-be$a bigalita-ke$a manimaya abharana saje  I timira binaii bcge dhay rupasl jhunu jhunu nupura baje  II  jati  £u/a naiiye up an it a asiye amrta sarovara tire  I  prema-bhare ramani sihare pulake tanu manda samlre  II ** *# « kcli samapana kflrninir a gam an a harapura cidi saroje  I kula-patha bhediye muladhare asiye punarapi ramani biraje  II badana prakate &a£adhara barise bilasai purahara ahge  I kamalakanta heri mukha-mandala bhasai prema-tarohge  II  Ibid.,  p. 34. 1   rasa bai bastu nai e tina bhuVane  II Sj. S. Song, No. 59. » C/. sahaj kjathati ye jana jane  I dvigun bhay tahari mane  II bhayer katha k.ahiva  feare Ie^a/a bamcile jagat mare  II  jagat bamoile ami se mari  I  jagat dubile Smi se tari  II  Amrta-rasavali,  Sj, S. P. 161-  Hettjagat   means the changing gross reality. And our spiritual existence.1It has been said in a poem ascribed to Candidas, ’‘Great is the difference between this world and that,—this is the truth known to all ordinary  people; but there is a way of transition from the one to the other,—don’t speak of it to any one else.”2 We have seen that Sahaja as the absolute reality of the nature of pure love involves within sJS. 'curren“ in it two factors, i.e.,  the enjoyer and the enjoyed, represented in^ the Nitya-Vrnda vana by Krsna and Radha. These principles of the enjoyer and the enjoyed are known in the Sahajiya school as the Purusa and the Prakrti, manifested on earth as the male and the female.8It has been said in a song (ascribed to Candidas)—“There are two currents in the lake of love, which can be realised only by the  RasiJ^as  (i.e., people versed in Rasa). When the two currents remain united  * iri-rup sVarup hay sVarup £ri-rup   I!  Ratna-sara,   MS. lC. U. 1 1 1 1 ), p. 18(B). * se de&e    e de§e anek antar   janaye sakal loke   I se deie e deie mi&ami&i ache  e katha koya na   feafee II Sj. S. Song No. 84. * paramatmar dui nama dhare dui rup   I eimate ek hayya dharaye svarup   II tahe dui hhed hay puru$ prakrti   I uakaler mul hay sei rasa-murati   II THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 153  paramdtma purus prakrti dui rup  | sahasra~dale has   feare raser svarup   II  Ratna-sara,   MS. (C.U.  No. 1 1 1 1 ), p. 32(B). Again C/. rasa asvadan Idgi haila dui murtti  I ei hetu kl§na hay puru$ prakrti  II  prakfti na haile kxwa seVa-janya nay  I ci hetu prakfti-bhav karaye Stray  II  Dvipakojjvala-grantha,   MS. (C. U.  No. 564), pp. UB)-2(A>, Also, — ek brahma jakjhan dvitiya nahi ar   I sei kale suni isVar karen vicar   II apurvva raser chesfa apurVVa k<*ran  I kemane haive ihs   fearen bhctvan   It 20-141 IB 154 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS together in one, the  Rasi^a  realises the truth of union.”1 Through man and woman flow these two currents of love,—man and woman are, therefore, the gross manifesta tions of the same principles of which Krsna and Radha are the pure spiritual representations. Man and woman,' in pther words, are manifestations on earth of the eternal types that are enjoying each other in their eternal Vrndavana, and the bliss of intense love that is enjoyed by man and  woman through their mutual attachment Krsna and Radha as Rasa and Rati and the even in the physical body is but a gross male and the female. - . 1   1 transformation or the eternal purest love that exists only in Vrndavana. Man and’woman as the representa tives of the two flows of love are known in the Sahajiya literature as Rasa (the ultimate emotion as the enjoyer) and Rati (i.e., the object of Rasa), or as Kama (the lover that attracts towards him the beloved) and Madana (the exciting cause bhavite bhavite ek uday haila  I manete ananda haiya bibhvol haila  II ardha anga haite ami prakrti haiva  I amiirxi radhikfl nam tahar haiva  II apani raser murtti kariva dharan  I rasa asvadiva ami kflriyajatan  II  Ibid.,  pp. 11 (B)- 12(A). {Cj Brhad-aranyaka,  1,4, 1-3.)  Again, ei  ye aahaj-bastu sahaj tar gati  I narl puruf rupe satata bihare  (I Prema-vilSsa   of Yugal-ICiior Das. Vide, Vanga-sahitya-paricay , Vol. II, p. 1662. Again, sei rupete kure kufijete bihar   I sei krsna ei radha   efeui akar   II radha haite nirakar raser svarup  I ataev dui rup hay ek rup  II  Radha-rasa-karika , Vide VangasShitya-paricay , Vol. Ill, p. 1671.  prema-sarovare duifi dhara  I asVadan   feare rasik vara  II dui dhara yakhan ekatre thake  I takhan ra»ik yugal dekhe  II Songs of Caddis, of love in the lover).’ In standard Vaisnavism also Krsna is known as Kama or Kandarpa, as he attracts the mind of all creatures towards Him,—while Radha is Madana or the object that renders pleasure to the enjoyer. Sahaja is the emotion of the purest love flowing between Rasa and Rati or Kama and Madana. For the realisation of this Sahaja-nature, therefore, a particular pair of man and woman should first of all realise their true self as Rasa and Rati or Krsna and Radha,—and it is only when such a realisation is perfect that they become entitled to realise the Sahaja through their intense mutual love. This realisation of the true nature of man as Krsna and that of woman as Radha is technically known as the principle of aropa  or the attribution of divinity to man. Through continual psychological discipline man and woman must first of all completely forget their lower animal-selves and attribute Krsnahood to man and Radhahood to woman. Through this process of attribution there will gradually dawn the realisation of the true nature of the two as Krsna and Radha. When man and woman can thus realise themselves as Krsna and Radha in their true nature, the love that exists between them transcends the category of gross sensuality,—it becomes love divine, and the realisation of such an emotion of love is realisation of the Sahaja. 1 Cf.  paraapar nayak nayikfi   anariga rati   I satasiddha bhave hay brajete basati  (I  Rati-vilasa-paddhati,  MS. (C. U. No. 572*, p. 12(A) Again;— ratir svarup Sri-radhityoi sundari  I kfltner ciita akariay ruper lahari  II  Ragamayi~kona,  MS. (C. U. No. 5b 1) p. 8 (B). Again,—  jay jay sarvvsdt bastu rasa-raj  (am I  jay jay aarvva-iresfha rasa nitya dham  II  praktto aprakfta ar maha aprakfte  I  bihar koricha tumi nij aveccha mate   II  avayarjt  (3m  nitya vastu rasa ratimaya  I  prakfta aprakfta adi tumi mahairay  II cfea Vastu puruf prakfti  rfi  p haiya  ( vilaaaha bahu^rup dhcri dui kaya  (I , etc, Sahaia-upaaana-tattva of   Tarunl-raman, B. S. P. P., B. S. 1335, No. 4. THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 155 •  • 156 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (B) The Theory of Aropa The above, in a nut-shell, is the fundamental basis of the religious creed of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas expressed in their lyrical poems and other prose and poetical works. The principle of Aropa is the most important in the process of Sahaja Sadhana.1We have seen that the Sahajiyas have spoken of two aspects of man, viz.,  the aspect of physical existence which is the Rupa and the aspect of spiritual existence (as Krsna or  RA,op.°f SvarOpa ,o Rgdh_ ag thc case may fee) which £   {he Svarupa (i.e.,  true spiritual self). This SvarOpa must be attributed to and realised in the Rupa to attain any kind of spiritual gain.2But this Aropa of Svarupa to Rapa does not mean the negation of the Rupa; it is rather the act of imbuing every atom of the Rupa with the Svarupa. The Sahajiyas are deadly against the  principle of denying the value of life on earth and  undervaluing our human love. The gross physical form with all its charm and beauty is as real as our spiritual existence, for it is this chaim of physical beauty,—the maddening passion, which we call human love, that leads us gradually to a new region where we can find a glimpse 1   Cf. chaji jap tap sadhaha drop ekata k^riyU mane  I Rsggtmika songs, ascribed to Candidas, Mr. Eose’s edition. Song No. 1. * Cf. sVarSpe drop yar rasik nagar tar  prapti have madana-mohan   I * »#* se deSer rajakint hay raser adhikari  radhikd-sVarup tar pran   I tumi-ta ramaner guru seha raser kolpa-taru  tar sane d&s a b hi man   II Ibid,  Song. No. 5. of divine love. The spiritual existence of man in divine love does not mean the negation of human love,—:it is this human love, beginning in the form of carnal desires and progressing gradually through a process of continual physical and  psychological discipline towards an emotion of supreme  No categorical dis- bliss, boundless and unfathomable in extent “d depth, that itself becomes the love lov<5, divine—the highest spiritual gain. There is no categorical distinction in kind between human love and divine love ;—it is human love, transformed by strict  physical and psychological discipline, that becomes divine. Divine love is rather an emergence from the carnal desires of man as the full-blown lotus, with, all its beauty and grandeur above the surface of water, is an emergence from the mud lying much below. Here there is a difference of outlook among the Sahajiyas and the standard Vaisnavas of Bengal. Krsnadas Kaviraj has unambiguously declared in the Caitanya-   Caritamrta  that kama  (love in its grosser aspect) and  prema   (divine love) are characteristically distinct in their nature like iron and gold, and while the keynote of tyima  is the fulfilment of selfish desires, the keynote of  prema  is self elimination and the fulfilment of the divine desires in and through our whole being. But the Sahajiyas, while agreeing to the latter part of the statement, do not agree to the former  part of it. The same flow of emotion, they hold, that  becomes kama  in association with the selfish desires, trans forms itself into  prema  when dissociated from such desires through physical and psychological discipline. Prema  is  but the purified form of  ama,  and as such the former has its origin in the latter.1There cannot be  prema  without 1    seita ujjal rahe rase dhakfl ahga  I fefim haite jarmme prem nahe kGma-    sanga  II lauhakfi kjaraye sona lauha parasiyS  I taiche kam haite prem dekha   bicSria  II  paraset gun irista (iretfa, sic) tahe lauha hem  ! hfirrxer kafhin gun    parante prem  II  fama-bastu candra-kantt paras pSthar  I  prema-baaiu sukhamay THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT , 157 • • 158' OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS k.Gma,  &nd hence,  pretna  cannot be .Attained through the absolute negation of  I^ama  ; it is to be attained rather through the transformation of kama.  The  prema  of the Sahajiyas is not the emotion of the most intense devotion of man towards God,—it is the most intense emotion of love existing between Krsna and Radha residing as the Svarupa in the Rupa of every man and woman. It is from this point of view that Candidas exclaimed,—“Harken men, my brothers, man is the truth above all truths,—there is nothing above that.” In another song of the Sahajiyas we find,—Humanity is the essence of divinity,—and man becomes God in the strength of his love; man is the highest in the world, for it is only he who revels in supreme love.1The religion of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas was thus a religion of humanity. The Sahajiyas have no gods or God other than man. Even Radha and Krsna are never regarded as deities to be worshipped,—they represent principles to be realised in humanity. Humanity itself is thus viewed from a sublime perspective. What is then the real significance of the Aropa of  the Sahajiyas ? It is nothing but viewing our whole being in all its physical, biological and psychological aspects from an ontological point of view. And when everything is thus viewed from the ontological perspective, human love acquires an ontological significance. This act of  Real significance of u ... r ■ 1   1 Aropa,—a change of viewing all the gross realities or body and   perspective. mind from the perspective of the eternal is what is meant by. the mixing up of the Rupa and the  AtrmaJ  bhstkar  II  agnir bhitare lauha thskaye jioat  I  hemer tadfti bastu thakaye   tfiuat II  agni-tej sukhaile puna lauha hay  I ei mate  (am  prem janiha ni&cay  II  Ratna-sara,  MS. (C.U. No. 1111), p. 32(B).  manus dever  I  yar prem jagate pracar  II  jagater iretfha manuf ydre bali  I  prcma-ptriti-rase manu?  (are (e/i II Sj. S. Song No.  27, Svarupa.1When such an understanding dawns on man there remains to him no difference between the Rupa and the Svarupa.* The Svarupa remains in the Rflpa just like the scent of a flower permeating every atom of it. It is said in-a song,— “ Many speak of Svarupa,—but it is not the gross reality (of our sense perception) ............. It is of the nature of the scent of the lotus. Who is the man capable of knowing it ? ....... If one worships this Svarupa, one will be able to discover the ‘ real man *;—but without the Aropa one is bound to go to hell.”3As the Svarupa permeates the Rupa, it is to be realised  1  rupete svarupe dui eku kari  miial kariya thuve  II Sj. S. Song No. 32.  Again,  svarup rupete ekatra kjariyH   miial kariya thuve  I  sei se ratite ekanta karile  tave se irbmatl pave  II  Ibid,  Song No. 42.  arope svarup hhajite parile  paive fri-mafi radha  II  Ibid,  Song No. 66.  Again, e  rati e rati ekatra kariya  sekhane se rati thuve  |  rati rati duhe ekatra karile  sekhane dekhite pave  II  svarupe arop ei rasa-kup  sakal sadhan para  I  svarup bujhiya sadhana karile  sadhak haite para  II etc.  Ibid  , Song No. 57. *  aropiya rup haiya svarup  kabhu n8 basio bhinna  II  Ibid,  Song No. 26. S  svarup svarup anefe kay  I  j'wa-lok kabhu svarup nay  II • * • *  padma-gandha hay tdhar gati  I  tahare cinite kar iakati  li • * * *  svarup bhajile manus pave  I  arop chatfil* narahfi yaVe  II  Ibid,  Song No. 68. THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULf 159 • • i60 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS through the Rupa.' It is said in the  Ratna-sara  that one can attain the supra-natural land of Vraja, only by loving and worshipping the human form.2Man realises his ultimate nature as the pure emotion of love through his most beloved  sweetheart.® Man cannot realise his love- The importance of # Ropa in realising Sva- nature without being in relation to his rupBsweetheart, it is through the touch of the sweetheart that the lamp is lit within. It is said in a poem of Candidas that man by himself can never realise his own grace and loveliness,—it is for this reason that there is a continual burning within ; he ponders -within, but himself does not know what his heart wants and what makes him so uneasy! The inward longing is fort the beloved,  —without whom there is the burning sensation in the heart that makes a man dead while living. This death in love is the most covetable death,—and he who knows the real nature of this death accords to it the most hearty reception, and he is the only man who really lives through his death in love.4Through their terresirial love man and woman proceed towards their divine 1 parakja bhave ati raser ulyas   | braja bine ihar anyatra nahe has   I) iha jani    kara §aVe kayih. bhajan   I Sri-rup airaye ara rasa asVadan   li  Ratna-sara , MS. (C.U. 11ll). 18(B).  Again,  aiche hriya siddhi pai rupairita dharma  I Vivartta-vilasa oi  Akincana D 59 , Vanga sahitya-pari cay,  Vol. II, p. 1651. *  manuf bigraha bhaji braja prapti have  I MS. (C.U. Hit), P. 55(B). * radha-krma-prapti nahe anugata bine   I  Radha-rasa-karikfl, Vanga sahitya-paricay>  Vol. II, p. 1668.  4 Span madhurt dekhite na pai  sadai antar jvale  I  a pan a Spani karaye bhavani  ki haila ki haila bale  [I  manus abhaVe mana mariciya  tarase achad h]hay   I Schad khaiya *kare chaf-phaf   ftyante mariyS yay  II love,1—through the love of body arises in man and woman Piire love between their inner selves as Krsna and Radha*2 It is for this reason that it has been said in a song that the  beloved is the pitcher to fetch water in from the lake of love. Again it has been said that as milk does not thicken without  being boiled over the fire, so also the love of man does not  become intense enough to be transformed into divine love without the woman of his heart, who serves as the oven to  boil and thicken love.8 (C) The Stringency of Sahaja-SadhanS As love with Aropa leads one to Vrndavana, love of the Rupa without the Aropa of the Svarupa leads one nowhere but to hell.4The Sahaja-sadhaka must not be an ordinary man  —the samanya manus  who lives within the province of   tahar maran jane kon jan  keman maran sei  I  ye jan janaye sei se jiyaye  maran bafiya lei  II  Ragatmika Pada,  Mr. Bose’s edition, Song No. 14. *  prakrta manus deha Sarvva mul hay  !  aprakrta bastu sei dehete harttay  II Nameless MS. (C.V.  No. 596), p. 7.  Again,  sei deha rati jaya kfsnete barttay  I  krame krame rati iola-dna hay  i|  Ibid  , p. 11. * Cf. raser kflrane rasika rasik  kayadi ghatane ras  I  rasik. karan rasika hoyata  yahate prema-bilas  II  sthulata puruse k<*ma suk?ma gati  sthulata prakrti rati  I  duhuka ghatane se ras hoyata eve tahe nahi gati  II  Rdgdtmika Pada,  Mr. Bose's edition, Song No. 13. 3  agni-kunda bine riahe dugdha-aVarttan  II  prakftir sahge yei agni-kun4a ache  I  ataeva gosvamlra taha yajiyache  II Vivartta-vilasa  of Akiftcan Dls, Vahga-sahitya-paricay , p. 1649. * Cf. se rup laVanya rasa saficdr  I  mane Uropita siddha bicar  II  sekhane ekhane ekrup  I  marame janive raser k&P  II  yadi man cade drop cha4i  I e ghor narake rahive padi  II Sj. S. Song No. 41. . 21—14!IB THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 161 • • OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS desires and instincts,—or the man of passions (rager tnanu s). He must rise above the level of ordinary animal existence and become the man ‘ unborn ’ ( ayoni manus)  and thence the sahaja manus  or the *man eternal ’ (nityer manus).1 In the same way Sahaja cannot be attained through the samanya rati  or the ordinary woman,—it is to be attained through the bisesa rati  or the extraordinary woman who has herself become of the nature of Radha. In the culture of - . love the man of the physical body must 1 he SSmSnya and and RCti^iv  Rati-vilasa-paddhati,  MS. (C. U. No. 572), p. 24(A). * Songs ascribed to Candidas (3&hitya-pari?at edition). THE VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 16? ♦• of this love it has enigmatically been'said,—“Love-making sits on love-making—and love (bhava)  is over that; above that love resides a higher love, and over that remains what may be said to be the highest consummation. In love resides the thrill of joy, and over that thrill the flow,—and there is the flow over the flow,—and that bliss who should know)”1 ‘ *There is |he flower over the fruit and the scent is over that,—and bn that scent are these letters three (i.e., pi—ri —ti   = love; Skt.  priti ),—great riddle is it to understand!” Again,—“There is the fruit over the flower,—and over that is the wave,—and there is wave above wave,—who does this secfet know ?*’2It is extremely difficult to follow these and many such other enigmatic descriptions of love closely and literally,—and we doubt if every one of these statements can be explained rigorously. Such  paradoxical -statements were made only to emphasise the transcendental nature of the Sahaja love. It is said,— *4There is water on earth and above that water rises the wave; love remains above that wave, does anybody know anything about it?”s It is about this transcendental love that Candidas exclaimed,—“The love of the washerwoman is like tested gold,—there is no tinge of sexuality in it.” Thus the Sadhana of love of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas is a transcendence from the finite to the infinite,—from the enjoy- 1  piriti upare piriti baiaaye tahar upare bhaV   I bhaver upare bhaver basati tahar upare labh  II  premer majhare pulaker sthan  pulako. upare dhara  I dharar upare dharar basati e aukh bujhaye kard   II  Ibid  . 2  Ibid. 3 mrtiika upare jaler basati tahar upare dheu  I tahar upare piriti baaati tsha ki jdnaye  feeu II 168 ' OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS ment of the external object to the realisation of the self which in its ultimate character is but of the nature of pure love. When real love dawns in the heart of the Sadhaka the beloved  becomes to him a mere symbol for infinite love,—the whole universe with all its grandeur and mystery contracts in the  body of the sweetheart,—not only that, she becomes a symbol for the supreme truth. In such a state of love did  Candidas, the great lover, exclaim to his tion^nole concep'’ sweetheart Rami, the washerwoman:—  “ Hearest Rami, O thou washerwoman,— 1knew thy feet to be a cool retreat and so 1took shelter there. Thou art to me the revealer of thfe Vedas, thou art to me as the consort of the Saviour Lord Siva,—thou art the iris of my eyes;—my worship of love towards thee is my morning, noon-tide and evening services,—thou art the neck lace of my neck. The body of the washerwoman is of the nature of the eternal maid Radha (Jji sori-svarupa ),—there is no scent of sensuality in it,—the love of the washerwoman is tested gold,—says Badu Candidas.”1 (iv) Sahaja-realisation of the Self and the Not-Self  We have said that the final aim of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas through a culture of love is the realisation of the Sahaja 1  Candldfis says, in a similar song—“One confession of my heart—repeatedly am I making to thee,—hearest Rami, thou washerwoman,—I have taken shelter under thy feet only because 1learnt them to be a cool retreat. The form of the washer woman is of the nature of the eternal maid, Radha,—no scent of s^risuality is there;—if I do not see thee my mind is upset,—and it is pacified just at the sight of thee. Thou art, O washerwoman, my consort,—thou art my mother—my father,— all the religious functions performed thrice a day are nothing but worshipping thee,—thou art Gayatri, the mother of the Vedas. Thou art the mother of all speech, the wife of Lord Siva,—the necklace of my neck,—thou art heaven, earth and hell and every thing,—thou art the iris of my eyes ................ I cannot forget the sweetness of thy beauty,—how am I to make thee my own ? Thou art my Tantra, thou art all my Mantras, thou art all the bliss of my prayer. My days fly on in thinking who else in these three worlds may be so much my one,—and through the order of goddess BSsuli exclaims Candidas,—the feet of the washerwoman are the highest truth.*' * nature not only of the self, but also of the external objects, or in other words, of the world as a whole. The realisation of the Sahaja-nature of the not-self, they contend, follows from the realisation of the Sahaja-nature of the self.1The Sahaja (of the nature of supreme love) that underlies the self as its ultimate reality, underlies also the not-self,—and both the self and the not-self are mere transformations of the same Sahaja, the plurality of objects with all their differences owes its origin only to the illusory nature of our sense-percep- tions.2The duality of self and external objects is said to be due to a mere confusion of the senses, and it exists only as long as there is no attainment of self-knowledge. The senses are playing with the objects; but in reality the objects and the self are one and the same in their ultimate nature. When knowledge of the self dawns on man any differentia tion like this and that becomes impossible,—and at that time, there is not the least cognition of duality and the whole universe is realised as of the nature of the self.aThus it is contended that the realisation of the Sahaja-nature of the self as pure love automatically leads one also to the realisation of the ultimate nature of the external world. In the Tantras we find that the world proceeds from the  bliss which is the cessation of all duality and which is the nature of the ultimate reality, it has been said in the Upanisad,—“ Bliss (ananda)  is to be known as Brahman, and from bliss proceeds all the objects, and through bliss they live and in bliss do they return and merge.”4tWe find  1  apart janaye jei jagat janay  I  jagater jan tar anta nahi pay  II  Ratna-sara,  MS. (C. U. No. 111 1 ), p. 19(A). 2 Cf. tumi iudhu bastu-jnane dekhitecha bhram  I  natuva sakali hay atmar e kram  II  kotha ktt kotha if kothay ba kath  I  maya-ba$e tumi iudhu dekh e  bibhraf    11  Ibid. 3  Ibid. 4 Taithirlyopanisat  (3.6). 22*—141 IB THE . VAISNAVA SAHAJIYA CULT 170' OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS an echo of the same truth in the utterances of the Sahajiyas, who say that all the beings are born in Sahaja, they live in Sahaja and again return to Sahaja.' The Sahaja is the Rasa, the supreme emotion of love, the quintessence in every body .2 It is the primordial emotion—it is Kama  and from Kama    proceeds everything.8There is sometimes the tendency of explaining the two aspects of Sahaja (i.e., Rasa and Rati) under the imagery of the seed and the ovum and the cosmos as following from their uriion, just as it is explained in the texts of the Tantric and the Buddhist Sahajiya schools.4Both the self and the not-self, being thus the product of Sahaja, are homogeneous in their ultimate nature and it is, therefore, that the realisation of the nature of the self through the culture of love leads also to the realisation of the ultimate nature of the not-self. 1   sahajete jiv janme sahaje binaie  I sahajete kbay pi ye sahajete bhase  II sahajete yay jiv dekhaha bhaviya  I sahaj sandhan keha na paya khujiya  II  Ratna-sara,  MS. (C. U. No. 1 11 1 ), p. 19(A). 5   rasa bastu thake sei rasik sarire  I  p'iriti murati hay prem nam dhare  II  Dvlpakojjvala , MS. (C.U. No. 564), p. 10(B). 8    purus prakrti kamei utpatti kamete savar janma  I  paSu pakfi sav kamete udbhav kamete savar karma  II * * ' * * * kam upasana  feam se sadhana kam keli sav tantra  I kamer madhurt iri-rupa-mafijari   kam hari-nam mantra  II Song ascribed to Narottam, Sj. S. Song No. 7 5 . 4   Cj. sthavar jangam adi jata deha hay  I rati-kam sarva-dehe bilas karay  f{ * * * * sei kam raja-bij rasa-rati satta  I sei sarba rasamay sarvamay kartta  II ♦ Sahaja~i&8sana~tattva  of Tarunf'ramag, B.S.P.P. 1335, No. 4. CHAPTER VI A N on - sectarian  A  pproach   to   the  D octrines   of    the S ahajiyas (i) The Purely Psychological Approach Apart From The Theological Apart from the theological speculations advanced by the Vaisnava Sahajiyas in connection with their Sadhana of love, there can be another approach to their Sadhana from a purely  psychological point of view. The Vaisnava Sahajiyas have always mixed up this psychological principle with the theo logical speculations of Bengal Vaisnavism, and the ideal of Paraklya love in the human sphere has generally been sought to be associated with an ontological significance. But apart from the ontological significance attached to the ideal of Paraklya love let us see if some religious significance can  pertain to such a kind of love even from the purely psycho logical point of view. From this psychological point of view it may be said that human love, when dissociated completely from selfish carnal desires, not by a process of violent suppression, but by a slow and gradual process of strict  physical and psychological discipline, has the capacity, in its  boundless extent and deep intensity, of producing a trans cendental state of mind, which is of the same kind as the Most intense love state m*ncl produced through the highest  produces a state of state of divine love, or communion with arrest. God. We have said before that the arrest of the states and processes of the mind plays the most impor tant part in almost all the religious systems of India. Intense human love, or even sex-emotion, has the capacity of produ cing a supreme state of arrest. In a unique flow of emotion, 172 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS uninterrupted by subjective or objective notions there dawns an infinite oneness in the mind, which is recognised to be the highest spiritual experience. This is the state of Samarasa after which all the esoteric schools of yoga aspired. The Tantrics of Hindu as well as of Buddhist schools would often recommend the attainment of such a state of mind through the attainment of intense bliss by a strictly yogic regulation of the sex-act, while the Vaisnava Sahajiyas added the psycho logical element of love to it. The final aim, however, in all such cases was the attainment of an infinitely blissful state of arrest either purely through a psyco-physiological process of yoga or through the intense emotion of love. The fundamental principle of the esoteric schools, men tioned above, is that man can never get rid of his sex- Repression of sex  propensities even by a life-long struggle of replaced by the Saha- rigorous suppression,  —  nay, as we have  jiyfis by sublimation. ' seen, it is in the form of Samarasa or  Mahasukha or Mahabhava the ultimate nature of our whole  being—the ultimate reality from which the world evolves. In the grossest sexual pleasure we have the lowest kind of realisation of the same kind of bliss which follows the reali sation of the ultimate reality. It is, therefore, foolish to try to do absolutely away with this fundamental nature of man; the best thing, on the other hand, will be to eliminate the element of grossness from it through physical and psychologi cal discipline. This theory of the esoteric schools involving the element of sex in religion, may be made subject to severe criticism from the Freudian point of view of modern psycho-analysis,— and there is much scope for such criticism particularly in the field of Vaisnava Sahajiya cult with all its theory of love, human and divine. But though a Freu- untenable explanatlon dian explanation of the whole thing may not be absolutely inadmissible in such religious practices, one fundamental point, which we should  DOCTRINES OF fHE SAHAJIYAS 173 never loss sight of even from the empirical point of view, is that though the lotus above the surface of water may have its origin in the mud deep below, mud and the lotus cannot surely be placed in the same scale in our general scheme of valuation. The main truth of these cults, as we have pointed out, is the possibility of the attainment of an intensely blissful stat$ of arrest, which has been spoken of in these cults as the state of liberation or the state of Brahma-realisation or the state of divine love. This idea that it may be possible to attain liberation through the most intense emotion, or that the state of mind under the most intense emotion of any kind is of the nature of bliss produced by self-realisation, or Brahma-realisation, is not new in the history of Indian religious thought. In the  Brhad-aranyaa Upanisad  , .... i 1  realisation of self has been compared to Liberation through intense emotion-evi- the transcendental realisation of bliss dence of the Upanisad. arising through the deep embrace of a loving woman. Thus it is said,—“As, when deeply embraced by the dear woman, one knows neither anything external nor anything internal,—so also a man deeply embraced by the self ( atman ) through perfect knowledge knows neither anything external nor anything internal.”1In the  Bhagavata Purana  we find that the cowherd girls of Vrndavana did attain salvation through their passion towards their beloved Srikrsna, with whom they combined even knowing that it was  jara  (promiscuity).2It is also 1 tadyatha priyaya striya samparisvakto na bahyam tyficana Veda na ntaram    evarn eva yam purusah prajnena atmana samparisvakto na bahycm kiRcana Veda    na* ntaram,  Brhadaranyakc-paniiat,  4-3-21, 2    Bhagavata-pur ana,  ( 1 0 . 29. 1 1 ) Vangavgsl edition. This fact described in the  Bhagavata  has been fully utilised by the Vaisnava SahajiySs in the following song ascribed to Narahari—  nander nandan karaye bhajan  upapati bhdv layd   | 174 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS cited in this connection that $i£upala, king of Cedi, attained liberation through his intense Purina"0* fr°m the emotion of hatred to Srlkrsna.1In the Padma-purana  we find that in ancient times all the great sages of the Dandakaranya saw the Lord in the form of Rama and desired to enjoy Him; all of them after wards were born in female forms in the land of Gokula and there they enjoyed the Lord with their passions and were thereby liberated from the ocean of existence. Their libera tion was just like the liberation of the demons who approached  the Lord with anger, were killed in battle and afterwards attained liberation. Sex-passion and anger are generally the cause of man’s downfall in the world, but being united with the Lord with strong emotion the cowherd ladies were all liberated. Those, who worship the Lord through passion, fear or even animosity, will attain Vaikuntha (the land of the Lord),—not to speak of those who worship the Lord through  pure devotion.2 gopl-anugata braja -jana-rita mane aropita haya  II ati biparlt braja-jana-r'tt  sahaj manus seba  I  puras prakrtt haiya kenxane kahare karive leha  II saksate bhajan haila gopi-gan e deie se deie dur   J kotha brndaVan kotha braja-jan kotha prema-rasa-pur    11  etc. Sj. S. Song, No. 69. 1  Thus it is said,—“1have already described to you how the king of Cedi (i.e., Silupala) attained salvation even through his hatred of Krsna; what wonder then about the (salvation of) girls who were so dear to the Lord ? {i.e.,  what wonder if  the cowherd girls have attained salvation through their intense love towards the Lord?) .............. By continually applying the emotions of passion (feamo), anger, fear, affection, unity and friendship to the Lord, people are attaining perfect oneness with the Lord.’* uktarji purastad etat te caidyah siddhim yatha gatah  I dvisann api hrfikefaty k.imeta dhoksaja-priyah  ||  amam kfodham bhayam sneham aikyam sauhrdam eva ca  I nityam harau vidadhato yanti tanmayatam hi te  II BhagaVata’purana  , 10-29-13, 15. 3 Padma-purana, Uttara-kban^a,   verses 64-68. In their discussion on the nature of aesthetic pleasure some x, , . Indian rhetoricians have described it as 1he view of the rhetorician* of the equal to the bliss of Brahma-realisation. Kasa-school. Through the intensity and purity of aesthetic emotion the limitations of mundane life are tran/a ended and in the profound tranquillity of mind the artist enpys a trans cendental bliss equal to the bliss of Brahma-realisation. Visvanatha Kaviraja says in describing the nature of Rasa that through the intensity of the transcendent emotional appeal of literature our mind becomes out of touch with the objective world, and due to the separation of mind from the objective world there is the subsidence of the elements of  Rajas  (energy-stuff) and Tamas  (mass-stuff) and there is the emergence of Sattoa  (intelligence-stuff); as a result of this emergence of the SattVa  element there is the spontaneous rise in mind of a unique bliss of the nature of pure consciousness untouched by the notion of any other knowable,—and as such it is of the nature of Brahma-realisation.1The quintes sence of this Rasa is an emotion of supramundane sublimity and nicety, which removes all the limitations of our mind and expands it to a limitless extent. It is only by the meritorious few that such Rasa is realised in its entirety and in its change less unique character. This view that it may be possible to attain a state of  The view of KaSmira arrest through the intensity of any kind of Saivism. emotion or sensation has been emphasised   by the Saiva mystics of Kasmlra also. It has been said by Abhinava Gupta in his Tantra-lo^a  that when our mind ceases to form all kinds of false thought-constructions ( vil^alpa ), we realise our motionless true self as Siva; even if a  beast attains such a state of mental equilibrium it attains the boctRlNES OF THE SAHAJIYAS  H  sattvo-drekad akhandasVa-prakaia-nanda-cinmayah  | vedya-ntara-sparia-sunyo brahma-svada-sahodarah  II Sahitya-darpana  , Ch. III. 176 OBSCURfe RELIGIOUS CULfS state of Siva.1The state of homogeneity that is produced in the mind through the absorbing interest of pleasureable sensation of sight, sound and touch leads one to the realisa" tion of the ultimate motionless nature of the self,—and the  bliss that is derived from such experience is but a playful manifestation of the blissful nature of the ultimate Being.2We find a very clear exposition of this view in the Spanda-Karil^a   and the Vijnana-bhairava.  The Spanda—pradipi^a.  ( Spanda-   Karima)  says that for the realisation of the self as the Siva one has to make his mind absolutely motionless,— the absolutely motionless state of mind is liberation.8 When the self passes on from its- active state of the doer and the knower to its absolutely motionless inactive state, it is no more disturbed by the pernicious memory (ku-smrti)  of its past active states; but by passing into the inactive motionless state the self does not lose its nature as the ultimate subject. It is said that two states of the self can be distinguished, viz.,  the state of pure agency ( kartrtoa ) and the state of being the effect (fyaryatva ). Of the two states the state of being the effect is capable of  being destroyed, but the agent is indestructible. This is to say that all outward efforts or activities, which are but the manifestation of the disturbed agent may vanish; but with the vanishing of the active efforts the self as the supreme agent does not die out.4The implication is that the outward  1 Tantra-loho,  (1.211,216). 2   tata eva aamaato'yam anandarasa-vibhramah  i tathd hi madhure gite sparse va candanadike  U madhyaatha vigame yaaau hrdaye spandamdnata  —  dnanda-iaktih saivoykta yatah sahrdayo janah  II  Ibid   (3.209-10). 3    yadd ksobhah praliyeta tadd syat paramam padam   1 Spanda-korikd,  Ch. I, Verse No. 9, Vizianagram Sanskrit Series. * avaathayugalam catra kdrya-kartrtva-iabditam  I kdryatd k*ayim tatra kartftvam punar ak&ayam  II karyo-nmukhah prayatno yah kevalam so'tra lupyate   1 tasrrum lupte vilupto'amVty abudhah pratipadycete  II  Ibid.,  Verses 14, 1 5, DOCTRINES OF THE SAHAIIYAS 177 efforts or activities may die out, but the deep internal emotional states produced thereby do not die out with them. The intense emotional state of our mind which is not limited by any notion of space, time and dimension approxi mates the nature of the indestructible true self which is the omniscient pure intelligence.1When even the ordinary emotions of our daily life attain a high degree of intensity, our mind attains a state of equilibrium which leads to the realisa tion of our self as ‘the motionless one.’ It is said that when a man is very angry or highly pleased, or is in a state of extreme bewilderment, even when he runs fast away (through some emotion of fear or joy), he attains a state which may be said to be the  spanda , or the ultimate potential nature of the self.2When in such a state the sun and the moon 1   Cf. na iti yo'ntarmukho bhavah sarvajnatva-guna-spadam  I tasya lopah kadacit syad anyasya nupalambhanat   II  Ibid.  Verse 16. 2   ati-kruddhah prahrsfo Va  fom karomVti va mr&an  I dhavan Va yat padam gacchet tatra spandah pratisthitah  II  Ibid.,  Ch. II.| Verse 6 . It is said that even when a man very eagerly waits for the command of any other  person with the firm resolution that whatever will be ordered by the latter must be carried out, he will, through the intensity of his eagerness and the firmness of his resolution, attain a state of equilibrium; through such a condition of mind his inhaling and exhaling breath (the sun and the moon, i.e.,  prana  and apana)  will enter the middle nerve Susumna, which is the passage for the transcendental region, and all the motion of the sun and the moon (i.e. inhaling and exhaling) will slop there.  yam aVa&tham samalambya yad ay am mama Vasyati  I tad aoasyam karisye'ham iti samkalpya tisthati  II tam asrityorddhva-margena candrastiryaVub}aVapi  I satisumne'dhvany astamito hitva brahmanda-gocaram  II  Ibid.,  Ch. II, Verses 7, 8 . It is explained in the commentary that whenever, due to whatever reason it may be, one is under the compulsion of carrying out the order of any other man, due to the intensity of concentration of the former just to receive the order of the latter, all the mental states of the former will die out, and because of the dying out of all the mental states his consciousness must attain the ultimate state of perfect tranquillity, and through the practice of such acts of endurance he realises the ultimate truth. idam tu tatparyam,   feenacit karanena ava$ya-k.aramya-vacaaa prab ha visnu na   karayiiavya-vastu-vivaksaya aksiptasya pumsah tad-vacana4u£ru$amatra-nivi of relish through which also we may attain Mahasukha (great bliss). Through the qualityless intense joy that may follow from attending to music or to any such other object the yogin may merge himself in it and realise ‘thatness’ thereby. The mind should be kept fast wherever there is the satisfaction of mind,—for, thereby will the ultimate nature of the self as supreme bliss be revealed to us.2Through the sudden arrest or careful control of any of the senses the particular sense enters into the non-dual vacuity and the soul shines there in its ultimate nature.8 Whenever the mind is disturbed either through knowledge or through ignorance, mind attains the ultimate state as an after effect of this disturbance. If a man stands by the side of a great hole like a well, etc., and then looks upwards, his mind will be bereft of all thought-constructions and the states of mind will be suspended. In our deep emotions of anger, fear, sorrow,—or in the emotion produced in a lonely cave, 1   anande mahati prapte  drsfe Va bandhaVe cirdt   I anandam udgatam dhyatva tallayas tan~mana bhavet   II  Ibid,   Verse 71. 2    yatra yatra manaa-tustir manas tatraiva dharayet   I tatra tatra par&-nanda-svarupam sampravartate  II  Ibid,   Verse 74. 3  yasya kasye 'ndriyasyapi Vyaghatac ca nirodhatah  I  pravistasya dvaye iunye tatrai   * Vatma prakfl&ate   II  Ibid.,   Verse 89. The author goes so far as to say that if any one first pinches a particular limb with a pointed needle ard then concentrates his mind on the place of painful sensa tion he will attain a stainless state of Bhairava. (Ibid.,   Verse 93.) When our mind is deeply absorbed in any object of sex-passion, anger, greed, infatuation, pride and  jealousy, through the deep absorption in the emotion the distinctive features of the objects vanish away and what remains is the ultimate reality. (Ibid.,   Verse 101.) 180 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS or in the emotion resulting from flying away from the battle field, or in the emotion of strong curiosity or of hunger there is a state which may be said to be identical with the state of the Brahman.1 (ii) Criticism from The Yoga Point of View From the above it will be clear that the view that it may  be possible to attain some religious experience through an intense emotion or even through some strong sensation is not very uncommon in the field of Indian religious thought. But as this view is closely associated with the question of a state of arrest, which is so much emphasised in the Patanjala system of yoga, it will not be unfair to make some comment on it from the yoga point of view. The exponents of yoga have admitted the fact that it may  be possible to attain a state of arrest even through some strong sensation or emotion; but that kind of arrest of mind is very transitory and as such falls far short of the final state of Samadhi. Samadhi of yoga proper does not mean a temporary arrest of mind,—it means a permanent state of arrest which removes all our afflictions and which eradicates all mental complexes and root-instincts that serve as the seed of the future recurrence of life and suffering. In the yoga scheme of psychology there have been recognised five planes of mind, which are technically known as the five citta-bhumis.   These are, (1) ksipta,   (2) mudha,   (3) Viksipta,   (4) ekflgra   and (5) niruddha.   The k.sipta >  Ibid.,  Verse 118. The reading of the verse in the edition we are using is as follows ksutadyante bhaye   Sofce gahtare va ranaddrute  I kutuhale k*udhadyantc brahma-aattvamayi daia  II But the reading of the verse as quoted in the commentary on the Spanda-Btitrat     by Utpalficfiryya is as follows:—  krodhadyante bhaye Soke gahvare Varane rane  I kutuhale k^dhadyante brahma-satta samipaga   11 x Vide,,    p. 51. DOCTRINES OF THE SAHAJIYAS 181 state is the ordinary unsteady state of mind which is always changing from one object to another. The second state is the state in which mind, under the sway of some strong sensation or emotion, lies infatuated, as it were. In this state there is the excess of the tamas  (i.e., the gross material stuff) and under the sway of the tamas  mind falls asleep, or, swooning, as it were. The third state is the state of Viksipta , which is distinguished from the k?ipta  state by the possibility therein of temporary arrest of the mental states. It is the momentary steadiness that the mind may have amidst its unsteady changes. The other two states are eagra   (one-pointed) and niruddha  (perfectly arrested). Of these two the eagra  state has been explained by Vacaspati in his commentary as eka-tana,  which literally means ‘one-tuned,’ i.e., the state where all the mental states attain an oneness in deep concentration on some particular object of meditation. This eagra  state leads to the next state which is the state of final arrest (niruddha).  Now of the five planes (bhumt)  of the mind only the last two are recognised as the planes of yoga proper. Temporary arrest may be possible in the mudha  and viksipta  planes also,—but they cannot be recognised as states of yoga as there is the possibility of their relapse to ordinary active states at any moment. The important thing in yoga proper is not therefore somehow to attain a state of arrest, but to well-  prepare the planes of mind for Samadhi. If the plane be well-prepared even active states cannot disturb the mind. If we examine the states of Samadhi described particularly  by the Kasmira-school of Saivism, we shall be tempted to say that many of these states can be classed as the mudha   state of mind and only a few of them fall within the state of ekagra . There is no denial of the fact that when we are deeply absorbed in any intense emotion, we transcend our ordinary physical, biological and psychological existence,'— and even it may be admitted that such states of transcenden OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS tal emotion approximate in nature deep religious experience,  but the question remains, how far it will be correct to accept all such states to be identical with our supreme religious experience. Instates of great hunger, anger, jealousy, fear, curiosity, sex-passions, etc., there may be a temporary sleep of the ordinary mental states and processes,—but they being outside the plane of yoga may at any time relapse into acti vity, and for this reason such states should never be confused with the final state of Samadhi. To judge the state of Samarasa of the Tantriks or of Maha-sukha of the Buddhist Sahajiyas, or the state of supreme love of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas, we should first of all examine the citta-bhumi  in which such a realisation is possible. If the realisation be in any of the first three planes of the citta, i.e.,  if it be a mere state of sleep of the senses, or just like a state of swoon of a temporary nature then it cannot be recognised as a state of yoga proper. Everything, therefore, depends on the plane of citta.  The Tantriks and the Sahajiyas were conscious of this truth and they laid sufficient stress on it. All the stringent conditions laid by the Tantriks and the Sahajiyas for the esoteric practice may be viewed from the yoga point of view as conditions for a proper plane of citta  where the absorption of the psychical processes may amount to a state of Samadhi. Whenever the esoteric prac tice is resorted to in a lower plane the result produced must  be dangerous; it is for this reason that the Sahajiyas repeated ly declared that a real Sahajiya Sadhaka is rarely found even among crores ( kptike Sotik hay). CHAPTER VII T he ^J auls   of   B engal   (f) General Nature of the Baul Sect  Far from the empty noise and busy bustle of urban life, flourished in the villages of Bengal an order of singers, still extant,—an institution of immense literary and religious interest; for, the songs of these bards are as much noted for their naivete and spontaneity of expression as for the spiritual intensity of their content. The ‘unpremeditated art’ of their ‘first fine careless raptures’ lifts us to a level of experience where the aesthetic and the religious work together for a unique spiritual transport. Indeed we can say about these songs what Keats says about the songs of the Nightingales of heaven,—   divine melodious truth Philosophic numbers smooth. These unlettered village-singers, belonging to the lower ranks of the Muslim and the Hindu communities of Bengal and composed partly of householders and mainly of mendicants, are known as the Bauls. The Bauls belonging to the Hindu community are generally Vaisnavite in their faith and those  belonging to the Muslim community are generally Sufi-istic and in both the schools the emphasis is on the mystic conception of divine love. The word baul 1 1  We find the use of the word baul   in the Caitanya-bhagavata   of Vrndavana- das as also in the Caitanya-caritamria   of Krsna-das Kavirffj. Cj.   the well-known enigmatic message that was sent by AdvaitScarya to Caitanya ( C aitanya-caritamrta ,  Antya-lilS,  Ch. xix). 184 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS with its Hindi variant baur   may be variously derived; Meaning of the word i* may. be derived from the Sanskrit word  vatula  (affected by wind-disease, i.e  ., mad, crazy), or from vyaula  (impatiently eager) j1both these deri vations are consistent with the modern sense of the word, which denotes inspired people with ai^ ecstatic eagerness for a spiritual life where one can realise one’s union with the eternal Beloved—the‘Man of the heart’. The name Baul as also its cognate form Aul can very well be associated also with the Arabic Word awliya  (plural of wall , a word origi nally meaning “near,” which is used for ‘friend,* or ‘devotee’), that refers to a class of perfect men.2With the Bengali word baul  we may also compare the Sufi word  Diwana  which means mad, i.e., free from all social respon sibilities. Religious people with different modes of Sadhana are included within the Baul sect; inspite of the differences in modes of Sadhana, their general religious feature is characterised by a common spirit of extreme unconvention alism. In a general way the Sadhakas of the Vaisnava Sahajiya order, and orders akin to it, with their secret  practices involving the ‘four moons/3are well-known as Bauls. The religious doctrines of these orders and the rationale  behind them have already been studied in a general way in previous chapters. In this chapter, therefore, we shall not accept 'the word Baul in its wider denotation so as to include also the esoteric yogic Sadhakas within its C/. also :— bauliya bi&vasere na dive asite   II prabhu    feafie bauliya aiche ene kara    I etc. Caitanya-caritamrfa, Adi-lila,   Ch. XII. An earlier reference of the word is found in the  $r~i-Krsna-vijaya   of Msladhar Basu (second half of the sixteenth century). See  jn.   of p. 529 of the C. U. edition. 1  These indifferent mendicants are also sometimes known by the name  Aul    which may be derived from the Skt. word  akula. 2 Vide Studies in Islamic Mysticism,    by R. A. Nicholson. 3 ...The 'four moons’ imply semen, blood, stool and urine. 'THE BAULS OF BENGAL 18$  province; for preciseness and facility of study we shall res trict the application of the word Baul to the school of mendi cants, Hindu or Muslim, who in their songs celebrate the ‘Man of the heart’ and sing the mystic love they cherish for him. The Bauls are somewhat strange people, peculiar in their manners and customs, habits and practices. They refuse to  be guided by any canon or convention, social, or religious. Freedom of spirit is their watch-word and they take to an unsophisticated way of life in which the more natural incli nations of the mind are not restrained by social institutions. They proceed in a direction opposite to that followed by the general run of people. They avoid all reli- Path oi  £*on *n t^e natural piety of the soul is overshadowed by the useless parapher nalia of ritualism and ceremony on the one hand and  pedantry and hypocrisy on the other. It is for this reason that the Bauls would call their path ulta  (i.e., the reverse) path and would call the process of their spiritual advance as the  process of proceeding against the current.1It is said in a  beautiful song,—  “Reverse are the modes and manners of the man who is a real appreciator of the true emotional life and who is a lover of true love; none is sure about the how and the when of his behaviour. “Such a man is affected neither by the weal nor by the woe of the world, and constantly realises the delight of love; it appears that his eyes are floating on the water of delight; 1 naphcher ulfa nao baio, re manura    Ietc. Vicitra  , B. S. 1335, Caitra. anuragi rasik yard bacche iara ujan bdmke   I yakhan nadir **huma  " dake jdgay tarlr phamke phamkc   II Hardmani,   collected and. edited by Mr. M. Mansur Uddin, M.A.. Song No. 46. i ljdn jale padi dhara re guru dmar gho^la na   I bhaver naukd khdni uvu-duou guru padi pelem na   I Ibid  , Song No. 47. 24—141 IB sometimes he laughs alone in his own mood, sometimes he cries alone. “He lights the lamp of love and sits on and on with his mind immersed in the fathomless depth of the sea of emo tion ; he has in his hand the key for happiness, but he never seeks it. “Awkwardly wild are all his manners and customs,—and the other extremely wonderful fact is that the glory of the full-moon closes round him for all time; and further, this moon ceases not to shine day and night—there is no setting of the moon of his heart. “He is as much satisfied with mud as with sandal-paste; no hankering has he after name and fame, equal are to him all that are far and near; he builds his house in the sky, even if the fourteen worlds are burnt to ashes.” 1 It may be observed in this connection that this ulta  path, with all its theological as well as yogic implications, was the  path spoken of and adopted by all the mediaeval saints of India, and a detailed study of it will be found in a succeeding 1 bhaver bhavuk premer premik hay re ye jan   I o tar biparit riti paddhati  ; fee  jane kakhan se thake kyaman    I (bhaver manu$)  far nai an an da nirananda, labhi niiya premananda,   ananda-salile yyana tar bhasche du'nayan   ;   o se kabhu apan mane hase, avar kakhan Va kare rodan    I (bhaver   man us) se  jvaaiye premer bati, bo   se thake diva rati,   bhaV-sagare akul pathare duvaiya man ;    o tar hasta-gata sukher cavi, tavu kare na sukh anvesan   I (bhaver manu$)  cal calan sakal beada, ar eyak kanda srsti-chada, purnimar camd hrday by ad a tar ache sarva~k?an;  se iaSir ni$i diii saman uday,   se camder nairc asta gaman    I (far hrday-camder)    tar candane hay yyaman pfiti  ,  pamfe dileo hay temni trpti  ,   cayna se sukhyati, tSr tulya par apan ;  se asmane bandy ghar badl, dagdha holeo e codda-bhuvan   II  Baul-sangit,  collected in the anthology Vividha-Dharma-Safigit,  edited by Mr. Prasannakumir Sen (published in B.S. 1314). Song No. 461.  j 86 obsc U re   religious   cults THE BAULS OF BENGAL 187 chapter where we shall deal with the cult of the Natha-yogins. It may be further noted that the Sufis, whose influence on the Bauls was immense, were also Sadhakas in the *reverse  path ’ exactly in the same sense as explained abovd*. Thus, a^ R. Nicholson puts it,—“Unification (tawhid) is defined as *the absoluteness of the Divine nature realised in the  passing-away of the human nature,’ so that *the man’s last state reverts to his first state and he becomes even as he was before he existed 1 (ii) The Bauls and the Sahajiyas. The Baul poets are Sahajiyas in a general sense of the , term. We have said before that a general l he Efiuls aie Saha- ^  jiys» in a general consideration of the tenets of the Sahajiyas will lead to the conclusion that the different Sahajiya sects would style them as Sahajiyas for two reasons. In the first place, they are Sahajiyas inasmuch as the ultimate reality, in whatever form it may be, was always conceived by them as the Sahaja, i.e., that which is inborn or the quintessence which all the animate and the inanimate  possess by virtue of their very existence, and the realisation of this Sahaja was regarded by the Sahajiyas as the highest attainment of spiritual yearning. Secondly, the Sahaji' are Sahajiyas inasmuch as they condemned in the stron language they could command all kinds of insincerity artificiality in life and religion and at the same recommended the most natural path for the attainrr truth. We shall see later on2that in this general ser host of the Santa poets (including the Sikh poets 1 The Idea of Personality in Sufism,  p. 13. Cf.  also—*' Hence the upward movement of the Absolute fr   manifestation back to the unmanifested Essence takes place   unitive experience of the soul vide Studies in Islamic My    p. 84. * Vide   Appendix A. 188 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Indian Sufi poets) of upper, central and northern India were all Sahajiyas. In the Bauls of Bengal, therefore, we find  the continuity of the Sahajiya movement, the first systema- tised form of which is found in the school of the Buddhist Sahajiyas. ,When we shall analyse the tenets of the Bauls, as embodied in their songs that are available to us, we , n , - r . shall find that the doctrines of the earlier  Influence or ourl-ism against the earlier Sahajiyas form the real background of their  Sahajiya background. . . religion,—although bun-ism or Islam have introduced a new spirit in it. A study of the Baul songs will, therefore, naturally lead us, first to a study of their Sahajiya background and then to the line and colour that have been given to it by Sufi-ism. In speaking of the earlier Sahajiya background of the Bauls we mean mainly the schools of Buddhist Sahajiya and of - Vaisnava Sahajiya. Though there are no positive data to enable us to ascertain the exact time when the Vaisnava Sahajiya movement first began and when it reached its fullest development, yet it seems that the Vaisnava Sahajiyas were earlier than the Bauls.1There are however seme instances of striking similarity between the creeds of the earlier Sahajiyas and these the Bauls which definitely points Tenealogical connection between them. The songs and as of the earlier Sahajiyas art characterised by a spirit ’tercdoxy and criticism, which is likewise a feature of longs of the Bauls. Secondly, the earlier Sahajiyas lay strong emphasis on Guru-vada, and so ajiys back- tke gauls as it will appear from their Murshid ’ songs. Thirdly, we have seen ’mg to the earlier Sahajiyas the human body is m, or rather the epitome of the universe and 3ides within and is to be realised within;—this  jfiul is used in the present discourse always in its restricted deno- THE BAULS OF BENGAL 189 is exactly the belief shared by the Bauls. Finally, the earlier Sahajiyas conceived of the ultimate reality as the Sahaja and this conception of the Sahaja is also found in the songs of the Bauls; and like the earlier Sahajiyas the Bauls also advocate the most natural path for the realisation of this Sahaja-nature. But the earlier Sahajiya cult underwent a notable trans formation in the hands of the Bauls; for, the Bauls, by deviation and innovation, effected a great change both in the ideology and practice of the Sahajiyas. The difference in ideology is palpable in the conception of Sahaja. The Buddhist Sahajiyas conceived Sahaja as Maha-sukha which is the unity of the duality represented by man and woman as Upaya and Prajna. The method for the realisation of this Sahaja consisted, therefore, essentially in a sexo-yogic  practice. To this, however, the Vaisnavas supplied the element of love. But here, in the Vaisnava school also, Sahaja was conceived as supreme love which can be realised  by the union of Krsna and Radha who reside in the corporeal form of man and woman. The process of Sadhana is also, therefore, a process of the Divinisation of the human love. But we have seen that this love is not the love of the iiature of the most intense yearning of human soul toward^ God, it is the yearning of man for woman, or of woman im  man. In all their theories of love and speculations ojjLthe lover and the beloved, the Vaisnava Sahajiyas never speak tai; any love beyond the purest and the mbstf JSEw? "" Paf<*' f°™ of human love and of any lover and beloved other than man and woman, who are themselves incarnations of the eternal Lover and the Beloved. But the Bauls conceived Sahaja as the innermost eternal Beloved who is the ‘ Man of the heart ’ (maner manus).  The Bauls also speak of love and union,  but this love means the love between the human personality and the Divine Beloved within and in this love man realises 190 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS | his union with the Divine, or in other words he merges his  personal existence in the Beloved that resides within this temple of the body. Great has been the influence of Sufi- ism on the Bauls in the evolution of this new conception of Sahaja and in the difference in their religious approach. But a little penetration into the nature of Sahaja, variously described in the songs and Dohas of the Buddhist Sahajiyas, will show that the germ of such evolution was already there in the ideas of the Buddhist Sahajiyas. We have already made it clear that inspite of the conventional way of des- The line of trans- cribing the Sahaja unfler a Buddhistic garb, formation of the con- the Sahaja of the Buddhist Sahajiyas often ception of Sahaja to th&th°f r*5Man °f *mP“es a supreme Being residing within. It has been said in a Doha of Saraha-pada that Some One Formless is residing within this form of ours,—he who knows Him becomes liberated.1Again it is said,—“ He is within your house (of body), and you are looking for him outside ! You are beholding your husband (within), and asking for his whereabouts to your neighbours !” 2 These and such other verses will supply us with a clue to the tendency of the Buddhist Sahajiyas of conceiving the Sahaja as a Being, who became gradually transformed into a Personal God with whom it may be possible to have  personal relations. This tendency of the earlier Sahajiyas  paved ic?  way for the evolution of the conception of the 4Man of the heart ’ under the strong sway of Sufi-ism. It may be observed that the literature of the Santa poets of upper, central and northern India also represent, as will  be demonstrated later,3the spirit of Sufi-ism against the  background of the earlier Sahajiyas. In this respect the Baul songs of Bengal have the closest affinity with the songs of the mediaeval saints of the other parts of India. As 1 Vide  p. 105. . * Vide  p. 105. 3 Vide  Appendix A, THE BAULS CF BENGAL 191 Sofl-ism is so important a factor in the religious tenets of the mediaeval saints of India, we propose to deal with the nature and extent of the influence of Sufi-ism on the Bauls in some detail. Our present study will also help us in the future study of the cognate literature of the mediaeval saints of other parts of India.1 {iii) The Bauls and the Sufis (A) A Brief History of Sufi-ism in India and particularly in Bengal In all probability Sufi-ism began to make its way in India in the eleventh century A.D. and apostles like Shah Sultan Rumi (who came to Bengal in 1053 A.D.), Sayad Nathar Shah (who carried Sufi-ism to the Deccan for the first time and died there in 1039 A.D.), Makhdum Sayad Ali ’Uluvvi ’al Huzurri (who settled in Lahore) are the preachers of this first period.2But Sufi-ism as a religious school began to influence the mind of the Indian people on a large scale from the end of the twelfth century and the two orders of Sufi-ism that gained sufficient ground on the soil of India  by this time are the Chishti and the Suhrawardi orders. The renowned apostle Khwajah Mu'inu-d-din Chishti, who settled in Delhi in 1193 was the founder of the Chishti Order in India. The Suhrawardi Order was also almost synchro nously founded by Shyak Baha'u-d-din Dhakri  ya'r  .^ultani (born in Multan in 1169 and died in 1266). These two Sufi-istic orders soon succeeded in attracting a considerable number of Indian people to accept their tenets. Another Sufi-istic Order, viz.,  the Quadiri Ord^r was introduced and popularised in India during the fifteenth century A.D.  by Sayad Muhammad Ghauth Gilani,< who came to India 1 Vide   Appendix A. 2 Vide Vange Suji-prabh&va   by Dr. M. Anamul Haq, M.A., Ph.D., Ch. III. in 1*482. Another Sufi-istic Order was introduced in India  by the end of the fifteenth century by Khwajah Muhammad Bakvi Billah, it is the Naqshbandi .Order. Badi’u-d-din Shah-i-Madar founded another important Sufl-istic Order in the fourteenth century A.D., which is known as the Madari Order. The Pantheistic or rather the Panentheistic mysticism of the Upanisads, the devotional mysticism mainly in the Vaisnavite line and the Sahajiya movements offered Sufi-ism a ready field and this will account for the speedy growth and spread of Sufi-istic faith in India. Moreover, from the twelfth century A.D. the history of India represents a history of contact, conflict and compromise-—political, cultural and religious. In this period of contact Sufi-ism, as transformed in India, could very well serve as a medium of compromise and it is this additional possibility that may be held responsible for the wide-spread popularity of the Sufi-istic thoughts. Sufi-ism entered Bengal rather as an overflow from  Northern India. There are as many as seven Sufi-istic orders in Bengal, of which the Suhrawardi Order, introduced  by Makhdum Shaykh Jalalu’-d-din Tabriyi (death 1125 A D ), seems to be the earliest. The Chishti Order was introduced probably by the North Indian saint Shaykh Faridu’-d-din Shakraganj (death 1269 A.D.). Shah Safiu’- d-dirj>$&ahi (1290? 1295?) of Pandua (in Hughli) was in all  probability the first apostle of the Qadadari Order. The Madari Order was perhaps introduced in Bengal by Shah Madar himself as an itinerant mendicant. Another popular Sufi-istic Order of Bengal is the Adhami Order, more  popularly known as, the Khidwari branch. The Naqshbandi Order was perhaps ^introduced first by Shaykh Hamid Danishmand in the seventeenth century. The other Order of Sufi-ism in Bengal is the Qadiri Order, which was intro duced probably by Abdul Kadir Gilani in the sixteenth 192 OBSCURE RELICIOUS CULTS * tHE BAULS OP    BENGAL Century.1We need not enter here into the detailed history of how the Sufi-movement spread with all its branches and sub-branches in Bengal; it will be sufficient for us to know that different orders of Sufi-ism did penetrate into Bengal, and did very easily and promptly recruit large number of converts. The Sufi-istic ideas' that were thus introduced were soon assimilated with the prevalent Sahajiya ideas and the result of this amalgam has been the Bauls of Bengal. (B) Influence of Sufi-ism on the General Nature of Baul Sect (a) The Influence of Sama In gauging the nature and extent of the influence of Sofl-ism on the Bauls we may observe in the first place that the out-pouring of the heart through songs was an important religious mode with the Bauls; in this we may find on the one hand the influence of Bengal Vaisnavism, which attached  much importance to music as a medium of holy comiiu"' nion, and on the other hand the influence of the Sufl~stlc custom of ‘ Sama *fr.e*, song and dance).2The effec0^ music, the Sufis hold, helps one much in passing into  fana , i.e., in passing away of consciousness in mystic ui°n with God. (b) Importance of the Murshid  Secondly, we may consider the importance tha£ is laici  by the Sufis on Guru-vada. We have seen how/fcuru-v&da I    1 Ibid.,  Ch. III. 2   Dr. Anamul Huq postulates the influence of Sufl-istic Sama even in the    Vaisnava religious function of Klrtana (i.e.,  singing in congregation) ; but the custom   of such singing and dancing is found among the Southern Vaisnavite saints, the    Alvars, from sometime the sixth or seventh century A. C. ; the postulation of Sufi   influence on this point, therefore, does not seem warrantable. Prediction to such   religious practice of Klrtana    is also found in the Bhagavata-purana  , e.g.,— kftna-    varnam tvisa~krW<*™ sahgo-panga-stra-parsadam   / yajnaih aamkirtana-prayair yajanti    hi aumedhaaah//   (11.5.32, VangavSsi edition). 25—141 IB m OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS is ingrained in the religious thoughts of India in general, and how in the spiritual life God has sometimes been re  placed by the Guru. The Sufis laid the same stress on the Murshid or the Shaykh, i.e.,  the preceptor or spiritual guide. The view of Sufi-ism on this point will be best illustrated if we quote here the view contained in the  Awarifu-l-Ma   arif.  It is said,—“ When he (i.e., the Murid or the disciple) is possessed of manners, he taketh in love a place in the Shaikh’s heart; and is agreeable to God’s sight. Because, with mercy, favour and care, God ever looketh at the hearts of His own friends (the darvishes). “Thus, by dwelling in the Shaikh’s heart, the constant  blessings of God’s mercy and of his endless bounty, com  prehend his existence; and the Shaik’s acceptance becometh his mark of the acceptance of God, Muhammad, and of all Shaikhs.”1 In the ‘ Murshida-songs ’ of the Bauls we find a mixture of ^he Indian spirit with the spirit of Sufi-ism. The excellence of the *Murshida-songs ’ of the Bauls consists in their pathos, in their expression of the groaning and the  beating heart of the restless aspirers; additional charm has  been imparted to the songs by the unconditional self- /* reduction of the Murid or the disciple, who has accepted Jridu-crshid as a sure mast in the boundless heaving sea  j-dirAister.'ce,—like a lamp in the abyss of darkness. “To  pnnd fro is tossing my boat with a jingling sound in the 'rough wind,” proceeds the cry from a heart,—"O my Murshid, yet tat me live in my hope in thee. Clouds have thickened in tht west and the roarings are now on,—torn is the rope of my helm,—and the boat is moving in the whirl; yet, O my Murshid, let me live in my hope in thee ! The waves sv/eep from helm lo prow,—and all my merchandise, more precious than gem and diamond, is being X Awarifu-l-Ma'arlf,  translated by H. Wilbcrforce Clarke, p. 18. THE BAULS OF BENGAL 195 swept away by the current; yet O my Murshid, let me live in my hope in thee .”1x Songs of this type may be found abundantly in the Baul literature of Bengal. (c)  Heterodoxy of the Bauls The next point to be noted is the heterodox spirit of the Bauls. In this, as we have said, the background of Sahajiya thought cannot be overlooked; but the influence of Sufi-ism is also not less noteworthy. As essentially a cult of love-mysticism Sufi-ism, inspite of the rites and customs that gradually developed around it, breathes a spirit of heterodoxy in general. It is rightly said,—“Transacting as it were directly with the Divine Being, the Sufis throw off the shackles of the positive religion; pious rebels, they neither fast nor make pilgrimages to the temple of Mecca,2nay, they 1 unur jhunur baje nao dmdr  nihdtlyd batdse re murstd, raildm tor die   I paicime sajila myagh re dyaoyay dila re dak.  I dmar chidila haler panas naukdy khaila pak   II murjid, raildm tor die   II dga bdiyd ofhe dheu re pacha bdyya re ydy   I dmdr hiralal manikkar bard aote Idiyd ydy   II murstd, raildm tor ale   II See Bharati,  B.S., 13" *fidra. £!/. also— tomdr car an pava boile re, guru  , ba4a did chila   I * * * * catak raila myagher die, myagh padilc anya dyaie  ,   catak bamcave   fcise II dmdr aid-nadir   ^u/e baiya   re, gurut kdndtc jartam gela   I bad a did chila   II(Own collection). 2 Cf.  the Bfiul song :— (mor) ydite to cay nd re man makkfl madind   I (ei ye) bandhu dmdr Sche, ami raire tdri kflche    (ami) pdgal haitdm dSre raitam  tare   c intam re yadi nd    I 1 % OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS forget their prayers; for with God there is no other language than the soundless language of the heart. From excess of religion they have no religion at all. Thus is confirmed the trite saying that “ extreme ^meet.” “The perfection of a man's state,” says Jami, “and the utmost degree to which saints may attain, is to be without an attribute, and without a mark.” The most fervent zeal sinks into the coldest indifference about religion.” 1 The mystics in all countries are as much opposed to the  paraphernalia of practices, rites and customs as to scriptures and speculative literature. The Mystics do not believe in the  powers of our discursive reason, which, it is held, is limited  by its very nature. It is, therefore, that all attempts to comprehend the ultimate truth through intellectual pursuits are bound by nature to be sadly baffled.2But though truth cannot be known, it can be intuited or realised within,—it can be realised in the Sahaja (natural) path through the secret coidVaunion of love. In love we become one with the reality anc^ it is in this union of love that the mystery of the whole univef . is revealed to us. The mystery of the universe can never be>ynderstood unless it is revealed in love.8It is for this reason that the mystics discard all ceremony and  v (chnar) nai mandir ki masjed, ^ nai pUja ki bakred, tile tile mor makka ka&  pale pale sudina  II Vide *Banls/l*$OC*-ba8tu'   by Ksitimohan Sen. Pravaai,  B.S. 1337, Caitra. 1   The Dabistan, Cy1School of Manners,  translated by David Shea and Awthony Troyer; preliminary discourse, pp. clxiv-clxv. 2   Cf. duniyar bhojer bSji , molla k<*ji> bhavle pagal pandit jfiant   I etc  Baal-sahgit,  collecte 5  in V ividha-dharma-aahgit,  p. 213. 3   ki ha te ki hay dekhi aami mane  I firm or miche bhavi kyane  I * # * ** brahma-jnani pa*de tantra, bheVe ma'lo e paryanta,    pele na tar adi anta , maner bhrSnti gela na;    yata yogi  ffr  yoga-tapasvi, ar yata ttrtha-vSsl,   ka  re brata ek&dasl, iSnti pel a na mane  II  Ibid  , p. 247. THE BAULS OF BENGAL197 ritualism on the one hand and scholasticism and discursive erudition on the other and proceeds straight in the path of love. It is said in a song,—“ O my lord, I hear thy call, but I cannot come,—for, the sham Guru and Murshid  block my way. If that, which ought to cool the body when immersed, begins to burn all around, then, tell me, Master, where on earth I shall find a foothold!—my spiritual endeavour for ‘unity’ dies away in differences of plurality. Many are the locks in thy gate, viz.,  the scriptures, the Qur’an and rosaries ;—showiness mars the endeavour and is the greatest impediment,—Madan cries in remorse.”1It is said in another song, “As grass by no means grows on the  beaten foot-tract void, so, would they find the living ‘Sahaja’ (i.e., the Man of the heart) who leave not custom-beaten way ? The heart-flow comes out when custom is shed away. Cast away thy fears, to Bisa Bala sayeth,—the path shines out clear, when ties are all loosened.” 2Religion, it is held, cannot  be confined to ritualistic observances,—it is a functioning of the whole being extending over the entire-‘gamut of human experiences. If we try to confine religiA’n to any code of rituals and practices we shall ,be strangely fettered by the very means of liberation. If a necklace of wish-yielding gem loses its wish-yielding capacity, the necklace itself will be nothing but a chain.8We have said that as a Sahajiya sect 1 tomSr path ihaikflche mandire masjede  I ( tomar  ) dak Stine sami calte nS pai  ruikha damday gurute muriede   II etc .  Bahglar Prana-vastu    by Ksitimohan Sen,  Pravast,   B.S. 1337, Caitra , 3 gaid-gater bamjha pathe  I ajaya na ghas kona mate  II rtte pathef calen yard   I  jyanta sahaja pa(ye)n ki i&rS ? niyam rlt chad ay yd gele  I maram rase r darai mele  I!  kay *bala bhay chad re  4&{ia* I  khasle bamdhan milve diid  II  Ibid,  p. 855. , * 2  amar centa-marti h&rt    yadi hardy centa t&r  tave eman bandhan bsndhte pare   ^ (ye) chajay sadhya  fair ? lbidfp.B55. 196 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the Biuls would always advocate the Sahaja (i.e., the most natural) path for the spiritual life. It is said, “ If thou wouldst visualise that Man, thou must be natural in Sadhana and must go to the land of Sahaja.”1 (d) Body as the Microcosm of the Universe    We have seen that the Sahajiyas recognised the human  body as the microcosm of the universe and that, according to them, Sahaja as the ultimate reality resides within this human form as our true self or the ultimate nature. This is exactly the view that ha3 been contended by the Sufi mystics. The Bauls also cherished the same doctrine. The human body has always been described as the temple of the Dear One.2 In vain, they say, are people mad after going on pilgrimage,— in vain are they searching the Beloved in temples and mosques and in other places. Thus it is said, “The Man of the house is dwelling in the house,—in vain have you  become mad by searching Him outside. It is for your own fault that you are v aming about for ever. You have been to GayS, Benares (rQisi),  and Vrndavana,—and have travelled through many rivers ^nd forests and other places of pilgri mage; but say,—havd you seen in all these anything of Him of Whom you have heard ?  Through false illusion you have lost all your power of understanding,—with jewel tied in your own skirt, you have been swimming in search of it. With care you might have easily got the gem,  —but you are losing everything carelessly,—the jewel shines so near to your eyes, but alas ! you are keeping your eyes shut—and  1  yadi bhefvi   se mdnusc   iave, sddhane sahaj havi,  tor paite have sahaj deie  I  Ibid,   p. 850. 2   Cf.  MThe mosque that is built in the hearts of the saints Is the place of worship for all, for God dwells there/’  Masnavi  of Jalalu’ddin, Quoted in The Idea of Peruondiity  by Nicholson, p. 57. THE BXULS OF BENGAL you do not see.” 1Again it is said, '* Search, O brother, for the Lord, who is the kind sympathiser of the poor (dma-daradi sami),  in the company of enlightenment as thy  preceptor. The heart deceiving, blurs the eye and a single hair hides the mountain truth ! The Lord ii^ His lone seat looks. What humour enjoys my Lord at the foll^ and laughs ! Carefully proceed in your spiritual effort ; may be, you will find wealth very near; says Lalan, search your own house, truth is not very far !” 2 (e) The Man of the Heart  In the songs of the Bauls we hear much of the ‘Man of the Heart,’ Whose abode is the human body and Whose seat is the human heart. Poetically this *Man of the Heart ’ has variously been depicted as the Supreme Beloved, the  poet himself being the passionate Iovei. The songs embody throughout the pangs of separation for the ‘ Man of the Heart’ and a maddening desire to be united with Him. This Baul doctrine of divine love naturally brings in the question of its similarity or dissimilarity with the Vaisnava conception of love with which we are familiar in Bengal. In a general way it 1   Phakir-cander Baul Son git   (collected in the Vi vidha-dhar ma-sangit),  p, 220. See also—   panca bhute kja're jhagda,"dile chare khare sonar Skfitfa,   manav deher manik rnak.4take cinlam na  I  Ibid,   p. 249. 3   kotha ache re dln-daradt sami, cetan gurur sange laye khavar kar<*bhai  I cak?u andhar deler dhokay,  ^eier ade pahad lukay » ki rang a sami dekhche sadai, base nigam fhami  I ****** sumje bhave sadhan  J^ara, nikafe dhana pete para,   lalan  feaj/ nij  mofem dhora, bahu dure nai  I  Hsramani , edited by M. Mansur Uddin, Song No. 3. Cf.  also—  Smar e ghar-khanay k& biraj k<*re  I tare janam bhare ekvar dekhlem nare  II etc.  Ibid, Song  No, 5. 200 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS may be said that the intensity of divine love, which we find in the songs of the Bauls was influenced, no doubt, to a considerable extent by the general  prema  (lovp) movement of Bengal. But when we analyse the conception of love, as enunciated in t^e school of Bengal Vaisnavism, it appears that this theory of love is based on a principle of duality, ! theological, if not metaphysical. Theologically the Vaisnavas have conceived some kind of duality between God and the individual (jtva)  and this principle of duality brings in the question of devotion, which gradually culminates in the conception of passionate love. Metaphysically, however, the ... relation between God and the individual Love of the Vaisna-  vas and that of the has often been spoken of as incomprehen- Bauls compared. mi/ • i •  f  sible (acintya ); it is a relation or non dualism, and yet of dualism and this principle of dualism in non-dualism is something that transcends intellectual compre hension. In their theology, however, the conception of dualism prevails, and all poetical and metaphorical descrip tions of love seem to be based on this theological speculation. But the Baul conception of love is ultimately based on a  pantheistic or rather a panentheistic belief, and the dualism is either illusory or metaphorical. The difference between the Baul conception of love and the Vaisnava Sahajiya conception of love is however palpable. The love of the Vaisnava Sahajiyas exists between individual  beings as Radha and Krsna, but not between the individual and the Absolute; it is the love between Radha and Krsna that ultimately leads to the realisation of the Absolute. The love of the Bauls is, on the contrary, the love directly  between the Sahaja as the ultimate reality on the one hand and the individual on the other. To conform to the emo tional approach of the Bauls the Sahaja has gradually trans formed itself into a Personal God, or the Supreme Being with whom it may be possible to have personal relations. The mode of transformation of the conception of Sahaja into THE BAULS OF BENGAL 201- a Personal God has already been indicated at the very outset. This Sahaja as the Personal God is the ‘Man of the Heart.’, From this point of view the love-union of the Bauls with the *Man of the Heart ’ really means the realisation of the Sahaja or the ultimate nature of Self. The love, of which we hear so much in the songs of the Bauls, is the love  between our human personality and the Divine Personality residing in the human as the true self. The Beloved as the Divine Personality residing in us is our Sahaja-nature, and the lover is the human personality, falsely viewed as separate from this Divine Personality. Love here really implies self-love, the gradual passing away of the human into the Divine. The creed of the Bauls is thus fundamentally based on the question of self-realisation. From the days of Upanisadic mysticism this question of se.f-realisation has been the pivot round which the religious thoughts of India have mainly revolved. The minor religious sects like the different  branches of the Sahajiyas are saturated through and through with this Upanisadic spirit of self-realisation. In this spirit, however, Sufi-ism is intimately related to Upanisadic mysti cism, although the element of love which is conspicuous in Sufi-ism is not stressed in the Upanisads. It is because of this striking similarity in spirit that scholars have often postu lated influence of Indian thought on the evolution of Sflfl-ism itself. Without entering into the controversy involved in such postulations it may ba said, that the religious contents of Sufi-ism were in no way foreign to the mass-mind of India; it is for this reason that Sufi-ism was very easily acceptable to the masses. But whenever we should discuss the influence of Sufi-ism on the evolution of the minor religious sects like the Bauls of Bengal and the Santa poets of Upper and  Northern India we should never lose sight of the Indian back ground prepared by Upanisadic mysticism and the devotional movements mainly in the Vaisnavite line. The fact seems to 26-141 IB 202 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Be that the popular composite religious consciousness which was formed by an unconscious admixture of Upanisadic mysticism and the devotional fervour of the Vaisnavas was further modified by the kindred thoughts of Sufi-ism where the spirit of the Upanisads and that of later Vaisnavism are found combined together. Let us now turn our attention to the Sofl-istic conception TL , of the divinity and the ideal of love as I he conception ot the Divinity in Sufi- conceived by the Sufis. The whole ideo- *8m* logy of the Sofl mystics is also shaped and coloured on a Pantheistic or rather a Panentheistic canvas. The creation proceeds from God, the Absolute, as His self- manifested attribute, mode or modification. The sum-total of the manifested attributes of God is the universe. Hallaj, the well-known Sufi poet, who was done to death because of his novel belief of  Anal’haqq  (i.e., I am the truth), says that “the essence of God’s essence is love. Before the creation God loved Himself in absolute unity and through love revealed Himself to Himself alone. Then, desiring to behold that love-in-aloneness, that love without otherness and duality, as an external object. He brought forth from non-existence an image of Himself, endowed with all His attributes and names. This Divine image is Adam, in and by whom God „ . is made manifest—divinity objectified in Creation proceeds * ' from love. humanity.” 1We find a very beautiful echo of this Sufi-istic principle in the  JfiBna-aagar   of Ali- raja.2There it is said that the Absolute was alone in the  beginning; but it could not realise the infinite potency of love that was in it without a dual; in love therefore it created a dual out of its ownself,—and the dual was Muhammad. This first pair represent the original lover and  1   Studies in Islamic Mysticism by  Nicholson, p. 80. _, 2  Sshitya-Pariaat Series, No. 59. It is an Islamic Yogic text in Bengali which has infused Sufi-istic idea;) with the ideology of the Vaisnava Sahajiyfs and the  Nithists, tHfc BAULS OF BENGAL 203 the beloved. Because of this fact that God in His absolute aloneness could not realise His love and a second was required as the beloved, love cannot be realised in the world without there being a pair.1The - whole universe thus  proceeds from the Love of God. Love is the underlying  principle of the cosmic process as a whole. The fact has very nicely been put in the  JUdna-sagar,  mentioned above. It is said there that the universe has its origin in love, and the chaos is systematised into the cosmos through the bond of love. There is love between fire and air, between earth and water; without this love neither heaven, nor earth, nor the nether world would have originated at all. There is love between heaven and the skies, between heaven and earth,  between hell and the nether world in which it lies, and thus are the three worlds supported in love. There is love  between the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars and in lov^ are they all fixed into the sky above. There is love  between the sea and its water, between the moon and the night and the sun and the day;—the tree is fixed to the earth  by its root, the black-bee is attached to the lotus, fish is 1    prathame dchila prabhu ek niranjan  I  prema-rase duvi  /^ai/a  yugal span  II  prem-rase bhuli prabhu jahake srjila  I mohammad buli nam gaurave rakhila  Ii *****  pratham bhavuk prabhu bhavirii janmila   I mohammad k<*ri nam trijagate haila  II bhavak bulie prabhu dr   se bhaVini  | ei se yugal nam dharila dpani  II ***** bhavak bhavinl ndm buliye yugal   I  yug haite siddhi karma hay je sakal  II  yugal  nfi haile k*ha na pare calite   1  yug bine prem raa nd pare bhugite   II ek ek* prem nd hay   feadacan I  yugal haile yogya pirlti bhajan   II  Jnana-sdgar, pp. 24-25- Cf. Rrhadaranyako-panisat, see infra  ch. xiv, 204 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  bound to the water, man is bound to the woman—and all in love. The body is in love with the mind and the mind with the vital wind. In love does the mother conceive the child, in love does the earth hold fast the root of the tree, in love does the tree hold fast the branches and the flowers and fruits,—in love does the fruit accumulate juice in its kernel,— thus is the whole creative process supported in love.1 This Love of God as the raison d'etre  of the whole universal process brings in the question of  Sclf**T6£lll8EtlOn of *|#  j *  « « «« i fM« God through self- selr-revelation tor selr-realisation. lhe manifestation in crea- 1  l • ,i_  tion. whole universe thus serves as a mirror  where the love* and beauty of the Absolute are reflected.2This manifestation of the love and beauty of the Absolute has reached perfection in the personality of man and it is for this reason that “Man is the microcosm in which all attributes (of the Absolute) are united, and in him alone does the Absolute become conscious of itself in all its diverse aspects. To put it in another way, the Absolute, having completely realised itself in human nature, returns into itself through the medium of human nature; or more intimately God and man become one in the Perfect Man—the enrap tured prophet or saint—whose religious function as a media tor between man and God corresponds to his metaphysical function as a unifying principle by means of which the opposed terms of reality and appearance are harmonised.”3 It has been said in the  Ibnu l-Arabi  that “When God willed in respect of His beautiful names (attributes), which are  beyond enumeration, that their essence ( a'yan ) or if you wish, you may say “His essence *( aynuhu )’—should be seen, He caused them to be seen in a microccsmic being {^awn jami')   which, inasmuch as it is endowed with existence, contains the whole object of vision, and through which the inmost 1  Jfiana-sagar,    p. 26,  pp. 33-35. Cf.   the poem Philosophy oj Love  by Shelley* *  Dabistan , Vol. Ill,  p. 227. 3  Nicholson, loc, cit THE BAULS OF BENGAL 20$ consciousness ( sivt)  of God becomes manifested to Him.”1 Man thus represents in him a synthesis of the create and the increate,—of the finite and the infinite. As the best manifestation of the life-principle man serves as the connecting link between the noume- nln'.sthi finite and non and the phenomenal creation. Man the infinite—as human thU8 synthesises within his nature two aspects and divine.  J r of existence, which are called in Sufi-ism the nasut,  which is his human personality and the lahut,   which is his Divine personality. The pangs of separation from which humanity suffers follow from the false notion of dualism between this human personality and the Divine in man. This conception of the Divine and the human combined in man may well be affiliated with the Upanisadic conception of the Paramatman  and the  JiVatman.  They are like two  birds living in friendly terms on the same tree,—one of them (i.e.,  Jioalman)  tastes the sweet fruit of world-experience, but the other never touches it, but gazes on and on.2This Divine in us is dearer to us than our son, than wealth—than everything else.8Immortal becomes the beloved of the mein who adores this inner self as the dearest one.4That Divine personality is the ear of our ears, eye of our eyes, word of our words, mind of our minds and life of our lives.5 He resides in the heart of man and is to be known in the heart of man.0 But while the Upanisads speak of the love between the Divine personality and the human personality more or less metaphorically, the whole emphasis of the Sufis and the Bauls is on love. 1  Quoled by Nicholson, loc. cit  2    Mun(fakopani$at   (3. 1 . 1 ); Sveta0 (4.6). Cj.  the poem Two Birds  by Tagore In Sonar Tari . 3    Bfhadaranyaka  (1.4.8). *  Ibid   (1.4.8). 5 Kena *(1.2). « Sveta 9  (4.17).  2% OBSCJJRE RELIGIOUS CULTS Through ecstasy of the purest love the mystic passes in Love brings about tlie 1dnd>  which is the passing-away of the union between tke human in the Divine. The fire of love human personality and the Divine perso-  burns into ashes the bundle of complexes nality. from which emerges the false notion of the 4I~ness and through pangs of heart the ice of ‘I-ness’ melts into flow of tears and the T in man and the ‘He’ in man  become one and the same. This is the truth which was  perceived by Hallaj in his mystic trance, and which inspired him to exclaim to the world abroad  Ana I haqq  —‘I and the truth are one’ ! In such a moment did he declare :—  I am He whom I love, and He whom I love is I. We are two spirits dwelling in one body, If thou seest me, thou seest Him ; And if thou seest Him, thou seest us both. So long as there is even an iota of dualism, the door of the divine temple remains banged against us and our Eternal Beloved dwelling within refuses to respond to our call. It is only after the melting away of the human personality that the door is opened and the screen before our eyes is removed leaving the lover and the beloved unified in bond of infinite love.1 The Divine Personality, Who is the eternal Beloved of the human personality and with whom man becomes one in his ecstasy of love, is the indwelling principle not only of the 1  This truth has been very poetically and nicely illustrated by the Sufi poet Jalalu’ddm Rum'i through the following story in his  Masnaoi  :—  “A man knocked at the dour of his friend. The latter asked : 'Who art thou, my dear ?’—‘It is 1 —'In this case, be off ; 1cannot at present receive thee; there is no place at my board for one who is still rau>; such a man cannot be sufficiently dressed (that is matured) and cured of hypocrisy, but by the fire of separation and refusal *The unfortunate man departed. He employed a whole year in travelling, consuming himself in the flames of desire and affliction, caused by the absence of his friend. Matured and perfected by his long trial he again approached the door of his friend and knocked modestly, fearful that an uncivil word might again fall from his own lips.—‘Who is there was asked from the interior of the house —‘Dear friend, it is thyself who art at the door’.—‘Because it is myself, enter to-day; this house can contain no other than IV- Vide ,  Dabist6n,   Vol. Ill, p. 292, F.N. I. THE BAULS OF BENGAL 207 self, but also of the not-self- It is for this reason that the sights and sounds of the external world always bear love- message of the Beloved to the responsive heart of the mystic lover. In love are we all separated from the Beloved with whom we were once one,—and in love again shall we  proceed in the regressive way and realise our true original self being one with the Beloved. In the conception of the ‘Man of the heart’ of the Bauls we find a happy mixture of the conception of the Paramatman  of the Upanisads, the Sahaja of the Sahajiyas and the Sufl-istic conception of the Beloved- The mystic attitude of the Bauls is best expressed in the wonder how that Infinite has objectified itself in the finite,—how through the whole being of the finite that Infinite is express ing itself in infinite ways and thereby Biul* SQfto and tIie realising itself in infinite varieties. It is not through any intellectual speculation,—  but through the ecstasy of love that the truth has revealed itself to the lover, that there is ‘some one unknown’ living within his corporeal form. Thus the Biul says,—'* Methinks,  by tKis time I have become mad; otherwise, why should I feel so troubled inside every now and then ?  When 1 remain quiet with the undisturbed mind, I see that Some One speaks loudly from within,—‘I am here, here I am’ ! In the dimness of the sky of my heart, methinks, I see Some One come to my side; He moves, He speaks, He plays,— He smiles,—He indulges in hundred other sports !. . . If  The ‘unknown bird'. 1 t0 leaVe Hi™ °ff ®nd live alone.I cannot; it seems, He has settled His dwelling in the core of my heart.”1It is like an 'unknown BSul song, collected in Vividha-dharma-safigit,    pp. 228-29. Cf.  also: —   manus haoyay cate haoyay phire,  manus haoyar Bane ray    deher mSjhe Sche re aonar mSnuf 4&kfc kotha kfly  t  tomSr maner madhye Sr ek man Sche go — 208 OBSCURp RELIGIOUS CULTS  bird’ that comes within the cage of this corporeal form,— and it i3 the greatest wonder with the Baul, how the ‘unknown bird’ is playing its eternal play of coming and going,—>the play of self-manifestation and of returning once more to itself.1Though the bird lives in the cage of the human body, it floats in the boundless sky high above.2The life-long search of the Baul is for this ‘unknown bird’, which is felt to be very near, singing within and enchanting us by its beauty and sweetness of song,—but which we are not being able to find out. It is always playing the game of hide and seek, as it were. In the pang of his heart the Baul says,—“Where has the ‘Bird of Beauty’ hidden itself by deceiving me ? 1roam about in search,—but cannot find it out,—it has flown far away. . . . Very affectionate is that bird, and it comes of itself and invites me to talk, if even I forget it; but if I attempt to catch hold of it, it escapes my grasp,—and alas ! it has made me mad !  tnmi man miiao sei maner sathe  I deher majhe ache re manus dakle kotha hay  II ~ H&ramani,  p. 2. 1   khamcdr bhitar acin pdkhi kemne 5se ySy  | —   Haramani , p. 4. 2   maner manuray pakhi gahlnete cadere   nadir jai iukhaye gelere  pskhl Sunye udan chsdere ma^ir deha layre  I—   Ibid  , pp. 4-5. C/. “The bird of (the soul of) my heart is a holy bird ; the ninth heaven, its dwelling; Of the cage of the body, vexed; of the world, stated. From the head of this dust-heap (the world), the bird of the soul how flieth ? At the door of that threshold, its nest, the (mighty) falcon (worldly) attachments maketh. When the bird of the heart fleeth, its abode is the lofty Sidrah tree; The resting-place of our falcon (soul), know (to be) the  pinnacle of the ninth heaven (God's throne), etc.  —   Dtv&n-i-H&fiz , translated by Clarke, ftirt II,  p. 772 . THE BAULS OF BENGAL 209 “O my brethren, if any of you have seen that ‘Bird of Beauty,’ catch it once for me; if I once can get hold of it, 1 shall keep it tamed with care for ever in the cage of my heart.”1It is after this‘some one unknown* that the Baul has run mad.2The vision of the unknown, the call of the Infinite, the secret touch of the Beloved have made the Baul  peculiarly indifferent to the social life on earth,—and have made him come outside the limitations of earthly consi derations. It is the beauty of the Formless residing within all forms that has entrapped the heart of the Baul—and he weeps and weeps. This incessant weeping in secret gives him a peep into the beauty that pervades the whole universe  by its matchless glow and grandeur. In such a state when he looks at the sky, the divine beauty appears before him floating with the clouds; the splendour of that beauty moves from star to star and the heart is illumined by its flash.3Through the whole cosmic process the one Lord-Beloved is playing the  play of self-expression and self-realisation, endless is His sport—incomprehensible is its mystery.4 But though the Beloved is pervading the whole universe, The 'unknown' to be ^>est Way finding Him OUt is tO ,e“£l'e<1and realised search within and to realise Him through the realisation of the self. Like the full moon He is in the sky of our heart,—but heaps of clouds have gathered over the moon; spiritual endeavour consists in driving the clouds away with the instructions of the true 1 amay diye pharnkj*rfiper pakht, hothay lakalo  I ami ghure byadai dyakha na pai, udiye ye palalo  I etc. Song of KgngSl Harinfith, collected in Vividha-dharma-Sangit,    pp. 179-80. 8  amare pagal   ^a’re  ye  jan palay, kotha gele paVa tay  I etc.  —Song of Kfing 8 l_Harin£th, /bid, p. 215. 3  Song of Kings! Harinith,  Ibid,    p. 216. * saimjir lila bujhvi k*ydpa kcman   fcare I  Mate naire sima kon aamay k°n rup dhare  I Song of Lalan Phakir,  Hardmani,   Song No, 28. 210 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  preceptor and to let the moon shine unobstructed in its own lustre.1In the mystery of the self lies the mystery of the Lord and to know the former is to know the latter.2It has  been said by Kangal Harinath,—“O the mad, thy ‘Bird of Beauty’ is sitting in its nest in the bower of thy heart, find it Out there; offer it fruits of devotion and water of love, and it will be tamed for ever.”3Phakir-cand says in a song,—“O my mind, let me tell thee,—the ‘Man of the heart’ is in the heart and search for Him there; why art thou roaming from country to country ?—never have I seen a greater fool than thee.”4“In man resides the Lord, why hast thou not known Him with thy common sense ? .... In eternal union does that Beloved dally in the heart,—He dallies in 1   ache purnimar cand meghe dhak<*  I cander nice bindu sak.hd,  , megher dde cand rayeche megh fete cand uday kara;   seda eval koihar kotha   I   madan bale andhakare banda haye rali eko,    yahar dche mursid sakha sei  se  pave cander dekha  I  Ibid,  Song No. 84. 2 apanar janma lata  ,  jana ge tar kothd,   lalan k<*y have iese sSni paricay    I Ibidy  Song No. 12. See also Songs Nos. 16, 17.  ydr nam alek manus aleke ray  | iuddha prema-rasik bine ke tare pay   I ras rati anusare, nigudha bhed jante pare, ratite mati jhare , mul khanda hay   1 lilay nirafijan amar, adh lile kaHena pracdr,  janle apanar janmer bicar, sav jana hay   1   etc. Ibidl    Song No. 36. Bdubsong  , collected in the Vividha-dharma-sangit,    p. 180.  yakhan amar maner manus fyothay pai  I  ydr tare mana-hede prarf kande sarvadSi   I re   I   *****  phikir-cand k<*y manare tomare,   o tor maner   manuj hrde ache, khumje ne tare;   kyan ghure byadas de£ bideSe, ydman hdva dr to dekhi nai  Ire I Song of Praphulla Bandyopadhyaya, disciple of Phikir-cfind,  Ibid,  pp. 214-15. It may be noted that the disciples of Phikir-c|nd used to compose songs of their own in the name pf the Curu, C/. also—  3 4 THE BAULS OF BENGAL 211 the heart with all the gates shut—and from the side of man, he (man) shuts up all the doors of the chamber of his heart with the strength of love and therein gazes at the beauty of the Beloved.”1It is the screen of illusion,—the shade over the eyes that prevents us from beholding the beauty of the ‘Man of the heart’; it is this illusion that lengthens the distance between man and the ‘Unknown One.’ Man often feels that it is not he, but that ‘Unknown One’ that is moving and working through him,—but yet alas,—because of the shade over the eyes,—he cannot catch at the ‘Unknown One.’2‘In man,’ says Lalan, ‘resides that Jewel of Man,’—  but ah me, that Jewel 1could not recognise I’8Lalan says in another beautiful song that ‘change^ Divine beauty to be , , , . 1 • 1 • 1   1 r 1 • realised through the less beauty resides within the house or this medium of the human . I i* 1   .1   1 . form. man,—it is to be realised there. It is through the medium of the human form that the divine beauty is to be realised. The truth is metaphori cally explained in the following the lines :—“At the gate of that ‘Divine Beauty’ there is the revered Sri-rupa (i.e., the human form and personality), and the lock and the key foe ‘Divine Beauty’ are in his hand; one, who will be a devotee of the Sri-rupa, will obtain the lock and the key; Phakira Lalan says that such people will be able to get hold of that one who escapes all grasp.’’1 1   manuse gosami biraj  £are, kyari cinline samanya jHane re  I # ■** #* nitya yoge sami bihare, bihare hfd baddha kflre;   o hrd baddha  i^a’re rager jore , /» 2 re re re rup nehare —  Song by an unknown author,  Ibid,  p. 247. 2   Vide  Song of Lslan,  Haramani, Song  No. 35. 9  ei manuse achae re man  yare bale manus-ratan , lalan bale peye se dhan parlam na cinte  I  Ibid  , Song No. 6 . 4   rUper ghare afal rup bihare ceye dekh na tare  I 212 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS The love celebrated in the Baul songs is mutual, inasmuch as it induces on the one hand the Infinite Absolute to find self-expression in the finite and, relative nature of the manifested world, including human personality which is the highest expression of the Absolute,—and, on the other hand, inspires man to find his true nature by gradually dissolving his separate existence and passing away into his original  being in God. We have seen that man is the marginal  being, or a finite-infinite being; when associated with  principles of illusory defilement, he passes on to his purely finite nature of animal existence, when he suffers bondage on all sides; but when he purifies himself in love, the  principles of defilement in him being all burnt away, he  passes again on to his true divine nature and becomes liberat ed by transcending all limitations of finitude. In such a state, when the apparent difference between humanity and divinity is totally removed through love, man becomes one with the Reality itself. It is in such a state that the Baul exclaims that the self is everything—everything proceeds from the self.’ o se  ruper darajay, iri-rup mahdiay,    ruper tala-cavi tar hate sada ;  ye jan iri-rup gata have, tala-cavi pdve,    phakir lalan bale adhara dharve tdrd   U  Ibid,   Song No. 7. 1  bicar   feariya  dekhi aakalei ami   I * * * *  ami haite alia raaul, ami haite  fcu/# *  ama haitei daman jamin, ama haitei sav   (bhula ?)  I  marva marva de&er lok rnor katha yadi lay,    apani cinile deha hoda cina ydy  I Vicitra,   B. S. 1335, Caitra. In the same strain did the Sufi poet exclaim—   None lives but his life is from mine, and every willing soul is obedient to my will ; And there is no speaker but tells his tale with my words, nor any seen but sees with the sight of mine eye ; And no silent listener but hears with my hearing, nor any one ‘ that grasps but with my strength and might ; THE BAULS OF &ENGAL 21$ But we should notice that though love is the main reli gious mode of the Bauls, the element of yoga is in no way less important in their Sadhana. The element of love is generally associated with elements of yoga in the Baul sect as it is in Sufi-ism. The modus operandi  of the Bauls who take to the Sadhana of the ‘four moons’ is essentially yogic. But elements of yoga are resorted to also by the devout Bauls as a process of purification and concentration. (io) Poet Tagore and the Baul songs The Baul songs, with the ingrained spirit of freedom, the mystic conception of divinity and love and also with the charm of their tune, leading the mind to supreme renunciation and indifference, had strong influence in the evolution of the poetico-religious mind of poet Tagore. Tagore says in The Religion of Man  that in his youth he could not harmonise his inner spiritual demands with his relationship with the monotheistic church with which he was closely associated. After a long struggle with the feeling that he was ‘using a mask to hide the living face of truth,’ he severed his connection with the church. “About this time,” says the poet, “one day 1chanced to hear a song from a beggar belonging to the Baul sect of Bengal What struck me in this simple song was a religious expression that was neither grossly concrete, full of crude details, nor meta  physical in its rarefied transcendentalism. At the same time it was alive with an emotional sincerity. It spoke of an intense yearning of the heart for the divine which is in Man and not in the temple, or scriptures, in images and symbols. The worshipper addresses his songs to Man the ideal ”l And in the whole creation there is none save me that speaks or sees or hears. The Idea of Personality in Sufi-ism    by Nicholson, p. 21. Cf.   also  Dabistdn , Vol. 1, Preliminary Discourses, p. clxvi, *The Religion of Man , Ch. VII, The Man of My Heart  , p, 110. 214 ' OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Again he says,—“Since then I have often tried to meet these people, and sought to understand them through their songs, which are their only form of worship. One is often surprised to find in many of these verses a striking originality of sentiment and diction; for, at their best, they are spon taneously individual in their expressions.”1 In another place the poet says,—“Those, who have gone through my writings, know that 1have expressed my love towards the Baul songs in many of my writings. When I was in Silaidaha 1would frequently meet these Bauls and I had occasion to have discourses with them. I have fitted the tune of the Bauls to many of my songs, and in many other songs the tune of the Bauls has consciously or unconsciously  been mixed up with other musical modes and modifications. It will be easily understood from the above that the tune as well as the message of the Bauls had at one time absorbed my mind as if they were its very element.”3 The conception of the ‘Man of the heart’, as confessed  by Tagore himself, deeply stirred his poetic mind even in his youth. Tagore, with the Upanisadic background of his mind prepared in his early days by his father as well as by the whole environment of his life, naturally tried to assimilate the message of the Bauls with the Upanisadic doctrines. We have indicated in the introduction that through all his songs and poems Tagore sings of an Infinite Being, Who is seeking His self-expression through the whole creative  process for self-realisation,—and the best expression of the Divine personality is through the human personality, and throughout the life-process of man there is going on this continual process of love-making between the human and the Divine. This human personality and the Divine persona lity, both of which remain combined in the nature of man, 1   The Religion of Man, p,  III. 2  Foreword to  Haramani  by Tagore. THE BAULS OF BENGAL 215 are the ‘I’ and the ‘You’, the ‘Lover’ and the ‘Beloved’ so much spoken of by poet Tagore in his songs and poems. In singing of this ‘I’ and the ‘You’ in man, between man and the ‘Man of the heart’, Tagore has been the greatest of the Bauls of Bengal. THE NATH CULT PART III CHAPTER VIII L egend    and   H istory Another obscure religious cult, that has influenced the growth of Bengali literature to a considerable extent from an ealry period of its history, is Nathism. As an All-India reli gious movement Nathism enjoyed and is still enjoying immense popularity and it influenced the growth of many other modern Indian literatures in the early and the middle periods. The religious and literary history of  Nathism in Bengal is, therefore, intimately connected with that of many other provinces of India as also of the Hima layan regions like Nepal and Tibet. There are many yogic texts in Sanskrit either directly ascribed to the Nath-gurus (mainly to Gorakh-nath), or somehow associated with the cult. The Nath literature in the vernaculars consists mainly of longer narrative poems of the nature of ballads and also stray songs. A general survey of the nature and extent of  Nath literature with particular reference to Bengali will be found in the Appendix (B). (i) Origin of the Nath Cult  The problem of the origin and development of the Nath cult in India, including the Nath movement of Bengal, is as yet shrouded in the mist of legends and myths. From the heaps of traditional accounts it is possible for us only to form an idea of the extent of popularity which the cult enjoyed and is still enjoying in the soil of India; but no definite history of its origin and development can be constructed with the data that we have at our disposal. We have, however, made it clear on, several occasions that the historical study is not our  220 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  primary concern,—we are rather interested in the religious contents relating to our literature; but as the mythical and semi-historic accounts will help us to a great extent to under stand the religious nature of the cult, we propose to make here a brief study of them. The Nath cult is essentially a yogic cult; but among the innumerable yogic sects of India the cult is characterised as the Nath cult due mainly to the fact that its stalwarts gene rally bear the title of ‘Nath’, and the word Nath has been dealt with in some of the standard Sanskrit texts as a philo sophic concept for a state of supreme existence. Various theories are current among scholars as to the nature and origin of this cult. Some take it to be essentially a crypto- Buddhist or an esoteric Buddhist cult, which later seceded from the Buddhist fold and transformed itself into a Saivite cult. Others, on the other hand, are of opinion that the  Nath cult is essentially a Saivite cult, which, in course of its revolution, was assimilated within esoteric Buddhism and it is for this reason that we find in it a hotchpotch of esoteric Buddhism and yogic Saivism. But before indulging in such speculations we should first of all be sure of what the Nath cult stands for. The Nath cult seems to represent a particular  phase of the Siddha cult of India. This Siddha cult is a very old religious cult of India with its main emphasis on a psycho chemical process of yoga, known as the Kaya-sadhana or the culture of body with a view to making it perfect and immuta  ble and thereby attaining an immortal spiritual life. To escape death, as we shall see, was the central point round which grew the details of the Siddha India*Siddfla cuIt of cult, and the Siddhas in general hold  “that death may either be put off ad libitum    by a special course of restrengthening and revitalising the  body so as to put it permanently en rapport   with the World of sense, or be ended definitively by dematerialising and spiritualising the body, according to prescription, so that it LEGEND AND HISTORY 221 disappears in time in a celestial form from the world of sense, and finds its permanent abode in the transcendental glory of God.”1This Siddha school seems to be closely associated with the Indian school of Rasayana and it is some times held that the Siddha school was originally based on the theories and practices of the Rasayana school.2This Rasa yana school has been accepted as a school of Indian philo sophy in the Sarva-darsana-samgraha of   Sayana-Madhava. The school is styled there as the  Rasesoara-darsana  and the doctrines of the school are explained with reference to well- known texts on Rasayana. The school is, however, recog nised here as a Saivite school. Rasayana or alchemy is an ancient science of the pre-Christian origin having immense  popularity in different parts of the world. In India, however, instead of being-purely a chemical science, it developed theo logical speculations and already in fairly old medical texts we find references to the view that siddhi  or perfection can be attained by making the body immutable with the help of  Rasa  (i.e., some chemical substance). There is a popular tradition that the Siddhas were ‘ ‘a band of death-defying theriacal and therapeutic alchemists indebted in all respects to Bhoga, a pre-Christian Taoist immigrant from China, who, in his methods of keying up the body of impure matter through ‘reverberation’ and ‘projection’ to the pitch of  practically cancelling demise, merely sought to promulgate the lesser athanasic precepts of Lao-tse, since the vital objec tive of the Tao-Teh-King is the transfiguration of the immor talised ethereal body into a permanent garment of celestial virtue, in order to fit it to associate to eternity with the Tao.”8 1   Videt Tle Doctrinal Culture and Tradition of the Siddhas  by Dr. V. V* Raman SSstrl, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.A.S., M.R.A.S., in the Cultural Heritage of     India,  Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Memorial, Vol. 11, pp, 303-319. * For the details of the fundamental points of similarity between the Nlth school and the school*of Rasayana, see infra , Ch. IX, Sec, V, 3 Dr. Raman Sistrl, Loc. c it. •222 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS. CULTS Patanjali, the great exponent of yoga, who flourished most probably some time b etween the second and the sixth century A.D.,1says in the Kaivalya-pada  of his yoga- aphorism that siddhi  can be attained even by the application of herb or medicine ( ausadhi ).2In the commentary on this aphorism Vyasa and Vacaspati say that this siddhi  by ausadhi  refers to the schools of yogins who attained perfection with the help of Rasayana.8We shall presently see that the  Rasa  of the Rasayana school was replaced, in the cult of the  Nath Siddhas, by the nectar oozing from the moon situated in the Sahasrara and the whole chemical process was changed into a psycho-chemical process of'Hatha-yoga. From the above it seems plausible to hold that the siddha marga  evolved gradually from the ancient school of Rasayana. The theory of the Sun and the Moon as expounded by the Nath Siddhas4 and the principle of being immortal by drinking the nectar oozing from the Moon are found explained in the second Brahmana of the  Brhad-jabalopanisat:’  Of course the  Brhad-jabalopanisat   is not one of those Upanisads that are recognised by scholars to be authentic and fairly early in origin, and therefore the occurrence of the principles of the  Nath cult in this text may not help us much in ascertaining the exact time when these doctrines were prevalent; but the fact will at least hint at an antiquity of the tradition. What we can be sure of on this point is that the science of Rasayana was accepted much prior to the advent of Patanjali by a section of yogins for the attainment of the immutability of the body and for the attainment of many other supernatural 1  See  History of Indian Philosophy  by Dr. S. N. Dasgupta, Vol. 1 , 3    janmau&adhi-mantra-tapah-samadhijah si dd hay ah  I 3   ausadhibhih asura-bhavane$u rasayanely evam adi etc.  IComm, of Vyasa. ausadhi-si dd him aha—‘tasura-bhavane$u'>iti   1   manufyo hi  fyutaicin nimxttud asura-bhavanam upa&raptah kamaniydbhir asuta-kanyabhirupanitam   rasayanam upayujyajard-maranatvam anyaica siddhir asadayati ihaiva Va r a say a - nopayogena  I  yatha mandavyo munih, rasopayogacfi'bindhyavas~t iti  IVacaspati. 4   Vide infra.   6   Vide infra .  powers and that escape from death through the perfection *>f body was regarded by these yogins as the highest achievement in religious life. As this is essentially the  position held also by the Nath Siddhas, the history of the Nath yogins may be traced back to a period prior to Patanjali. From the above discussions it will be clear that any hypothesis about the possibility of the Nath cult being originally an esoteric Buddhist cult and seceding from Buddhism in course of time to assume a Saivite air is based  purely on a misconception of the fundamental nature of the cult. Such a misconception arises also from the reliance on some popular traditions current in Eastern India. In Eastern India, particularly in the Himalayan regions (in Nepal and Tibet), many of the traditions of the Nath Siddhas got mixed up with those of the Buddhist Siddhacaryas. The reason for such a mixture and confusion is not very far to seek. If we analyse and examine the different schools of esoterism, which go by the name of Tantric Buddhism, or Saktaism, or Saivism, Rearms for the mis- we shall find that in their composite practi- crypto-Buddhistic £ cal nature they contain mainly two elements : gin of the  Nsth cult. one js  paraphernalia of rites and  rituals of a heterogeneous nature, which are neither Hjndu nor Buddhistic in origin, but represent a common stock of  heritage to all the popular religious systems of India; the other element is the element of yoga in its various forms, which also is a common heritage. We have hinted before1 that at different periods in the history of Indian religion these  paraphernalia of practices together with the various yogic elements got themselves associated with the different schools of Hindu and Buddhist philosophy, giving rise to the different esoteric schools. This fact has been responsible for so much mixture and confusion among the views and practices of these esoteric schools. LEGEND AND HISTORY 223 1   Supra,  introduction* 224 OBSCURE REUGIOUS CULTS If we are to recognise any fundamental philosophy in the Hindu Tantric systems, we should say that it is the philo sophy of Siva and Sakti with all ontological and cosmological speculations on them ; and we have seen before that all the yogic practices of the Tantric Buddhists have also grown with the fundamental ideology of Prajna and Upaya, which is essentially the same as that of Siva and Sakti. The tradi tional belief of Hinduism is that Siva is the original instructor  of all yoga,—the Tantric Buddhists also General similarity in ideas and practices  believe that Lord Duddna, or rather lord  among the esoteric / •/ii •iii 1 schools. Vajra-sattva (or rlevajra, or Heruka), who is conceived just as Siva, is the original instructor of all secret yoga. The traditional belief of the  Naths is that Adi-nath is the first in the list of the chronology of the Naths,—and all secrets of yoga proceed from him. This Adi-nath is none but Siva of the Hindus', and Buddha, in the form of the Vajra-sattva, of the Buddhists; and as a matter of fact we frequently come across the epithets of ‘Adi- natha’ and ‘Bhuta-natha’ applied to the Vajra-sattva or Hevajra in the Buddhist Tantras as they are frequently applied to Siva in the Hindu Tantras. We have also pointed out that some of the important Buddhist Tantras are introduced as a dialogue between the lord and the compassionate lady just as in many Hindu Tantras, and according to the literary traditions of the Naths also, we find that Matsyendra-nath (the first among the human Gurus) received the secret of yoga in the form of a fish when it was being disclosed to the Goddess in a castle on the KsJroda-sea. The theory of the Sun and the Moon of the Buddhists has correspondences in the Nath cult. It is because of the general similarities of this nature that Tantric Buddhism seems allied to the other yogic sects. The final state of yoga is called the Sahaja state or Sahaja-samadhi 1   Cj. sal^alcr pradhain siddha bandiva bhola-nath.  I Gopbcandrer Sannyas,   by Sukur Mahamm&d (C.U.), p. 397, LEGEND AND HISTORY 225 or $unya-samadhi by the Buddhist Sahajiyas and this idea is to be met with also in the literature ascribed to the Naths. In the two versions of the  A kula-oira-tantra1 (authorship attri  buted to Matsyendra-nath) we find a detailed description of the state of Sahaja; there it is defined as a state of perfect equili  brium, which transcends all our perceptual knowledge with  positive and negative attributes. In that state of perfect quietude the yogin becomes one with the whole universe and realises a non-dual existence. In such a state “He himself is the goddess, himself the God, himself the disciple, himself the preceptor; he is at once the meditation, the meditator and the divinity (meditated upon).”2It is very easy to see that this Sahaja is the same as the Sahaja described in the Buddhist Tantras and the Buddhist Dohas and songs. In the vernacular lite rature of the Nath cult we frequently meet with this concep tion of Sahaja, particularly in the old Hindi text Gorafyh-bodh   and in similar literature of Carpati and other Siddhas.3In the  Hathayoga-pradipika  (which is a standard text on Hatha- yoga) we find that the Buddhist theory of the four kinds of Sunya, oiz.,& Qnya, Ati-sunya, Maha-sunya and Sahaja-sflnya (or Sarva-sQnya)4is associated with the four stages of sound  produced through yogic practices.1’Again, the Nath litera- 1  See  Kaula-jfiana nirnaya,   edited by Dr. P C. Bagchi, Calcutta Sanskrit Series,  No. III. 3  svayarp devl svayarp devah so a yam 6i?yah avaya.ri guru )i I it >ayam dhyanam sVayam dhy3tS sVayam sarvatra devata  II *(i4feu/a, A, p. 26).i  sa brahma aa hariicaiva aa rudraS caive'ivaras taths  II sa iivah iaivato devah aa ca aomarka-iankarah   I sa viSakhyo mayurakso arhanio budham eva ca  II  svayarp devi svayani devah svayam iisyah svayam guruh  I  svayam dhyanam svayam dhyata svayam sarveivaro guruh  II (Akula,   B, pp. 116-118). Vide   Dr. Bagchi's introduction, pp. 55-56. 3  See the text of the GorakJh-bodh   as quoted by Dr. Mohan Singh in his Work    on Gorakhnath and also similar literature of the mediaeval yogic saints illustratod at the end of the same text. *Kide  supra,    pp. 51-53. 5 Vide ,  Hatha-yoga~pradipia,   lyangar’s edition (4. 7G#75), 29—J41 |B 226 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS ture (including the Sanskrit and vernacular texts) is sometimes characterised by a spirit of heterodoxy and criticism similar to that of the Tantric Buddhists. It is found further that in the texts ascribed to the Naths holy places of pilgrimage located within the human organism are described under several categories, viz., Pitha, Upapilha, Ksetra, Upak.setra, Sandoha,   etc., and this is the custom also with the Buddhist and the Hindu Tantras.1As for the technical yoga terminology, it can be said that they have been common to all the esoteric yogic schools. The most important thing common to all schools of eso- terism is the culture of the body or Kaya-sadhana through the  processes of Hatha-yoga. We have seen before that though Kaya-sadhana was not the final aim of the Buddhist and the Vaisnava Sahajiyas, the process of Kaya-sadhana was regarded in both the sects as an indispensable accessory for the realisa tion of the Sahaja-nature as supreme bliss or supreme love. The fact of such a similarity and mixture has been responsible for the frequent association of  •J of thTNslh cull ite the Nath cult with the cult of the Tantric Buddhists in myths and legends. But  judging from the literary records and the legends and tradi tions still prevalent among the yogins of the Nath order it appears that the Nath cult has grown with a general air of Saivism. It is noticeable that not only is there the tradition of Mahadeva or Siva being the original instructor of the cult,  but that Gorakh-nath, the most renowned and most impor tant yogin of the sect, has frequently been identified with Siva or deified as such. The deity of the cult, where tradi tional or iconographic record of the deity is available, is found to be Siva; the places of pilgrimage of the yogins of this order2are generally of Saivite importance and the temples there often contain an image of Siva or the phallic symbol of the 1 Vide, Kaala-jnana-nirnaya,  introduction, p. 57. * For detailed descriptions of such plac *««ee Briggs, Chs. V and VI, L egend   ANb H istory lord. Again in dre3s and other accessories the Nath yogins are depicted just like images of Siva, who himself is the greatest of yogins. The Siddhas of the Nath cult are some times described in vernacular literature as fond of intoxicants like Siddhi  and Gfifija  just as Siva is.1* Vam , Vam’  is the  peculiar mystic sound of the Nath yogins as it is' of Siva himself. It is also noticeable that in the Vallala-carita   the priests of the Yogi caste of Bengal have been spoken of as rudraja brahmana  (i.e., Brahmins deriving their origin from Rudra or Siva),—and as a matter of fact the Yogis of Bengal even in the present day speak of themselves as  belonging to the iSiva-gotra (i.e.,  the Siva-lineage).2 But inspite of all these, the general similarity in tone and practice has been responsible for the confused identifica tion of the later Buddhist apostles with the Nath yogins, and it may be probably for this reason that Matsyendra-nath, who is taken to be the first of the human exponents of the  Nath cult, has been deified in Nepal as Avalokitesvara, and even at the present day the Buddhists of that land hold annual procession in honour of the deified Matsyendra-nath. It is also perhaps for this reason that Confusion about the . , . 1   • • 1   -r   i t-i Nsth Siddhas and Matsyendra-nath is identihed in libetan the Buddhist Siddha- . • •,i j • _ / i • i csryas. traditions with Lui-pa (or Luyi-pa), who is generally taken to be the first among the Buddhist Siddhacaryas.1In the Sanskrit commentary on the Carya-song No. 21 we find a quotation of a few lines 1  As a typical instance we may cite the following description of Hidipha or JilandharipS in the version of the Gopi-candrer Sannyas    by Sukur Mahammad :— takhane aniya dila siddker jhuti  II sooa hucla siddha haste kart nila  I S 006   man dhutrar phal tathe mi&aila  II sooa man   fcac  Id. siddha ekfltra kariy&  I mukhe tale dila nath iiva nam liya  II (C. U. edition, Part 1 1 , pp. 431-432). * Vide   introduction to  Mayanamattr Gan    by Dr. N. K. Bhattaiih, p. iv. 3 Vide   introduction to the  Bauddha-Gan-O-Doha    by MM. H. P. $fistri. 228 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (composed in the language similar to that of the Carya- songs), which is ascribed to Mfna-nlth (commonly accepted as identical with Matsyendra-nath)1and MM. H. P. Sastri, on the evidence of it went so far as to say that the Nath yogins (who, according to MM. Sastri, flourished some time  before the Buddhist Siddhacaryas) also composed Bengali songs exactly in the manner of the songs of the Buddhist Siddhacaryas. The hazardous leap involved in the inference of MM. Sastrl seems to be too long to justify his inference. Of course, we have already seen that many Sanskrit texts and Hindi texts are ascribed to Gorakh-nath, who has even  been recognised as the first prose-writer in Hindi (or Panjabi),2  but we cannot be sure that the heap of literature (either in Sanskrit or vernacular) ascribed to Gorakh are not spurious texts, somehow belonging to the Gorakh sect and bearing traditional traces of some of the doctrines of the cult. The general similarity among the esoteric yogic sects of the later Buddhists and the Saivites seems to be responsible also for the tradition that many of the Siddhas of the  Nath cult, including the most renowned Gorakh-nath, hailed from the Buddhist fold as seceders. According to the evidence of Taranath the name of Gorakh-nath, when he  belonged to the Buddhist fold, was Ananga-vajra. MM. Sastrl says that the Buddhist name of Gorakh-nath was Ramana- vajra.3It is said that the Nepalese Buddhists are much displeased with Gorakh-nath and hate him as a seceder.4 In the index of the Pag Sam Jon Zang  Mr. S. C. Das says,—  1 kahanti guru paramarthera ba(a   I karmma kpraAga samadhika pafa   II kjamala bikasila kflhiha na jamara   I kamala madhu pivivi dhoke na bhamara   II Ibid,   p. 38. 2  In Bengali, however, though we have vernacular literature on Gorakh-nSth there is no vernacular text ascribed to Gorakh-nSth; here there is no tradition whatsover of Gorakh-nath being an author of Bengali literature at any time. 8   Vide   introduction to the Bauddha-Can-O-Doha     by MM. &5stri,  p. 16. <  Ibid  . L egend   and   history 229 “ Gauraksa—a cowherd, who being initiated into Tantric Buddhism became the well known sage Gauraksa, whose religious school survives in the yogee sect, who go under the designation of Nath.” 3Though we are not quite sure of the history either of the Naths or of the Buddhist Siddha caryas, yet a consideration of the general circumstances lead us to believe that all these traditions have more confusion for their genesis than historical facts. We may note here also the queer suggestion about the identification of Gorakh with Arya Asariga, or even with Nagarjuna, the well known Buddhist scholar. 2Whatever might have been the history of the origin and development of the Nath cult and the cult of the Buddhist Siddhacaryas, the fact is that Mina-nath, Matsyendra-nath,a Goraksa-nath, Jalandhar! and Caurarigi- nath, who are the most prominent among the Naths, were all included in the list of the Buddhist Siddhacaryas and were sometimes credited with some works on esoteric Buddhism, which were translated into Tibetan. Dr. B. M. Barua suggests4that “ in the Nathism of Bengal as in that of other places, one may trace the The Nsth Siddhas •» 1   r   | j . and the Ajivikai. recrudescence and continuity or the doctrines and practices of the Ajivikas, who were a factor, as noted before in the religious history of Bengal.” The points of similarity between the Ajivikas and the Naths may, according to Dr. Barua, briefly be noted thus-:—  (1) Both sects recognised three supreme Personalities in their religious tradition, the Ajivikas: Nanda-vatsa, Krsa Samkrtyayana and Maskarin Gosala ; the Naths : Mina-nath, Matsyendra-nath and Goraksa-nath. 1   Pag Sam Jon Zang , Index, p. ix. 2   Vide  Introductory note by Mr. Daljit Singh to the Gorakh-nath and Mediaeval    Hindu Mysticism  of Dr. Mohan Singh (p. xiii). 3  In the Tibetan a* well as in the Indian traditions Mlna-nSth and Matsyendra* n 5 th are sometimes held to be different, while according to the Bengali tradition the two are generally held identical. <  Religious History oj Bengal Qther than Hindu   (unpublished). OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (2) Both sects admitted singing and dancing as two important modes of religious expression. (3) Both sects believed that in order to reach the human state a soul must pass through eighty-four hundred thousand stages. (4) Both aspired after  Ananta-manasa   or Sahasrara as the highest condition of soul reachable through Hatha-yoga, in which Pranayama or control of the vital wind is the essential feature. (5) Both were Caturafigis ( Caurahgis ) in the sense that their religious life was to stand the fourfold test of ascetics, Viz., parama-tapassita   (great privation),  parama-luhata   (great austerity),  parama-jegucchita   (great loathness to wrong-doing), and  parama-pavivittata   (great aloofness from the world). (6) Both were worshippers of the Parama-sukla, Avadhuta or Niranjana type of the soul. In criticism of the views of Dr. Barua we may say that though there may be some important points of similarity in some of the views, practices and traditions of the Ajlvikas and the Nath Siddhas, there seems to be no similarity in their theological speculations. The Ajlvikas v^ere indeed wandering saints, who would often have recourse to some of the important Hatha-yogic practices; but these Hatha-yogic  practices were no monopoly of any particular religious sect; they were and still are important factors in the practical aspect of many of the Indian religious systems. It is a  particular theological system growing round these important Hatha-yogic practices that have given a distinctiveness to  Nathism as a religious sect. The tenets of the Ajivikas are not yet clearly known ; but as far as they are known, they do not seem to represent any close resemblance with the speculations of the Nath Siddhas. The similarity in the tradition of three supreme personali ties, of which Dr. Barua speaks, is indeed noticeable, and the tradition of the Tri-nathas is still current in many parts LEGEND AND HISTORY 231 of East-Bengal and North-Bengal and there are still extant religious functions which are generally accompanied by  popular songs in honour of the Tri-nathas. In these functions, however, the Tri-nathas have frankly become the trinity.1About the second point we beg to say that though we find that Goraksa-nath transformed himself through his yogic power into a dancing girl and rescued his preceptor from the country of Kadali by dancing and singing,—that seems to have been a mere trick to enter into the country of women, and as such need not be recognised to be any important religious mode of the Naths. Of course the episode of the captivity of Mina-nath in the land of Kadali and his rescue by Goraksa may allegorically be interpreted as the bondage of the human soul 2through worldly pleasure and its redemption through practices of yoga, and in that case the dancing and singing of Goraksa in the form of the dancing girl may be held important as a religious function ;  but from a study of the fundamental tenets or the yogic  practices of the Naths it does not seem to be the fact that dancing and singing were any important function of religious expression with the Nath yogins. Many Kanphat yogins Eire, however, found begging from door to door singing songs,—but this singing seems to be simply the profession of a beggar—and nothing more. About the third point we may note that the number eighty-four, as we shall presently see, was held to be a mystic number not only by the Naths,  but by various other schools and we find enough of it in 1  The present writer may speak of one function in honour of the Tri-natha in some parts of East-Bengal. The function is known as Tennather Mela  (the congregation of the three Naths) and is generally held with the purpose of  preventing some family calamity and of gaining prosperity for the family or for an individual. In the function, however, the three Naths are confusedly identified with the trinity, viz.,  Brahma, Vifnu and Siva and three pipes of Gaiija  are offered to them, which are then smoked. In the songs, however, the Tri*n5th is regarded, as one deity. 2  There being the Upanisadic analogy between the fish ( mina ) and the human soul. 232 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  popular literature, both Sanskrit and vernacular. The fourth and fifth points are noteworthy inasmuch as the Ajivikas like the Nathas were wandering yogins who emphasised  processes of Hatha-yoga and were also great ascetics. The sixth point is not, however, clear to us. (it) Traditions of the eighty-four Siddhas and    the nine Nathas All yogins, who have attained perfection in the practice of yoga, ware honoured with the general epithet of Siddha, or Siddha (as in the vernacular). The Buddhist Sahajiya yogins of much renown are commonly known as the Siddhacaryas and the apostles among the Natha yogins are also called Siddhas; it is for this reason that there has been a popular confusion of the Buddhist Siddha caryas and the Natha yogins in the chronology of the Siddhas. Through such a confused amalgamation has arisen the tradition of the eighty-four Siddhas. In the lists available we shall find that some of the Buddhist Siddha caryas and Natha yogins have been included indiscriminately. This tradition of the eighty-four Siddhas is very important inasmuch as the tradition is found frequently mentioned in the vernacular literature of different periods. In the Varna-   ratna-kara 1we find a list of the eighty-four Siddhas, where the names of seventy-six Siddhas really occur.2In the first 1  MS. preserved in the R.A.S.B. No. 4834; author Kavi-Sekharficgrya Jyotirftvara, who was a court-poet of King Hari-simha Deva of Mithila, who reigned from 1300-1321 A.C. Vide  introduction to the  Baudha-Gan-O-Doha  by MM. £fi 8 tri, p. 35. 2  The list gives the names as follows:—( 1 ) Mlna-nSth, (2) Goraksa-ngth, (3) Caurangl-n5th, (4) Camarl-nath, (5) Tanti-pa, ( 6 ) Hali-pa, (7) Kedari-pa, ( 8 )* Dhoriga-pa, (9) Dfiri-pa, (10) Viru-pa, ( 1 1 ) Kapgll, (12) KamKri, (13) KSnha, (14) Kanakhala, (15) Mekhala, (16) Unmana, (17) Klndali, (18) DhovI, (19) J&landhara, ( 2 0 ) (21) Mavaha, (22) NagSrjuna, (23) Dauli, (24) Bhisila, (25) Aciti, (26) Campaka, (27) Dhentasa, (28) Bhumbharl, (29) Bfikali, (30) TujI, (31) Carpal (32) Bhsde, (33) Candana, (34) Kamarl, ( 3 5 ) Karavat, (36) Dharma-pipatanga, (37) Bhadra. (38) Patali-bhadra, (39) Palihiha, (40) Bhinu, LEGEND AND HISTORY 233 chapter of the  Hatha-yoga-pradipika  we find a list of yogins, who are called the Maha-siddhas.1We find here many of the important names common with those found in the list given in the Varna-ratna-kara.  This tradition of the eighty-four Siddhas is very popular in Tibetan Buddhism also.- Albert Gruenwedel has given the full list of these eighty-four Siddhas from data available from the Tibetan sources.2This list of  (41) Mina, (42) Nirdaya, (43) Savara, (44) Sfinti, (45) Bhartrhari, (46) Bhlsana, (47) Bhati, (48) Gagana-pa, (49) GamSra, (50) Menurff, (51) Kumarl, (52) Jlvana, (53) Aghosadhava, (54) Girivara, (55) SiySrT, (56) Nsgavali, (57) Bibhavat, (58) Saranga, (59) Vivikidhaja, (60) Magara-dhaja, (61) Acita, (62) Bicita, (63) Necaka, (64) Cstala, (65) Nscana, ( 6 6 ) Bhllo, (67) Pfihila, ( 6 8 ) Pasala, (69) Kamala- karigari, (70) Cipila, (71) Govinda, (72) BhTma, (73) Bhairava, (74) Bhadra, (75) Bhamarl, (76) Bhuru-kutl. 1  The list includes the name 9  of the following Siddhas: —Adi-nStha, Matsyendra, Sahara, Ananda-bhairava, Caurangl, Mina, Goraksa, Virupaksa, Bilesaya, Manth&na, Bhairava, Siddhi, Buddha (Siddha-bodha, see  BhSratavarsiya U  pasaha-sampradaya , Vol. II, pp. 136-137), Kanthadi, Korantaka, Surananda, Siddha-pida, Carpati, Kfineri, NityanStha, Niranjana, Kapall, Bindu-nStha, Kfika-candUvaia, Ahvaya (Maya ?), AllSma, Prabhu-deva, GhodS-coll, Tintinl, BhSnukl, Nsradeva, Khanqla- kapalika and others. See  Hafha-yoga-pradipiks> Ch. I., verses (5-9) (lyangar’s edition). 2  The list available through the Tibetan sources is as follows:—(l)Luhi-pa (Matsyendra or MatsyfintrSd), (2) Lilfi-pa, (3) Viru-pa, (4) Pombi Heruka, (5) Sfibara (or Sabari), ( 6 ) Saraha (or Rshula-bhadra), (7) Kankali, ( 8 ) Mina (or Vajra-  pSda), (9) Goraksa, (10) CauraAgi, (II) Vinff, (12) Sffnti (or RatnSkara Sfinti), (13) Tanti, (14) Carmari (orCarmfira), (15) Khadga, (16) Nagfirjuna, (17) Krsna-clrl (or Kfinha-pfida, Kanapa, Karan a), (18) KSnera (Kanarl, or Aryadeva), (19) Sthagana (orThagana), ( 2 0 ) Nfida-pS (or Ya^obhadra), (21) Sfili-pl (or Srgsla-pfida), (22) Tilo-pS (or Tailika-pfida), (23) Chatra, (24) Bhadra (orBhsde), (25) Dvikhandi (or Dokhandl), (26) Ajogi (or Yogi-pfida), (27) Kada-psda (or Kfila), (28) DhovI (or Dhombhi), (29) Kaftkana, (30) Kambala (or Kamari), (31) Tenki (or Pamgi), (32) Bhade (or Bhandhe, BhfindSri), (33) Tandhl (or Tandhe), (34) Kukkuri, (35) Cubji (or Kusuli), (36) Dharma, (37) Mahl, (38) Acintya (Acinta, Acinti), (39) Babhahi (or Bhalaha), (40) Nalina, (41) Bhusuku (or Sjnti-deva), (42) Indra-bhuti, (43) Megha-pfida (orMeko), (44) Kuthfirl (or Kuthsli), (45) Karmaia, (46) jalan- dhari, (47) Rahula, (48) Gharbari (or Gharma-pSda), (49) Dhakari (orTokri), (50) Medini, (51) Pankaja, (52) GhantS (or Vajra-ghanta), (53) Yogi, (54) Celuka (or Caluka), ( 5 5 ) Vaguri (? Gundarl), (56) Luncaka (orLucika), (57) Nirguna, (58) JaySnanda, (59) CarsaJI (or Pacari, Pficala), (60) Campaka, (61) Visana (or Bhikhana), (62) Bhali (or Tell, Tail!), (63) Kumari (or KumbhakSra), (64) Csrpa(i (or Javari), (65) Mani-bhadrS, ( 6 6 ) Mekhalfi, (67) Mankhals (or Kanakha), ( 6 8 ) Kala-kala, (69) Kanthadi (or Pantali), (70) Dhabuli (or Daudi), (71) Udhali (or  30—141 IB the Siddhas has also been discovered in Java and has been  published by Van Manen from Holland.1The tradition is very popular also in the South.2 We are not, however, prepared to give any historical ... , credit to the list of these eighty-four Siddhas The tradition does ^* not seem to be histori- or even to the tradition of the eighly-four  C&l Siddhas. If we just examine the lists of these eighty-four Siddhas it will appear that they are anomalous lists containing names of many Buddhist Siddhacaryas who flourished during some time near about the tenth to the twelfth century A.D., and within the list of these Buddhist Siddhacaryas the names of the most reputed Nathas have been incorporated for reasons discussed before. This tradition of the eighty-four Siddhas is occasionally referred to in the Natha literature of Bengal as well as in the Santa literature and Sufi literature of Western and Northern India.8It has  been rightly held by some scholars that this number eighty-four is rather a mystic than a historical number, and for ourselves we have sufficient reason to be convinced of the purely mystic nature of this number. The significant mention of this number eighty-four is found in the belief of the Ajivikas, who believed that soul must pass through eighty-four hundred thousand stages before attaining the human state.4In the  Maitrayani Uddiya), (72) Kapala, (73) Kila, (74) Puskara (or Sfi^ara), (75) Sarva-bhaksa (or Ssbhiksa), (76) N&ga>bodhi, (77) Dsrika. (78) Puttall (or Putuli), (79) Panaha (or Upanlhl), (80) Kokila (orKokill), (81) Ananga, (82) LaksminkarS* (83) Sfimudra (orSamuda), (84) Bhali-pa (or Byaqli or Byili). Vide,  introduction to the Sanya-    pur&na  by Dr. Shahidullah, pp. 3-4; KalySna  (an article CaurSsi Siddha Taths    Natha-aampradSya  by Bhagavatiprasid Simhaji) Yogahka  number. 1   Vide  B. S. P. P.—The Presidential Address of MM. H. P. & 5 strl, B S. 1329. a Vide  Dr. Raman £5strl, loc, cit  . 3 Sometimes the number of the Siddhas is said not to be merely eighty>four,  but eighty-four million, and that shows that the mystic number became mythical, at least so far as the vernacular poets were concerned. Cf. The Vijak of Kabir   by Ahmad Shah, Sskhl, No. 257., p. 209.  Dtgha'nikpy<*>  Vol. I., p. 54, 234 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS LEGENb ANb H istory  m Vpanisat   we find mention of eighty-four thousand  states of birth.1In some of the Tantras and Puranas also we find reference to the eighty-four lacs of  yonis  Or births in different states;.2The number of the Buddhist dhamma - khandas,  (i.e., dharma-sandha  or branches of doctrines, division of the dharma  or scripture) is eighty-four, or rather eighty-four thousand. It has been said in the Pali text Gamdha-vamsa  that those scholars, who will write commentaries, notes etc. on the Pali texts containing the eighty-four thousand dhamma-k,khandas,  or will cause others to write such works, will gather immense merit equal to the merit derived from building eighty-four  thousand shrines, constructing eighty-four thousand images of Buddhas, establishing eighty-four thousand monasteries. It has further been said that he, who makes a good collection of the sayings of Buddha, or causes others to do it, and who scribes, or causes to be scribed the sayings of Buddha in the form of a manuscript, and who gives or causes others to give materials for preparing such a manuscript and to preserve it, will amass immense virtue equal to that, which is gathered by building eighty-four thousand shrines and erecting eighty-four thousand monasteries.8Statements of similar nature are also found in later Buddhistic texts.4In the Pali text  Anagata—vamsa  we find that when Maitreya, the future Buddha, will renounce the world, moved by universal compassion, eighty-four thousand friends, kinsmen and princesses will follow him, 1  Third  prapafhaka • 2   Tantra-tattva  —by S. C. Bhattacarya, Vol. I, pp. 21-22. There is also the popular belief of eighty-four Kundas  (bowel-shaped vessel) in the city of Yama in which the convicted are doomed. Cf. emata dharmar barata avahela jehi jan  | caurasi  £unt/efa  jam ta pcle tatakhan  II Sunya-purana, Tikfi-pavana , p. 52. 3   Gamdha-vamsa,   (last Chapter). 4   Guna-kflranda-vyuhat   p. 41, pp. 76-77, In'this connection see alto  Amitayur*   dhyana-sutiQ, The Sacred Bo ok.* of theJEast,  Vol. XL1X. 236 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS and eighty-four thousand Brahmins, versed in the Vedas, will also accompany him. The mystic nature of the number eighty-four will also appear from the fact that the commonly accepted number of the yogic postures (asana)  is said to be eighty-four in the Yogic and Tantric texts; and it has some times been held that the number of the yogic postures are eighty-four million because of the fact that the number of the different stages in the evolution of a creature is eighty-four million,1—and of these eighty-four million only eighty-four are prominent, and so they are described in detail. As a matter of fact, we do not find even these eighty-four  Asanas   described anywhere, only a few of them being described in the Yogic and Tantric literature. We may also note that sometimes the number of the beads in the rosary of a Kanphat yogin is also eighty-four. In the Skanda-purana   wehave detailed description of the eighty-four Siva-lingas  (i.e.  phallic symbols of lord Siva) in eighty-four consecutive chapters.2All these taken together will convince one of the mystic nature of the number eighty-four, and this will justify the doubt about the historical nature of the tradition of the eighty-four Siddhas. Side by side with the tradition of the eighty-four Siddhas we find the tradition of the nine Nathas.8In the ceremonies The tradition of the on the occasion of the initiation into the nine Nitha*. order of Kanphat yogins there is the 1   Gorak$a-paddhati  (verse 8 ) ; Gorakfa-aaiflhita  (verse 7); Gheranda-aamhita   (2. 1-2) etc.; Sundara-dasa (Sundara-granthaVaft,  Vol, I, p. 41). 2   Skanda-purana, Avantya-khanda , Caturaiiti-lihga-mahatmya. 3  *The sixty-four yoginis, the fifty-two heroes, the six ascetics, the eighty-fou, Siddhas, the nine Naths, paid homage (to Nanak)’—   Janam-aakhi  of Bsbs Nanak— Trumpp, prefatory remarks, p. vii. Cf.  also :—‘By having heard (his name) the Siddhas, Pirs, Gods and Naths (have been made),*—   Japat   9, Trumpp. 'Remembering that name the nine Naths of spotless emancipation, Sanak and the others were saved. To which being attached the eighty-four Siddhas and Buddhas (and) Ambarik  crossed the water of existence;*—  Panegyric of Amardaat   Trumpp, p. 700. LEGEND AND HISTORY 237 ctlstom of worshipping the nine Nathas and the eighty-four Siddhas.1But even in this tradition of the nine Nathas, there is no agreement among the lists, and all sorts of mythical accounts are found concerning them. In the Sodasa-nitya-   tantra  quoted in the Gorasa-siddhanta-samgraha  we find mention of the nine Nathas who are said to have  preached the Tantras in the different ages. In the Tantra-   maharnaOa  (quoted in the same text) eight Nathas are said to be residing in the eight directions and one in the centre. These Nathas are Goraksa-natha in the east (resid ing in the forest of Jagannatha ?), Jalandhara in the northern region (Uttara-patha, in a forest near Jvala-mukhl ?), Nagar-  juna (in a forest near Godavari in the south ?), Dattatreya in the west (to the west of the river Sarasvatl ?), Devadatta in the South-West, Jada Bharata in the North-West, Adi- natha in the land of Kuruksetra in the Midland and Matsyendra-natha in the South-East in a land near the sea- coast.3We notice further that the Kapalika-school was introduced by the Nathas and there are twelve personalities, to whom was revealed the truth of this school. They are, Adi-natha, Anadi, Kala, Vaikalika, KaraJa, Vikarala, Maha- kala, Kala-bhairava-natha, Vatuka, Bhuta-natha, Vira-natha and SrI-kantha. Again, twelve are the apostles, who are said to be the founders of the cult ( marga-pravartaka ),— they are Nagarjuna, Jada-bharata, Hariscandra, Satya-natha, Bhima-natha, Goraksa, Carpata, Avadya, Vairagya, Kantha- dhari, Jalandhara and Malayarjuna.8In another list we find the following Dames of the nine Nathas; Goraksa-natha, Matsyendra-natha, Carpata-natha, Mangala-natha, Ghugo- natha, Gopi-natha Prana-natha, Surat-natha and Camba- 1  Briggs, p*J33, p. 136. * Vide Goraksa-siddhanta-aamgraha,  pp. (44-45), Note that the ninth Nitha in the liana-kona  is not described. 3   §abara-tantra>  quoted in the Goraksa-aiddhania-samgraha. 238 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS natha.1Theser Nathas are believed to be immortal demigods and preachers of the sect for all ages, and it is also believed that they are still living in the Himalayan region ; some times they are regarded as the guardian spirits of the Himalayan peaks.2 In this connection, however, we may take note of the The Nstha-gurus different accounts given about the chrono logy of the Natha-gurus. The chronology * The Legends oj  the Punjab , by R. Temple, pp. 18-19, Vol. I/referred to by Briggs, p„ 136. In another list again many of the nine Nathas are identified with the the Hindu gods. Thus ( 1 ) Oipkfira Adi-natha (Lord of Lords) is identified with Siva, (2) Shelnatha (Lord of the Arrow Shaft) with Kffna or Ramacandra; (3) Santosa- nltha (Lord of Gratification) with Visnu, (4) Acalacambhunatha (Lord of Wondrous Immortality ?) with Hanumlna or Laksmana; (5) Gajaball Gajakantha-natha (Lord of the Elephant’s strength and Neck) with Ganela Gaja-karna; ( 6 ) Prajfi-natha, or Udai-nitha (Lord of the People ?) with Psr/ati; (7)  Maya-rupi Macchendra-nfitha, Guru of Gorakha-natha, ( 8 ) Gathepinde Ricayakari (?), or Naranthar, £ambhu-  jaiti Guru Gorakha-nitha; (9) Jfifina-svarupa or Purakh-Siddh Cauranjwenitha, or Purin Bhagat. Briggs, pp. 136-137. Almost a similar list of the nine Nathas has been given by Kitts. It runs as follows :—Omkiri-nSth, Visnu Samtoknath, Visnu; Gajboli, Gajana (GajSnana ?), Hanuman; AcaleSvar, Ganpati; UdayanSth, Sfirya; Pffrvati Prem, Mahsdeo; SanthanSth, Brahma; Gyaniji Siddhacewarng JaggnnSth; Mlyarupl Matsya.  Ibid  , p. 137. 2  In the Yogisampradaya-Vi&klti*    referred to before, we find an account of the incarnation of the nine Nar&yapas as the nine Nfithas. Here, however, popular imagination seems to have run riot. It is said that towards the end of the Dvapara- yuga the earth was heavy with sin, and the attention of Mahsdeva, the Lord Sovereign* was drawn to the fact. Moved to pity the Lord at once sent sage Nfirada to BadarikSlrama, where the nine NSrnyanas (who were the sons of Rsabha-rfija) of the name of Kavi-nfirSyapa, Kara-bhijana Na°, Antarlkfa Ns°, Prabuddha Na*, Avirhotri Na°, PippaUyana Na°, Camasa Na°, Hari N«° and Drumila Nfi° were holding discussions on self-knowledge. Nfirada intimated to the NfirCyanas the will of the lord, who would have the NSrayanas come down to the world to preach the secrets of yoga to people so that they may be liberated. The Narayapas went to Vaikuntha to take counsel from Visnu as to how to carry out the will of lord Siva. Visnu, accompanied by the Nsrfiyagas, went to Kailisa to receive instructions from the Lord, and with His instructions the nine NarSyanas incarnated themselves in the form of the nine Nathas, viz.,   Matsyendra, Goraksa, Gahini, Jvalendra, K  5 ripa-p 5 , Carpata, Revana, Bhartr and Gopl-candra. It was settled that Matsyendra would be initiated by the Lord Himself, Goraksa, Carpati and Revana by Matsyendra, Gahini by Goraksa; Jvalendra would be initiated by the Lord,—Karina-pa, Bhartf and[]Gopi-candra by Jvilendra. (Vide    Ch. 1.). according to the Marathi tradition rnay be illustrated with the help of the following chart :1—   Adi-nitha LEGEND AND HISTORY 239 UmS Matsyendra Jslandhara-natha III I Goraksa-nStha Caurangi- Kanlpha- Mainlvat! | natha natha (Mother of GopT-eind) r i Gainl-natha £a*patr**»5tha. (Gahini-nfitha ). '   Nivrtti-nSth^. ' I _____ JnfineSvara Sopana-deva MuktS-bfii. According to the chronology of Bahina Bal Adi-natha (Siva) taught the secrets of Yoga to Parvati and Matsyendra managed to hear them; Matsyendra taught them to Gorakh-natha, he to GahinI, Gahini to Nivrtti-natha, he to Jnanesvara, Jnanesvara to Sac-cid-ananda and further to Visvambhara, he to Raghava (Caitanya), he to Kesava-caitanya, and Kesava to Bsvaji Caitanya, he to Tokoba (Tukarama) and Tokoba to Bahina Bal (1700 A.D.).2Another chronology runs thus :—  Sakti I Siva I Ude (Second of the nine Nfithas, founder of the Pantha  of the | 9 yogins.) Rudragan Jalandhar  (who was an evii spirit, restored to reason and initiated). Matsyendra Jfilandhari (Ps) Bhartr-nStha KinipS (Bairaga, son ofTRsji Bhoja) | Siddha-sangarl II ' I Gorakh-nStha Parigal (Rewal) Nlma-nfitha Parasnathpuj Sivotora | Sons of Matsyendra (both Jainas) 1   Vide, Sri-jn&nefvara-cariira  by Mr. PangSrakara (Chapter on G«ru- $amprad&ya)t   pp. 60-78, 3  Briggs, loc.  ci U  240 - OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Various lists of the nine Nathas are found also in the literature of the Santa poets. It will be easy to see from the above that as no strictly historical importance can be attached to the lists of the eighty-four Siddhas so also no historical importance can be attached to these chronologies of the  Natha-gurus. According to the accounts found in Bengali, Mina-nath or Matsyendra-nath (the two being held identical according to the Bengali tradition) and Jalandhari-pa (more commonly known as the Hadi-siddha) were the direct disciples of Adi-nath or Siva ; Gorakh-nath was the disciple of Mina-nath and queen Mayanamati (mother of •Gopi-cand) was the disciple of Gorakh-nath; Kanhu-pa or  the^sfha-gurus1"1°f Kanu-pa was the disciple of Jalandhari-pa or Hadi-siddha,1who also initiated King Gopi-cand to the yogic order. Kanu-pa had his disciple Bail Bhadai. Many of the Natha Siddhas are referred to also in the  Dharma-mangala  literature. Sahadeva Cakravarti, as we shall see, made a regular mixture of the legends of the  Nstha literature and the Dharma literature. In many other texts of the Dharma literature we find the prominent Natha Siddhas and also other sages descending on earth, along with the various gods, on the occasion of some ritualistic and sacrificial ceremonies held in honour of the Dharma-thakura. In the  Dharma-puja-vidhana  we find the custom of worshipping many of these Natha Siddhas along with some gods, goddesses and demi-gods of the Dharmites.2 The most prominent names, which we come acoross in the legends of the Natha literature of Bengal, are (1) Mina-nath, (2) Gorakh-nath, (3) Jalandhari-pa, 1 tave yadi prthivlte yaila har-gaurl   I mina-nath hadiphae karanta cakari   II mlna-nather cakari kare jati gorakhai   I hadiphar seVa kare kariapha jogai   II Goraksa-vijaya,  p. 1 0 ^  Dharma-pfij&vidhana , p, 133, LEGEND AND HISTORY 241 (4) Kanu pa, (5) Mainamati and (6) Gopl-cand. Various are the legendary and mythical accounts that have grown round the ^names of these personalities in Nepal, Tibet, Bengal and in various other provinces of India. We need not enter into the details of these legends or the controversies of the historical and geographical questions pertaining to them ; a brief survey of the various accounts will, however, be found in the appendix (C). J* The religious views of the Natha Siddhas are as much obscured by the insufficiency and anomaly of accounts as is the history of the whole cult. The distinctive features of their yogic practices as also the theories behind them are not found explained systematically in any of the Sanskrit or non-Sanskrit texts, associated with the cult somehow or other. The Sanskrit texts are mainly texts on Hatha-yoga in general and the vernacular texts are generally poetical texts on legends and myths. The method of treatment of the present writer has, therefore, been to analyse and examine all the available data and to give a systematic exposition of them so as to give a general idea about the nature of the cult. (i) General Air of Supernaturalism The general religious nature of Nathism is characterised  by a wide-spread belief in occult power attained through the practice of yoga. All the legends are permeated through and through with a spirit of supernaturalism more in the form of the display of magical feats and sorcery by the Siddhas than in the form of occasional interference from the gods and goddesses, or any other supernatural being. Occultism is an inseparable ingredient of popular religious consciousness,—nay, it is often the salt of popular religious  belief. In the history of Indian religion occultism is associated with religious beliefs and practices from the time of the AtharOa* Veda  , and henceforth it is associated with all esoteric religious systems in the Hindu, Buddhist and other religious schools,, In P$Ii literature we find occasional CHAPTER IX T he  R eligion   of    the  N atha  S iddhas THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 243 Reference to the belief in the  Iddhis  (i.e., rddhi)  or occult  powers attainable through religious practices. We find frequent reference to the ten supernatural powers ( dasa-bala)   and also to the six supernatural faculties ( abhijna ) .which are attainable by a Buddhist adept. Patanjali, the great pro  pounder of yoga, who dealt primarily with the psychological aspect of yoga, also devoted a full chapter of the  yoga-sutra   to the different kinds of supernatural powers (oibhutis)   attainable through concetration of mind on different objects or on different centres of the body. The eight supernatural faculties, viz.,  Anima  (the power of becoming as small as an atom),  Mahima  (the power of becoming big),  Laghima  (the  power of assuming excessive lightness at will), Garima  (the  power of becoming as heavy as one likes), Prapti  (the power of obtaining everything at will), Pra^amya  (the power of obtaining all objects of pleasure at will), Uitoa  (the power of obtaining supremacy over everything) and Vasitoa  (the power of subduing, fascinating or bewitching) are well known in the school of yoga.1It is held that through the practices of Hatha-yoga “ the gross body begins to acquire something of the nature of the subtle body and to possess something of its relations with the life-energy; that becomes a greater force more powerfully felt and yet capable of a lighter and freer and more resolvable physical actions, powers which culminate in the Hathayogic siddhis  or extraordinary powers of garima, mahima anima  and laghima."1 These powets are generally known as the eight powers of lord Siva himself, who is the lord of yoga. The Natha Siddhas (including MayanSmati, who too was versed in the mystic knowledge of yoga) displayed throughout these eight supernatural powers. Thus we find in the Gorafysa-Vijaya  that when Siva granted the boon to a' priritesfc 1  To these eight another is often added, which is Kamavasayitoa  (i.^., the  power of suppressing desire, self-denial or mortification). * The Synthesis of Yoga  by Aurobindo Ghose,  Aryat   1918, pp. 404-405, 244 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS that she should get Gorakh as her husband, the great Yogin Gorakh assumed the form of a child of six months before the princess and expressed the desire of sucking her breasts- The princess got offended and insisted on having Gorakh as her husband; Gorakh could not agree to her proposal,  but gave her his old patched and ragged garment and asked her to wash it in water and to drink that water. This would, . he assured, give her a son. She obeyed  Display of super- natural power by the and the words of Gorakh came to be true.  Natha Siddhas. t # After that Gorakh was sitting under a  Bakula  tree and at that time Kanu-pa was passing in the sky above. Gorakh could know of it by the shadow of the Siddha falling below; he got offended and sent his pair of wooden sandals to go up and bind the arrogant Siddha down and the order of Gorakh was instantaneously carried out. Again, when Gorakh resolved to enter into the country of ICadak in disguise of a Brahmin in order to rescue his Guru, he sent Langa and Maha-langa (two attendants on Gorakh) to Visva-karma asking the latter to supply him at once with a golden sacred thread, a pair of golden ear-rings, golden frontal marks, golden umbrella, stick, etc., and everything was readily and most obediently supplied by Visva-karma. When Gorakh again demanded for the necessaries for assuming the form of a dancing girl, Visva-karma supplied him with all golden articles at once. The Nathas seldom walked on earth, they moved in the air and would traverse hundreds of miles within the twinkle of an eye. To remove the illusion of Guru Mina-nath and to recover him to his sense, Gorakh-nath displayed various yogic powers before the Guru. He first split into two Binduk-nath (who was born to Mina- nath in Kadali), then washed his (Binduk-nath’s) body in the manner of a washerman and dried it up in the sun,— and then revived him once more by the fillip of his fingers. Mayanamatl and Hadi-siddha displayed magical powers at every step in all the versions of the story of Gopi-cand. They THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 245 could know everything by their dhiyana  (i.e., dhyana,   meditation) or rrtaha-jnana  (great mystic knowledge) and could do anything and everything they liked with the help of a mere  Humara  (f.e the sound of the mystic syllable ‘hum’)  or such other Tantric mystic syllables.1At the time of Mayanamati’s initiation by Gorakh in her childhood, Gorakh made a full grown banian tree from its seed within the time of twelve  Dandas.2 Again, twelve crores of Yogins with thirteen crores of disciples, who assembled on the occa sion of Mayana’s initiation, and whose assemblage occupied the space that could be traversed in six months, could be served with the rice that was cooked from a single grain of  paddy,—and yet after all had eaten to their heart’s content, the food for one Siddha was still left in the earthen pot.3 In the description of Hadi-siddha we find that he makes ear-rings of the sun and the moon, and lord Indra himself fans him; he cooks his food in the moon and eats his food on the back of the tortoise,—and goddess Laksmi herself  prepares food for him. The five daughters of Indra remove the leaves on which he takes his food and Suvacanl4supplies him with betel-nut, the Naga-girls of the Netherland prepare his tobacco-pipe and Meghanal, son of Yama, comes forward  to serve him with a fan. He walks with Supernatural powers t, i, l-ei 1   1   1   r  of H 5 di-Bid 4 hs. his golden sandals and it he gets hold or Yama he beats him severely.6Before Gopl-cand agreed to accept Hadi-siddha as his Guru, he (Gopl-cand) wanted to be convinced of the yogic  powers of the latter. In one of the versions of the song we find that at the challenge of the king, the Siddha 1  In tho Rangpur version of the story we always find that Hs^lipfi or MayanSmat! did everything by the muttering of tudu. tudu ; tudu tufu  hete, however, represents the muttering of the mystic syllables. 2  One  Danda  is approximate to 24 minutes* 3   Gopl-candrer Pamcall  (C. U.)t p. 344.' * An indigenous demi-goddess of Bengal; 6   Gopi-candrer Gan ,  BujhSn Khantfa,  (C. U.) p. 61. OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS at once got ready, rolled thrice on the ground and got his body pasted with eighty maunds of dust,—made the rope round his loins with eighty maunds of jute, put on a cap made of eighty four maunds of iron, held in hand an iron stick weighing eighty three maunds, and  put on a pair of iron sandals weighing eighty two maunds. The Hadi got ready and came out of his cell and drank water with twenty two maunds of pea. He stretched his hands which reached the sky above; he stretched his legs which reached the Netherland below; the hairs of his body stood like plam trees and the cap on his head reached the mountain Kailasa. When the Hadi Siddha began to move, mother earth began to quake with cracking sound; when the Hadi stood up his head struck against heaven above; when he began to move with a broom, a broken spade, a baskfet to carry rubbish, and an earthen water jar on head, he crossed forty two Krosas1 in one single step, and wher ever he placed his feet, the foot-prints made large tanks. When he arrived at the port of Kalinka, he first made a  Humara  for broom, and innumerable brooms poured down from above and began to cleanse the market automatically; then he made another  Hurpkara  for baskets and innumer able baskets bsgan to remove rubbish automatically; when he made  Humara  for the spade, innumerable spades began to scrape the ground automatically ; similarly innumerable earthen jars began to pour down water. Hadipa then went to the house of Mayana and asked from her something to eat. Mayana asked him to take his bath and then to take meal. Hadipa went to the river to bathe, released in the river a piece of torn cloth with twelve knots and thereby the water was dried up; the merchants in their stranded  boats began to weep; fish, shark, dolphin, crocodile—all  began to cry in the dry bed of the river; Hadipa took pity on 1 A  Kroia  Is a little more than two tnite*. THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 247 them, pressed the piece of cloth with twelve knots and the river became once more overflooded with water. He then entered the coconut-garden of the king and sat on his yogic  posture and all coconuts dropped down before him; he spilt them up with his nail, drank water and ate up the nut and the coconuts returned to the trees and lemained hanging  just as before. By that time May ana finished her cooking and invited Hadipa to take meal; the meal prepared was taken by the Hadi all at once,—but that could not appease his hunger. He then took seven bags of dried paddy, three  bags of salted onion and swallowed the whole thing with twenty-two jars of water.1Similar other magical feats were displayed by the Hadi as proof of his yogic power. He cut a man into two and revived him at will within the twinkle of an eye; he transferred the head of queen Aduna to the trunk of queen Paduna and vice versa  and again set every thing right. When he was buried under the stable, he tore of? all his bondage of rope and chain by means of a single  Humfcara  ; the chain of hand became transformed into a rosary of beads; the heavy stone on his chest became the outer garment of yoga (  yoga-patfa);  the rope with which he was bound became the rope of his loins; and the grave was transformed into an under-ground cave where Hadi remained absorbed in his yoga-meditation.2 These are some of the types of magical powers displayed  by the Siddhas, mainly by Gorakh, Hadipa and Mayanamati. We need not multiply instances. Similar legends of magical power displayed by the Natha Siddhas are found abundantly also in the Natha literature of other vernaculars. This curious blending of supernaturalism and occultism with the most realistic description of the story and the keen human interest involved in the pathos of the great renuncia- * 1   Vide Gopi-candrer Gan ,  Bujhan Khanda  (C. U.), pp. 80-85. Cf,  also Gopi-candrer Sannyas,  pp. 440-441, 2   Gopi-candrer Sannyast   p, 418, 248 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS tion of a young king like Gopl-candra, has infused Natha literature with a peculiar literary charm. In the literary field, at least so far as Bengali literature is concerned, this emphasis on occultism in the Natha literature sharply makes it distinct from the literature belonging to similar esoteric schools, we mean the eLe'in ton" between literature of the Buddhist Sahajiyas, the Siyl1u«"ture"‘d Vaisnava Sahajiyas, the Bauls and such other schools of Bengal. ,We have seen  before how a spirit of revolt against occultism and outward show of austere practices characterises the literature of the different Sahajiya sects including the literature of the Soft  poets. Very frequently and severely did Kabir criticise the sect of the Gorakh-yogins in his poems; so have also his followers including Nanak, the Sikh prophet. Judging from the religious point of view such occultism represents only the popularly adumbrated superficial feature of Nathism. It is not also a fact that such display of super natural power characterises all literature belonging to the Natha cult. In some of the Hindi texts on Gorakh and Matsyendra and in some texts of Hindi literature ascribed to Gorakh- nath we find the same spirit of heterodoxy Preponderance -p,. . l    j  in the stories of the Natha literature that 1his truth demons trated by the stories what differentiates the Siddhas from of Natha literature. . , . f * ordinary men is their power or control over death and decay. Yama, the king of death, had no hold over the Natha Siddhas, and whenever he, in the course of the execution of his ordinary daily duties, forgot this impor tant fact and transgressed his power and foolishly extended his hands to any of the Siddhas, the poor Lord of Death was taught a very good lesson by the Siddhas. In the Gorak§a-vijaya  or the  Mma-cetana  we find that when Gorakh heard from Kanu-pa of the captivity of his Guru Mina-nath in the land of Kadali in the hands of wicked women, he took Up his mystic bag of cloth (siddha-jhuli),  put on his loose garment and the pair of wooden sandals, held his staff in hand and at once entered the city of Yama. Yama was seated on his throne in the open assembly and at the sight  pf Gorakh he rose from his seat in reverence and humbly THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 255 enquired about the cause of his (Gorakh’s) sudden visit to the city of the dead. Gorakh took Yama severly to task for summoning his Guru Mina-nath and thus poking his (Yama’s) nose in the affairs of the immortal Siddhas. Gorakh further remarked that if Yama would have the audacity of meddling with the affairs of the Siddhas he (Gorakh) would drag him (Yama) to Brahma himself and let him (Yama) learn from Brahma the exact limitations of his capacity. Gorakh rebuked Yama strongly in a high spirit, threatened him with an immediate order of dismissal and the ruin of his capital; and as a matter of fact when Gorakh stood up angrily with his hanging bag and loose garment of patched cloth and began to utter the  Humkara,   Yama began to tremble with his whole kingdom. Yama got afraid, felt helpless and immediately lay before Gorakh all the files of official records; Gorakh examined them one by one, picked up the file containing the decree on his Guru,— effaced the name of his Guru from the list of the dead, upset the decree of Yama and then left the city with a strict warning.1 The story of the fall of Mina-nSth among the women of Kadali signifies that worldly enjoyment in the form of the satisfaction of carnal desires leads a man to disease and decay; and death in that case becomes the inevitable catas trophe of the drama of life. The self-oblivion of Mina-nath symbolises man’s oblivion of his true immortal nature;— and the charms of Kadali represents the snares of life. What was repeatedly emphasised by Gorakh in his enigmatic songs in the guise of the dancing girl to recall his self-forgotten Guru to his true judgment", is that the life of pleasure in company of beautiful women leads to the inevitable end of death, while the only way of escaping death and being immortal even in this very life and body is to have recourse 1 Goraksa-vijaya,  pp. 45-48. 256 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS to the path of yoga.3This is the cardinal truth which Mlna-nath, inspite of all his former Sadhana, lost sight of through the curse of goddess Durga, the curse symbolising the eternal curse of Nescience on humanity : and this is the cardinal truth which wa3 variously explained through various imageries by the worthy disciple Gorakh to his Guru. In his songs as the dancing girl Gorakh repeatedly pointed out that the Guru was going to die a most ordinary death in the company of women; he (Gorakh) therefore urged him to have recourse to the yogic processes of making the body  perfect, which has been spoken as Kaya-sadhana2or the cultivation of the body through the processes of yoga. This Kaya-sadhana is the most important thing in the Natha litera ture and Kaya-siddhi or the perfection of body may be taken to be the summum bonum after which the yogins were aspiring. It may also be pointed out that the original question of Durga (who may be taken t  j  be the Prakrti or the embodi- The original question ment ^ principle of phenomenalism) to Siva (who is the changeless truth in its ultimate form), with which the Goraksa-vijaya,  or the  Mtna- cetena  begins, is,—“Why is it, my lord, that thou art 1  Cf.  tomha sama purusa je nahi kona dese  I  gali gela mohdras ydu mStra  ses   II  kfldatir raj5 tumhi rriina adhik&rt   I uthite nd para matra apana aamVari   II .......  aadha sSdha dpand k.aya mddaleta bole   I  sarva dhan hdrSilS k^mintr kole  || .......  guru haiyS nS bajha apanar bol    I  kaya sukhaila tohmdr kaminlr   ^o/ II  abhay  bhSndSr guru nirbhaye nila hari   I  sudha ghar grha tumi rahicha pSaari   II  5yd  aadha k&ya sddha guru mocandar   I [tumi guru mocandar jagata tSvar   II] etc.  Ibid.,   pp. 21 et seq, Cf.  also pp. 106 et seq . 2   Cf.  nScanti je gorakhndth ghagharer role   I  [kSy<* sadha k&ya sad ha madale hena bole  II]  navin kuhile jena adha adha bole   I kaya sadha kaya aadha mandirae bole  II Goraksa-vijaya , pp. 94-95. sadha sadha apana kaya mddaleta bole  ! sarva dhan haraila kaminlr kole  II * # * * kaya sadha kaya sadha guru mocandar   I [tumi guru mocandar jagata ttvar   II  Ibid,   p. 98. kdyd aadha kaya sadha ahni putra bali   1    Ibid.  |3Q, THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 257 immortal, and mortal am I ? Advise me the truth, O lord, so that I also may be immortal foi ages.’,l It was in answer to this question of Durga or Parvatl that the secret of Hatha- yoga was expounded by Lord Siva to his beloved consort, which the first Siddha Mina-nath managed to hear in the form of a fish, and which was afterwards spread and  popularised by the latter all over the world. This quest of immortality and the secret of its attainment through yoga is the pivot round which the whole cycle of the stories of Manik-candra and his son Gopi-candra revolved. There we find that when Mayanamati came to know that due to the spells employed by the subjects of the king through the practice of some malevolent Tantric rites king Manik- candra was about to fall a prey to Death, she hastened to the kingdom and asked the king to learn  Mahajfiana  (i.e., the secrets of yoga) from her, which, she repeatedly assured, would enable him to defy the decree of Death; but the king declined and as a result he met with the ordinary mortal end. It has been said that the disregard of  Mahajfiana  was the plea for Yama for extending his hands on to the king.2However, after the death of the king Yama sent one of his officers with summons to bring the life (jiu = jioa)  of the king; Mayana in her meditation saw the messenger of Yama near the king and offered him a pony in exchange of the life of the king. The next day two officers came, and Mayana bribed them with the life of a maid-servant; on the fourth day came four, who were bribed with the life of Mayana’s  brother; on the fifth day again came five officers, and Mayana offered them an amount of five hundred rupees in cash for buying sweet-meats and eating to their heart’s 1 tumht   feene tara gosafii amhi kenc mari [  hena tattva hflha dev joge joge tari   II Goraksa-Vijaya,    p. 12. 2   Cf. tirir gharer jnan dekhi raja jfian  £ai/e hela    I ai dinc bhaduya yam pati gyala khySla  (I Gopi-candrer Gan  (C.U., Part I), p. 12. 33—1411B content. But this time Goda-yama, the messenger, would not be satisfied without the life of the king. At this MayanS flew into rage and began to tremble,—she at once muttered within the  Maha-mantra,  transformed herself through her yogic  power into Candi and into Kali with her large sword (kh&&a  *= Skt. khadga)  and attacked the whole host of the Yamas, caught hold of some of them and belaboured them severely and the Yamas flew away somehow with their lives. Goda- yama (who seems to have been the leader of the party) was in a fix; helpless as he was, he, with his elder brother Avala-yama, went to Siva. With the advice of Siva the Yamas extracted from the king his life in the absence of Mayana who was sent for water and they flew away in the form of golden black-bees. Mayana could know of this from the river and at once pursued Goda-yama and entered the  palace of Death. Through her spell all the inhabitants of the  palace at once got attacked with severe headache, and some flew away in fear. By her  Huvnara  Mayana caught hold of Goda-yama, bound him down and began to beat him severely with an iron rod. Goda, however, begged most humbly Mayana's mercy and agreed to give her back the life of her husband, which, Goda said, was kept in the market place. Mayana followed Goda, who somehow managed to slip from her hands and escaped. Goda went straight to the queen of Yama and sought her protection; she took pity on Goda and hid him in a corner covering him with straw; but Mayana could know everything in her meditation and chased him there in the form of a serpent. Goda transformed himself into a mouse, Mayana chased it in the form of lacs of cats; Goda became a pigeon,—Mayana  pursued it in the form of innumerable hawks. In this way Goda-yama tried to escape by transforming himself into innumerable beings in land, water and air,—but he did not succeed. Mayana at last caught hold of Goda who was compelled to let loose the life of Manik-candra. Lord Siva 258 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS THE RELIGION OF THE NATH a  SlbbkAS and Gorakh, Mayana’s Guru, however, interfered in the matter and the prestige of Death was somehow saved by coming to respectable terms with Mayana. The whole story, in its full-fledged form, is nothing but a popular myth; but the spirit that is hidden behind and serves as the nucleus of the whole detail is that a perfect yogin conquers death com  pletely,—and so much is his control over death that he may deal with Death at any time in any way he pleases.1 We may further note that Mayana became Sati  with her husband, but fire could not burn Mayana. At the instance of his queens, Gopi-cand put Mayana to cruel and direful tests. She was thrown into fire, but even her garment was not stained with smoke; she was drowned in water bound within a bag, but mother Ganga herself came forward to wel come her in her (Ganga’s) lap; she walked on a bridge made of hair; she walked on the edge of a razor; she was shut up for full seven days and nights within a boiler containing  boiling oil, which was being heated from below constantly; 1  The story of Mayanamatl's initiation by Gorakh-nSth in her childhood shows that Gorakh was moved at the idea that even a chaste and beautiful girl like MayanS should meet with the same fate as other ordinary mortals, and he then initiated her into the cult of yoga to make her immortal. After her initiation Gorakh declared,—*"Death himself has now given a written bond (not to extend his hands over Mayana)He further declared that Mayana would never be burnt in fire, drowned in water, pierced through by any weapon; if she should die in the day-time he (Gorakh) would not let the sun go, but would bind him down,—if she should die at home, he would not let Yama go, but bind him down,—if she should die of a cut from a flat sword (khada =  a large sacrificial knife), he would bind goddess Candi (who generally bears such a weapon) down,—MayanS would survive even the sun and the moon. taVe  jfian hjahe gorakh anadir tattVa    I apane jam rSj&e lekhi dila   khata  II taue  jfian kahi dila brahma-jfian buli  I  jamer sahite raja karila kolakuli  I mainamatir name lekha pkelila phariya    I adai ak$ar jfian kahe karna-tale niyS.  II agnie na jave poda panite na hae tal  I lohar a sir a  na  phufitia darir kuial  II guru   bole dine maile maenamati ai  I surya bandhi mangaiva eda-edi nai  I ratrite padiya   maile maenamati ai  I candra bSndhi mangaiva eda-edi nahi  II badite padiya   maile mainamati ai  I  jam bandhi mangaiva eda-edi nahi  II  Ikhandae  foiffi gele   mayanamati ai  I candire bandhiya laimu eda-e4i nai  II ami dilam brahma-jHan   tomara deya bar   I candra surya marane  jiyaVa la adai pa har    IIJ Gopt candrer Psvpcali,   (C.U. Part 11), p. 345, 260 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS she crossed all the rivers in the boat of the husk of a corn,  but nothing could bring about her death, neither was any  part of her body damaged in any way.1Mayana herself declared to her son Gopl-cand,—“By the practice of the mystic knowledge one becomes immortal, (and the course of life will retard towards immortality from its natural flow towards death and decay) just like the current of the tide- wave running backward. Through the boon granted by Gorakh-nath I am deathless; I can remain in the void for full fourteen ages,—in water for full thirteen ages, in the fire for twelve years. When the creation will sink below and finally dissolve, and the earth will be not and there will remain only all-pervading water, the sun and the moon will set for ever and the whole universe will be destroyed,—I shall float on for ever,—I shall have no death.”8 Jalandhari-pa or Hadi-siddha also gave ample proof of his control over Death. In describing the extraordinary yogic  power of Hadipa Mayana says to Gopi-cand that whenever Hadipa chances to catch hold of Yama or any of his officers he beats them severely for full eight hours, and there is no escape for Yama from the hands of the Hadi.3When Gopl- cand accepted Hadipa as his Guru, renounced the world and left the palace with his Guru, the king was unable to keep pace with the Guru in the path through the dense forest, created by the  Humkara  of the Hadi and he was lagging behind. The police officers of Yama, so to speak, availed themselves of this opportunity and attacked Gopl- cand and extracted his life from him4and went to the city of  1  See Gopi~candrer Patjicah,  ( a considerable extent by the ideal of Kaya-sadhana of the Sidcjha school; these Vaisnavas also have often spoken of the Vita  process or the Ujana  process in their yogic Sadhana.2 We have further seen that the Sufis and the Bauls of Bengal were Sadhakas of this Ulta-sadhana.3A very nice exposi tion of this Ulta-sadhana is found in the  Jnana-   sagara  of Ali-raja. There it is-said that the process of divine love is a reverse process,—and he who does not know the secret of this reverse process cannot have eternal life. Here the forward becomes the backward and the  backward becomes the forward and the world is related to the reality in this inverted law.4The way towards perfection 1  IX, Verses (41-46). 2  e  panca-bhuta madhye byapi  I khelanti parama sVarupt   II bind ujani na balai  I ke acchi siddha afiga bahi  il ula$a ujani calile  I  purita manasa-sarovare  II  Brahma-iankali  of Achyutananda Dasa, (Pracl-grantha-mfila series), p. 26. Again. ulati urddhvaku k$epai  II  Ibid.,  p. 7, hetura mule dhara farii  I bahanta nadik.a ujani  II # * * * ujana laya-yoga khata    etc.  Ibid.,  p. 11.  yeve tu dhaivu ujani  I kseplva gagana ku Pani  II teve parame hoi mela  Ietc.  Ibid.,  p. 17. Again,  yog'imkjara yoga ujanare siddha hoi  I Sunya-samhita,  Ch. XX]. (PracJ-grantha-mala series), p. 112. 3   Vide Supra,  pp. 185-86. 4piriti ulfd rit na bujhe cature  I  ye na cine ulfa se na jiye samsare  II samukh bimukh hae bimukh samukh  I  pal(a niyame sav jagat samyog  IJ  Jnana-sagara,  pp. 36-37, has been kept hidden by the Lord and only the unreal path (asdra pantha)  is kept open before all creatures ; it is for this reason that man, after his birth in this world, naturally has recourse to the unreal path and remains absorbed in transitory enjoyment. The reason why the path towards  pefection is thus concealed by the Lord from the eyes of ordinary creatures is that the possibility of easy access would have made it cheap; the Lord has enhanced the value and the glory of the path by keeping it secret and extremely difficult of access.1All these seem to be an echo of the well-known Upanisadic saying that by giving the senses an outward tendency and turning them away from the inward truth the Self-created One gave proof of His jealousy, as it were; it is because of this fact that man generally sees what is external, and not that which is within; but wise people there are, who, in quest of life eternal, have inverted their visual power and realised the self in and through a reverse process.2 The process of arrest or control of various sorts, which is the most important, function of yoga, is personified in the Bengali texts as ‘Khemai’ (from Skt. Ksema  —safety, security, tranquillity),8who has been spoken of as the best guard to be placed in the different centres of the body so that the wealth within may not be stolen away by Kala 1 bimtikhe agam pantha rakhiche gopate   I caJile bimuhh panthe siddhi sarVa mate   II samukher sav pantha bimtik koriya   I  palati bimuk. panthe jaiva caliya  II  Ibid., p. 38. 2    parahci khani vyatrnat svayatnbhas   tasmat paratt paiyati nantaratman  I ka&cid dhirah pratyag-atmanam aik^ad    avftta-cak*ur amrtattvam icchan  II Katha,  (2.4.1.). 3  The word may also be derived from the word K$ama  which has its dialectal variant as Khema.  This Khema  has its secondary meaning as stoppage (as in khema deoya)  and hence the word has acquired the sense of *restraint’ Cf. dvitte ajapa jana cari beda aSr   I sadae japae jiv  ^ema nai tSr   II G+rakta-vijaya,    p. 192. the religion of the natha siddhas 267  268 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (death, decay, change). Khemai has sometimes been depicted as a very smart policeman, who arrests all the evil tendencies, pierces the undisciplined and unsteady elephant of mind with the hook (ariiijusa) j1it is for this reason that Gorakh-nath in the form of the dancing girl instructed the captive Guru Mina-nath (who was at that time made the king of the country of Kadali) to give his royal sceptre lo Khemai and to serve him most obediently, and Gorakh assured him that he (Khemai) would be the best man to rule the country (of this body).2 The purification of and the control over the muscles, sinews, nerves, ducts and the nerve-centres through the  processes of  Asana  (posture),  Dhauti  (washing),  Bandha   (different kinds of arrest),  Mudra , Pranayama  and other  process of Hatha-yoga are generally prescribed to be directed towards the final aim of the transformation and transubstantiation of the body. Closely associated with the question of transubstantiation of the body is the question of attaining full control over the mind. An echo of the general Indian trend of idealism is also found here and there in the stories of the Natha literature. JWe 1kbemdir hate guru nd dila jc dhanu  I karna-ra9e dhanu dila bhedilek tanu  II  Ibid.,  p. 124. khemaire ahkusa diya mandi pdgal  II  Ibid., p.  141. magh masete guru hima khara&an  I ksemair cakart kari rakhaha paran  II  Ibid,,  p. 143. khemaire ahkus mdra hastiyar munde  II  Ibid.,  p. 150. ehi cari dhaut jan sarir alay  I kdm krodha lobha moha ehi cari hae  II ei cari janerc dharia dad kari  I takale miliya kara khemair cakari  II  Ibid.,  p. 151. 2  C/.  pafe raja dada  ^ari khemdir sane mili  I kamer galate dey lohat jifijali  II s akala chadiya guru khemaire kara raja  I bhakiiya garala candra kaya kara taja  II  Ibid.,  p. 152,  Also Ibid.,  p. 159 bham iikal bande  manage na deya thai  I manage  fy&ndhue bacha taler lagal pai  II THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 269 have seen that the control of the mind is the yoga  par    excellence , and it is held that the vital wind is the vehicle of this mind, and the control of the vital wind through the  processes of Prdnayama  leads to the control of the mind. With the arrest of the vital wind the mind becomes arrested, and it is for this reason that the arrest of the Vayu  (i.e., the vital wind) has been held very important in the Natha literature as in the literature of other religious schools con taining discoures on yoga. Kaya-sadhana of the Nalha Siddhas implies, on the whole, a slow and gradual process of continual purification, rejuvenation and transubstantiation of the body through various yogic processes. It has been said that through the fire of yoga (i.e., the purifying processes of yoga) the ordinary body of change and decay is burnt away and from the process of purification and rejuvenation results a new immutable divine body as a transformation of the old. Without entering into the details of this Kaya-sadhana, let us discuss here at some length a particular form of yoga that was most emphasised in Kaya-sadhana. (B) Kaya-sadhana (a) The Theory of the Sun and the Moon To understand fully the secrets of Kaya-sadhana we should first of all understand the theory of the sun and the moon as postulated in yoga. The sun and the moon are very frequently to  be met with in the Tantric and yogic texts and it is held that yoga consists in the unification of the sun and the moon. The sun and the moon refer generally ei aamsar majhe man daat bad a  I bipad paihare man daga dive hada  II man raja man praja man maya phanda  I man bandha tan cinta Suna gopt-candra  II etc. Gqphcandrer Sannyaa  (C. U., Part II)* p, 4 3 5 . to the two important nerves in the right and the left and their union generally refers to the union of the two currents of the vital wind, Prana  and  Apana  or inhalation and exhalation. 1But the sun and the moon £ave got a deeper meaning still. In the Siddha-siddhanta-paddhati   (ascribed to Gorakh) we find that the physical body emerges from the collocation of five factors, Viz., Karma  (activity), Kama  (desire), Candra  (the moon), Surya  (the sun) and  Agni   (fire).2Of these the first two are rather the conditions of the visible body (  pinda ), while the other three are the primary elements of which the body is made. Of these three again the sun and fire are generally held to be the same. Then the  primary elements out of which the visible body is made are reduced to two, viz.,  the sun and the moon. The moon represents the elements of  Rasa  or Soma,  (i.e., the quintessence in the form of the juice) and the sun is the element of fire, and, therefore, the body is called the product of  Agni  and Soma.  :|  Rasa  as Soma  is the food ( upabhogya)   while fire as the consumer is the eater ( bhokta ),4and through the well-proportioned combination of the consumer and the consumed the whole creation is sustained. The sun and the moon as  A gni  and Soma  respectively are manifested in the physical world as the seed of the father and the ovum of the mother, through the combination of which proceeds 1  The word Hatha-yoga really signifies the union of the ha, i.e.,  the sun and the tha , i.e., the moon. Vide,  Hatha-yoga-pradipika . 2   karma kotnai candrah &aryo>gnir iti pratyak&a-karana pancakarri  ( 1 . 6 2 ). 3 agai-somd-tmako deho vindur yad ubhaya-tmakah  II Quoted in the commentary by Dravyesa Jha on the above aphorism. Cf. agni-*oma tmakam viSvam ity agrtir acak*ate  I Vrhaj-jabalo-panisat,  (9.1). 4   Cf. gam aviiya bhutani dharayamy aham ojasa  I  pusndmi camadhth sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakah  li aham vai&vanaro bhutva praninam deham a&ritah  I  prdnd-pana-samdyuktah pacamy annam caturvidham  I! Gita , (15.13-14), 270 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 271 the visible body, 1and thus  Agrti  and Soma  are the two  primordial elements of the whole creation. The moon, in addition to the one digit ikala),  which is the digit of nectar, and which it possesses by virtue of its own nature,  possesses sixteen other fca/as which are explained here as the sixteen modes in which the moon functions.2The sun, again, in addition to its own digit of self-luminosity,  possesses twelve other digits, which are the modes in which the element of the sun functions.8This theory of the sun and the moon with its cosmological significance is found explained in the second  Brahmana  of the Vrhaj-jabalo-    panisat. In the yogic texts in general the moon and the sun represent the two elements underlying physical existence,— Viz.,  the element of creation and preservation and the element of change and destruction.4The moon as the principle of non-change and immortality resides in the region of Siva and  1  fc/nca  surya-gni-rapam pituh sukram soma-rupan ca matr-rajah, ubhayoh    samyoge pindotpattir, etc. Vide,   Comm, referred to ah^ve. 2 ullola, kallolin't, uccalafttl, unmadint, taramgim , iosint, lampafa ,  praVfttih , lahart, lola, lelihana, prasarantl, pravaha, saumya, prasannata, plaVanti  1 eVam    candrasya soda&a-kala saptadaSi kala nivrttih sa'mrta-kala  I Siddha-siddhanta-paddhati  (1.63). Cf. Tantra-loka  (3.138). 3  tapini, grasika ,  agra,   a^uncani, iosim, praOodhani, smara, akarsanl,  hisfi- varddhinl, urmi-rekha,  fciranatfati,  prabhaVati’ii dvada&a-kala suryasya, trayodait    sva prakaiata nijct’kala  I Siddha-siddhanta-paddhati  (1.66). 4  In some places, however, the sun is not identified with the destructive fire,—  it is described as situated in the middle as the middle principle. urddhve tu samstkita srsfih paramananda-dayint  II  piyusa-Vftfim varsanti baindavl parama  fca/a II  adhah samharakrj jneyo mahan agnih krtantakah  I  ghoro jvalavalbyukto durdharso jyotisam nidhih  II  tayor madhye param teja ubhayananda-sundaram  I  aVatarah aa vijneya ubhabhyam Vyapakah iivah  II  paraspara-samavitfau candre ’  gni$fi(ibhe Sait  I  candram srsfim vijanlyad agnih samhara ucyate  II  aVataro ravih prokto madhyasthah parameivarah  I Quoted in the comm* on the Tantra-loka  (3?67) by J&tyaratha. in OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the sun as the principle of change and destruction resides in the region of Sakti. The moon and the sun are thus associa ted with Siva and Sakti. The moon is the depository of  Amrta  or ambrosia which gives immortality, while the sun is the fire of destruction ( kalagni ).' The moon is situated just  below the Sahasrara or the lotus of thousand petals in the cerebrum region,—it is facing downwards; and the sun is , situated in the region of the navel or in the 1  he sun and the 53 moon as associated lowest plexus (  Muladhara)  facing upwards.2 with Sakti and Siva. t . . . It is held that bindu  which is the quintes sence of the tody is of two kinds, viz.,  the yellowish white bindu (pandura-bindu)  and the red bindu (lohita-bindu) ,— the former is of the nature of semen (su^ra), while the latter is of the nature of ovum ( maha-rajas)  ; the bindu  (i.e. the white bindu  or semen) is contained in the moon in the upper region, while the ovum is contained in the sun in the navel; this bindu  is Siva and that is the moon,—and the rajas  is Sakti, which is the sun.2Thus it seems that the conception of the moon and the sun has been associated with that of Siva and Sakti, and metaphysically the moon and the sun 1   bujhaile na bujha guru yadrer (andher) laksan  I  yamreta ediya kara gatal bhaksan  I! Goraksa-vijaya , p. 134. nabhi-dese vasafy ek° bhaskaro dahanatmakah  I amfta-tma sthito nityam talu-mule ca candramah  il varsaty adho-mukhat candro grasaty urddhva-mukho ravih  I  jfiatavyd karani taira jatha piyu§am apyaie  II Gorak?a-paddhati,  2nd Sataka,  verses (32-33). (Bombay Edition). Generally the sun is described in the navel: but in the Goraksa-samhita  (Ch. IV, verse 152) and the Kaula-jnana-nirnaya  (Ch. II, verse 3) it is described in the lowest lotus or the Mulsdhara. 2   sa punar dvividho binduh panduro lohiias tatha  J  panaurah Sukram ityahur lohitakhyo maharajah  II sindura-draVa-samka&am nabhi-sthime sthitam rajah  I $a&i sthanc sihtiv bindus tayot aikyam sudurlabham  II bindu SiVO rajah Saktii candro bindu rajo ravih  I anayoh sahgamad eva prapyate paramam padam  II Gorak$<*~paddhati,  p. 35 (verses 71-73). Also, Goraksa-samhita  (Prasanna Kaviratna’s edition), pp. 29-30 (verse, $0-82). Cf.  also, Goraksa-sara-samgraha,  p. 41 f  THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 273 represent the nature of Siva and Sakti, respectively. The sun, we have seen, is called Kalagrti  or the fire of destruction, and it is also called Rudra (i.e.  the Dire One) as opposed to Siva (the All-good One). In the Kaula-jnana-nirnaya  this Kalagrti  as Rudra is associated with Sakti and is said to be seated in the lower region (Muladhara)  within the mouth of the Vadava . It is held that there are seven lower regions called  patala  and seven upper regions called heaven. Creation lasts as long as the Kalagni  remains in the lower region, but when it burns upwards, dissolution starts.1In the Buddhist Tantras and the Buddhist Sahajiya songs these principles of the sun and the moon have been conceived as the fire-force in the Nirmana-kaya (i.e. the plexus of ‘the body of trans formation') and as the Bodhi-citta in the Usnisa-kamala respec tively. The fire-force in the Nirmana-kaya (situated, according to the Buddhists, in the navel region) is described as the goddess Candali. This point has been stated before in details.2 The Sadhana of the Hatha-yogins consists, on the whole, in the act of combining the sun with the moon after getting complete mastery over them. Jn describing the yogic power of Hadi-siddha Mayanamati frequently refers to the fact that Hadi-siddha has made the sun and the moon his ear-rings.5 Though the statement is found in our literature only to describe the mythical power of Hadi-siddha, with whom everything impossible became possible, there is a deeper yogic significance behind it. These principles of the sun 1   Kaula-jhana-nirnaya,  Ch. II. 2   Vide supra,  pp. 115-124 3   cdeSiy hadi nay banga-de§e ghar     canda-suruj rakhche dui kaner kufdal  II Gopl-candrcr Gan  (C. U. Part I), p, 61.  yam raja hay yar nijer cakar   I candra surya dui jan kundal haner   II Gopt-candrer Sannyas  (C. U, Part II), pp. 440-441, 35-141 IB 27   4 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS and the moon have been referred to in the Goraksa-Vijaya   under various imageries.1 This act of combining the sun with the moon or  the perfect control over them then implies many things in  practical yoga. It implies, firstly, the retrogressive process of turning the cosmic manifestation back to its original form of rest, and this is effected by the yogins by rousing Sakti and uniting her with Siva in the Sahasrara. The combination of the sun and the moon implies secondly Various yogic im- , . • • 1  - i 1   1   1  plications of the the yogic practice in which the male and  union of the sun and r 1  •. 1 , 1  i • l l the moon. me female unite and the combined subs tance of the seed and the ovum is sucked  within by the yogin or the yogini, as the case may be, through some secret yogic processes.2Again the practice of purifying and controlling the nerves like Ida and Pingala  by controlling Prana  and  Apana  through processes of Pranayama  is what is meant by combining the sun and the moon. The three important nerves Ida, Pingala and Susumna in the left, right and the middle are frequently described in the yogic texts as of the nature of the moon, the sun, and fire ( Soma  or Candra , Surya  and  Agni),   respectively. In the Natha cult, however, the commingling of the sun and the moon has the deeper significance of transforming the material body of change to an immutable  body of perfection. How can that be effected? It can be effected by a perfect control over the destructive force of the sun and then rejuvenating the whole body with the * e.g. SaniVare bahe bayu Sunye mahatithi  I  purvve ulc bhaskar paScime jvale bati  II nivite na dio bati jvafa ghana ghana  I ajuha chapai rakha amulya iatari  II ravivar bahe bau laiya adya mul  I agun paniye gura ek samatul  II agun paniye jadi hac milamili  I nivi jaiVa aguni raiya jaiva chali  II Gorak§a-vijaya,  p. 1 4 0 t 2   Cj . Vajroh-mudra , THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 275 nectar oozing from the moon. We have seen that the sun represents the principle of destruction and the moon that of creation. The yogin tries to avoid both the extremes and have recourse to a principle of eternal conservation, which can be effected only by the perfect commingling of the  principle of destruction and creation. This is what is meant  by the real commingling of the sun and the moon. It is held in practical yoga that the quintessence of the v;3ible body is distilled in the form of Soma  or nectar (  amrta ) and is reposited in the moon in the The sun and [he Sahasrara. There is a curved duct from moon of the Natha-  y°sms.  the n)oon below the Sahasrara up to the hollow in the palatal region; it is well- known in yoga physiology as the Sankhini.  This is the banka   ndla {i.e.  the curved duct) frequently mentioned in the vernaculars through which the maha-rasa (i.e. Soma-rasa)    passes.1This curved duck Sankhini  is described in the Goraksa-vijaya  as the serpent .jwith mouths at both ends.2 1   behka nale sadha guru na ariya hela  II Gorak^a-Vijaya,  p. 147. „ Kabir in his songs frequently speaks of this banka-nala.  The Orissa Vaisnavas also speak of it in connection with their Sadhana. Cf. nirodha karala iriveni  I banko*nalara sikha pare  I kamara nala yeum thare  II urddhva-mukhate kori thana  I maha-iunyare mo bhajana  II  Brahma-iahkali,   p. 3. Again ujani dhara bayu tani  I k$ipa  afcaia marge pani  II banku nalare thula kora  I nasiko ogre drsti dhara  IIetc.  Ibid.,  pp. 2 0 * 2 1 . 2 budh bare bahe bayu bujha ape ap  I  phirai khelao guru dui mukha sap  II capile garjjiya uthe biraha nagin'i  I sapini na haye guru surasa saAkhint   II Goraksa-vijaya , p. 141  jyaistha maseta guru bhanu kharaian  I surasa sapini tole koilas saman  II  Ibid.,   p. 143. saruya samkbini sahge eka bhedi k&l  I  paricay kori hasa bandi kora  fea/ IJ  Ibid.,  p. 144.  2% OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS The mouth of this Sankhint  , through which the Soma   or the  Amrta  pours down from the moon is called the  Dasama-dvara  or the tenth door of the body as distinguished from the other nine ordinary doors.1This tenth door is the most important in yoga and is frequently referred to in old and mediaeval Bengali literature and it is frequently men tioned also in the Hindi texts on yoga.2Through this tenth door nectar trickles down from the moon. Now, it is held that in the ordinary course the nectar, trickling down from the moon through this tenth door, falls in the fire of the sun and is eaten up or dried up by the sun. The quintessence of the body in the form of Soma  or  Amrta    being thus dried up, the body, falls a victim to the fire of destruction ( Kalagni ),3—this is how in the natural course of  1  e^fl/ri mukha-randhram raja-danta-ntare >etad eVa Sankhini mukham dasama•   dvaram ity ucyate  I  Amaraugha-iasana  (Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies), p. 1 1 . See also :—sastham talu-cahram tatra mrta-dhara-praVahah ghanfikja-mula-randhra-   raja-dantam iarpkhini-bibaram da&ama-dvaram,  etc. Siddha-siddhanta-paddhati  ( 2 , 6 ). C/. da&ami duarata cihna dekhaia  I aila garahaka apane bahia  il Carya-pada  No. 3. This tenth door has been explained in Lhe commentary as the vairocana-dvara , or the most supreme gate ( vairocana  being generally held supreme in the pantheon of many of the Buddhistic esoteric schools). C/. also  —ida pingala susamana sandhi  I mana pavana tata kaila hand1 II daSam't duyare drio kapata  I eve cadilom mo se yoga bata  il Sri-kfsna-kirtana  (Sshitya Pansat edition), p. 359. bhediya daHaml dvar khal jor bhara  II Gorak$a-vijaya,  p. 139. ingala pingala dui nadir ye majhe  I dasamite tali diya rahiva sahaje  II  Ibid.,  p. 144. da&amir dvar bhedi dhoke dhoke tola  I ujauk. maha-ras bharauk khala jora  II  Ibid.,  p. 145. 2   Cf. dasam duara agam apara param purusa kj ghaf'i   Beni,  Adigrantha,  p. 974, quoted by Di. Mohan Singh. 3   nabhi-mule Vasci suryas talu-mule ca candramah  I amftam grasate suryas tato mrtyu-Va&o narah  II Gorakia-samhita  (I, 85), THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 277 things death becomes the inevitable catastrophe of life. This ordinary course of the flow of nectar must be checked and regulated and this is the only way of deceiving Kala (Time) and becoming immortal. The tenth door must be shut up or well guarded,—and this has figuratively been hinted in the vernaculars by the phrase ‘ locking up the tenth door ’ or *placing sentinels ’ there. If this door remains open the  Maha-rasa,  which is the best wealth of man, will be stolen away by the Sun or Death. 1On the other hand, if this  Maha-rasa  can be saved from the sun and if the yogin can Cf. candrat sarah sravati Vapu&as tena mrtyur naranam  I tad badhntyat suaranam ato nanyatha korya-siddhih  II Goraksa-paddhati,  verse 15. vimala salila sosa jai jai kaldgni paithai  II  Doha-kosa  of Kanha-pada, Doha No. 14. Also—  trsa nagile jai asc sunya haite  I trsa lagile jai tor khay hutaiane  II Gopl-candrer Gan  (C, U. Part, 1), p. 72. Again —  kodacit nija candra na koriva vyay  I bar a batsarer ayvi cka dine k^ay  II Garaksct-vijaya , p. 188, 1   duvila tomhar nauka kflchi gela chidi  I tomhdr sakul bhara  ^arr/e^a curi  II ***** gurur bacan tomar kichu nai bhaya  I  yatheko sampad tomar tuli dila nae  it *****  pradiva nivile bapu k.i kariva taile  I ki k&j bandhile yail jai  na thakile  II sikhad ko-tilc tave pade gach  I bint jale kathate jie mach  II ladivare sak^i nahi gurur sakati  I dvar~khan mukta k°ri karila basati  ! mukta dvar pai cor haila satantar   I sarva dhan hari nila Sunya haila ghar   IE Goraksa-vijaya,  pp. 107-108. Again  —nagare manusya nahi ghare ghare cal  I andhale dokan diya kharid kare k<*l  H  Ibid.,  p. 138. [There is a pun on the last line. The literal meaning is, —the blind is kept in charge of the shop and the deaf buys everything; the blind is the ignorant and the uninitiated, while the deaf is Death {Kala)  who pays no heed to the request of any  body.] Again—  dvitlya prahara ratri kala nidra ghor   I ojantr tail mapi lai jae cor   II  Ibid.,  p. 139. 278 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS himself drink this nectar, the yogin will undoubtedly become immortal. How to save this  Amrta  from the sun? Various are the yogic processes described in Hatha-yogic and Tantric texts. Of all the processes the process known as Khecari-mudra   has been held to be the most important. It is the process of turning the tongue backwards into the hollow above so as f to reach the mouth of the  Raja-danta  or of  The process of  saving the Maha-rasa the Sanfyhirii  (which is the tenth door) and  from the sun. r r • i n l l of fixing the sight Between the eye-brows. The tongue thus extended backwards shuts up the tenth door and the nectar, thus saved, is drunk by the yogin himself. This Khecari-mudra  has been praised eloquently in all the yogic texts as the best and the surest way of becoming immortal. It is held that this yogic process has the capacity of controlling all kinds of secretion, and if a yogin practises Khecart   his bindu  (seed) will remain undisturbed even if he is closely embraced by a woman. This process of drinking the nectar by the practice of the  Mudras  and the  Bandhas   is the way to eternal life.1In some of the texts this secre tion of nectar from the moon is associated with the rousing of KundalinI Sakti and it is held that the rousing of Sakti in the Sahasrara is instrumental to the trickling down of the 1   Cf. rasattatn Urddhvagam kftva h$ana-rdham apt titfhati  I visair vimucyate yogi Vyadhi-mrtyu-jara dibhih   I! urddhva-jihvah sthiro bhutva soma-panam aroti yah   I masa-rddhena na sandeho mrtyum jayati yoga-vit   II nityam soma-ko-la-purnam Sarire yosya yaginah  I tak^akenapi dasfasya visam tasya na sarpati  II indhanani yatha vahnis tala-vartirp ca dipakflh  I tatha soma-hjala-purnam dchi deham na muficati   II etc. Goraktot-paddhati,  pp. 37, 38 (Bombay edition). These verses are Repeated in many other similar texts. C/. again—  ghanta-hoU-hppola-kptara-huti-jihva-gra-madhya-iraya-cchahkliiny agata-raja-danta-vivararn pranto-rddhva-vaktrena yat   I sampraptam hanu-randhra-   mula-Vidhina yac candra-toyam mukhe tatsarVam ravi-kala-rupa-sadane rakset     para sarana   II etc,  Amaraugha-iasana,  p. 1et seq. THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 279 nectar,—and sometimes Sakti herself is depicted as the drinker of the nectar. This liquid, trickling from the moon, is also called the wine of the immortals (  amara-Varuni ), and as the gods have become immortal by drinking  Amrta  or the ambrosial wine, so the yogins become inimortal by drinking this wine trickling from the moon. Drinking of wine and eating of meat, which are indispensable to a Tantric Sadhaka, are explained by the Natha-yogins as the drinking of the nectar from the moon and turning the tongue  backwards in the hollow above. 1 We have seen that the moon has sixteen digits. The secretion of the Soma-rasa  in the  Kalagni  (the solar fire of destruction) is sometimes figuratively called the eating up of the digits of the moon by the  Rahu ,2the passage from the moon to the  Kalagrti  being conceived as the  Rahu.  The idea of the disappearance of the digits of the moon one by one and* the reappearance of the digits in order has given rise to the theory of the Tithis  (i.e. the lunar day, or the thirtieth  part of a whole lunation^, including the  Purnima  (full-moon) and the  AmaVasya (i.e.,  the night of the new moon),—the  processes of disappearance and reappearance of the digits  being represented as the black and the white fortnight.8 1   mukh-khani chal guru jihva-khani pkal  I amar patane jena ycte  fcare hal  II ucca nlc bhumi-hhani tate bay  I  jadi hayc grha-Vasi se bhumi casay  II Gorah^o-vijaya,  p, 138. Cf. gomamsam bhaksayen nityam pibed amara-Varunim  I kulinam tam aham manye itare hula-ghatakph  II go-$abdeno'dita jihva tat-praveio hi laluni   1 go-mam&a-bhakscinam tat tu maha-patak.a-riaianam  II  jihoa-praVeia sambhuta-vahrtino 'ipaditah hholu  I candrat sraVati yah sarah sa syad amata-varunl  II Gorak$a-paddhati,  pp. 38-39 (Bombay edition). 2  Rahu is the mythical demon that devouis the moon, which fact is held responsible for the eclipse. 3   Cf.  The Commentary on the line cahcala cle paitho kola  II Carya-pada  No. |, 280 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS The conservation and the yogic regulation of the  Maha-    rasa  are at the centre of the yogic Sadhana of the Natha Siddhas. The Natha Siddhas (as well as the Buddhist Siddhacaryas) admitted six parts of yoga, viz.,  Asarta ,  Pranayama ,  Pratyahara ,  Dharana, Dhyana  and Samadhi,]    excluding the two parts, viz., Yama , i.e., restraint and  Niyama  or discipline of the Patanjala system. It will be observed that in the Patanjala system Yama ,  Niyama  and  A sana  are physical and moral discipline for the control of the mind,  Pranayama  a vital process for the arrest of the mind, and  Pratyahara ,  Dharana ,  Dhyana , etc. are purely  psychological processes for the final concentration and arrest of the mind;—all these processes are purely psychologi cal processes for the final concentration and arrest of the mind. All these processes are associated in the Natha cult with the process of retaining the  Maha-rasa  and the yogic regulation of its secretion for the transubstantiation ’ of the  body and thus attaining a life eternal.2 (b) The Sun and the Moon as Woman and Man. There is, however, another aspect of the theory of the sun and the moon. We have seen that the sun is the  Rajas prakftya-bhasa-dosa-Va^at cohcalyataya prakfta sattvena (a, sic) cyuti rupo hi    rahuh   I sa eva k^lah   I krsna-pratipaddasayam pravistah   I yasmdt nanda-bhadra-     jaya-rikta purna-tithi-kramena samVrtti-bodhi citta-mrga nfam iosam nayaliti   I Comm, on the Song No. 1 (Sastri’s edition). Cf.  also :—kalagnii cyuta-Vastha kfsna-pratipaUpraVeia-kfila-praVrtta iti   I Comm, on the Doha No. 14 of Kanha-pfida. 1 asanam prana-samrodhah pratyahara  £ ca dharana   I dhyanam samadhir etani yogangani Vadanti sat   li Cf. Maitrayamya Upanisat    (Cowell’s edition, Ch. VI. p. 129), where flic six  Afigas   are described a9 Pratyahara, Dhyana , Pranayama ,  Dharana, Tarka   and Samadhi. 2 candra-mrtamayim dharam pratyaharati bha^arah  I  yat pratyaharanam tasyah pratyaharah sa ucyate  II (j Qrak'Sa-paddhaii,    p. 74. and the moon is the  Bindu,1 the sun is associated with Sakti and the moon with Siva—and the moon must be saved from the destructive sun. In the grosser aspect, man must save himself from the clutches of woman, who has been always depicted in the Natha literature as the tigress. Charmed and allured by her, man loses vital energy. She has generally  been spoken of as the enchantress of the day and the tigress of the night. The Natha Siddhas were strict celibates, and it appears from the Natha literature in all the vernaculars that women are regarded as the greatest danger in the path of yoga and they are given no status higher than that of ferocious tigresses always bent on sucking the blood of the prey. The fall of Mina-nath in the company of the women of Kadali or the queen of Ceylon and his rescue by Gorakh-nath seem to  be a popular poetical version of the general attitude of the  Nathas towards women in general. In his enigmatic counsels to the Guru Gorakh-nath said,—“The breath of women dries up the body and youth vanishes day by day. Foolish are the  people who understand nothing and make pets of tigresses in every house; in the day the tigress becomes the world-enchan- tress and at night she dries up the whole body. The milk is stolen and the tigress boils it, and the cat (death ?) is sitting by; the essence of milk is thrown down on the ground and only the vacant vessel remains in the sky. ”2 Similar verses ascribed to Gorakh-nath are also found in Hindi.3If we follow the words of reproof that Gorakh- 1 Vide supra'. Cf.   also,—  yatha yonii ca lihgam ca samyogat stravaio'mjrtam  | tatha mrtagni-samyogad dravatas te na sam&ayah  II Tantra-loka   (4, 131). 2 Gorak$a~vijaya,   pp. 186-187. Cf.   also,— hera dckha baghinl alse   I neter amcale carma-mandita knriya   ghar ghar baghini pose  II Song of Gorakh-nalh in the  Dharma-mangala   of Sahadev, B. S. P. P. 1304. 3 Cf. guru ji aisa   form na kijai, jamte ami maham-ras chljai  II -I- * *- * 5j. THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 281 36—141 IB nath levelled against his fallen Guru, we shall be convinced of the uncompromisingly adverse attitude of the Nathas against women, who are generally termed as thieves, dacoits,  pirates, thirsty tigresses and hypocrite cats. In one place Gorakh says,—“You have handed over your store to the gang of dacoits, you have employed the mouse as guard for the  pepper plant and the cat for thickly boiled milk ; you have kept logs of wood to the custody of the carpenter, the cow to the tiger, wealth to plunderers, the frog to the serpent,  bulbous root to the boar and arum to the porcupine; you have kept the mouse as the guard of the granary, kept  plantains before the crow, offered fish to the rustic rogue, dry fuel to fire. You have lost whatever merchandise you had at your disposal, exhausted your store and created sensation in the vicinity; you are living with your neighbours who are thieves and frauds/1Enigmatic statements of this nature casting serious reflection on the nature of women abound in the Goraksa-vijaya , or the  Mina-cetana   and also in the songs of Gopl-cand. Similar words, phrases and imageries were freely used also by Mayanamati, who was  bent on saving her only son from the clutches of his youthful wives.2We need not multiply illustrations. It will gode bhae ugamage pet bhaia dhiladhila  fees Va gale fye pamkha  I arm maha-ras baghini sokha tate ghor mathan bhai amkha  II divas  J baghini suri nari mohai rati sair sokhai  I murakh loka arndhala pasua niti prati baghani pokhai  II dami k^dhi baghani lai aia mau kahai mera puti bihaia  I goli lakdi kou ghuni Idia tin dal mul sani kb^ia   Ii baghni jimda bi baghani birnda bi baghani hamdri karnia  I ini baghani trailoki khai badati gorakhu raid   II Quoted by Dr. Mohan Singh in his Gorakhndth  etc, part II, p. 3, 1 Gorak?a-vijaya , pp. 121-23. Gopi-candrer Pdmcali,  (pp. 340-41). 3 In one place Mayana says to GopI-cSnd Ail men serve women gratis; the  Mahd-rasa  within the body is worth thousands of chests filled with gem; and when that wealth is lost man becomes subdued by a woman. A lioness is she and casts her eyes like the tigress; she leaves aside the bones and the flesh and sucks up the  Mahd-rasa.  Women deals in the wealth of man, and the allured man 282 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 283  be clear from the above that in a grosser sense  Maha-rasa   means the seed, and the SadhanS consists in saving the same from any kind of discharge, and it has been emphati cally declared in all texts of yoga that he, who has.been able to%ive an upward flow to the fluid, is a god, and not a man. This attitude towards women, as found in the Natha cult, seems to have influenced the tone of the poets of the Nirguna School (as the school is styled and defined by Dr. Barthwal) of Hindi poetry headed by Kabir. Kabir and his followers,  just like the Nathas, spoke of women in no better terms than as ferocious tigresses always seeking opportunity to prej^upon men and to suck their vitality.1 (C) Points of Similarity and Difference in the Practical Aspect of Yoga between the Natha Cult and other Esoteric Schools. It is important to note in this connection that in the practi cal aspect of yoga the system of Kabir, as also that of a goes on serving her gratis. With' his plough and bulls man cultivates the field of others,—there is the loss of the bulls and of the seed in the bargain. Though steel is used in the plough it decays in earth. If the bat eats up the soft stem of the plantain-tree the fruits cannot grow,- if the newly grown bamboo is pierced through by insects, how can it stand any weight? Gopi-candrer Sannyda   (C.U.  part H)f p. 438. Cf.  also Gopi-candrer Gan,    pp. 71. et $eq. 1 Vide Kami Nara Kau Ahga Kabira-Granthd-vali   (SySma-sundar Dls’s edition), pp. 39*41;  Aiha Nari Nimda Ko Ahga-Sundara-Grantha-Vali , Vol. II*  pp. 347 et aeq. Cf.  also —  din kfl mohini rat kja baghini  palak palak lahu cose  (   duniya sat) baura ho kc ghar ghar baghini pose   IIAscribed to Tulasidas. Cf.   also the following poem of Paltu-das : - bhag re bhag phakir k& bdlakA   kanak kamini dui bagh lage  I mar legi pada ciciyayagd bhaed bekuf tu nahi   bhage  II sfhgo rsi narae kd maraka khdy gayi bace na koyi jaa lakh tyage  I  palju-   das kahe ek upay hai baifha aanta-aangama nitya jage  I Vide Bhdratvarfiya Upasaka-aampraddya    by A. K.   Datta, Vol. I, pp. 255-256. -284 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS host of other mediaeval Hindi poets, was essentially the same as that of the Natha-yogins described above. Of course, there is a remarkable difference in the religious attitude, but inspite of all differences in views and the religious approach, the yogic  process seems to have been substantially the same. In his religious approach Kabir, with other poets of his school, is known to us more as representing a devotional school of mysticism, characterised by a spirit of heterodoxy, than as a school professing faith in yogic practice; but the fact remains that the poems of Kabir and the works of  The Natha cult and i  ,  r , l * 1 1   1  r  the Kabir-panth, many other poets ot this school speak or  a system of yogic practice behind their devotional fervour.3In his work  Nirguna school of Hind!    poetry  Dr. P. D. Barthwal has given an exposition of the yogic practices referred to in the works of this school of  poets, and a perusal of the book will convince one of the inherent similarity in yogic practice of this school with that of its predecessors, 0/z., the Natha Siddhas. The theory of the sun and the moon and the question of the secretion of nectar referred to above play the most important part in these mediaeval schools. It is perhaps because of this similarity in yogic Sadhana and the similarity of the general tone of extreme repulsion against women as a class, that the Kabir-panth has traditionally been affiliated with the Gorakhnath and Kabir has been believed to have had met Gorakhpanth and have had religious discourses with him. An important point to note is the difference in the religious approach as well as in method among the Natha Siddhas on the one hand and the Buddhist Sahajiyas on the other. We have said before that though both the sects were cognate Hatha-yogic sects there is a sharp difference in the  professed final aim as well as in practices of yoga. The final aim of the Nathas, we have seen, is the attainment of  1 S#o  Infra,  Appendix (A)* THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 285 immortality; while the final goal of the Buddhist Sahajiyas is the attainment of Maha-sukha. The Natha Siddhas believed KT. „ in the reality of birth and death and tried  The Natha Siddhas  J  and the Buddhist to avoid the whirl by transubstantiating the Siddhacaryas. . . i • l material body or change to subtle ethenal  body and that again finally to a perfect divine body ; but the Buddhist Sahajiyas inherited from the earlier schools of Buddhism the spirit uf extreme idealism and tried to avoid the whirl of birth and death by realising the void-nature of the self and of all the Dharmas, and they further contended that the void-nature of the self and the not-self can be realised only through the realisation of the Maha-sukha. The emphasis of the Nathas is on the yogic process of transubstantiating this corporal body of death and decay,— and the emphasis of the Buddhist Sahajiyas is on the sexo- yogic practice, which transforms the ordinary sex-pleasure to a higher and deeper emotion of bliss. Of course, the Kaya-sadhana of the Nathists is also there in the practices of the Buddhists,1and we also find occasional references in the Dohas and the Carya songs to the flow of nectar and the  process of drinking it by the yogin with the purpose of making the S^andha  (the elements, the aggregate of which constitutes the physical body) firm and stable and becoming  ajara  and  amara  (diseaseless and deathless); we find occasional references to the drinking of the nectar or the honey of the lotus in the head by the black-bee of the mind, and also to the pouring down of water from the moon of Bodhicitta, full in its sixteen digits, into the fire below. Though in some cases these expressions and imageries may be explained figuratively, yet it appears that the practice of the Buddhists for the realisation of the Maha-sukha was intimately connected with the Kaya-sadhana of the Nathas. The conception of the Varum  or the ambrosial liquor is 1 Supra,  p. 108. 286 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS also found in the Carya-padas,1and this Varu  pi may more satisfactorily be explained in the sense of the ambrosial liquor of the Natha-yogins than figuratively as the flow of Maha-sukha or grossly as the flow of the Bodhicitta as semen virile. What we want to emphasise is that while one school had recourse to the Sadhana from a particular outlook the other approached the yogic practices from a different point of view and while the emphasis of the one is on some particular aspect of the Sadhana, the emphasis of the other was on another. It is because of these differences that while the Natha Siddhas were vehemently opposed to the association of women in any way with their Sadhana and described them as the greatest impediment in their march towards immortality, the Buddhist Sahajiyas eulogised women in all possible glowing terms as the incarnation of Prajna, or Sunyata herself; and her company was regarded as indispensable for the attainment of perfection in spiritual life. Of course we have seen before 2that the Prajna or the Yogin! or the Mudra spoken of by the Buddhist Sahajiyas is not always the corporeal woman; she is the Nairatma or Sunyata or the Sahaja-damsel. But it will be equally a great mistake to try to interpret the Mudra always in this idealised sense and thus to explain away the necessity of the company of  women in the Sahaja-sadhana. We have noted before that the Maha-sukha of the Buddhist Sahajiyas was not a purely physiological sensa tion,—there was a psychological element involved in 1e^a se tundini dui ghare sandhaa  I clana bakftlaa barunt bandhoa  >1 sahaje thira  /jari barunt sandhv  i  jem ajaramara hoi didha kondhe   il Carya Song, No. 3. C/. eka strt bhujyate dvabhyam agaia candta-mandalat   I trtlyo yah punas tabhyarp sa bhaved ajaramarah  il Goraksa-paddhaii,   p. 74 (Verse 31) (Bombay Edition). 3 Supra,  pp. 116 et seq. THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 287 it.1This psychological aspect in the Sadhana (associated with the sex-emotion and sex-pleasure) is conspicuous by its absence in the'Natha school. The Vaisnava Sahajiya cult, we have seen, was based primarily on the divinisation of the sex-emotion by both physiological and psychological discipline. The Maha-sukha as the Sahaja-nature of the self and the not-self was transformed into the emotion of supreme love in the Vaisnava school. Neither Maha-sukha nor supreme love of the purest and the most intense nature is attainable without the help of the chosen woman and it is for this reason that the Buddhists always spoke of her as the incarnation of Prajna and the Vaisnavas of Mshabhava (i.e., the supreme emotion of love as personified by Radha),—and this attitude of the Sahajiyas, both Buddhist and Vaisnava, will present a sharp cantrast to that of the Natha Siddhas in general. The important point, however, to be noted in this connection is that inspite of this general attitude of aversion towards women, the Natha Siddhas also practised some well-known processes of yoga like Vajrauli, Amarauh, Sahajauli.2etc. in the company of women. But these practices are yogic practices,  pure and simple, in which women are neither philosophised upon, nor idealised. (iv) The Vedic Soma-sacrifice and the Drinking of Nectar in ihe Yogic Schools The most important part of the Sadhana of the Natha Siddhas, viz.,  the drinking of the nectar called Soma , oozing from the moon, can very well be associated with the Vedic rite of Soma-sacrifice, in which the Soma-juice was drunk and also offered to the gods and it was believed that the Soma-juice rejuvenates and envigorates the body and gives the drinker, whether god or man, eternal life in heaven or  1 Supra,  Ch. V. 2 For these processes of yoga see  Hafha-yoga-pradlplka  (3/83-100). They are Vp b$ found in other standard works on Ha^ha-yoga al^o. 288 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS earth. This Soma -juice was prepared from a particular climbing plant (well known as the Soma-plant, Sacrostema Viminalis or Asclepias Acida), which was said to grow luxuriantly on the mountains of India and Persia, and it is very frequently referred to in connection with sacrifice in the Vedic literature as well as in the A vesta. The relation  between the Soma-plant and the moon was held very mysterious. The plant itself was often called 4the moon*  plant ’ and it was believed that the plant received its exhilarating and envigorating juice directly from the moon. As a matter of fact the moon is generally believed to be mysteriously related to all the medicinal herbs and it is held that the juice of the herbs, that possesses capacity of curing diseases and conferring longevity, comes from the moon. In the Visnu-purana  (1*22) Brahma is said to have appointed  Soma  or the moon to be the monarch of SomaC m°°n and planets, of plants, of sacrifices, and   penances, and one of the names of the moon is Osadhi-pati  or Osadhisa , i.e., 4the lord of herbs.’1 So intimate is the relation between the plant Soma  and the moon that in Vedic as well as post-Vedic literature the moon herself is called Soma.  The Soma-plant was believed to  possess sixteen leaves corresponding to the sixteen digits of the moon, 2the leaves disappear one by one with the digits of the moon in the black fortnight and again reappear with the reappearance of the digits of the moon in the white fortnight. The mythical legend goes in the Puranas that 44at the churning of the ocean after all sorts of medicinal  plants and healing herbs are thrown in, three of the precious things said to be produced are Soma  ‘ the moon,’  Amrta   4nectarand Sura  *spirituous liquor/ and in the other  1Dictionary of Monier Williams, p. 1137. 2 We may note here that in the yogic texts Amrta is often thought of trickling down from the lotus of sixteen petais (soda&a-patra-padma-galiiam, Gora^a-    paddhati , p. 76, verse 57), vyhich corresponds to the moon with the sixteen digits. THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 289 legends this nectar is said to be preserved in the body of the moon. 1It will be easy from the above to detect the striking similarity of the conception of the moon and  Amrta  or Soma  of the yogins with those of the Vedic and ppst- Vedic traditions,—and it will also be easy to see how the Vedic religious function of sacrifice was transformed into a yogic practice, in both the cases there  being the question of drinking Soma  to gain eternal life. (u) The Rasayana School and the Natha Cult  We have said before in connection with the history of the Natha cult that in ideology as well as in methodology the yoga-system of the Natha Siddhas is strikingly similar to that of the Rasayana school. The Sadhana of the Natha Siddhas is essentially a Sadhana of transubstantiation and    transfiguration.   We have already referred to the popular traditions prevalent among the people of the Natha sect even to-day that the Siddhas like Matsyendra-nath, Gorakh- nath and others are still living in their subtle super-material  body in the hilly regions of the Himalayas. These popular  beliefs of a mythological nature have their root in the theo logical speculations of the sect. It has been said in the Yoga-Vija    that the perfect body of the yogin is subtler than the subtlest, yet grosser than the grossest; the yogin can transform his body according to his will—and his form is above all disease and death. He plays in the three worlds sportively wherever he likes, and can assume any and every form through his incomprehensible power.2The same 1Monier Williams, p. 1137. 2 suksmat sutymalaro dehah sthulat athulo jadaj jadah  I iccha-rupo hi yogindrah sVotantras tv ajara-marah  || krtdati trisu lokesu tilaya yatra utracit   I acintya-iaktiman yogi nana-rupani dharayan  II(Verses 51-52), 37-Ml |B 290 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  belief is to be found also in the Rasayana school.1The Rasayana school is fundamentally based on the ideal of  Jloan-mukti  and the method advocated is that of transubs tantiation with the help of  Rasa  or chemical element (generally mercury) and thus making the body immutable.2 This Rasayana, though primarily a school of chemical science, was associated with theological speculations, and renowned personalities like Nagarjuna (the alchemist), Vyacli, Vyajapyayana and others are recognised to have been the stalwarts of the school. It is believed that many are the gods, demons, sages and men, who have attained the immutable divine body with the help of  Rasa  and have thus  become  JiVan-mufyta.6  The theological aim of the school can be postulated from the first chapter of the  Rasamava   where Bhairava (lord Siva) explains the principles of Rasayana to the goddess, and these principles, he says, are the best and the surest way to attaining perfection. The question of the goddess is, how to attain  Jivan-mutyi.  The Lord replies that the secret of  Jvan-muti  is rarely known even to the gods. The conception of post-mortem liberation 1 evam rasa-samsiddho duhkha-jara-marana-varjito gunavdn   I khe-gamanena ca nityam samcaraie sakala-bhuvanesu   II data bhuvana-tritaye sratfa so'piha padma-yonir iva    I bharta visnar iva syat samharta rudravad bhavati   II  Rasa-hrdaya-tantra  (Ayurvediya-grantha-mala, Vol. I, 19. 63-64). Again,—   fvadehe khe-caratvam ca Sivatvam yena labhyate  I tadrie tu rasa-j fiane nitya-bhyasam  fcuru  priye  II  Rasarnava,  edited by Prof. P. C. Roy (Bibliotheca Indica). ^ apare tnaheSvarah paramc&Vara'tadatmy-Vadino pi pinda-sthairye sarva-    bhimata jiVan-muktib setsyatVty asthaya pinda-sthairyo-payani pat adadi-pada-Veda  - niyatfi rasaqi eva samgirante    I Sarva-dariana-samgraha  (Govt. Oriental Hindu Series, Vol. I), p. 202. 3 devah   fcecin maheia~dya daityah kavya-purahsarah  I munayo Valakhilya-dya nrpah some&vara-dayah  || govinda-bhagavaupadacaryo govinda-nayakah  I c arVatih kapilo vyalih k*palih kandalciyanah  II etenye bahavah siddha fwan-muktai caranti hi  I tan urn rasamayim prapya tadatmaka-katha-canSh  II Quoted in the $Qrpa-dQr$ana-*am$raha,  p. 204. THE RELIGION OF THE NATHA SIDDHAS 291 is totally worthless; for in that case all creatures are entitled to it by virtue of their mortal nature.1Again post mortem liberation, spoken of in the six systems of philo sophy, is a mere inferential speculation inasmuch as no  positive proof of such liberation is available at all. On the other hand the state of  Jitian-mukti  by making the  body immutable is as positive as anything.2To be something knowable, liberation must have a ‘ knower *; the demise of the knower excludes the possibility of the knowable, and hence the conception of post-mortem liberation is as fictitious as anything.3For mufcfi worth the name, the Pinda  (the body) must be preserved and  perfected and liberation is thus attainable only through the  perfection and preservation of the body by the application of  Rasa  (which, according to the school of Rasayana, is mer cury), also by the control of the vital wind.4The  Rasa  or Parada  is believed to be vested with the mysterious capacity * ajara-mara-dehasya $iva-tadatmya~vedanam  I  jivan-mukt  Seta-mdhatmya,  Ch. III. SPECULATIONS ON .THE CONCEPTION OF DHARMA 311 In the Bengali Manuscript Library of the Calcutta University we have a manuscript entitled  Dharma-itihasa   (i.e.,  the history of Dharma MS., C. U. No. 6152) which is ascribed to the poet Guna-raja-khan.1The Dharma of the text is none but the Lord Supreme, and it has been demonstrated with reference to t the stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata how the genuine devotees in different times and  places were, under various critical circumstances, protected through the infinite grace of the Lord. Traditions in the Dharma cult often show a great tendency to identify Dharma, or Dharma-raja with the Dharma-raja Yama. As a matter of fact Yama himself, seated on his Vahana  (mount) of buffalo, is often identified with the Dharma-raja of the Dharmites in many places of  West-Bengal and the festivities in connection with the gajana  of Dharma are known as the festivities of Dharma- raja Yama. Often it has been found that in worshipping Dharma-raja the priests utter the Mantra, —‘Salute to Dharma-raja, who is Yama and who is of various forms’ (namaste bahurupaya yamaya dharma-rajaya).2 In the ritualistic texts also we find corroboration of the fact. In the chapters on the river Vaitarani  of the Sunya-purana  we find that Dharma himself is acting as the helmsman and carrying all the devotees of Dharma to heaven, which is situated on the other side of the direful river Vaitaratfi.   Ramai Pandita himself is here helping all lay people on board. The name of the river Vaitarani  is so closely associated with the name of Yama in Hindu mythology that it takes no time to recognise that this Dharma-raja is none but Dharma-raja 1We do not think that this Guna-raja-khan is the same as Maladhara Vasu,   the well-known translator of the  BhagaVata   in the pre*Caitanya period. 2 Vide   an article  Radha-bhramana   by PaficSnan Banerjee, B. S. P. P., 1314   B. S. It is interesting to compare with the above Mantra the ordinary Mantra of    Yama-tarpana   :—yamaya dharma-rajaya mftyave cant a kaya ca   etc. .312 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Yama.1In a chapter of the  Dharma-puja-vidhana  we find the deity of the Dharmites unconsciously identified with Yama seated on his Vahana  of buffalo and accompanied by his well-known clerk, Citra-gupta, and his attendants, Kala and Vikalji__ with iron chains in their hands; he is found administering law to all people of the world.2 In the liturgical texts of the Dharma cult the tradition of Dharma’s identity with Yama seems to be less popular than the tradition of his identity with Siva and Visnu; in the  Dharma-mangaias  again the tradition of the Saivite nature of Dharma seems to be in a dwindling condition and the Vaisnavite nature, either in the form of Visnu in general or Krsna or Rama in particular, predominates. But before we deal in detail with this question it will be helpful to us to investigate into and examine the Buddhistic substratum of lord Dharma. (if)  Buddhistic Substratum of Dharma In the Sanskrit dictionary  Amarakosa  Dharma-raja has  been mentioned as a synonym for Buddha ;8in the Jataka stories also the epithet Dharma-raja refers to Buddha. It may  be noted that the Dharmites still now observe the days of  Buddha-pumima (i.e., Baisatyii pumima,  the birthday of  1Of course, in some other chapters (viz.,  the chapters on Yama-purana% Yama-duta-samVada, Yama-raja-samVada)   we find that the PurSnic Dharma-rSja   Yama and Dharma-rgja Nirafijana are differentiated. It is demonstrated with legends   that Dharma-raja Yama has no sovereignty over people who are devotees of    Dharma-rgja Niranjana or the Karatar    and that, being sadly harassed on several   occasions, Dharma-raja Yama with the help of Rimai Pandit made an exhaustive   list of the priests and devotees of Dharma-thakura of the five ages (including the void-   age) so that he might instruct his officers not to meddle with them. About this   disagreement of traditions we have nothing more to say than that here in the Dharma   cult, which offers the best spe-imen of the religious psychology of untrained masses,   nothing but anomaly and confusion can be expected. 2 pp. 249 et seq.   In one line of this chapter, however, Dharma and Yama are   spoken of as two ( Yama dharma duijan bosya achen-deva-sabhay) ;  but in fact   they are treated as one throughout the whole chapter. 3 SarVajHah sugato baddho dharma - tathagatah  I SPECULATIONS ON THE CONCEPTION OF DHARMA 313 Buddha) and  Asadhi purnima  (the day on which  Dharma-   cara  was first preached by Buddha) as highly auspicious festive days.1But it will not be fair to surmise from such identifications that Dharma or the Dharma-raja, or rather the Dharma-thakura of the Dharma cult directly represents Buddha. In discussing the Buddhistic substratum of the idea of Dharma we should remember that the Buddhism we are referring to here is not the Buddhism with which we are acquainted in any of the standard Buddhistic schools; it is that phase of later Buddhism which is so-called mainly historically as maintaining in a transformed, modified and corrupted form the continuity of the older thought. ,We may illustrate the exact nature of the relation of the Dharma cult with standard Buddhism with reference to an episode of the popular Pali text  Milinda-pahha.  The question of king Milinda is whether the man who is reborn is the same as the man who is dead or is an absolutely new man. It is indeed very difficult to answer the question directly in consistence with the theory of momentariness of the Buddhists. The answer of the Elder Nagasena is, therefore, v. indirect; he says that the man who is newly born is neither the same as the former, nor is he absolutely a new man; but inspite of the absence of personal identity the latter is to be associated with the former only because of the fact that the former is mysteriously responsible for the existence of the latter. The argument of Bhadanta Nagasena may very aptly be repeated here in connection with the exact relation  between the Dharma cult and Buddhism, or the conception of the Dharma thakur and the conception of the ultimate reality propounded in Buddhism proper. It may be repeated here that it will be wrong to suppose that any particular Buddhistic conception of the reality has, through processes of  1The author is indebted to Prof. Prabodh Chandra Sen, M.A., for giving him   detailed information on this point. 40—141 IB 314 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS long transformation, coalesced with the Hindu conceptions of the supreme deity and has thus given rise to the com  posite conception of the Dharma thakura. Dharma-thakura represents as much infiltration of ideas from popular Hin duism as from popular Buddhism, and this explains his extremely heterogeneous nature. In investigating into the Buddhistic substratum of the conception of Dharma, there fore, we shall only indicate the different lines in which Buddhistic ideas might h^ve infiltrated in the mind of ordi nary masses to give rise to the conception of a deity of such heterogeneous nature. We have seen before that the philosophic ideas of Mahayana Buddhism, with the spirit of catholicity and adapt ation, had an innate tendency towards approximating the Upanisadic spirit. Whatever may be the position of Nagar-  juna and his followers, who have been the centre of great controversy, the conception of the ultimate reality of the Vijnanavadins as pure consciousness or the absolute uncreate cannot but be held to be positive in nature. The Tathata- vada of ASvaghosa admits the Tathata-nature (i.e., the nature of the Dharmas as thatness) to be something substantial, per manent and unchanging and as such it is something positive, though formless and unqualified. The conception of the Vijnapti-mcitrata  or the  Abhuta-parilialpa , which is of the nature of consciousness, bereft of the duality of the knower and the knowable, seems to be just the previous step of the conception of the Brahman which in its absolute and un qualified nature transcends all knowledge, knower and knowability. It has always been vehemently argued by the Vijnanavadins that Sunyata was never spoken of by the Lord as pure ‘nothing’; while it is the negation of all duality, it implies at the same time the reality of pure consciousness or the absolute uncreate, which is unchanging, unthinkable, all good, eternal, all bliss, the ultimate element of the nature of liberation. SPECULATIONS ON THE CONCEPTION OF DHARMA 315 Again in the docetic conception of the Tri-kaya in the Mahayana system the Dharma-kaya or the body of the cosmic unity, or the organised totality of things, though not as a purely philosophical concept, but as an .object of reli gious consciousness, approximates the idea of the Brahman. The word Dharma-kaya is often explained as the body of law; and it may also be remembered that Buddha is said to have told his disciples that his teachings should be recog nised as his own immortal body. But the word dharma  is generally used in the Mahayana texts in the sense of ‘entity’; and the Dharma-kaya means the ‘thatness’ ( tathata-rupa ) of all the entities; it is in other words the dharma-dhatu  or the  primordial ele nent underlying all that exists. It has been also termed as the Svabhava-kaya, i.e., the body of the ulti mate nature. It is described a3 devoid of all characters, but  possessing eternal and innumerable qualities. It is neither the mind, nor matter, nor something different from them  both. The nature of the Dharma-kaya is described in the  Aoatamsaka-sutra1 in the following manner,—‘The Dharma- kaya though manifesting itself in the triple world, is free from impurities and desires. It unfolds itself here, there, and everywhere responding to the call of Karma. It is not an individual reality, it is not a false existence, but is univer sal and pure. It comes from nowhere, it goes to nowhere; it does not assert itself, nor is it subject to annihilation. It is for ever serene and eternal. It is the One, devoid of all determinations. This body of Dharma has no boundary, no quarters, but is embodied in all bodies. Its freedom or spontaneity is incomprehensible, its spiritual presence in things corporeal is incomprehensible. All forms of corporeality are involved therein, it is able to create all things. Assuming any concrete material body as required by the nature and condition of Karma, it illuminates all creations. 1Quoted in Suzuki • Outline s of MahSyana Buddhism , pp. 223-224. $16 OfeSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Though it is the treasure of intelligence, it is void of parti cularity. There is no place in the universe where this body does not prevail. The universe becomes, but this body for ever remains. It is free from all opposites and contrarieties, yet it is working in all things to lead them to Nirvana.” This docetic conception of Buddhahood as implied in the theory of Tri-kaya gradually transformed itself in the monotheistic conception of a Being and latterly in the clear conception of a personal God. The Dharma-kaya Buddha  became the Lord Supreme, the Sambhoga-kaya Buddha  became the Dhyani-Buddhas (viz.,  Vairocana, Aksobhya and others) and the Nirmana-kaya Buddha gave the idea of the human Buddhas (Manusi  Buddha). All these various philosophical concepts about the ultimate reality in the different schools of Buddhism, including the Ail docsfic and docetic conception of Buddha as con- momstic conceptions ceived in the theory of the Tri-kaya, lost ot the reality in bud dhism combined in their special significance in a popular idea later times in the con- . "i /-» 1  • ception of a Supreme of a Supreme Being—a personal God m later schools of Tantric Buddhism, and the most common name by which He was known among the Tantric Buddhists was the Lord Vajra-sattva.1Though it  became customary with the Buddhist Tantrikas to describe this Vajra-sattva with all sorts of negative attributes (of course, in addition to the positive ones), it is very easy to see that the conception of the Vajra-sattva behind all these positive and negative attributes is definitely positive and is that of a  personal God. ''All Buddhistic ideas, viz.,  the idea of Sunyata, the idea of pure consciousness, the idea of the Bodhicitta, the idea of Maha-sukha began in later days to acquire cosmo logical and ontological significance in the form of an all-  pervading Being v The origin of the Dharma-thakura with all his positive and negative, Buddhistic and Hindu attributes 1 Vide Supra , pp. 28-29. SPECULATIONS ON THE CONCEPTION OF DHARMA 31 1 may historically be asociated with the conception of this Lord Supreme of the later Buddhistic schools. In connection with the evolution of the conception of Dharma the question of its relation with the th!eemjeweu!d j]*? Dharma of the three ‘jewels’ of Buddhism SafighEu'Dhaimaand (viz.,   Buddha, Dharma and Sangha) natu rally attracts our notice. MM. H. P. Sastri and others have propounded the theory that in later times Buddha, the first of the three jewels, was naturally eliminated  by the lay Buddhists with the growing influence of revived Hinduism, and the third jewel Sangha became the Sangha   (conch-shell), which is very important in connection with Hindu worship; and the second jewel, Viz.,   Dharma became identified with the Buddhist Stupa,  which was worshipped as something like the symbol of Dharma,—and this Stupa    became the Dharma-thakura of the Dharma cult in the form of a tortoise. In propounding such a theory, however, we should proceed a bit cautiously. As for the transformation of Sangha into Sangha  we may say that the frequent mention of Sankha  with various other necessaries of worship in the Sunya-putana  cannot convince one of its Buddhistic origin; for Sankha  is no less important as one of the necessaries of worship in the proper Hindu liturgy than in the cult of Dharma. The story of Visnu’s killing Sankhasura and giving the Sankha  to Padmalaya’s son, as narrated in the Odiya text Siddhanta-Dombara,  seems to us to have nothing in it to warrant the origin of this Sankha  in the Sangha of the Buddhists.1Of course in the  Dharma-puja-vidhana  we find a few confused lines on Sankha ; what we can at most infer  1“We scarcely think it would be very wide of the mark to infer from this that the word Sankha here means nothing but a Buddhistic Sangha. In this inter  pretation of Sankha as Sangha, we are supported by the Sunya-Pur5na, in which Sankha is very frequently used for Sangha. The common people in their ignorance of the teachings of Buddhism and its terminology, either misspelt Sangha"as Sankha or mistook Sankha for Sangha which really means a congregation of Buddhistic monks.”  Modern Buddhism And Its Followers , etc.,  by N. N. Bose, p. 19, 318 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS from this is that Sangha  was held important in the worship of Dharma.1We sometimes find also salutation to Sank^a  in connection with the opening chapter of salutation in the Dharma-mangalas.2This importance of Sankha  has nothing in it which may help us to construe some kind of relation  between Sangha  and the Buddhist Sangha  on any convincing ground. We have already pointed out that Sunyata and Karuna, transformed as Prajna and Upaya, were o7thhe tW^well °n held very important in Tantric Buddhism, and a tendency was manifest to interpret this Prajna and Upaya as static arid dynamic, or negative and  positive, as female and male, and so on. Gradually the three jewels of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha came to be interpreted in terms of Prajna, Upaya and the world produced  by them; Upaya as the male principle was identified with Buddha, and necessarily Dharma became Prajna or the female  principle and Sangha came to be interpreted as phenomenal world which is produced through the union of Prajna and Upaya/ These transformed forms of the three jewels are still 1 It should however ba remembered in this connection that in the Dharma- mangalas we frequently come across the detail-; of Dhnrma-worship ; but there we do not find any special attention paid to this Sari/^cr. 2 Cf. tola &ankha bandiva asamkhya lak$a muni  I e cari pandit banda  e can amani  II MS. entitled  Dharmer Bandana,  C. U. No 2470, p. 1(A). It may be noted here that in the gajana  of Siva, which is prevalent in some districts of East Bengal, and which is nothing but a Saivite version of the  Dharmer    gajana  of West Bengal (see infra,   p. 823 F. N. No. 3) we find a few fragmentary verses on the origin and importance of Safikha,  and we may further notice that Gauri or Pfirvati (i.e., the consort of Siva) is particularly fond of putting on the  bracelet made of Sahkha.  We are quoting here some fragmentary verses :—  sapta   samudre janmen iankha iona tar katha  1 gaurike dhariya nila ak$ay baUtala  II i5i(?) khan kariya Sahkha tuliya thuila dale  I  pahan hatase iankha siva  r5m bale  II hena   b5 Sahkha iuddha nayare kon note bale  II ifi-phal k^ndal devi gay haila gharma  I bi&va-karma kafiya dila da§ bhai Sankha  II dai bhai iankha devi pare dai haste  I kon   iafikhe badya ghafita kon iankhe jai  I iioer alay amar yamer n&hi day  I koii koti    pranam kari mahadever pay  II(Own collection). 3For a detailed discussion on the point see the chapter on Cosmogony, infra. S peculations   on   the   conception   of    dharma  319 . ow preserved in the Jagannatha temple of Puri.. There the two male figures, with a female figure in the middle, widely known in their Hinduised nomenclature as jagannatha and Balarama with the image of Subhadra in the middle, are in all  probability the representations of the three jewels of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha transformed as Upaya, Prajna and their son, i.e., the phenomenal world. In the esoteric Buddhist literature the epithet Jagannatha (i.e.,  the lord of the world) is widely used before Buddha or rather the Lord Supreme, and it is also a well-known adjective used before the Lord Supreme of the Hindus,—and thus through the medium of the epithet Jagannatha, the first of the three jewels could very easily be Hinduised and the Hinduisation of the other two was but a D. , matter of course. This theory of the Buddha as JagannStha. . . transformation of Buddha, the first jewel of the Buddhists, into Jagannatha (and later on frankly conceived as Krsna) has its corroboration in the tradition of the literature of the Dharma cult. Jayadeva, the famous Vaisnava lyric poet, described Buddha as the ninth incarnation of Visnu ; and in the literature of the Dharma cult we find in connection with the description of the incarnations of God that in the ninth incarnation God was born as Jagannatha, who is none but lord Buddha, and he settled his residence on the sea-coast, where he has relieved the whole world by distributing to all (irrespective of caste and creed) his Prasada (i.e.,  the food offered to God and supposed to be accepted by him).1In another place we find that in this incarnation of Jagannatha the lord revealed himself to the Hindus and Muslims, who were all united together in his (i.e.,  Jagannatha’s) place, and in the country of Gaucla 1  Dharma-puja-vidhana,  pp. 206-207 ; also p* 208. See also Govinda-v'tjaya  of Syima-dffs, Vangavisl-edition, p. 3. It may be pointed out here that in the ten incarnations of Visnu, inscribed on the gateway of the temple of JagannStha in Puri, Buddha, the ninth incarnation, has  been replaced by JagannStha. 320 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (i.e., in Bengal) he has revealed himself as the Dharma-raja.1 But though Buddha was the first of the jewels and  had his prominence also in the temple of Jagannatha, he could not enjoy universal sovereignty for several reasons. In the first place, from the metaphysical standpoint Dharma represents Prajna or Sunyata, which being the ultimate source of all origination and being often interpreted as the noumenal aspect of the reality, was infused with more cosmological , and ontological value than Buddha, who Dharma, the second i i _ .,  jewel and Dharma- represents Upaya or Karuna, metaphysical ly explained 'as the aspect of pheno menalism.-^ This metaphysical valuation might have been there in the mind of common people in the form of a time- honoured tradition, and this may be why Dharma could supersede the claim of Buddha in being recognised as the supreme divinity among the Dharmitesv In the second   place, in later times lay people had no idea about what these three jewels might be; they could recognise only Dharma, who was, in common faith and tradition, known to them as the Supreme Lord, the Sovereign Deity over the universe,  —some Invisible power administering law and justice; consequently Dharma became gradually recognised as the Lord Supreme. Moreover, with the growing influence of Hinduism it was not possible for ordinary people of lower social order to accept any one but Dharma out of the three  jewels as their Lord. The Dharma-thakura of the Dharma cult is not generally associated with any Sakti or female counterpart. In the  Dharma-piija-oidhana,  however, we find a goddess, Kaminya  by name, whose worship follows the worship of Dharma along with the worship of many other gods and goddesses, and she is the goddess for removing Dharma and his Sakti. ^  blindness and leprosy^ 1his Kaminya 1  fDharma*paja-vidh5na,  pp. 214-15. SPECULATIONS ON THE CONCEPTION OF DHARMA 321 is sometimes described as something like a Sakti of Dharma,1 and as a matter of fact some of her descriptions resemble the description of the goddess variously described in the Buddhist and the Hindu Tantras. But the more important fact is that Dharma-thakura, as the Sovereign Deity, has frequently been identified with Siva and as such is always associated with his Sakti as  Bhagavati, Adi-deot, Adi-safyi,  or as Basuli, Candl, Durga, Parvati, etc. In the liturgical texts Dharma-thakura is frequently styled as  MahesVara  (the great wuh*Siva. lden“fied lord) or  Mahadeva  (the great deity),  Deva- deva  (the God of gods)—epithets which are commonly used before the well-known deity Siva. In some temples of Dharma Dharma-thakura has been transformed completely into Siva.2In the well-known religious ceremony of West Bengal known as the Gajana  of Dharma, which is 1  omkara-bhuta-vedaya kjamina-aahitaya ca  I  mama sarV8rtha-siddhy-artham dharma-rSja namo*stute   II  Dharma-puja-Vidhana , p. 86.    orp r*a stikayam tatha deVam kjamina-sahitarji prabho  I  ayur-arogyam ai&Varyam sampattim dehi   me  sada   II  Ibid  . p. 87. ullfikia-vahanam dharmatp kamikihyS{?)->sahitam iivam   I  dhauta-hunde (ndu)-dhaValatp Sarva-sampat-phala-pradarn   II  Ibid.  p. 77. This last verse is found in the Sri-dharma-maAgala  of Manik Gsnguli as s—  ulu^a (sic. k<*rn) -Vdhanarri dharmam aminya sahitam (sic. *tc) iiVam  I  dhauta-kundendu-dhaVala-kayam dhydyed dharmarji nam&my aham   II  p. 4- 3 It is interesting to note here an incident described by MM. H. P. Slstri In an article in the Bengali monthly  Narayana  (B. S. 1322,  Magha)   in connection with the transformation of Dharma to Siva. In a temple of Dharma MM. Sfistri found a  priest dividing into two equal portions the offerings to be presented to Dharma. He asked out of curiosity why such divisions were made. The reply of the priest was— “ He is Dharma and Siva at the same time and hence is the division/’ On further enquiry MM. Sastrt came to learn that the Mantra with which the offerings were  presented to the deity was,—‘‘Salute be to Siva, who is Dharma-r&ja *' (SiVaya   dharma-rajaya namaft).  After several years of his first visit MM. SSstri went there once more and found that by this time a Gauri-patfa  (a symbolic representation of the female organ of the Sakti generally found placed beneath the symbolic represen tation of the male organ of Siva) was placed by the Brahmins  beneath the stone- image of Dharma so as to Hinduise him completely. 41—1411B OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the most celebrated function of the Dharmites current even to thfe present day, Dharma has been frankly made Siva and the Gsjana  of Dharma really means the Gajana  of Siva. In the book  Adyer Gambhira  by Mr. Haridas Palit1we find an elaborate account of the Gajana  of Dharma. Even a cursory glance on the verses that are sung with dancing and  beating of double drums will show how confusedly Siva and Dharma have been mixed together in these ceremonies and the verses themselves are really fragments found in the liturgical works of the Dharma cult and .the Sivsyanas of Bengal. It is very interesting to note that this ceremony of Gajana  is also found in some districts of East Bengal in the form of  Nila-puja, (i.e.,  the worship of the deity Nila), and this elaborate religious ceremony, which takes place in the last week of the Bengali year and takes about a week’s time to  be completed, is never suspected by the people in these districts to be anything but a Hindu religious function  primarily concerned with the Hindu deity Lord Siva.2The fragmentary verses that are generally recited in connection with the various ceremonies of this function have striking affinity with the verses found in the liturgical works of the Dharma cult and also in the Gajana  of Dharma of West Bengal not only in matter and spirit, but sometimes in language also with slight deviations.8 1Published under the auspices of the Msladaha National Educational Institute, Bg S. 1319, 2 A very brief account of this Gajana  of East Bengal will be found in the VaAga-Sahitua-paricaya , Part I, of Dr. D. C. Sen (published by the University of Calcutta), pp. 159-161, 3 We have collected from some villages in the district of Backergunge the fragmentary verses akin to those found in the liturgical works of the Dharma cult. They are recited in connection with the  Ntla-puja  ceremony. It will be interesting to note that the cosmogonical ideas found in these verses are the same as found »n the literature of the Dharma cult. We shall discuss this point later on in our  discussion on cosmogony). Lord Siva is occasionally styled here as Dharma or Dharma-rSja. In the  Dharma-puja vidhdna  (pp. 242^245) we find a discussion on the origin and growth of the foetus; exactly a similar verse is found among the The conceptions of Siva and Sakti or the primordial male and the female have their bearing on the literature of the verses that are recited on the occasion of the  Nila-puja,  We find in the liturgical works of the Dharma cult salutation and prayers to the four quarters with a  presiding deity in each ; the same custom is also found in the Gsjana  of Siva, and the peculiar fact to be ncticed is this that here as well as in Dharma cult the ceremony begins from the west, which is not surely a Hindu practice. This practice however, seems significant and its significance has been explained before {Supra,   p. 306). We are quoting here a specimen of the verses recited in  Dik-   bandana :—   paicim pascim adi paricay dvar't    manimay muktar har   I iuddha kanthe  feancan dvar   I kafican dvdre bakya name takya (?) rudra sthapita  I tan rdja Sri-jagannath bahint  tar dharma puruse dharma dharma har   I tdnare sevile mukti kota pdi na yaVa yama-puri iiva-puri hdi  II agam bed gayatri bam kancan dvare den puspanjali  I he sadhuli, dik paieim, kartik ganes mahadet) sarigint,   dik paicim sapta-tal kathi   tine sahge bala khati  II Similar verses are recited in accompaniment with dances and beatmg of drums in the other three quarters, the presiding deity in the north being Sri-sabh5-linga, in the east SrT-munda-cakra and in the south SrI-vaidya-natha. Again, we have in the liturgical works of the Dharma cult descriptions of the construction of the temple of Dharma (commonly known as dharmera deula)  ; with them we may compare the following verses on grha-nirmana, i.e.,  constructing the house (for the Lord) on occasion of Siva’s Gajana  ~ sapta samudre sthan sthiti tlrtha baranasi  I  yaita bahiya hare siav §aita saifa rsi  II rsi gane  fcare stav bhaoiya niranjan  I ghfta Sail jukhiya  fcrre deul span  I arjun kafen pathar danaOe mare hura  I kande kariya bahe dik sonar pdifkcira  II rajata  feancan ^afican saire  I rajata  ^fi/5©an kafican pdire  II bveta camare chaiya rari cdl  I cari cdl Cari pair coyarl chanda  I ei ghar khana dekhay yena batriier banda  II mcdini haila pota  afcai haila cdl  I sagar dekhSy yena parOat samdn  II gay 5 taldiyd ghar firtha baranasi  I ghare basiya harinam duySre tulast   11 S peculations   on   the   conception   of    dharma  323  $24 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Dharma cult particularly in connection with the portions ort cosmogony and cosmology,—and as we have to deal in detail with these ideas in a separate chapter, we do not propose to deal with them here. The point to be emphasised here is that in the Buddhist Tantras a tendency was manifest always to conceive the Supreme Lord in the image of Siva and the female counter  part of the Lord in the image of Sakti, and these Lord and Lady of the Buddhists were in still later times identified completely with the Siva and Sakti of the Hindus. In the section on cosmogony of the Sunya-purana  we find that goddess Adya, who is also called Gaurl (Durga and Parvati), was unable to control her youth and sent Kama  (Cupid) to the Lord who was absorbed in deep meditation on the river Balluka; Kama  disturbed the meditation of the Karatar  . The whole scene here has been confusedly borrowed from the tradition of the disturbance of Siva’s meditation by Cupid for his (Siva’s) marriage with Parvati, Dharma-thakura  being conceived here exactly in the image of lord Siva.1 maiia (?) samagam kancan doyar    I kafican doyar nay kedar doyar   II kedar doyar nay muktir doyar   1 muktir doyar nay simher doyar   II  pafica pathar laiya iiv hasila dpani  I mandire asilen thakurani  II Again in the SUnya-purana,  the  Dharma-puja-Qidhana  and the Srt-dharmet    mangala  of Mayura-bhatta (B. K, Chatterjee’s edition) we have funny legendary accounts of the origin of the metal copper, of the Befa-srick (bedfisa, quoted in  Modern    Buddhism  etc. See also many other similar extracts quoted by Mr. Basu in his work from the standard works of the other poets.—   Modern Buddhismt   etc. Ch. III. * Thus, for Instance, we find in the $unya-pur8na>~   nirete nirmala hjSta nama nirafijana  J i.e., he is called Nirafijana because his body is washed clean  by primordial water.—p. 14, in all the vernacular literature, and in fact it has been very widely used by the Dharmites, the Nathists, the Bauls, the Sufi poets, the Nirguni-poets of Hindi literature and also by the Sikh poets. (i) Dharma—confusedly described as the Lord Supreme in the liturgical works Let us now examine the descriptions of Dharma that are found in the  Dharma-puja-vidhana  in connection with the meditation on and prayers and salutation to Dharma. The most important, however, is the meditation of Dharma, which runs as follows :—‘ ‘Let that Lord of the form of vacuity, who has neither end, nor middle, nor beginning, neither hands and legs, nor body and voice, neither form, nor any  primordial shape, nor fear and death, nor even birth,—who is accessible only to the greatest of the yogins in deep medita tion, who belongs to all the sects (or who permeates all the  petals of the lotuses within the body), who is bereft of all mental construction, who is one, stainless, and giver of the  boon of immortality, protect me.”1Again,—“I am invok ing the Lord, who is the giver of all the fruits of desire, who has nothing like a shape, nor any seat to perform yoga, who is the absence of all and at the same time the abode of all, and who is adorned with all the postures and gestures ( sarva-mudra-susobhitam ). Come down, O the void- lord and take your seat here.”2Lord Dharma is said to have incarnated into the world only to relieve all the beings of the three worlds from their bondage. ®And this tone is just the . * orp ya&yantam na di-madhyarp na ca hura-caranam na sti kayo ninadaip   nakflrarp nadi-rupam na ca bhaya-maranatp na sti janmaiva yaaya  I  yogindra-dhyana-gamyarn sakala-dala-gatam sarva-sahkalpa^hinaip   tatraikofpi nirafijano* mara-varadah patu mam iiunya-murtih  II  Dharma-p&jS-vidhana , p. 70. *  Ibid  , p. 70. 3 trailokyo-ddhara-hctustvam avatirno'ai bhUtale  II  Ibid,  p. 72. 332 OtJSCURE religious CULTS bHARMA A^ DESCRIBED IN THE DHARMA LITERATURE 333 same as is found in the Buddhist Tantras in ^connection with the invocation of the LordSupreme* Dharma is again spoken of here as immersing his form in the sea of conscious ness which is of the nature of supreme bliss.1Seated on his mount Ulluka he is the lord of the nature of the unity of Brahma (the creator), Visnu (the preserver) and Siva (the destroyer). He is the great, the Brahman of the beginningless luminous form. He is adored in all the fourteen worlds and is of the form of perfect void. He is knowledge and consciousness, pure and changeless, innocent and formless and is to be known as the syllable “Om” ; he transcends all qualities, is the underlying reality not yet manifest in exis tence ( avyakta ); he is the transcendent reality, he is the Brahman.5He is perfectly pure, all-good, quiet, without  beginning and end;—he is the life of the world and is of the form of lustre and bliss; he is not determinable by the four quarters, time and space (a-dig-desa-kala-vyavacchedarii-    yam).  He has incarnated himself on the bank of the river Balluka (which is in the district of Burdwan), seated on his favourite mount Ulluka and he is to be known only through the injunctions of the fifth Veda ( i.  e. the canonical or rather the liturgical works of the Dharmites).3Lord  1  parama-nanda-bodha-bdhi-nimagna-nija-murtaye  I  Ibid,  p. 72. 2  Ibid, p. 75. 3  Ibid  , p. 76. Similar descriptions of Dharma abound in the  Dharma-pJlja*   Vidhana  ; thus it is said,—“He is the Niranjana, who is neither space (sthana),  nor fame, who has neither the lotus-like feet, nor any form, nor any primary colour; who is neither the seer nor sight, neither the hearer nor hearing, neither white, nor yellow, nor red, nor golden; neither like the sun, nor the moon, nor fire,—he neither rises, nor sets; he is stainless, of the form of the syllable “Om", the supreme abode, unqualified, support less, unchanging and all-void (aarva4unyamayam),  He is neither the full-grown tree, nor the root, nor the seed, nor the shoot, nor the  branch, nor leaves, nor the trunk, nor the foliage; neither the flower, nor the scent, nor the fruit, nor the shade. (Ibid,  p. 77.) He is neither the up nor the down,— neither Siva nor Sakti, neither male nor female, nor the astral body ( lihga-murti ), he possesses neither hands, nor legs, neither form nor shade; he is neither the five elements, nor the seven seas, nor the quarters, neither mountains nor peaks, neither Brahmi, nor Indra, nor Vis^u nor Rudra. He is neither the universe (brahma$$a-kh«v4ah  nor the seed of time (kflla btjam)t   neither the preceptor, nor  334 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Dharma has been saluted as the presiding deity over the gods (deVQ~dhideVa)9 as the lord of the gods ( deVesa ), as the unity of all the gods (sarva-deva),  as the primordial deity {adi-deva ), as the lord of the world (jagannatha),  as the  bestower of perfection {siddhi-data ), the lord of all yoga (  yogesvara ), as the incomprehensible deity ( acintya-devata)   and as the saviour of all, giver of happiness and liberation and the supreme deity of vaciiity (sunya~deVesa).  He is eternal, of pure quintessence ( suddha-sattva ), of the form of compassion (j  arunamaya-murti),  and having the supreme virtue of contentedness (santosa-sila). If we examine the descriptions ,given above as specimen we shall find that some of the descriptions are almost the same as are to be found in the Buddhist Tantras in connec tion with the meditation of, and the salutation to, the supreme deity, and many of the attributes are taken frankly from the attributes of the divinites of the Hindu pantheon. It is, however, noticeable that in the descriptions of Dharma the negative tendency outweighs the positive.1This dominance of the negative tendency even in the most popular religion the disciple, nor the planets, stars and heaps of cloud® ; neither the Vedas, nor the scriptures, nor the prayer offered thrice a day, nor the hymns; neither Mantra, nor the muttering, nor meditation, nor fire-sacrifice, nor gifts to or wor ship of gods. He is profoundly quiet, void in the form of NirvSna, and is the ultimate substance of the universe. He is in the netherlands, in thej invisible region {antarikfa),  in the four quarters, inthesk>, in all the mountains and seas, in the root-syllable ( blja~mantra)  and other Mantras, in the plants, in the land of the gods and the demons, in flowers and leaves and in the blade of grass, in iron, wood and ash, in earth, water and air,—in the static and the dynamic, he is all-pervading and one. (Ibid   pp. 7§-79). 1In addition to what is illustrated above compare also na'sti rupam na’sti deham na'sti kayo ninadam  I na sti janma na'sti murttis tasmai irt-dharmaya namah  II niranjanam nirakaram sanya rupam jagad-gurum  I niralambe sthitarp nityam cintayami niranjanam  II niranjanam nirakaram nirvikalpam mahatmanam  I ntrlepa-pttru$am devarp sarVa-lokaika-nathakam  II cmkara-bindu-sahitam nirakara-niranjanam  I ady~anta-rahitam i,unya-rupam devam niranjanam  II  Ibid,   pp. 90-91. DHARMA AS DESCRIBED IN THE DHARMA LITERATURE 335 cannot but be recognised sis the dwindling influence of Buddhism with its emphasis on the negative aspect of the reality. In connection with the salutation to Dharma saluta tions are offered to all kinds of void, Viz.,  great-void (maha-sunya),  supreme void ( parama-sunya)  etc.1 In the Sunya-purana  we find similar descriptions of Dharma. By combining all the positive and negative attri  butes applied to him nothing can be said of him but that he is the Supreme Lord. He is saluted in his form of vacuity (sQnya-rupam),  as formless, saviour from calamities, the supreme of all the gods.2He is the Karatar a  (the supreme lord), he comes from the void and has his support in the void.8He himself is the unity of the triad Brahma, Visnu and Mahadeva (i.e., Siva).4He is the supreme lord transcending both voidness and non-voidness.BIn the  beginning the Lord was moving alone in great-void (maha-   sfi nya),  having only void as his support, and the whole cosmos came out of the great void only through the will of the Lord. In the  DeVa-sthana  of the Sunya-purana  we find that Brahma is performing austere penances for the Lord by making his body the instrument fdr the yogic Sadhana, and Visnu is also invoking the Lord; Siva is  performing penances with his head down and legs up and singing the praise of the Lord with his horn and drum; Indra (Purandara)  is performing penance for Dharma by inflicting severe torture on his body and all the yogins and sages are holding austere penances to propitiate him. For the bath of the Lord, Hanuman digs a pond with his vajra-   nails (vajja-naha)  and constructs four ghats  in the four quarters—one of gold, one of silver, one of copper and the other of pearl, and fills up the pond with the water of the 1 Sunya-purana , p. 93. 2 Sunya-purana,  p. 152. 3  IhidiP.  218. 4  Ibid, p.  218. 6 gagana-gagana (sic, -na)-param param paratneivaram etc, Ibid  , p. 228. '336 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS river Bhogavatl (i.e., the Ganges of the Nether land). The Lord then gets into a golden palanquin and goes to bathe accompanied by all the gods including Brahma, Visnu, Siva, Indra and by all the sages like Vasistha, Narada and others.1 vX^It is needless to repeat here that in these descriptions Dharma has often been identified with Siva, Visnu (or  Narayana) and Krsna.2The abode of Dharma wavers from Kailasa to Vaikuntha, showing thereby the tendency of identifying Dharma sometimes with Siva and sometimes with Visnu. Though Sunya has been made much use of in describing Dharma and though his formless and non-essential nature has been variously emphasised, yet Dharma is conceived always as a personal God with a form.3 (ii) Dharma as ihe Sun-god  Dharma has sometimes been described as the sun, and there is a two-fold reason behind it. In the first place 1See  Atha Mukti-snana, Sanya-purana,   pp. 179-181.  Also,  Atha Dharma-puja ,  Ibid  , p. 175 et seq. 2   Vide Dharma-puja-vidhana   p. 79. 3 We may note here the reply of Ramfii Pandita made to some questions put to him. He says,—“My home is in Baliuks and 1 worship the Formless One;l meditate on the void and adore the form of the Lord.” $unya~purana,   p. 165. It is indeed funny to see that one who worships the formless and meditates on the void should adore any particular form or figure of the Lord ! In another place, however, Ulluka, the mount of Dharma, puts the following questions to Dharma,—*‘Who is the Lord ( Karatar  ) in this world and who is work or action (karma)   ? Who is the being pervading the fourteen worlds? Who has made Khalla   ( ? a canal, a cut, a creek, a trench, a deep hole) and  Bihalla   (?), and who has made the Salla   (Sgla tree?) in the mountain? Who is transformed into hands and legs? Who does infuse the blooming Bowers with scent and who does create and destroy the sun and the moon ? Who does make water flow in the rivers, from whose body does the heavenly river Ganges flow and who has made her (i.e., the Ganges) flow in a zigzag course? Who has placed the mountains on their firm basis and who does reside in the void? Who does come from the Sunya and goes to the Sunya, and  who does make the Sfinya his support and then meditate on the Sunya? Who does bear fruits in the form of the tree? Who does rain in the form of the cloud? Who does accept worship in every house and who is called the mother of the world?*’ To every one x>f these questions the reply of Dharma is that it is he himself who is responsible for this universal process and for all that are in it. lbidt  pp. 21 M2. DHARMA AS DESCRIBED IN THE DHARMA LITERATURE 33 7  Dharma is luminous by nature and so is the sun and hence the identity. Secondly, Dharma is Sonya and Sunya is of the shape of a zero and, therefore, Dharma is of the shape of a zero;1and as the sun is also of the shape of a zero, Dharma is identified with the sun. Moreover, Dharma moves in the void, and void is the sky, and the sun moves in the sky and hence the sun is Dharma.2The Sun-god, who is of the form of zero, or in other words circular in shape, is described as the cause of creation, preservation and destruction and as such is of the nature of the three gunas  (i.e. sattva, rajas  and tamas)  and also of the nature of the triad, Brahma, Visnu and Siva, who represent the three gunas  respectively.8In the  Dharma-pujd-vidhana  we find the Dharmites presenting offerings to the Sun-god, who is subsequently identified with Dharma. He is described as the lord ( gosani ), who takes ablution . and offers his Brahminic prayers in the bathing-ghat of the river Campa.4Yet at the same time he rises on the shore of the seven seas in a chariot, which is decorated with vermilion, diamond, coral and pearL Seven horses of pure white colour carry the golden chariot of the Lord which has been decked with sixteen flowers. Sixteen attendants are holding 1 Cf. ffinya-bhuvanatp  I SZnyam bartuld-k.5ram bhavati'ti tunya-bhuVanarp  I  bindvS-korarp  I  Dharma-k.o$a~8amgraha,   MS. p. 2(A). 2 Sunya-marge sthitam nityarp iunya-deva-divakaram   I tam aharp bhajami SrbdharmSya namah    II  Dharma-puj5"VidhSnat  p. 89, Cf.  also :  niralambe rathe marge Sunya-murttirp divaaram  etc.  Ibid,  p, 51.  mandalam vartula-kflram iunya-deharp mahabalam  f  eka‘Cakr<*“dharatp devatp tam suryam pranamamyaham   II  Ibid,  p. 52 3  Ibid,p  51.  Agaih, u day a-kale brahma-avarupam madhyahne maheSam    I  asta-k^le svayarp vi$nua tri-murttiA ca divakaram   II  Ibid,  p. 52. *  Ibid  , p. 123. Cf, Sunya-purana,  p. 149. Campfi or CSmpSi is a river in the district of Bankura, and it is described as &  very important and sacred river of the Dharmites, 43—HUB the chain of the chariot, the galaxy of the twelve Adityas   are sitting within, and Indra, the king of the gods, is holding the umbrella over the Lord who is shining on his golden  pedestal with a garland of golden lotus round his neck. The lord is then entreated to turn his attention to the beings of the world, for whom wealth and welfare are solicited.1 The descriptions of the Sun-god, seated in his golden chariot of seven white horses, and the way in which he is approached  by his devotees for bestowing health and wealth on all  beneath at once remind one of the Vedic hymns of similar contents.2The similarity is indeed striking, and that may suggest some link between them through popular traditions. In the  Bara-masi  of the Surtya-purana  we find the worshipper of Dharma presenting offerings to the twelve  Adityas  (suns), who are spoken of as twelve brothers. Again we find, Lord Dharma rises from his sleep early in the morning and Ulluka offers to him his prayer; eight horses of white colour carry the golden chariot of the Lord and the Lord rises as the luminous sun.8In the east is situated the golden temple of the Lord. The devotees invoke the Lord to rise up from his sleep and to relieve the whole world from darkness. Then the Lord awakes and asks for his chariot and horses, which are prepared for him instantly. The Lord then climbs on his chariot and the crown on his head touches the sky, and Indra begins to shiver in fear in heaven and the serpent Vasuki in the Netherland. When the Lord of the world thus rises on his chariot with a sacred thread of nine folds round his neck4and shining with his radiant lustre like a wonder to all beneath, some think of him to be very near, and some to be far off. The Lord  1 Vide, Dharma-puja-vidhana,   pp. 123-25. 2 Vide .  Rg-veda , (1.22.8), (1.24.4), (1.35.2,4-5) etc. 3 P. 150. 4 It is to be noted that lord Surya {Surya-fhakura)  of the folk-songs of  Bengal also wears the wred thread of nine folds round his neck. 338 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS DHARMA AS DESCRIBED IN THE DHARMA LITERATURE 33$ removes the sorrow of the poor beneath by distributing immense wealth.1 (iii) Dharma oj the Dharma-mangalas (A) Dharma as Visnu in general In the ritualistic works Dharma is often called Svarupa - narayana  and there is also the custom of presenting Tulasi   leaves to his feet; he has lotus-like hands like Visnu, Vaikuntha is his abode. The transformation of Dharma into some form of Visnu was almost complete in the Dharma-mangala literature. The Dharma-mangala literature, which is now available to us, is of very late origin and flourished under the sway of Vaisnavism both of the Rgma cult and the Krsna cult; it is for this reason that Dharma of the Dharma-mangalas is mostly identified with Visnu in general and Krsna and Rama in particular. It is only sporadically Tiere and there in the cosmogonical discussions and in some other places that we hear in the Dharma-mangalas of the Sunya-murtti  of Dharma or of his *‘ formless form V with all his negative and positive attributes.2The older tradition of the identification of Dharma with Siva seems to have dwindled away by this time. Though Dharma is sometimes spoken of as the lord of Candi, and is worshipped with Vilva-patras  which is particularly dear to Lord Siva, and though his abode is located in Kailasa, yet it seems that with the rise of the various Sakta and Vaisnava cults Saivism was rapidly losing ground. This was why the tradition of Dharma as Siva was gradually passing into 1 See  Atha Dharma-sajana, $8 nya-purana,   pp. 159 et seq . 2 See,  Dhm.   of Ghana-rSma (Vangavfisi edition). See also  Ibid,   pp. 31, 148# 205, 962.  Also  Dhm.   of Manik GSnguli, pp. 112, 156.  Dhar may ana  of Nara-simha Vaeu. Vol. 1, MS. (C. U. No. 3224). p. 7(A) > 3    Dhm . of Ghana-rSma, p. 68; also  Ibid.,   p. IQ2» Ml. . 340 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS oblivion in the Dharma-mangala literature; and not only that, we sometimes find Siva introduced in the Dharma- mangalas only to obey Lord Dharma and help him in his struggles against the goddesses. The general descriptions of Dharma that are found in the various Dharma-mangalas are the popular descriptions sometimes of the unqualified Brahman of the Upanisads and sometimes of the Purusa of the Samkhya and sometimes of a mixture of them in the most confused manner with the legendary accounts of the various incarnations of Visnu and his activities in various ages as are found in the Puranic literature.1Again sometimes we find Dharma in the assembly of the gods, including Indra, Brahma, Visnu, Siva, Varuna and others, seeking advice from them as to the right measure to be taken to keep up his prestige, which was very frequently at stake in the hands of the devotees of Sakti. In the attempt to introduce his worship on earth by establishing his almighty power Dharma-thakura had no plain sailing; his devotee Lausen was at every step challenged by the devotees of Sakti either in the form of beasts or in the form of men, and whenever his devotee was thus challanged our Lord felt a sudden  jerk in his royal seat either in Kailasa or in Vaikuntha and he would enquire from Ulluka, and more generally from Hanuman, as to what might have been the cause of that trouble; they would in reply describe the miserable  plight in which his devotees might have been. In almost all cases our Dharma-thakura was very helpless and we find him always seeking advice and practical help from his companion and instructor Ulluka and mainly from his chief agent or executor, Hanuman. But in cases of more serious and emergent nature Dharma-thakura would call for an assembly attended by all the prominent gods (goddesses being 1See the descriptions of Dharma in the D/tm. of Rlma-nSrSyana (MS. C. U. No. 2450), pp. 4(B)-5 (A), and pp. 16(A)  et seq.  Dhm . of Ghana-rlma, p. 2* 102;  Dhn . of M&Qik Glnguli»>p. 1, pp. 4-5. etc. bHARMA AS DfcSCRlBEb IN tHE DHARMA LITERATURE 341 conspicuous by their absence) and would seek advice from them all. In the Mangala literature we generally find Dharma in the form of Visnu of dark blue colour with four hands with the conch-shell, disc (ca^ra), mace ( gada ) and lotus; he has ear-rings, his Kaustubha  jewel is suspended on his chest, he has his yellow garment and lotus-eyes and he is with his mount Garuda. Whenever we find the Lord appearing  before the devotee, the devotee would never believe him to be Dharma unless and until he would appear before him in his form of Visnu with four hands. A typical case is the trouble that was created by a dog in the way when Dharma was proceeding to Hakanda to rise in the west at the request of his devotee Lausen. The dog obstinately obs tructed the path of the Lord and would not allow him to    pass on without disclosing his identity. The Lord told him that he was Dharma himself; but the dog intentionally refused to believe him to be Dharma unless and until he was in his form with four hands and in blue colour; at last the Lord had to comply with the request of the devout dog and assume the form of Visnu,1and when the Lord asked the dog to pray for any boon it liked, the dog asked the boon of  being a T  u/asi-leaf so that he might have the rare fortune of sticking to the lotus feet of the Lord constantly.2In the  Dharma-puja-cidhana  and some of the Dharma-mangalas the ten incarnations of Visnu have been described as the ten incar nations of Dharma. The Dharma-thakura of Mayana-pur is known as Yatra-siddhi  and the people of the locality believe Yatra-siddhi  to be identical with Visnu.8In the work entitled Ystra-siddhi-rsyer Paddhati  there is a Sanskrit hymn addressed to Dharma; the poet of the work (which seems to 1 See the chapter on Paicima-udaya , found in almost all the Dharma- maAgalas* 3  Dhm.   of Ghana-r&ma, pp. 260-261. » Vid  e, B.S.P.P., B.S.. 1813, No. 2.  be very recent in origin) has gone even so far as to make Lord Dharma indulge in love-dalliances with the cowherd girls in the water of the river Balluka.1In the Dharma- mangalas devotees have, in connection with the praise of the Lord, always referred to many of the Puranic incidents where the Lord had shown kindness to his devotees and given them proper shelter. It is mentioned that Dharma  protected Prahlada from the hands of Hiranya-kaSipu, gave shelter to Dhruva_ and placed him in the fixed heavenly region, saved Sudhanva and Ajamila, protected the Pandavas in all their calamities, saved the honour and chastity of Draupadl „when she was being molested by the evil sons of Dhrtarastra; he was all through the charioteer of Arjuna, killed the demon Ravana and saved Slta, deceived Brahma* the creator, and taught him a very good lesson in the land of Vrandavana as a cowherd boy and had all sorts of love- dalliances with the^owherd girls of Vrndavana. These and many such other descriptions of Dharma-thakura abound in almost all the Dharma-mangalas, where we find nothing but a list of some of the more important incidents associated with the different incarnations of Visnu jotted down pell-mell. (B) Dharma as Rama The identification of Dharma-thakura with Rama in the Dharma-mangalas has been brought about mainly through the mediacy of Hanuman. In the liturgical works Hanuman is only one of the four Kotalas  (gate-keepers) of Dharma,  but in the Dharma-mangalas he is sometimes the mount of Dharma, sometimes the counsellor and the conscience* keeper of the Lord. In the Rg-Veda Uluka (the owl) has  been described as the mount of Dharma-raja Yama, and  342 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS prahhinna-fijana-balluka^ala'keli^aloiBukjarri    yodhayantarji vik&rantarp cakxarp kvacid gopan   11 etc  * Vide , H.S.P.P., B.S. 1313. No. 2, P, 94. DHARMA AS DESCRIBED IN THE DHARMA LITBRATURE 343  probably the tradition has come down to the Dharmites  but in later times Uluka seems to have practically been ousted by Hanumln. Hanuman, the ape-god, has a special  place in the history of our literature. However strong in their supernatural power and in their tenacity "of purpose in quarrels and intrigues, the gods and goddesses of our  1 Much speculations are made by scholars as to the exact nature and   significance of this Mount Ulluka or Uluka associated with Dharma, and it is also   a matter of controversy whethei Uluka here is actually the bird owl, or is any    other personality. As a matter of fact in the $unya-purana   and also in the Dharma  -   puja-vidhana   Uluka is more a personality than a mere bird. He is often called a   sage or the great sage [Muni   or Mah-muni  ). From the very beginning Dharma*   thikura did nothing without the advice of Uluka and in fact the latter seems to be   much wiser than the lord himself. But in the Dharma-mangalas Uluka is generally    depicted as the bird owl and in the legend of HariScandra of the Dharma-mangalas   he plays an important part. The owl, which was the Mount of Dharma, was   once sitting on the branch of a tree, when he was pierced through by an arrow   aimed at by Luhicandra, son of Harilcandra ; the bird cursed the family of Haril-   candra and said that Harigcandra would leave no posterity; it is generally with   this curse of the bird Uluka that the HariScandra legend begins. Saving a few   places where Uluka is admitted to be the sage Uluka and the counsellor of Dharma,   Uluka is depicted in the Dharma-mangalas as a mere bird, the place of sage Uluka   being practically usurped by HanumSn, The name Uluka, however, is well-known   in Puranic literature as the name of different notable personalities. In the PurSnas   Uluka is a name of Indra himself; another Uluka was the son of sage Vi^vlmitra,—   another the son of Sakuni. In the Mahabharata   we find mention of a king of the   name of Uluka; another Uluka was an ambassador in the Mahabharata.  Again the  Vaiiesika system of Indian Philosophy is also known as the philosophy of Uluka;   in the VaiSesika system Dharma   has variously been explained (of course, in a   sense entirely different from that of the Dharma of the Dharma cult). Mr. B. JC.   Chatterjee in his introduction to the Dharma-mahgala   of Mayura-bhafta is disposed to think that the Dharma cult of Bengal may be a continuation of the religious cult   propounded and preached by Uluka in a very early period, and hence is the importance of Uluka in the Dharma-mangalas. But such a surmise does not seem   to us plausible at all for various reasons. There is nothing in the Dharma cult  which can even very remotely be associated with anything of the Vailesika system;   moreover, it is doubtful whether the Vailesika system of thought represents any    religious sect. If the religious doctrines of Uluka were something different, that being entirely unknown to us, the question of the possibility of its relation with the Dharma cult cannot be decided. It should also be remembered in this connection that far from representing any philosophical school, the Dharma cult of Bengal, as we have repeatedly pointed out, cannot be said to represent even any particular religious school. .344 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS literature seem to have been all through very weak  physically, and whenever any gigantic work had to be  performed, Hanflman was invariably approached by all the gods and goddesses. We find him also a good assistant to Vi^vakarma, the great mechanic of the universe. Hanuman, therefore, served not only Rama-candra of the Bengali Ramayanas,—he has served Candi in the Candi-mangalas, Manasa, the serpent goddess, in the Manasa-mangalas, and every one took advantage of his gigantic physical strength and his obedient nature. Dharma-thakura, therefore, was wise enough to have Hanuman constantly at his disposal to have all the difficult tasks dorje by him. But by being thus constantly accompanied and obeyed by Hanuman, Dharma-thakura could no longer retain his Dharma-nature and gradually became transformed into Rama-candra himself. We find in the Dharma-mangalas that whenever Dharma- thakura asks Hanuman to do some arduous and hazardous work, Hanuman refers to all his (Hantiman’s) heroic deeds of the Ramayanic period and says that if it were possible for him to do all those great things for the lord at that time, there is no reason why it should not be possible for him to do the same once for the lord. The lord also occasionally refers to the valour and obedience of Hanuman that he had shown formerly in various occasions.1 As a matter of fact we find Hanuman often performing the same kind of wonderful feats for the lord in the Dharma- mangalas as he did in the Ramayanas.1We have sufficient2 1 As a typical instance compare the dialogue between_Dharma and HanOmSn    when the former was requesting the latter to protect Lsusen in his (i.e., LSusen's)   childhood from the hands of the thieves. 5 As an instance we may point out that when LSusen was crossing the river    Ajay to attack Ichsi-ghoa he was captured and brought a victim to the Netherland   (P&iala)   by the river herself; to this Dharma became perturbed and sent HanumSn   to do the needful. HaniimSn went to the place of action and put all the water of    the river Ajay into the cavities of his ears; the river begged pardon, released   LSusen and then and then only was her water released. Dhm.  of RSma-nSrSyaga,   Dhckura-pala,  MS. (C. U. No. 2454) pp. 5(A) -5(B). DHARMA AS DESCRIBED IN THE DHARMA LITERATURE $45 reasons to believe that at least some of the poets of the Dharma-mangalas, such as Ghana-rama, Sltarama-dasa, Rama-narayana and others were devoted to Rama if they were devoted to any particular deity at all. Ghana-rama, in many of his colophons, states that his mind is a bee which constantly sticks to the lotus feet of Rama-candra. Sltarama- dasa and others also begin their books or the chapters therein with salutation to Rama, who is said to be Dharma. (iv) The Description of Dharma As AU-White One very significant point is that the complexion of Dharma-thakura is white, and not only that, everything associated with him is white.1In the  Dharma-pQjS-   Vidhana  he has been saluted in his form of pure white colour resembling the colour of a fresh ICunda flower and the refreshed moon ( dhauta-kundendu-dhavala ). He wears white garment and bears a white umbrella.2His throne or seat is also described white.3In his white form he is associated with pure intelligence-stuff.4He wears a white garland and also a white sacred thread.5He has a white disc in his hand, white hair on his head and white horses with his white throne.6Clad all in white and seated on the white seat that stainless one moves in the chariot of  swans, which are also of pure white colour.7In the $Qnya~    purSna  we see that there are white flags on the gate of Dharma,8and he is pleased to sit on the white seat being 1 In the VimU‘dharmottara   Dharma has been described as of four faces, four hands, adorned with ornaments and of white complexion. 2P. 76. 3  Ibid.,   p, 81, 4  Ibid.,   P. 84. «  Ibid.,   p. 87. 6  Ibid.,   p. 90, 7  Ibid., Cf  . also  A nqdi-marigala   of Rsma-Jffs Adak, 8P. 66. 44*—1411B 346 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS clad in white garment.1In Ghana-rama we find that the lord was worshipped in all ages with white flowers.3Even when in his way to Hakanda to rise in the west in the form of a Brahmacarin with a golden colour and red garments, with the bowl and ^usa-grass in hand and with rosary and frontal marks, Dharma-thakura could not dispense with his old white umbrella.8In the fragmentary verses that are recited in the ceremony known as the Gdjana  of Dharma (and in the Gajana  of Siva in East Bengal) we find the same description of Dharma as all white.4 The white-complexioned god of the Hindu Pantheon is lord Siva. In popular meditation he has been compared to the silver mountain ( rajata-giri-nibha ). In the Tantras he is the $Veta-bindu  (or the white matter) as opposed to Sakti who is the rakta-bindu  (or the red matter); he resides in the snow-white mountain of Kailasa. The other popular Hindu deity of white colour is the goddess Sarasvatl, the goddess of learning. She is herself white, is clad in white garment, sits on a white lotus,9and has the white swan as her mount. It is customary to worship her with all kinds of  1 Sunya-purana,   p. 67, p. 69, p. 149. Cf.   also,  Ibid..   p. 216. 2 P. 176. 3  p# 260. Cf.   also,  Anadi-mangala   of Rsma-das Adak, p. 34. Mfinik Gfiriguli   says that Dharma has white seat, white paste of sandal besmeared on his body;   he has white cloth, white camara   and a pair of white sandals on his feet {Dhm.   of M. Glnguli, p. 1). In other places we find that Dharma has white glow around   h» body, white cloth, and ornaments; he is besmeared with white sandal-paste;   he puts on white shoes and sits on a white throne; he has white frontal mark, white   and brilliant matted hair, and a garland of white moons; he has white seat with   a white canopy, and with white flags, and his temple is lighted with white glow   (Ibid., p. 5, p.  33, p. 212, etc.). White is his residence, white his house and white   is the pedestal of the lord with everything else white around.  Ibid  p. 48; see also P. 55, 4 Vide, Jidyer Gambhira   by Haridfis Palit, p. 25. See also p. 83. Similar  verses are also found among the hagmentary verses we have in our collection in connection with the  Ntla-pujU    of East Bengal of which we have already spoken. Cf.   the meditation of Sarasvat!:—  yd kpnde-ndu-tmara-hSra-dhaoala yS Sveta-padma-aana 1/2 Vlnd-bara-danda-mandita-kara yd iubhra-Castrd-Vftd [   etc. DhARMA AS DESCRIBED IN THE DHARMA LITERATURE 347 white articles; she loves white sandal-paste, white paddy, white flowers, fried paddy of white colour, white curd, etc.1 Jn the province of Buddhism also we meet with various forms of Sarasvatl, but her pure white colour is generally maintained. The white colour of Siva and Sarasvatl seems to have some metaphysical significance. White colour represents perfect  purity and knowledge.2Metaphysically Siva is pure con sciousness, perfect enlightenment, he is pure intelligence- stuff ( Viiuddha-sattVa ),—and the white colour of the lord   bears a subtle harmony with the meta- Significance of white i • l . r . 1   1  i n colour. physical nature ot the lord. Sarasvatl also represents learning and wisdom,—she stands for perfect enlightenment. In some of the Puranas she has been conceived as representing the Sattva-guna   of the primordial goddess, who is called Adya-sakti or Maha- laksml, the other two  gunas, viz., Rajas   (energy) and Tamas Cf.   also;  taruna'&akalam indor vibhrati iubhra-kantih    kuca~bhara~namitangi sannisanna sita-bje  I  Also:— V i Sad a-ku sum a 4u$f a pttndanko-pavisfa    dhavala-vasana-veia mdlati-baddha-k,eia  | &a&adhara-kara*varna &ubhra-tddaha-karndt etc . 1 It is noticeable in this connection that in the autumnal worsihp of goddess   LaksmI, which. is  widely known as the worship of  Kojdgara~Lak$mt   all the articles   of worship are prescribed to be white; even the food and sweet-meats to be offered   to her should preferably be white. In this, however, there seems to have been   something like a popular confusion. In our religious history LaksmI and Sarasvatl   have sometimes been confused one for the other, and this will explain the worship   of Saiasvatl on the white  PaHcamt   (i.e., the fifth day of new moon) of the month of     Mdgha , which was most probably originally the date for the worship of LaksmI as   the very name  $ri-paficatrii    will indicate (see Sarasvati   by Mr. Amulya Caran Vidyff-   bhfisana, Vol. I). May we infer that as we have the worship of Sarasvatl in the   Srl-paficarrii   of the month of  Mdgha   in the place of the worship of Laksmi, so we   have the worship of LaksmT on the full-moon night of autumn in the place of the    worhsip of Sarasvatl and hence perhaps is the importance of all white articles in the    KojUgara-LaksmVs    worship? 8 In literature, however, white colour also represents fame and smile (Cf,    yaiaii dhavalati varqyate hnqakirtyofi — Sshitya-darpana), 348 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (inertia) being represented by LaksmI and Mahakali respec tively.1In the the Samkhya philosophy pure intelligence- stuff (Sattva)  has been spoken of as of pure white colour,  Rajas  or energy of red colour, Tatnas  or inertia of black colour. It is for this reason that the colour of Sarasvatl is pure white and everything associated with her and her worship is also white. Coming to Buddhism we find that when Buddha began to be docetically conceived, he was conceived as the embodi ment of perfect purity and perfect enlightenment. He was  pure-consciousness {vijnapti-matrata  or vijnana-dhatu)  as the ultimate reality,—he is perfect knowledge or wisdom. He has often been described as effulgent by nature (prarti-  prabhasVara)   and as radiating light of Buddhism.ne8S in knowledge {prajhaloa).  Round the physi cal form of historical Buddha as Siddhartha or Sakya-simha there has always been a glow of perfect  purity and enlightenment. Before giving birth to Buddha, Maya,-his mother, dreamt that a white elephant entered her womb and this predicted the birth of Buddha who would attain perfect enlightenment. This notion of perfect purity and enlightenment as the ultimate nature .of Buddha or rather of the supreme deity (  Bhagavan ) was to a great extent traditionally carried down even to the latter periods of Tantricism. It is, therefore, not very unlikely that in the  popular description of Dharma-thakura as all white and having everything white associated with him we have an unconscious mixture of the notions of Siva and Buddha. 1 Vide, SaraaVati  by A. VidySbhGsa^a, Vol. I, p. 119-20. CHAPTER XIII T he  T heory  OF THE Panditas, Kotalas, Amims,   ETC. Lord Dharma has five Panditas  in the five ages, Setai in the golden age (Satya-yuga),  Nilai in the silver age ( Treta-    yuga),  Kamsai in the copper age (  Dcapara-yuga ), Ramai in the iron age ( Kali-yuga ) and Gomsai in the void-age or the age to come (Sunya-yuga  or  Anagata-yuga).  Setai is white in colour, Nilai is blue, Kamsai yellow, Ramai red and Gomsai green. The five Panditas  are really the five priests of Dharma in the five ages including the age to come.1But at the time of the worship of Dharma all the five ages meet together with all the five Panditas , whom we find placed in the five quarters, and these five quarters are again represent ed by the five gates of the temple of Dharma facing the five quarters. This theory of the gates in the different directions with respective presiding deities over them is also found in the Gajana  songs of Siva still now current in West Bengal as well as in East Bengal. In the versions of West Bengal the presiding deities over the southern, western, northern and eastern gates are Jagannatha, Ekadasa Bhima, the Sun (  Bhanu-bhasara-raya)  and Kamakhya of Kama-rupa respectively.2In the versions of East Bengal the deities in the west, south, east and north are Jagannatha, Vaidya- natha, Sri-munda-cakra-vahini and Sri-sabha-linga-vahini respectively.8Sometimes Jagannatha, Ksira-nadi-sagara, Surya-divakara (the sun) and the Himalayas are also saluted in the four directions.4 1The tradition of Papdita Goqasfii is not found in ail the descriptions. * Vide, A dyer Gambhtra by  H. Palit. 8 See infra.  Appendix D, 4 See Vanga-tcihitya-paricaya,   Part I* pp. 159*60. OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS The five priests in the five quarters have again five KotSlas,  or guards, or rather gate-keepers with them, Viz.,   Candra (the moon) in the west, Hanuman in the south, Surya (the sun) in the east, Garuda in the north and Uluka in the void. The KotSlas,  as they are depicted in the Sunya-    purana,   seem to be so many attendants on the priests and gate-keepers in the five directions of the Dharma temple [; they open doors to the visitors and again shut them up. The association of the sun and the moon with the east and the west is well-known, and the association of .Hanuman with the south is also well-known through the stories of the Rama- yana (Ceylon, which was the field of activity of Hanuman  being situated to the south of India). So the appointment of these three Kotalas  in the three quarters is easily explicable. Guruda and Uluka are well-known as the mounts of Visnu and Dharma-thakura respectively. As Hanuman, associated with the south, happens to be something like the mount of Rama-candra, it is perhaps by the law of association that the two other well-known mounts are placed in the other two quarters. In the  Dharma-puja-vidhana,  however, the Kotalas   or the guards are differentiated from the gate-keepers (  Dvati   or  Dvara-pala),  who are again attended by four Patras   (attendants). The four gate-keepers in the four quarters (the fifth gate of void being omitted here) are, Jharjhari-sundara (or Jharjharika) or Mahakala in the west, Jambhava or Tiksna-damstra in the south, Mahakaya in the east, and  Nandldeva in the north; and the Pstras  are Padihara, Hanuman, DsmaraSani and Kamadeva respectively. We have somewhat detailed description of these  Dvara-palas  in the  Dharma-puja-vidhana. The Panditas  of the five ages are associated with differ ent number of followers, different  Amiriis  or Ghata-dSsis   who are female attendants on the Lord. The whole thing c^n be illustrated with the help of the following Chart (the discrepancies of the descriptions being neglected):—  Pandita or   priest SetSi or  Svetai  Nrlai Kamsai RamSi Oo<18i Age Colour Direc- of the tion pandi- tas AminI Follow- or  Ghata- ers (gati) Kotala dasi Dvara-pala and Patra  Name of the gates Water for the hath of Dharma and the cups offered to him Raw mate- Colour rial of the of the houses, articles seats, hath- offered ing ghats, to thrones, Dharma dams, etc. Golden (Satya) West White400Basuya or  BijayS Candra (The Moon) Jharjhtirl- sundara or iVlahakala (patra- Padihara') Pascima- duyara, or  . Ahaka Water of five sacred places; *cup of water  Gold White Silver  (Treta) SouthBlue 800 Caritra Hanuman Jambhava or Tiksna- damstra tpatra- Hanuman) LanKara duyara, or   Natvaka Coconut-water ; cup of milk  Silver  Blue Copper East (Dvapara) Yellow 1200 GarigaSurya Mahakaya Udaya- Water of  (The (patra Damara- duyara, tribenl : cup Sun) sani) or of honey Samkhari Copper  Copper- colour  Iron (Kali)  North Red 1600 Durga Garuda Void Void Green Innumer- Abhaya Uluka (Sunya) or ($Gnya) able Future (Anagata)  Nandideva (patra Kama- deva) Gajana- Milk of the duyara> or Kapila cow, Bhfcana cup of love Pancama- duyara Red metal, or bell- metai, stone,  pearl,  brass Empty cup Diamond Red T H E T H E  O R Y  O F  T H E P   a  n  d   U  a  s   , K  o  t    a  l    a  s   , A   m  i    n  i    s   , E T  C  .  3   5  1  ' 352 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS This theory of the five Panditas , Kotalas ,  A minis,  etc., is nothing but a popular adoption of the later Buddhist theory of the Paiica-tathagatas , also known as the five Dhyanf Buddhas.1With the growth of the docetic concep tions in Mahayana Buddhism the five sfyandhas  or elements  began to have ontological significance and gradually gave rise to the conception of five deities. In the Panca-tathagata-   mudra-vivarana  of the  Advaya-vajra-samgraha  we find that the five Tathagatas  are but the modes and modifications of the Dhariyia-kaya of the Vajrasattva. These five Tatha - gatasi  though originally conceived as the five deities over the five s^andhas, are later on regarded as the five presiding deities over the five gross elements (viz.,  earth, water, fire, air and ether) and the five senses [viz.,  senses of vision, taste, hearing, smell and touch). In later Buddhistic esoteric literature these deities are described with their Bodhisattvas, human Buddhas (  Manusi Buddha),  Sakti (female counter  part), mounts (vahana),  postures (mudra),  crest, family (kula), bija-mantra  etc. They are again associated with the five gross elements (panca-bhuta),  five kinds of sense-  perception and the five sense organs. They are again located in the five places within the human body. We are giving below a chart of the whole thing, wherein the contro versies over the details are ignored.2 1See an axticle by P. K. Mukherjee in the Bengali monthly Prav&si,  (1329 B. S., No. 1)! 2 Fcr a detailed study of the subject see an article Vajra and Vajrasattva     by the present writer in the Indian Culture* V  ol, VIII, No. 1. See also $ri~guhya-    samaja    (G. O. S.), Advaya-vajra-samgraha    (G. O. S., Chs. on PaHca-tatha  - gata-mudrd-vivarana  , and Pafica-kara)  , Sadhana-mala    (G. O. S., Vol. II, pp. 445-46), Hevajra-tantra  , Patala    IX, Samputfk**    Ch. I, Pafica-krama  , Ch. I. Coda of Northern Buddhism  by A. Getty,  Buddhist Iconography  by Dr. B. Bhaft&carya, pp. 1-8, and  An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism  by Dr. B. BhatJS- cfirya, CK, XIII.  4   5  — H  U B Element (bhuta), Location in Dhyant Buddha Skandha Direc- tion Colour  Sakti Bodhisattva Human Buddha Kula Mount vFamily) (Vahana) Posture (Mudra) Blja. senseperception and sense organ the human  body Vairocana Rupa CentreWhite Vajradha tve£varl or Tara Samanta  bhadra or Cakrapani Kraku cchanda MohaDragonDharma cakra ‘V or  “om” Vyoma (ether) Sound (£abda) ear  Head Aksobhya Vjjnana East BlueLocana Vajrapani ICanaka muni Dvesa ElephantBhusparsa  “y” or  “hum” Marut (air) Touch (spar£a) Skin Heart Ratna sambhava Vedana South Yellow Mimaki Ratnapani KasyapaCinta mani Lion Varada “r” or  “Sva” Tejas (fire) Vision (rupa) Eye  Navel Amitabha Samjna WestRed Pandara Padmapani, or Avalo kite^vara GautamaRaga Peacock  Samadhi"b“ or  “ah” Water (ap) Taste (rasa) T ongue Mouth Amogha siddhi Sams kara  NorthGreen Aryatara, or Tara * VUvapani Maitreya Samaya Garuda   i       <       >          £  ^  p “  1 ” or, “ha” Earth (ksiti) Smell (garidha)  Nose Legs T H E T H E  O R Y  O F  T H E P   a  n  d   i    t    a  s   , K  o  t    a  l    a  s   , A   m  i   r   i    i    s   , E T  C  .  3    5    3   •  •   w   •   w 354 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS If we put side by side and compare the two charts, one illustrating the theory of the five Tathagatas,  or the five  Dhyani  Buddhas and the other illustrating the theory of the five Panditas  of the Dharma cult, no room will be left for doubting the fact that the latter is but a transformed version of the former. With the five Tathagatas  and the five- Panditas  we may compare also the popular Islamic tradition of the five Pirs  (or saints). It may also be cursorily noticed that the Kabir Panthis have the belief that the Sat Purusa   (i.e. the Supreme Being) has four different messengers in the four ages, viz., Sat Sul^rii  in the Satya-yuga, Munin-   darji  in the Treta, Karunamaya Rsi  in the  Dvapara  and Kabir Saheb  in the Kali. Already in the  Hevajra-tantra  we find that there are four corners and four gates or doors of the Mandala or Cakra (mystic diagram) of goddess Prajna and four are the Saktis in charge of the four gates ; they are Gaurl in the east, Caurl in the south, Vetall in the west and Ghasmari in the north; there are other two goddesses, viz.,  Bhucarl and Khecarl in the downward ( adhas ) and upward ( urddhva ) directions.1These goddesses in the different directions are again said to be the presiding Saktis over the five sense- 1 cakram purvarjri yatha kathitam hara-rddhahara4obhitam  t catu$-k.onam catur-dvaram Vajra-sutrair alamkftam  II * * * * nihsfta indra-dig-gaurl purva-dvare tu sarpsthita  I mantha-manthana-yogena caurika nih»fta punah  II nihsrtya dak^inc dvare court saddvala  ( ?)  —Valike  I bola-kflkkola-yogena vetall nihsftS punah  II nihsftya pa&cime dvare nisanna mara-bhahjani  I maha dvandva-samapattau nihsfta ghasmari punah  II nihsftya uttara-dvarc nisanna ghora-rupinl  I etc*  Hevajra-tantra , MS. pp. 55 (B)—56 (B). Cf.  also indre gauri yame caurt vetall Varune diii  I kaiibere ghasmari caiva adho bhUcharl smrta   li urddhve khecarl prokta utpatti-krama-pakiatah  Ietc.  Ibid  , MS, P. 25 (B) See also Sadhana-mala,  (G. O, S.) Vol. II, p. 445. 1t"  f  THE THEORY OF THE Paniitas , Kotalas ,  Aminis,   ETC. 355  perceptions. Again the presiding Saktis over the five Skandhas  are said to be Vajra, Gaurl, Caurl, Vajra-yoginl and Nairatmya-yogini respectively.1These goddesses are  placed in the different quarters.2Without .entering into the anomalous details it will be sufficient for us to note that the conception of the four gates or doors were already there in Tantric Buddhism. In the exoteric form of northern Buddhism we find the theory of the five Buddhas represented in the Buddhist Stupas  or Caityas  of latter time, where one of the five Buddhas was given prominence to be the Lord Supreme and was placed in the centre and the other four were placed on the four gates or doors on the four sides. Such a scheme is to be found also in the sculptural represen tation of the later Buddhist Stupas  or Caityas . Esoterically, however, these Tathagatas  and also their Saktis are placed in the central, eastern, southern, western and northern directions of the mystic diagram (Mandala) of secret practices. In later times all these esoteric and exoteric traditions transformed themselves into the scheme of the five gates (including the void-gate) of the temple of Dharma, where the five Tathagatas  or the five Buddhas have become the five worshippers of lord Dharma in the five ages in the form of the five Panditas. , The tradition that there are different deities presiding over the different quarters is, however, as old as the Vedas. Thus in the  Atharva-veda  we find that, of the Eastern quarter Agni is the overlord, black serpent is the defender, 1 rupe gaurt samakhyata iabde cauri prakirtita  I Vetatt gandha-bhage ca rase ghasmari kjrtita  II sparSe ca bh&cart khyata khccari dharma-dhaiutah  I  Hevajra-tantra,  MS. P. 25 (B) rtipa*akandhe bhavet vajra gauri Vedanayarp srprta  t sarpjfiSyaTp caurl yogini earjiskSrc Vajra-yoginl  II vijfiarta-skandha-ruppna sthita nairatmyS-vogini  I etc.  Ibid   MS. P. 15 (A) See also Sadhana-mala,  Vol. 11. p. 545. * Sadhana-mala,  Vol. 11, p. 444 356 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the Adityas are the arrows, and homage is paid to the over lord, the defender and the arrows. Similarly, of the Southern quarter Indra is the overlord, cross-lined (serpent) defender, the Fathers the arrows; of the Western quarter Varuna is the overlord, the adder defender, food the arrows; of the Northern quarter Soma is the overlord, the constrictor defender and the thunder-bolt arrows, of the fixed quarter (dhraoi dify)  Visnu is the overlord, the serpent with black- spotted neck defender, the plants the arrows ; of the upward quarter Brhaspati is the overlord, white serpent defender and rain the arrows.1 It will be very interesting also to note, in connection with this Buddhist theory of the Paiica-lathagatas  and their Saktis and the corresponding theory of the five Panditas  with the five  A minis  as found in the Dharma cult, that this theory has its correspondence also with the Hindu Tantras. We have seen that the five Tathagatas,  though originally said to be five deities over the five Skandhas,  are associated with the five gross elements. These five elements have been represented in the Hindu Tantras by the five (out of the six) lotuses or  plexuses, viz.,  Muladhara representing earth, Svadhisthana representing water, Manipura representing fire, Anahata air and Visuddha ether. There are five presiding gods and five goddesses associated with these lotuses. The gods are, Brahma, Visnu, Rudra, Isana, and Mahadeva respectively; and the goddesses associated with the lotuses are Dakini, RakinI, Lakini, KakinI and SakinI respectively. The bija-mantras   of the lotuses are lam, bam, ram, yam,  and ham ; the bija-   mantras  of the five  Dhyarii  Buddhas are also almost exactly the same (i.e.,  I, b, r, y,  and om).  The first three gods associated with these lotuses are respectively of red, blue and vermilion colour, and the last two are white, The goddesses are of red, deep blue, dark-green, smoky and white colour. »(3.27. 1-6), THE THEORY OF THE  Panditas, Kotalas,  A  minis , ETC. 357 In the colour scheme, however, there is perfect correspon- T. , , Hence between the Buddhist and the 1he colour scheme. Dharmite tradition ; they have a faint resemblance with the colour scheme of the Tantras also. The five elements in the five plexuses, Viz.,  earth, water, fire, air and sound are described in some of the texts as of yellow, white, red, smoky and blue colour respectively. Again we find in the Puranic literature that there was the tradition of God’s having four different colours in the four different ages. God was of white colour in the Satya-yuga,  red colour in the Treta-yuga,  yellow in the  Dvapara-yuga  and black in the Kali-yuga.1 Rupa-gosvaml speaks of the colour scheme as white, red, dark-green and black.2It may also be noted that in the  A nagata-Vamsa  (a Pali text describing the tradition of the advent of Maitreya, the future Buddha) there is the description of four gates in the capital city Ketumati and in the four gates there will be four Kalpa-trees of the blue, yellow, red and white colour.8 In the Chandogyo-panisat   we find that of the four Vedas, the first, i.e., the  Rg-vzda  is spoken of as of the colour of the white portion of the eye, and the second, i.e., the Sama-   Veda  is spoken of as of the colour of the deep blue portion of the eye.4Again, of the five material elements Tejas  is described as red, water as white and earth as black/ Again, the nerves of the body have been described as secreting four kinds of liquids, which are of white, blue, yellow and red colour.6 1 asan Varnas trayo hyatya gjhnato' nuyugam tanah  I iukJo rakto* tatha pita idariim krsnatam gatah  II  Bhagacata-purana , (10. 8. 13). 2 kathyate varna-namabhydrp iuklah satya-yuge harih  I rakta'iydma-kxamat krwas tretayarji dvapare kalau  If   Laghu-bhagavata-mfta   of Rupa-gosvimi. 3 Vide verse*  (10-20). 4 Chandogya,  (1. 7. 4). 6  Ibid  . (6/4). «  Ibid.   ( 8 . 6 . 1 ). 358 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS About the colour of the different articles associated with the worship of Dharma in the five gates, it will be seen that the articles associated with the western gate, which in its turn is associated with Setai Pandita,  are all white in colour ; similar is the colour scheme of the articles associated with the other gates. Again, as for the metal of the articles it may be noticed that the articles associated with the western gate, which is again connected with the Satya-yuga  or the golden age, are all made up of gold ; those of the southern gate, associated with the silver age, are all of silver; those of the eastern gate, associated with the copper age, are all of copper, those of the northern gate, associated with the iron age, are spoken of as made up of some read metal, or, bell- metal, stone and brass; and those of the fifth gate, associated with the void age or the age to come, are all of diamond. The tradition of Gosanl Pandita  of the age to come (A nagata-    yuga)  may possibly have something to do with the tradition of the advent of the future Buddha Maitreya in the  A nagata   age, as it is described in the Pali text  Anagata-vamsa. CHAPTER XIV COSMOCONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES IN OLD and   M ediaeval  V ernacular   L iteratures (1)  A brief Exposition of the Theories In the old and mediaeval vernaculars of India we find various theories about cosmogony and cosmology. Inspite of the differences in details, there is a general similarity in the description. When we shall analyse the ideas found in these theories we shall find that here also, as in other cases, there is a great jumbling of ideas received from various sources of Indian philosophy, theology and mythology. Of all the descriptions found in the vernaculars, the descriptions contained in the literature of the Dharma cult of Bengal seem to be the most detailed and important, and we shall presently see that all the other' descriptions found in other types of literature present a striking similarity with the descriptions found in the literature of the Dharma cult. Though the accounts given in the vernaculars are often extremely con- fusedNin nature, we must first of all attempt a very brief exposition of these cognate theories and our next and more important task will be to analyse them and to affiliate the constituent elements to the older thoughts and beliefs.1 In the Sunya-purana  we find that in the beginning there was nothing,—neither any linear mark, Account given .  , in the nor any form, nor any colour, nor any Sanya-purana.   Df anything ; there was neither the sun nor the moon, nor the day nor the night. There was 1In this connection see introduction to the $&nya-pur5na  (edited by Mr. C. Banerjee) by Dr. Shahidullah and Mr. B. Chatterjee, 360 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS neither water, nor earth, nor the sky, nor the mountains. The universe was not,—neither was anything mobile or immobile, nor were the temples, nor the gods in them,—there were only all-pervading darkness and haze ( dhundhukara )—and in the infinite vacuum the Lord alone was moving in the great void having nothing but void as His support. And in his absolute loneliness the Lord was thinking of creating some thing, and out of the great vacuum there came out the vital air of the Lord, from which came inhalation and exhalation; from these again proceeded great compassion and from that all the principles of illusion. Then there came out a bubble of water on which the Lord nade his seat, but the bubble could not withstand the pressure of the Lord and burst into  pieces leaving the Lord once more in the vacuum. Then the Lord sat fixed in the vacuum and in and through his com  passion another personality of the name of Niranjana came out of him. The latter, however, had no hands and legs,— neither had he any father and mother, nor was he born of the seed and the ovum, nor had he any other companion in the great void. This Niranjana or Dharma then sat on the seat of compassion and passed full fourteen ages in the meditation on the Great ( bambha-jana ). After fourteen ages of medita tion Niranjana yawned and from his high breath came out the  bird Ulluka. The bird began to flee away from the Lord who was calling it from behind; but Ulluka got tired in the infinite void and came back to the Lord. The Lord then took compassion on Ulluka and made his seat on the back of the bird and once more passed fourteen years in meditation. In the mean time Ulluka became much fatigued with hunger and thirst and asked for some drink from the Lord. The Lord gave a little quantity of fluid from his mouth to the bird to drink. Ulluka drank the fluid, but some portion of it fell outside in the void and water came out of it, and both the Lord and his mount were floating on water. But in the heaving water both of them were being tossed roughly and a COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 361 feather dropped from the body of the bird and the feather  became a swan. The Lord then proposed to have some rest on the back of the swan, and the latter agreed, and the Lord once more passed several ages on the back of the swan. But the swan also got tired and flew away in the void leaving the Lord in water. The Lord then touched water with his lotus-like hand, whereby a tortoise came to being, and the Lord passed several ages in meditation on its back. The tortoise also got tired and flew away leaving the Lord and Ulluka on water. Ulluka then advised the Lord to create the world in water. With the instructions of Ulluka the Lord cast off on water his golden sacred-thread, which instantane ously became the serpent Vasuki ofjhousand fangs. Then the Lord accumulated a little quantity of dusty substance from his nail and placed it in the form of the world on the head of the serpent Vasuki. The Lord then went out with Ulluka to visit the world and the world was increasing with the speed of the Lord. By roaming about in the world the Lord  became tired and began to perspire and from the sweat of his  body was produced the Adya-Sakti (the primordial energy). The Lord built a house for her and placed her there and after creating the river BaJluka engaged himself in meditation once more for fourteen ages. In the mean time Adya-Sakti grew young and from her youthful desires proceeded forth Kama (Cupid) who was sent by Adya to the Lord. Kama went to the Lord, aimed his arrow at him and the Lord was disturbed. The Lord came to know everything from Ulluka and put Kama in an earthen pot and Kama became trans formed into poison. Adya, after some time, became unable to bear the burden of her youth and attempted to commit suicide by swallowing the contents of the earthen  pot ; but to her astonishment she became pregnant thereby. Three gods were then born to Adya, tfzz., Brahma, Visnu and Siva. Just aft^r their birth all the three went out for penance and meditation, and the Lord also went to test them in the 46—141 IB 362 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS form of a corpse floating on water. Brahma could not recognise the Lord in disguise, Visnu also could not recognise him ; it was only Siva, who could recognise the Lord. The Lord became pleased with Siva, and granted him three eyes (for all the three brothers were born blind). Subsequently at the request of Siva the other two brothers, viz.,   Brahma and Visnu also received eye-sight with the sprinkling of the fluid from the mouth of the Lord. All the three  brothers then went back to Adya, where they were entrusted  by the Lord with the task of creation. Adya-sakti was asked to be the wife of Siva and to help him in the work of creation. Thus after entrusting the whole task of creation, preservation and destruction to the triad the Lord once more went to the void and remained for ever seated on his mount Ulluka.1 The fragmentary accounts -of cosmogony found in the .  Dharma-puja-vidhana  also tally with those Account given in 1' J  theDharma-puja-  found in the Sunya-purana ; the only vidhana.  * difference is that, Dharma Niranjana came out of the formless absolute Lord in the form of a luminous  body in the void and was asked to create the universe with his three qualities [gunas), viz., sattva, rajas  and tamas,    personified as the triad Brahma, Visnu and Siva.2 In the Dharma-mangalas detailed accounts of cosmogony are found which, though slightly different th1CDKUa™a-mI'galasn in details’ are stibstantially the same as found in the Sunya-purana.  Thus almost a similar account of cosmology is found in the Dharma- mangala of Sahadev Cakravarti.8The account given in the Dharma-marigala of Slta-ram Das also tallies with the account of the Sunya-purana  almost verbatim; the only important deviation is that after the world was created Dharma himself  1 Sftnya-purana, Srsfi-pattana,  pp. 1-42. In this connection see the introduc tion to the Sunya-purana  by Dr. Bhahiduliah and Mr. B, K. Chatterjee. 2  Dharma-puja-vidhana,  pp. 201-202, 3l/fdeB,SP.P„ B.S, 1304. cosMogonical and cosmological theories 363 assumed the form of a charming damsel and was then himself in union with her. Through their union three gods of the nature of the three gunas  were born to them.1 In the  Anadi-mangala  of Ramdas Adak2we find that Mahamaya was produced from the left side of Dharma. Mahamaya or Adya-sakti attained her youth. Dharma  proposed to Ulluka that as Adya was produced from the left  part of his body, she should be the wife of the Lord. The  proposal appeared obnoxiously repulsive to Adya, who tried to flee away in all the directions ; but at last she had to give way and the marriage took pl&ce in the void through the medi tation of Ulluka. Then follows the birth of the triad and the story of Dharma’s disguise to test them. Here also it was Siva, who could recognise the Lord, and the propitiated Lord entrusted Siva with the charge of creation. But Siva, with the preponderance of tamas  in him, created the Yaksas, Raksas, ghosts, genii, demons and many such other horrible  beings. The Lord then put a check to Siva and asked Brahma to take the charge of creation. The Lord Himself assumed the form of a bear and brought for him (Brahma) the earth, which lay hidden in the nether land. Then follows the theory of the self-originated Brahma and the  Manus,  the.  Ditis  and the  Aditis,  etc., as it is found in the Puranic litera ture.3In Ghana-rama we find that in the primordial void and darkness the formless supreme Lord first revealed himself in a form which contained the potency of all creation. The Lord desired to create and from his desire for creation was born Prakrti  in the form of the most beautiful and charm ing woman,—and the mind of the Lord was disturbed at the sight of her beauty, and through the disturbance in his mind Prakrti  was infused with the three gunas  from which again were born the three gods, Brahma, Visnu and Siva. Then * 1  Dhm.  of SitarSm Das, Sthapana-pala , MS. (C. U. No. 2469) p. 3 (A)* 8 Edited by Mr. B. K. Chatterjee, Sahitya-parisat series, No, 82, 3 Vide AnSdi-maitgala  of RSmdSs Adak, pp. 7-10. 364 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS follows the story of their penance and their test by Dharma in the guise of a corpse. Here also, as in the case of Ramdas’s account, Siva, who was first entrusted with the charge of creation, created all sorts of horrible beings and then the charge was transferred from him to Brahma. From Prajapati Brahma was first produced  Ahankara  (egohood), from  A hanara  proceeded the five elements and then the four sons of Brahma {viz.,  Sanaka, Sananda, Sanat-kumara and Sanatana) and so on as in the popular Puranic accounts.1 According to the account given by Manik Ganguli the triad with the essence of the gunas  was produced from the union of the Lord and Sakti and for the triad Sakti again divided her self into three goddesses, Viz.,  Brahmani, Vaisnavl and Saivl. Then follows the test of the triad. Here we find that all the three gods could recognise the Lord and did welcome him warmly and humbly and the Lord, pleased with the triad, entrusted them with the charge of creation, preservation and destruction. The three Saktis, Viz.,  Brahmani, Vaisnavl and Saivi were then united with Brahma, Visnu and Siva and the triad with their Saktis created the manifold universe.2 The account given by Narasimha Vasu in his  Dharmayana   comes closer to the Samkhya view of cosmology. From the desire of the Lord for creation in the primordial void Prakrti  was born in the form of a beautiful woman, and from the union of Prakrti  and the Lord was born a son of the name of  Mahartta (i.e., mahat)  and from  Mahartta  came three  Ahamkaras  of the nature of three gunas , and from them were born the triad.3Then follows 1See  Dhm.  of Ghana-rama, Sthapanapala,  pp. 5-7. 2  Dhm.  of Manik Ganguli, pp. 9-11, 3 mahartta haite haila ahankar tin  I sartta raja tamasa trigun bhirnna bhin  II sartta rupe birana rupa  fearz/a diray  I rajagune sthiti-kflfta brahmdr tanay  II sit) tama-gune haila jaha haite naa  I tamasa gunete jammila aksa  il  Dharmayana  of Naraeiipha Vasu, Vol. I.. MS. (C.U. 3224) p. 7 (B). COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 365 the story of the test of the triad and Siva was entrusted with the charge of creation. But in actual creation we find the Puranic story that the Lord with his mysterious  Maya  (i. e.  principle of creative illusion) slept on the snake  A nanta  and from the lotus of his navel proceeded Brahma, who was always thinking of creation.1Brahma had four sons proceed ing from his desire (manasa-putra), Viz.,   Sanaka, Sanatana, Sananda and Sanat-kumara. And then came the theory of the  Manus, Diti, A diti  and others just as in the Puranas. In the Gajana  songs of West Bengal and East Bengal we find the same conception of cosmogony. In the verses collec ted by Mr. Haridas Palit in his book  A dyer Gambhira  we find that in the beginning there was nothing and the Lord ( Gosam ) was in the form of the void in the boundless void.2Then *. . ... there was water and the Lord was Account given jn the Bengal S°ngS °f We8t in his void-form.8He then ordered a crab to sink down and to bring earth from the  bottom,—and the crab brought earth for the Lord. According to one version4the Lord made the world with a portion of earth brought by the crab and the world was then placed on the back of a tortoise. According to another version the earth, brought by the crab was of the nature of gold and from it there was an egg and that egg  burst into two (one half becoming the earth and the other half the sky ?) and the triad, Brahma, Visnu and Siva then created the world.6 In the fragmentary verses, which the present writer  collected from the district of Bakergunge in In the Gijana songs r- . r> • 1  l •l .1 of East Bengal. East Bengal, and which are sung on the occasion of the  Nila-pOja  at the end of the month of Caitra  similar cosmogonical ideas are found. In 1 Ibid,  MS. pp. 9(A)—9(B). » P. 19. s Ibid,  p. 24. « Ibid,  p. 19. t Ibid,  pp. 24-25. 366 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS one verse we find,—“In the beginning there was neither any cause, nor reason, nor the sky; neither was there water nor earth; neither the within, nor the without, and the Lord was , all alone. The Lord then perspired and from his sweat was created the universe.1In another song we find that Dharma-raja, after travelling long on his mount, per spired, and from his sweat a phantom was produced and the  phantom became magically transformed into a girl ; she stood before the Lord and the Lord got enamoured with her; she, however, began to flee in the western direction to escape his hands and rebuked the shameless father who was mad after his own daughter ; but -the Lord paid no heed to her words and pursued her madly.2 In connection with the travelling of Siva as a mendicant in the market-place { bajar-sannyasa ), which is also included in the ceremonies on occasion of the  Nila-puja,  we find the following verse :—“Void was the market place, the earth was not  ,—Sannyasins  (those that have renounced the world), Tapasoins  (those who practise penances) and  Rsis  (sages) there were none; neither was the day, nor the night. How was the Lord at that time ? All the existent was void, the non-existent was also void and the Lord of void was of the  body of void; the earth with the seven islands was immersed in water in the void. What was the state of the Lord at that 1 hetu buddhi na chila gagan-mandal  I nahi jai nahi sthal bahire sthapan  II bhitar bahir n&hi keval eke&Var   II   carma gharme bhijila  I chifaiya nak$atra ei-rupa srsfi haila bi&vambhar   || 8 &ila re dharma-raj ulase (uluke ?) cadiya  1 ulase rate irhga ghamila  I chayaya achila fonya may ate jammila  II  piche achila anya sumukhe ddndala  I tahd dekhiya dharma-citta dharan na yay  I  pa&cim dike konya dhaoyaiya laiyS yay  II etek iuniya devl balila uttar   I bap haiya jhire kflrte cay bar   II etc# * time ? He was of the form of an egg. There was no earth, and the boar brought it with the help of his teeth. Lord Siva then created the earth with the dusty substance of his body.” There is also mention of Nila and Anila in the verses in a rather unmeaning and confused manner.1 In the Candi-mangalas of Bengal we find almost a similar conception of cosmogony and cosmology, thf c^mSga” ln the Candbmangala  of Manik Datta, who flourished in or before the fifteenth century, we find a confused echo of the cosmogonical theory found in the Sunya-purana.2 In the Candi-mangala  of Mukundaram Cakravart! (of the sixteenth century) we find that the  primordial Lord (Adi-deva) was thinking of creation in the void, and when he was thus pondering on, Prakrti came out of his body, and Prakrti, who was the manifestation of the  power (Sakti) of the Adi-deva, was called the Adi-devi. The Lord infused his energy in Prakrti and thereby a son of the name of  Mahan  (i.e.  Mahat)  was born to them; the son of  Mahat   was  Ahamkjara  and from  Ahamkara  were born the 1 bajare Sunya sthal sannyasi tapasi r$i  I na chila diva niSi  II Sona re bhai Siver madar ( ? )  I takhane achila gosami k^nxan avatar   l(   hay Sunya nay Sunya Sunya Sunya kay  1 sapta-dvip prthl Sunya chila jalamay  II Sona re bhai Siver madar   I takhane achila gosami dimba-aVatar   II hari giri parvat na chila mafi  I bar ah a aniya tay dante kati  II e Siv pasara apana   I anger may aid diya kare prthivi sthapana  II nile achila gosami anile sut   I nile achila gosami  ^emon adbhut   U nile achila gosarpi kabhu nahe jani  I ek &k k<*lik& ( ? ) diya sevila medirii  II mafi caka dhariya phelilam jale  I sthir na haite fal-mal  feore II deo deo basumata more deo bar   I bachare bachare haio balar agrasar   II See B.S.P.P., 1317; also Voilga-sahitya-paricaya,   Part I, pp. 300*301, COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 367 368 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS five (elements), viz.,  earth, water, fire, air and ether. Again one Lord became three (the Triad) according to the gunas . Of the Triad Brahma hpd four sons born of his desire (manasa-putra),  but all the four went away for penance leaving behind the phenomenal world. Brahma, however, got angry and from his anger was born Rudra, who was given six female companions ( Viz  Dhrti, Vrddhi, Hi, Vasi, Siva and Anima) and was ordered to create the creatures. Siva began to create horrible creatures and was at once stopped by Brahma. For the purpose of creation Brahma then divided his body into two parts, one as the female and the other as the male (the letter being named as Svayam-  bhuva Manu). This latter was then requested by Brahma to create progeny, but Svayambhuva Manu wanted land where the created beings might have their abode. At this BrahmS  became perturbed and from his nostril came out the boar who went to the netherland and brought back on his long teeth the earth that lay hidden there ; and then creation began as it is described in the Puranas.1The account given in the Candi-mangala   of Madhavacarya, though substantially the same as described above, shows a greater amount of confusion of ideas. Here the Devi was created from the breath of the Lord and Brahma was born in the navel. Of the triad Brahma, Visnu and Siva, the Devi was given to the last for creation. In the  A nnada-mangala  of Bhirata-candra also we find a similar account. The  Bisahari Padma-purana  of Jlvan Maitra also contains a cosmogonical account of the same nature.2 The cosmogonical ideas of the literature of the Natha cult of Bengal also resemble to a great extent mhC:it!tZn  "th' the ideas described above. According to the accounts giw:n in the  A nadi-purana  or  Anadi>-caritra,  the  Hada-msla-grantha,  the Y ogi-tantra-kala 1 Kavi-kankana Candi  by MukundarSm. 2 Vtde Bangala Puthtr Bivaran,  by Har Gopsl Dfis Kundu, B.S.P.P., B.S. 1313. Vol. 3, p. 162. etc.,1Alek-natha (the incomprehensible one) or  Niranjana Gosatni created Anadi Dharma-natha and from the liquid of the mouth of the former there was water on which Anadi- natha made his seat. Then Alek-natha created goddess Kaketuka from the energy of his own body, and she was put to death under the pressure of the feet of Anadi. Adi-devI, or goddess Kaketuka was then revived through the grace of the Lord and he instructed Anadi to create the beings in union with Adi. Then the creation began. The serpent Vasuki was created and was placed in the netherland and on the fang of it was placed the earth of a triangular shape. Then from the fist of Dharma were born the triad, who were deaf and dumb. Then follows a somewhat different version of the test of the triad. Goraksa-Oijaya  contains a cosmogonical account, which, inspite of slight differences, presents on the whole the same view as described above. In the beginning there was only the Karatar   and nothing- else. The Karatar   himself was not self-conscious,—it was the potentiality in him that made him self-conscious in the process of manifestation. His manifested form followed his self-consciousness and the  principle of change and transformation followed from his manifestation in a form. 2And then there was the desire of the Lord to create the world and for the purpose he  produced Dharma Niranjana. Dharma was first in a slumbering state, and when he became awakened he found some shadowy entity by his side, who was none but AdyS (i.e., Adya Sakti). The Lord attempted to capture her, but she tried to escape. She was then captutffl by force and through the union of the Lord and the Adya the sun, the moon, the earth and the stars were produced. From the 1 Vide Natha-dharme Sfiti-tattoa  by Raj-mohan Nath, B.S.P.P., B.Sa 1331,  No. 2. 2 Goraksa-vijaya,  edited by Munsi Abdul Karim. S&hitya-parisat Series No. 4, p. 1. Also see Appendix of the text. pp. 4-5. COSMOGONICAL AND_ COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 369 370 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  Hitqiara  of the Lord was born Brahma and from his mouth was Visnu. Through the mutual attraction and affection of Adi and Anadi (Adi represents Sakti who has a beginning and Anadi represents the beginningless principle) there was sweat and soul, the ego, the four Vedas and fourteen scrip tures ; water and earth and all the other beings were produced from this sweat 1From the different parts of the body of Anadya emanated Siva and Gauri (who is the mother of the universe) and all the other Siddhas. The Lord then  proposed that some one of them (i.e., either Siva, or any of the Siddhas) should accept Gauri as his wife. At this  proposal all bent their head 'out of shame. The Lord then ordered Siva to accept Gauri, who (as Anadya told) was  but one with Siva in her ultimate nature. In accordance with the decree of the Lord, Hara and Gauri came down on earth and they were accompanied by the Siddhas. In his discussion with Adya, Anadya says that he, as the ultimate reality, has an unchanging permanent nature of his own, which is unspeakable, and in that unchanging ultimate nature he remains pervading the whole cosmos in his formless form. As there is the tree from the seed and the seed in the tree, so is the creation from Anadya and Anadya in creation. As cream is produced by the churning of milk, as fire is produced through the rubbing of two logs of wood, so also is the creation. As there is the cycle of the night of the new moon and of the full moon, so there is the process of creation and dissolution. A similar view of cosmogony is found in the Gopi-candrer Sannyas  by Sukur Mahammad.2 In some of thS* Vaisnava Sahajiya texts also we find a similar theory of cosmology, more confusedly mixed up with Vaisnava theology and mythology.3 1 Goraksa-vijaya,  Appendix (ka), alternative readings from MS. No. 5, p. 1. 2C. U. Vol II. pp. 441-444. 3 Vide Agama Grantha  (edited by Mr. M. M. Bose. C.U.). Cf.  also the Vaisnava text Golaka^aqihita, vide  B. S. P. P., B. S., 1309. COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 371 It is interesting to note in this connection tbat in course of the religious discussion that took place between a Portuguese Christian Missionary on the one hand and an orthodox Brahmin on the other in the  Brahman-RomankySthalik-   samvad, 1of Don Antonio we find ideas of cosmogony and cosmology strikingly similar even in details to the ideas found in the descriptions of the texts belonging to the Dharma cult, Candl cult and the Natha cult. This fact clearly indicates that the ideas of cosmogony and cosmology described above are neither provincial nor sectarian in nature; on the other hand they represent the general ideas infiltrated in the mind of the masses. The cosmogonical ideas and description found in the literature of some other vernaculars of India also bear  striking resemblance to those found in Account found in thf^Vaisnwa literature Bengali. The cosmogonical descriptions found in the Vaisnava literature of Orissa of the sixteenth centur y are almost the same as found in the Dharma-mangala literature of Bengal. As the point has  been discussed and demonstrated in the work  Modern    Buddhism and its Followers in Orissa  by N. N. Bose, we need not repeat it here. The description of the primordial nihil and of the absolute Lord existing all alone in the void is also found in the poems of the Santa poets of Hindi literature. Thus Kabir says,—  When there was no air, and no water, then who created the universe ? Then was no bud, no flower, then no womb and no generation. Then was no learning, no Veda, then no word, no taste. Then was no body, no dweller, no regions below, no earth, no sky, no heaven. *Edited by Dr. S. N. Sen, M.A., Ph.D., B.Lit., and published by the University of Calcutta, 372 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Then was no Guru, no chela, no fathomable and  unfathomable, no worship of Sagun and Nirgun, no two paths.1 The creation is due to the activities of Niranjana, and in the  beginning he alone was, and there was nothing else.2 In the  Ad-mangal  of Kabir and in his  Ramaints  we find that in the beginning was the Almighty  poifs^611  by thc ^ne ( Samaratha )  —  and there was no second to the Lord. There first came conscious ness within himself and then proceeded the desire for creation, and six Brahmas were created. The six failed in their task of creation and a seventh was produced by the Lord—and  his name was Niranjana. Niranjana wanted a blja-J^heta  (a field to sow in) for procreation and the Lord created a woman for him and the woman had to be the wife of Niranjana against her will. This woman is none but  Maya . Through the union of Niranjana and  Maya  three sons of the nature of  the three gunas  were born, they were Brahma, Visnu and  Mahesvara.3 Dadu also says that Niranjana is never associated with anything else;—water and earth, the static and the dynamic— the earth and the sky, the sun and the moon, water and air, day and night, heat and cold, hunger and thirst—nothing can touch him—nothing can be associated with him.4 Sundar-das also says that in the beginning Niranjana made out of his own self the five principles (  panca-tattva ) of  the material elements and also the three gunas . From rajas was Brahma, from sattva  was Visnu and from tamas  was Sankara, and the three gods had Satya-loka, Vaikuntha and  1 Vide The Bijak of Kabir,  Ahmad Shah, p, 55(7). 2 Kablr-granthaVall , edited by Syamsundar Dfis, p. 167, Padfivall, 219. Cf.  also,  Ramaini , No. 6,  Bijak Kabir-das,  Riwfim edition. 3See  Ad-mafigal, Bijak Kabir-daa,  Riwfim edition; also The Bijak of    Kabir  , by Rev. Ahmad Shah, pp. 41-43. Cf,  also:  Ramaini  No, 1  ,  Riwfiin edition ; also  RamairiU,  No. 2, 3. * Vide Anthology of Dadu,  edited by Mr. K. Sen, p. 590. COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 373 Kailasa as their respective abode. Three goddesses, viz.,   Brahmani, Thakur&nl and Bhavani were then associated with them. From the triad, in association with their Saktis,  proceeded the universe with all its diversities.1As it appears from the glimpses that are found in his works, Tulsi-das also had a cognate cosmogonical view. The cosmos is  produced from the  Maya  of the Lord and the  Maya  is con ceived as the Adi-sakti.2 (fi)  Analysis of the ideas of Cosmogony and Cosmology    found in the Vernacular Literature Let us now proceed with the task of analysing and examining the accounts found in the vernaculars and let us also see how far the ideas can be traced back to older theories, legends and myths. There is a marked tendency among some scholars to hold that the cosmogonical and the cosmological views discussed above are Buddhistic in origin. If we proceed on in a critical way we shall see that there is no distinctive nature of the views found in the vernaculars. As we have said, here there is but a popular and confused mixture of the cosmogonical and cosmological ideas found in the Vedic literature, in the Upanisads, the Samkhya system, in the Puranic literature, in the Hindu Tantras and in the later phase of Mahayana Buddhism mainly expressed through the various Buddhist Tantras. Yet, if any character is to be v given to them, it will be more correct to say that they are 1See the chapter on Guna Utpatti Nisarpni  —  Sundar-granihsvall,  edited by Purohita HarinarSyana £arm5, pp. 205-207. Also Cf.  the chapter on  Ratnatfaka, Ibid,  pp. 159-161. 2 adi-fakti jehi jag upajaya  I sou aVaiarihi mori yaha maya  II  Rama~carita~manaaa ,  Bala-anda.   mana maya sarpbhava pari vara  1  jiv carQ-car bibidha prakara  II  Ibid, Laftk$~kty*4a* sunu raVan btahmanda-nikaya   II  pai jStu bal biracati mayS   It  j& fa bal birarpci hari Isa  I  palata 8fjata harata dasp-aUS  II   Sundara-k&?4a> Nigari-praclrinl edition. 374 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS essentially Hindu; and even the Buddhistic elements are introduced in their Hinduised form.1 (A) The Primordial Nihil Among the various accounts given in the vernaculars the first point to note is that in the beginning there was nothing, and the ultimate Being was floating as the Formless One in the infinite vacuum. The whole universe was then created  by him from nothing. Or we shall find that there was the  primordial darkness and water and the Lord was there in his formless existence. This idea is, however, to be met with first in the There we find,—  “At that time there was neither the aught, nor the naught, neither the earth nor heaven above. What was there to cover all ? [Wherein was the abode of all ? Was there water deep and fathomless ? “ No death was then, nor immortality, no distinction  between day and night. The One alone breathed without any air,—nothing existed other than that One. In the beginning there was darkness shrouded in darkness, indistinct was all—and water was everywhere. The All-pervading One was covered with all the non-existent, and through the Tapas  or the divine effort arose the ‘ One/ ,2 The same idea is variously described in the Upanisadic literature. In the Svetasvaiaropanisat   we find, “When there was neither darkness, nor day, nor night,—neither the existent nor the non-existent—there was only the All-good One (Siva); He was changeless, He was the Adorable, He was the creator,—and from Him proceeded eternal enlighten ment.”8In the Taittiriyopanisat   it is said that the non- w 1See some suggestions of Dr. B. M. Barua in B.S.P.P., 1331, No. 2. 2(10,129. 1-3). C/., also,—  devartam yuge prathame'satah sad ajayata  I (1072.3). 3  yada iamat tan na diva na ratrir na san na cdmc chiva eVa kcvalah  I  Ladakfaratp  tot bavitur varenyam prajfia ca tasmat prasjta ptiram  I(4.16). COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOClCAL THEORIES 3?5 existent (A sat)  was in the beginning and from the  A sat   arose the Sat   and the Sat   produced its own self by itself. 1The  Aitareyopanisat   says that in the beginning was the self (Atmh)  alone and nothing else; it observed itself ( tad    aisata ) and the beings were produced thereby. Again we find that in the beginning was the  A sat   alone, and from the  A sat   arose the Sat   and the Sat   was one and without a second in the beginning. The Sat   desired that it would be many and energy {tejas)  arose from it; from tejas  was water (dp) and from dp  was produced gross matter (anna). 2 The  Brhad  - dranyaka  says that the Brahman was alone in the beginning and from Him arose all gods and the universe in all its varieties. 3Again it is sometimes said that water alone was in the beginning,—from water arose Satya , from Satya   arose the Brahman, from the Brahman Prajapati (the lord or the creator of the beings) and from the Prajapati were the gods. 4Again we find that water was in the beginning and therein was born Prajapati in the lotus-Ieaf. He desired to create the universe and the universe gradually proceeded from his desire .5 The conception of the primordial water is as old as the Vedas6and is very popular so far as the Puranic literature^ of India is concerned. A very popular conception found in the Puranic literature (and the conception is very old indeed) is that the Supreme Lord was floating in the primordial water and hence is the name  Narayana  for him.7 * (2.7). 2   Chandogya —  (6.2) . 3(4.10-11), Cf.  also  Narayanopanimtt   (1.1). 4  Bfhad-aranyak  <**(5.5.1). 5 Taittiriya Brahmaqa , (1,1.3), Taittiriya Samhita , ( 7..5),Brhad-jabalopanisat, ( 1 . 1 .) 8 Yad deva ad ah salile susamraddha atisthata  I  Rg-veda,  (10.72.6). C/. also  Ibid,  (10.82.1, 5-6), (10.121.7), (10.190. 1-3); al«o infra , p. 377 7 Cj. apo nara iti prokta apo Vai narasunavah  I ta yad asyayanam purvaqi tena narayanah smrtah l Manu*samhita,  (1,10) The same ver»e occur* in many PurSpic texts. 376 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS In later Vaisnava literature we frequently find the Lord sleeping on the surface of the sea. This primordial water has often been philosophised as the water of original cause-  potency ( arana-Qari  ). With the account given by Manik Datta in his Candl-m angala    that the Lord was floating on the surface of the primordial water with a lotus-leaf as his support, we may compare the following account given in the Sul^la-yajur-Ve da  ,—  “In the beginning was water and only water; and Prajapati transformed him into air and accepted a Puskara-leaf as his support; but he was tossing and tossing, etc.” ' As for the account given in many of the Mangala-kavyas that the Lord'brought to the surface of water the earth, submerged in water, in the form of a boar, we may refer to the similar description found in the Su ^ la-    yajur-Veda  ,2 (B) The Conception Of Niranjana—a replica of Prajapati Brahma In the next place we find that the Suprenrte Being in his state of the Absolute is not the creator of the universe. He  produced Dharma or Niranjana, from whom proceeded the universe, and all the vernacular poets are unanimous on the  point. This idea also has its origin in the Vedic and the Upanisadic literature. The absolute reality in its unqualified qualitiless form is not the creator of the universe, for the Absolute is neither the Ens, nor the non>Ens,—neither existent, nor non-existent. The creator of the universe is, however, Prajapati, or Brahma or the Vi£va-karma as he has' variously been conceived in the Vedic and Upanisadic literature. This Prajapati or Brahma* though often described as the most supreme of all the gods, the god of the gods, is never the same as the Absolute Brahman, In the Vedic • (5.5 6.4), (5.5. 7.5). 3 (7 7. 1.5). literature we find that the vast universal process could not  be explained with reference to the well-known gods; there was, therefore, naturally the tendency to conceive of a greater god, who represents no particular aspect or force of nature, but an unified conception representing- something like the totality of the forces acting behind the universal  process. He is the  Hiranya-garbha  —the first radiant manifestation of the Supreme Un manifest,—as tjie per sonification of the creative impulse and the creative force of the Unmanifest. It is said in the  Rg-Veda  (10.121) that the  Hiranya-garbha  arose in the beginning; he was the lord of all the existent; he was the lord of the earth and the sky and he vested all creatures with life and breath; the gods do not dare disobey him, he is the god of„ the gods. In the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the Upanisads we find ample references to this Prajapati Brahma, also spoken of as the  Hiranya-garbha,  who was the first created,—the first being,— the first born of all the gods. In the Brahmanas and the Upanisads we always find Prajapati Brahma performing  penance for the purpose of creation. Sometimes it is said that Brahma was born in the primordial water. The epithet  Hiranya-garbha,  applied to Brahma, points to the fact that he was born of a golden egg supposed to have been formed out of the seed deposited in the water when they were produced as the first creation of the Supreme Lord. In the Satapatha-brahmana  (XI. 1, 6. 1-11) we find that Prajapati was born of a golden egg, which was  produced by primordial water through penance. Thus it is said,—“In the beginning there existed here nothing but water, a sea of water. These water desired to propagate their kind. They tortured themselves, they mortified themselves. And when they had mortified themselves a golden egg originated in them. The year did not yet exist at that time; but as long as the duration of a year, this golden egg swam about. After a year a man arose out of it ; that 48—Ml IB COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 377 378 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS was Prajapati.” 1 In the Chandogya-upanisat   it is said that in the beginning was the  A sat ;  from the  A sat   there was the Sat   and from the Sat   originated an egg. After one year the egg split up into two and from the golden portion was created the region above and from the silver portion the earth  below.2We find somewhat detailed description of this  Hiranya-garbha  Brahma also in the  Manu-samhtta.  There it is said that once this universe was shrouded in darkness and everything was imperceptible, indistinct—beyond all under standing and all kinds of intellectual comprehension—as if in deep sleep. Then the Self-existent Unmanifest Lord, with an impulse towards creation, manifested Himself in His radiant form, and that Incomprehensible All-pervading One created Himself in,a form. With a view to create various kinds of beings from His own body He first created water and deposited His seed in it. The seed in the water trans formed itself into a resplendent egg, from which was born' Brahma, the grand-father of all the worlds ( saroa-loka -  pitamaha).  The first person, created by the unmanifest cause-potency, which is eternal and is of the nature of both Ens and non-Ens, is called Brahma.9Brahma lived in that egg for full one year and after that broke it into two parts through the force of meditation; with the upper part of the egg he made heaven and with the lower part he made the earth, and in between the two regions was created the sky and the eight quarters, et£. Then follows the creation from Brahma, which of course, was in the line of the Samkhya cosmology.4In the vernaculars we find occasional references to this egg; and from what is discussed above about the nature and function of Prajapati Brahma, it will be very clear  1  A History of Indian Literature,  by Winternitz, p 223. 2 Chandogya  —(3.19) 3  yat tat karanam avyaktam nityam sad-asad-atmakam  I tad-visntah aa puruso  /ofee brahm'eti  feTrtyafe I  Manu-samhitat   (1.11). * Vide Manu*aamhitap Chapter I. COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 379 to see that the conception of Nirafijana, as we find variously described in the vernacular literatures, is nothing but a very  popular representation of   the older conception of Prajapati Brahma. We think, it will not be far wide of the mark to recall in this connection the Vedantic conception of the two aspects of the ultimate reality or the Brahman, the unqualified inactive absolute aspect, which can only be negatively described; the other aspect is the qualified active aspect which has been described as the  Hoar a.  The Absolute is in no way related to this illusory world; it is the  Hvara,  as associated with  Maya  (nescience), that is responsible for the creation of this illusory world. (C) The Primordial Goddess # The next point to notice is that lord Niranjana, who  personified the creative impulse of the Absolute, desired to create the universe and from the desire emanated the primor dial goddess, who is called Adya or Adya-Sakti or Prakrti or simply the Devi. This also is a very well-known theory absorbing in it many traditions derived from various sources. Already in the  Brhad-aranyakppanisat   we find that in the  beginning was the  Atman  and it became self-conscious and from its self-consciousness proceeded ‘Egohood’—( aham - namabhavat).  It never enjoyed, and as it was not possible to enjoy all alone it longed for a companion ; it then divided its own self into two as the male and the female, or as the husband and the wife, and from their union proceeded the creation. In another place of the same text we find that the  Atman  was alone in the beginning. Desir- !^thuna.m°r. «  Ibid   (1.4.17). 380 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS conceived in the Upanisads. Here (in the  Brhad-aranyaka),   for instance, the mind is said to be the self ( atma ), speech the wife {vag jay a)  and life (prana)  is the issue. In the Prasno-    panisat   we find that Prajapati, desirous of progeny, had recourse to penance and produced the couple (mithuna)   and the couple consisted of  Rayi  (matter) and Prana  (the vital force),—the Sun is the Prana  and the moon is the  Rayi In the  Bahtircopanisat   (which, however, is undoubtedly a text of much later time) it is said that in the beginning was the Goddess (Devi); she created the egg of the world,—and from her were born the gods like Brahma, Visnu and Siva. Though, however, the theory of the female counterpart of the original Lord in connection with cosmogony may be traced back even to the days of the Upanisads, this idea, as found in the Paranic literature as also in the vernacular litera ture, seems to have been influenced more by popular Samkhya ideas. Notwithstanding the controversies of the . philosophers as to the exact nature of Purusa and Prakrti and the exact relation between them, the general view is that the  _ , , „ ,, whole creation proceeds from Prakrti (or  Prakjti ol Ssmkhya. . . * the primordial cosmic substance) in contact with Purusa, who is the unchanging principle of pure consciousness. Though some schools of Samkhya hold that creation proceeds from the spontaneous disturbance in the equilibrium of the three qualities in Prakrti, the more general view is that the creative impulse is supplied to Prakrti by Purusa through his contact just as active power is supplied to inactive iron by magnet through its contact ( sannidhya ). Through the association or the contact of Purusa with Prakrti the character of the one is infused in the other and the creative process follows as a result of the  process of infusion. From this philosophical idea of the association of Purusa and Prakrti and the infusion of the 1 Prainopanifat,  (I. 4-5), COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 381 character of the one into the other in the process of creation has followed the popular tendency to conceive of Purusa as the male and of Prakrti as the female and of their contact as their union, through which proceeds the visible world.. It may be remarked that philosophers also have sometimes taken the analogy of the male and the female in explaining the nature of and the relation between Purusa and Prakrti. The cosmic process, however, proceeds from Prakrti. Prakrti is constituted by nature of three qualities (guna), viz.,   sattVa or   the intelligence-stuff, rajas  or energy and tamas or inertia. So long as there is the equilibrium of the three gunas in Prakrti there is no cosmic process;—the cosmic  process follows from the disturbance in the nature of Prakrti. From the disturbance in Prakrti first follows the principle of  Mahat   or  Buddhi , which is “the last limit up to which the subjective and the objective can be assimilated as one indistinguishable point which is neither the one nor the other,  but which is the sources of them.”1From  Mahat   follows the  principle of ‘egohood’ ( ahankara ), which in its turn generates the eleven senses oh the one hand and the five TanmatrQs   (i.e.,  the five potentials of the five gross elements) on the other. From these five Tanmatras  again follow the five gross elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether. These principles of Purusa, Prakrti,  Mahat, Ahankara,  the eleven senses, the five TanmStras  and the five gross elements taken together constitute the twenty-five TattVas or   principles of Samkhya metaphysics. The Gita,  the most popular religio-philosophical literature of India, echoes the Samkhya view of cosmology in a rather  popular and synthetic way. There we find the idea of the Absolute (which is known as the Purusottama),  which approximates the unqualified Brahman of the Vedanta;2but in the active and .qualified aspect (i.e.,  as the  BhagaVan)  He 1 The Study of Patafijali , by Dr. S. N. Das Gupta, p. 51. * Vide  Gita, (15. 16.18). 382 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS causes Prakrti to bear the whole universe.1Purusa and  Prakrti are frequently called in the Gita  as Kfet» and KietrajKa. the Ksetrajrta  (literally, the knower of the field) and the Ksetra  (the field), and everything, whatsoever, is created through the union of the KsetrajHa  and the Ksetra.2 -Purusa and Prakrti are conceived here just as the original male and the female or the father and the mother.8This idea of Purusa and Prakrti as the primordial male and the female (or the father and the mother) is to be found in almost all religious systems and literature of India. The same idea of the god and the goddess is to be met with in tKe Vaisnava literature, in the Saiva literature and in the Tantras. In the Puranic literature we find but a hotch-potch of the Upanisadic and Samkhya ideas with further modification and innovation. Here we generally find a glimpse of the Upanisadic idea of the Absolute and then  Admixture of the ,  r  .. . - , , . ... Upanisadic and the the hrst manifestation or the Unmaniiest in Samkhya accounts in ,i  r r .  i .1 the Purinas. the rorm or an active personal god with or  without the legend of the egg associated with his origin. Then follows Prakrti from the creative impulse of the Lord as his Sakti (power), and through this introduction of Prakrti. the Samkhya theory becomes inter woven with the ancient legends. The Samkhya theory generally ends with the origination of the gross matter; for  t the propagation of the human race these Puranas generally follow the accounts given in the  Manu-samhita.  On some 1 maya dhyak?ena prakftih suyate sacaracaram  I hetunanena k.atmteya jagad viparivartate  I Gita  (9.10). 2  y&vat sanjayate kincit sattvam sthavara-jangamam    j ksetra-ktetrajfia-samyogat tad viddhi bharatarjabha  I)  Ibid,   (13.27) 3 Cf. mama yonir mahad brahma tasmin garbbham Aadhatnyaham  I sambhavah sarva-bhutanarp tato bhaVati bharata  II »arva~yoni$u kflunteya murtayah sambhavanti y&h  I tasSrp brahma mahad-yonir aham blja-pradah pits  II COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES M3 of the accounts the Tantric line of thoughts (which we shall  presently discuss) had palpable influence.1 The Samkhya idea of Purusa and Prakrti was inherited by the vernaculars through the medium of the Puranas in a more anomalous form. The primordial goddess, originating from the sweat, or the smile of lord Dharma (or Nirafijana, or the Adi-deva) has frequently been styled as Prakrti,2and the idea of Prakrti brought with it the ideas of the gunas,  which were transformed and personified as the triad. We have , , seen that through the union of lord  Ihe triad—per* iini* Bonification of the  Niranjana ana the Prakrti (who is depicted  three gunas  of Prakrti. . . r . x . « as a very beautnul woman) were produced three sons, Brahma, Visnu and Siva of the nature of the three gunas, viz., sattva, rajas  and tamas ; and these three sons were then entrusted with the charge* of the creation of the world. This, however, represents the general and popular Samkhya view of the contact of Purusa with Prakrti and the creation of the world through the activities of the three qualities of Prakrti. We have seen that according to the version given in the  Dharmayana  of Narasimha Vasu the son  born to Prakrti by Niranjana was  Mahat,  and from  Mahat    originated  Ahatpkara  and the three gunas.  In the version, found in the Candt-mangala  of  j Mukunda-rama also we find that through the infusion of the energy of the Lord in Prakrti a son of the name of  Mahat   was born to them, the son of  Mahat   was  Ahamkara,  who again had five sons who represent the five gross elements. 1For specimens of discussions on cosmogony and cosmology in the PurSnic and such other popular literatures see  Bhagavata-purana,   (3.5. 23-38) ; Garuda -  purana (PurVa-khanda,   Ch. IV);  Padma-purana (Srsfi khan4a,   Ch. II);  Padma-purana   (Kriya-yoga-sara,   Ch. II);  Brahma-Vaivarta-purana {Brahma-khanda,   Ch. Ill); Siva-    purana (  Jfiana-sarphita  ,  Chs. V  and    VI) ; Sanat-kumara-saiphitS,   Ch. Ill, Vayavtya-    samhita,   Ch. VHI»;  Khila-harivamia   (Ch. I, verses 21 et seq.); DeVt-purSna,   (Ch. AXlXt. etc., 9  It should be noted in this connection that the word Prakrti in classical Sanskrit literature as well as in the Puranic literature became frankly synonymous with the word Sakti or Adi-devI, the primordial goddess. 384 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS It is to be noted that the primordial goddess had emanated from the Lord. The Lord and the goddess have then been conceived in the vernaculars as the Adi-deva and the Adi-devl. Sometimes they have been conceived as the Adi and the Anadi; the Lord is the beginningless eternal One *, while the Goddess, emanating from the body of the Lord, is the produced one. The creation, however, proceeds from the Adi-devl, and the Adi-deva returns to his meditation after the goddess has been created. In this theory of the Adi-deva and the Adi-devl the vernaculars seem to have been more influenced by the Saiva and Sakta ideas (as they are found in the Saiva and Sakta texts and in the Tantras in general) than by the Samkhya theory of Purusa and Prakrti. We have already pointed out that though The conceptions of i r-% 1  n i »• £ the Adi-deva and the in a popular way rurusa and rrakrti ot the fut™eandftWn«p‘ Samkhya system have somehow been in°the°fTantrard S5kti related together in the process of cosmic evolution, metaphysically they are two distinct and self-sufficient realities and it is because of the distinct nature of Purusa and Prakrti that various contro versies have arisen as to the exact nature of the relation. In the Tantras and other Saiva and Sakta literatures the primordial god and the primordial goddess, or Siva and Sakti, as they are commonly called, are not two distinct ultimate realities; they represent two aspects of the absolute reality and sometimes Sakti is conceived as contained in Siva as his kinetic energy. The absolute truth is a union of Siva and Sakti. Siva represents pure consciousness which is inactive— the static aspect of the ultimate reality;—while Sakti represents the world-force—the dynamic aspect of the ultimate reality; Siva is  ,Nivrtti  (state of rest) and Sakti is Praortti  (the state of activity) and in the ultimate state they remain in a union of oneness. This is the. principle of non-duality ( advaya)  which is explained in the Tantric texts under the imagery of  maithuna   (conjugal intercourse) or  COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 385 Kama-alct   (as it is called in the texts Kama-^a/d-ur/asa,  DeVt-upanisat   and such other texts).1In the Kdma-ald^   Vilasa  we find that Siva or Mahesa is pure illumination (prakaia-matra-tanu)  or the abstract self-shining thought with all the principles of activity contracted within it {antar-hn**   Vimarsah ); Sakti is the principle of activity or the inherent activity of thought (vimarsa or lyriya-sakti)  and she contains in her the seed of the future worlds (bhavi-caracara-bljam ). Siva, however, realises himself through Sakti, and, therefore, it is said that Sakti is the clear looking-glass in which the form and beauty of Siva is reflected. The philosophical im  plication is that pure abstract thought cannot realise its own nature unless it comes back to itself through its own activity, and when thus it returns to itself through dimarsa,  it becomes ‘egohood ’ or ahamdra , which is called the mass produced through the union of Siva and Sakti ’ ’ ( siva-sakti-mithuna -  pinda ).2In the gross sense this Siva is the white-matter ( sita-bindu)  or seed or semen, while Sakti is the red-matter ( sona-bindu ), and I-ness or egohood is the son born to them. This conception of Siva and Sakti has also been interpreted as matter and energy, which are the two essential component  parts of all entity. In everything that exists there must be two things,—that which exists and the power or energy by virtue of which it exists or acts; this matter that exists is the Siva and the energy of existence is Sakti 8and there is an inseparable relation between them, the one cannot be without the other. Siva without Sakti is absolutely helpless in doing anything whatsoever,—he himself cannot even vibrate without the help of Sakti.4It is Sakti who creates the 1 Vide supra , p. 33. 2 Kama-kala-Vilasa  (Kasmir Series of Texts and Studies, No. XII), Verse"No. 5. 3 yasya yasya padarthasya ya ya iakjtir udirita.  I sa tu dbrVe&Vari devI sa tu sarvo maheSvarah   II  —  Vamakc&vara-tantra,  (7/31). 4 iivah iaktya yukfo yadi bhaVati Saktah prabhavitum  na ced eVam devo na khalu kuialah spanditum apt   ||  —Ananda-fohart   or Saundarya-laharl,  I, ascribed to SankarScgrya, 49-141 IB 386 OB&CURE RELIGIOUS CtJLtS universe and preserves it and again destroys it at her own vfili.1It is to be noted that sometimes Siva has been conceived as the absolute, Sakti with the seed of all manifestation and creation is contained in the very nature of Siva. Though in many places we find that the one absolute truth divides itself into two aspects as Siva and Sakti and manifests itself in the world-process and realises itself through it, yet in other places we find that Siva manifests his power in the form of Sakti only for the  purpose of self-realisation,—for, the universal abstract thought-principle cannot realise its ownself without the conscious activities in the form of the world-process.2But . whether Sakti be contained in the nature of Siva, or, Siva and Sakti be the two aspects of the absolute reality, Sakti is directly responsible for the creation of the visible world— either as the energy (i.e.,  the world-force), or as the principle of illusion ( maya ) as she is known in the popular Vedantic line of thought. It is because of this that we find in the verna culars that before the actual cosmological process begins the original goddess comes out of the body of the Lord and herself creates the whole universe. The emanation of the Sakti in the form of a woman from the body of the Lord is to be frequently met with in the Puranic and Tantric texts, and there is no doubt that this idea was received by all the vernacular poets through^the Puranas and the Tantras. But Cf  . also sa devt parama devt iivabhinna Sivafikari     iivabhinna taya hinah iivo'pi hi nirarthakah  II Sutasatrihita.  paro hi iakti-rahitah iaktah artum na kiRcana  I &akt<*8 tu parame&ant iaktya yuhto yada bhavet   II Vamake&vara-tantra.  (4-6). 1 &aktth karoti brahmandam sa Vai palayate'khilam  I icchaya aamharatyesa jagad etac car a-car am  II  Detil-bhagaVata. 3 On the nature of and the relation between Siva and Sakti see Tantra - tattva  (in Bengali) by &iva-candra VidySrnava Bhattacarya, Part I, the chapter on the  philosophy of Sakti (Sakti-taiiva)  pp. 225 et *cq. COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 387 the oldest basis of the tradition is to be found in the  Rg-veda   where it is said that the Father became desirous of meeting his own youthful Daughter and had sex-intercourse with her,1Sayana explains the Father as Prajapati and the Daughter as Usa (Dawn). There is an echo of this fact of the Father meeting the Daughter also in the  Aitareya Brahmana,2 Tandya-maha-brahmana8 and the Satapatha-brahmana.i The three gunas  of Prakrti as conceived in the Samkhya system were ascribed to Sakti in the Tantric texts, and we frequently find that the triad, Viz.,  Brahma, Visnu and Siva, who are put in the charge of creation, preservation and destruction, are the three sons of the original Sakti ; and they are of the nature of the three gunas, Viz., sattVa, rajas  and tamas .* In the  Maha-bhagavata  we find that in the beginning the universe was without the sun and the moon; there was neither the day nor the night, nor fire nor the directions,—the whole universe was without touch, sight and sound, etc., and it was  bereft of all the luminaries. At that time there was only Prakrti as the supreme reality. When there was the desire for creation in her, she, though formless, assumed the form of a goddess and at once created a personality with the three gunas  she had within her; but the person ( Purusa ) was without consciousness. She then infused her own creative inpulse in that Purusa and the Purusa thus endowed with power created three personalities of the name of Brahma, Visnu and Siva, who were of the nature of the three gunas.6  The idea of the i (10.61. 5-7). (3.33). » $.2.10). * (1.6.2.I). 5 asmakam &iva-vi§no&ca  icfeftm adyarp para-pardm  I vi&va-ruparp mahadevlrp ivarp yajasva aukhavaham   II  Devl~purSnat   (1.33). Cf.   also r brahmadyah purttfas trayo nija-gunaia tat-avecchaya hfllpit&h  i    MahabhagaVata,   quoted in the Tantra-tattva , Part I, p. 235. tatah aa avecchaya aVtyai rajah-sattva-tamo-gunaih  I sasarja purufarp sadyai caitanya-parivarjitam  II tarn jatarp pumsarp Vtktya sattva-di-tri-gunatmakflm  I tiarkiam atmanaa taamin aamakxSmayad tcchaya  II 388 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Saktis, emanating from the original Sakti and being united  The triad and the t^ie tr‘ac^ f°r the purpose of creation, is three godde*se» asso- also found in these Tantras.1In the Saiva ciated with them and the Sakta Tantras we find that the original Sakti has three qualities in her, viz., lccha (i.e.,  the volitional nature), /nana (i.e., the cognitive nature), and Kriya   (i.e.,  active nature). In the Goraksa-samhita  these lccha,    Jnana  and Kriya  are spoken of as the three goddesses, Viz.,   Gauri, Brahmi  and Vaisnavi,  who are contained in the nature of Pranava .2   Again it is said in this connection that with the three component parts of Pranava (i.e., a, u,  and m)   are associated the three gunas  and the triad.8The triad and the three Saktis being thus associated with the Pranava  could very easily get associated with one another,—and it is for this reason that in the vernacular texts we find the three Saktis, Viz., Gauri  (or  Rudrani), Brahmi  (or  Brahmani)  and Vaisnavi   (who represent respectively the three aspects of the original Sakti, viz., lccha, Jnana  and Kriya)  are generally associated with the triad Siva, Brahma and Visnu as their female counterparts. There is also reference to the penance of the triad to propitiate the original Sakti,4and also to the fact that by his austere penances Sambhu could obtain the goddess as his wife ;6and we think that these traditions with much poetic innovations, additions and alterations tatah sa Saktiman sratfa purusatrayam guna-trayailf   I trayo babhuvuh purusa brahm&visnuMvahvayah   II  MahabhSgavata  Ch. I, verses 51-53. (Quoted in the Tantra-tattVa). 1 Cj. Ibid,  Ch. I. verses 55-56; Ch. II, verse 23, 2 iccha-jnHfia-kriya iaktir gauri brahrriiti vaisnavi  I tridha-iaktib sthita yata tat-param jyotir omiti   II Gorakta-sarphita,  (5.3). 3  Ibid, (5. 4). 4  yam aradhya virificir asya jagatah srasfa harih palakah   I   samharta giriiah svayam samabhavad dhyeya ca ya yogibhih   II  Maha-bhagaVata,   ( 1 . 1 ). 5  ya svecchayS*sya jagatah pravidhsya sr^rji   samprapya janma ca tatha patim apa iambhum  I ugrais tapobhir api yam samavapya patrum iambhuh padarp hrdi dadhe paripatu sa vah   II  Ibid,   ( 1 . 2 ). have found place in the cosmogonical traditions of the vernaculars. The story of the god’s or goddess’s assuming the form of a corpse to test the triad does The story of the . , . 1   1 1   1 , test of the triad. not, however, seem to be very old—but as we have seen, the tradition of the penance of the triad seems to have some older basis behind it,— and it seems that the tradition of the penance of the triad with the mixture of popular poetic imagination has obtained its full-fledged form in the story of .the test of the triad. In the  Brhad-dharma-purSna, 1 however, we find a detailed account of the story of the test of the triad ; but the text has rightly  been suspected by scholais to be of much later origin and as such the story might have been borrowed in its full-fledged form from the accounts given in the vernaculars. (Hi) Buddhist Element in the Accounts of the Cosmogony   and Cosmology of the Vernaculars It will appear from what is discussed above that the accounts of cosmogony and cosmology given in the verna culars are based fundamentally on the Hindu ideas, philoso  phical, theological, mythological and traditional. Yet we should notice that the later Buddhistic ideas of cosmogony and cosmology have also got mixed up with the Hindu ideas and legends in the accounts given in the vernaculars. But we beg to remind that the popular Buddhistic cosmogonical ideas, found mainly in the Buddhist Tantras and in the  Nepalese Buddhistic traditions, are nothing but popular adoption of various Hindu ideas under a Buddhistic garb. In the whole field of Mahayanic thought we find an inherent tendency of compromise with the Hindu thoughts and ideas,—the ideas of cosmogony and cosmology also seem to have evolved gradually on the Hindu line. COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 389 1Edited by H. P. jSastrT, Bibliotheca Indies, New Series, No. 668. 390 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS ,We have seen that in Vijnana-vada Buddhism Sunyata was conceived as something like the ultimate substance or the primordial element, from which evolves the visible world. This idea of Sunyata, we have said before, was inherited by the later vernacular poets, mordial s'unyats. P" not as any philosophical concept, but merely as a popular idea floating in the air. It is therefore that we see in the descriptions of the vernaculars that the primordial divinity, who is responsible for the creation of the universe, was himself void by nature. He was moving in the void and the Lord of the void created the universe out of the great ’void. Again we have seen 1 that the conception of Dharma as described in the vernaculars reminds one at some places of the Mahayanic conception of  the Dharma-kaya of Buddha which is the Dharma-feiya—the ‘ thatness ’ underlying all phenomena. cosmic oneness. ^ ^ Dharma-kaya is the cosmic oneness from which proceeds the diversity of the cosmic process. In the descriptions of the vernaculars we find that the cosmic  process emanates from Dharma. In this idea also some influence of the Mahayanic conception of Dharma-kaya with all its cosmological implications may plausibly be postulated. From the mythological point of view we find it described  in the Karanda-vyuha   that being desirous of creating the universe the original lord (Adi-buddha) first created the . . . Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara; from the eyes Mythological account of cosmology in the of Avalokitesvara originated the sun and Karanda vyuha.   m0on, Mahesvara from his forehead  Brahma and others from the two shoulders, Narayana from his heart, Sarasvati from the teeth, air from the mouth, the earth from the feet, Varuna from his udder; from among all these gods Avalokitesvara selected Mahelvara, whom he predicted to be the creator in' the age of Kali 1Vide supra »Ch XI. COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 391 under the name of the Adi-deva.1It is needless to say that mythological accounts of this type have nothing Buddhistic in them in the fundamental natures The Buddhistic influence on the cosmogony and cosmo logy of the vernaculars is, however, considerably palpable in the conception of the Adi-deva and the Adi-devl, with whom the later Buddhistic conceptions of the Adi-buddha and the Adi-deva or the Adi-prajna or simply Prajna has got mixed up. We have seen before that this Adi-buddha and the Adi-prajnS are nothing but the transformation of the Mahayanic idea of Sunyata and Karuna in the image of Prakrti and Purusa or Sakti and Siva.2To understand the cosmological significance of the conception of the Adi-deva and the Adi-devl, we should, therefore, discuss the cosmo logical significance of Sunyata and Karuna as it is explained in the Buddhist Tantric texts. We have seen that in later Mahayana texts, we mean the Buddhist Tantras, Bodhicitta was conceived of as the highest reality of the nature of the ultimate substance from which everything originates. This absolute ultimate substance have two elements in it, Sunyata and Karuna, or Prajna and Upaya. Cosmologically Prajna is pure consciousness and  perfect enlightenment, and is the principle of pure passivity; Upaya is the world-force,—it is the dynamic principle, through the activities of which the phenomenal world comes into existence. The metaphysical implication is that Sunyata as perfect enlightenment or pure consciousness is purely inactive; it is the principle of universal compassion that disturbs her and causes waves of mentation in that pure consciousness and these waves of mentation are fundamentally responsible for the existence of the phenomenal world. This  principle of Upaya as the dynamic force behind the 1  Karanda-vyuha  (printed in 1873 in Calcutta by Satyavrata SSmaSrami in a series of Jaina works), pp. 14-15. *2 Supra , pp. 29 et seq, 392 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS evolution of the world-process is a means, it is held, for leading all sentient beings to the ultimate goal of perfect  purification and liberation; and the idea here seems to be akin to the popular Saipkhya view that the activities of   _ , . , . Prakrti are finally aimed at the liberation of  Cosmological impli- * * cations of Prajiis and Purusa. It is clear to see, that this cos- UpSya. mological and ontological significance of Prajna and Upaya are exactly the same as that of Siva and Sakti, and, as we have already noticed, the only difference is that pure consciousness, which is absolutely’passive by nature and represents the negative aspect of the reality, is conceived as the Lord in the Hindu schools, and it is conceived as the goddess in Buddhism; and whereas the active or the positive element is the goddess according to the Hindu view, it is the Lord according to the Buddhist view. But notwithstanding this difference in notion, Prajna and Upaya have throughout  been drawn in the image of Siva and Sakti. As in the Hindu Tantras Siva and Sakti are conceived of sometimes as constituting the two aspects of one absolute reality,—but sometimes again Siva is in many places depicted as the absolute reality, Sakti being included in his nature;—so also is the case with Prajna and Upaya,—sometimes they are explained as two aspects of the one reality, and sometimes, Prajna being the absolute reality, Upaya is said to be included in her nature. But in either case the relation between the two is inseparable as is in the case of Siva and Sakti. These conceptions of Prajna and Upaya have important ontological and cosmological bearing on the four schools of  Nepalese Buddhism.1The Svabhavika school holds that there is no immaterial ultimate truth in the form of the soul substance; matter is the primordial substance, from which the world proceeds. This matter as the ultimate substance 1 The four schools are :—(i) SvSbhfivika, (if) AiSvarika, {iii)  Karmika and (it?) Ystnika. COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 393 has two modes which are called Pravrtti  and  Nivrtti,  action and rest, dynamic and static, concrete  Nepaf^^uddhHm!" and abstract. Matter is eternal as a crude mass (however infinitely attenuated in  Nivrtti)  and so are the powers of matter-. The proper state of existence of these powers is the state of  Nivrtti  or rest as the abstraction from all phenomena. When these  powers pass from the state of rest into their causal and transitory state of activity the phenomenal world comes into existence, and it again ceases to exist when the powers repass from Pravrtti  to  Nivrtti.  This  Nivrtti  is the Prajna1and Pravrtti   is the Upaya. We have seen that Prajna and Upaya are deified as the Adi-prajna and the Adi-buddha, and the visible world is said to be created through their union. Buddha as the principle of active power first proceeds from  Nivrtti  or Adi-prajna and then associates with her and from their union  proceeds the actual visible world. The principle is symbolised as Prajna being first the mother and then the wife of the Buddha. The well-known triad—Buddha, Dharma and Sangha—has often been explained, as we have seen, as Upaya (Buddha), Prajna (Dharma) and the world (Sangha) produced through the union. In some of the Nepalese schools of Buddhism Prajna as Dharma is given the highest prominence in the scheme of the triad and Buddha emanates from Prajna. In some of the Hindu Tantras also we find that the godde83 has been given more prominence than the Lord, the former being conceived as the first principle. In some  places, it has been pointed out, the primordial Lord is seen floating in water. What is this water? It is, according to some of the Tantras, Sakti, who is pervading the whole universe in the form of water. This belief influenced the  Nepalese Buddhists also, who have often conceived of Adi- K Vide Illustration* of the Literature, etc.,  by Hodgson, p. 149,   50—141JB 394 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  prajna in the form of primordial water.1 This Adi-buddha and Adi-prajna or Adi-devl are the original father and mother of the world.2In the Svayambhu-purana  Prajna is described as the Sakti of Siva, as the mother of the three worlds, the void of the voids—the mother of the Buddhas,—the mother of all the gods.8Again, all female creatures are said to be the incarnations of Prajna while all males are the incarnations of Buddha (Upaya).  Again the Lord symbolises the generative  power while the lady symbolises the productive power. The Lord is the seed (bindu)  and the lady is the ovum (rajas ),— and from their union proceeds the Bodhicitta, from which everything is born. The Adi-prajna or the Adi-sakti is also spoken of as of the triangular form (tri-ona}^ara,  which is the symbol of the productive power) as she is described in the Hindu Tantras also. From the above it will be clear that, in the conception of the Adi-deva and the Adi-devl of the vernaculars (or of the Adi and the Anadi as we find in the Nath literature), we find a popular mixture of Purusa and Prakrti of the Samkhya system, of Siva and Sakti as we find in Tantricism in general, and the Adi-buddha and the Adi-prajna of the different schools of later Buddhism. It may cursorily be noticed that in the Taoism of China we find a similar  * conception of cosmogony, where it is held that the universe  proceeds from the primordial parents Tao and Tai or rather from the original male and {he female,  yang  and  yin. 1 Cf. prajna jalamaya-kara   I prajiia strl-lingatvat drava-rupa tato jala-hara   II Dharma-kPia-aarpgraha,   MS. p. 5 (B). 2   Devendra-pariprccha-tantra  , quoted in the Subha$ita-satfigraha, p. 76   (MS).  Jt is interesting to note how PrajfiS and UpSya have sometimes been saluted as the mother and the father of the world just in the manner and even in the language in which poet K&lidasa has saluted Pirvatl and Mahesvara in the first verse of the first canto of the  Raghu-vatpia, vagarthaviva samprkiau jyotsna-candramasaviva   I    jagatam pitaravadyau prajno-payav-upasmahe   II  Dharma-ko§a-Batjigraha  ,  MS. p. 10 (B). 3 Svayambhu-purana,  edited by H. P. SfistrT (Bibliotheca Indica), pp. 179-180. (io) Similarity of the Descriptions of the Vernaculars   with those of other Literatures. The cosmogonical and cosmological descriptions found in other parts of the world offer points of similarity with the descriptions given above. The Voluspa,  which supplies us with cosmogonic account of the Scandinavian branch of the Teutons, begins as follows :—  " There was, in times of old, where Ymir dwelt, nor land nor sea, nor gelid waves; ' earth existed not, nor heaven above; there was a chaotic chasm, and verdure nowhere.” 1 Some Babylonian descriptions also begin in a similar manner; thus :—  “ When above unnamed was the heaven, (And) earth below by a name was uncalled, Apsu (the deep) in the beginning (ristu) being their together, (And) the flood (Mammu) of Tiamat the mother of them all, Their waters were embosomed together (in one place), But no reed had been harvested, no marsh-plant seen; At that time the gods had not appeared, any ’one (of them) By no name were they called, no destiny (was fixed).*’2 1 Hasling's  Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.  (The article on Cosmo* gony and Cosmology.) 3  Ibid  , p. 129, Cf.  also s- “ No holy house, no house of the gods in a holy place has yet been built, No reed had grown, no tree been planted, No bricks been made, no brick-mould formed, No house been built, no city founded, No city built, no man (adam) made to stand upright, The deep was uncreated, Eridu unbuilt, The seat of its holy house, the house of the gods, uncreated.  All the earth was sea,  While within the sea was a current.1* etc*  Ibid.,  p. 129, COSMOGONICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES 395 m OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS The belief that water was the primordial element is found in many countries. Thus according to the Babylonians “the  primal element of the universe was water, symbolised and ruled by Tiamat, the personification of ‘Chaos,’ until she was slain by the god Marduk.” This conception of the cosmic ocean is found in some Greek and Egyptian accounts also. The tradition of the well-known cosmic-egg is also found in other countries; thus ‘at Eliphantine (of Egypt) it was believed that Khnum had made the cosmic egg from the mud of the Nile.’1 1 Ha8ting’s  Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics,  p. 116. APPENDICES APPENDIX (A) T he  R  eligious  T enets   of    the  N on -B engali  M ediaeval   S aints   in  R  elation   to   the  E arlier   B engali  S ahajiyas We have pointed out on several occasions that most of the mediaeval saints who gave vent to their religious emotions through the medium of the different vernaculars were Sahajiyas in a general sense. We have also hinted that in the religious tenets as well as in the literary representation of the mediaeval saints the form and spirit of Safi-istic literature acted strongly against the Sahajiya background. We have seen how in the case of the Bauls the spirit of Sufi-ism acted on the spirit of the Sahajiyas and other devotional schools. In point of time some of the Saint-poets of upper, central and northern India flourished earlier than the Bauls of Bengal, and many of them were contemporary with, if not earlier than the Vaisnava Sahajiyas of Bengal. When, therefore, we speak of the Sahajiya background of these non-Bengali mediaeval poets, we mean the Buddhist Sahajiyi movement in particular. A study of the poems of these mediaeval poets, particularly of the poems of Kablr, decidedly the most prominent figure of the middle age, will reveal that there is a clear line of    continuity from the Buddhist Sahajiya poets to the mediaeval  poets. But the difference between the earlier school and the mediaeval schools lies in the element of love and devotion, which is conspicuous by its absence in the Buddhist Sahajiyi school. This element of love and devotion was supplied  profusely to the mediaeval schools by the different devotional movements as well as by Sufi-ism. Though devotion may be recognised to be one of the characteristics of later Mahayanic Buddhism, it is not so in the case of the Buddhist Sahajiyi 400 „ OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS cult, which was pre-eminently an esoteric yogic school. But inspite of this difference the general similarity in spirit, in literary form and sometimes even in language, is indeed striking. Let us now demonstrate our contention point by  point. As, however, we are not attempting here any comprehensive study of the religion §nd literature of these mediaeval Saint-poets, but dealing with them in relation to the Bengali literature, only those points will be touched that directly concern our early and mediaeval literature. (i) The Spirit of Revolt and Criticism We have seen how heterodoxy—a spirit of revolt and criticism—characterises the religion and literature of the Buddhist Sahajiyas. We have seen that the same spirit of heterodoxy characterises the religion and literature also of the Sufis. This spirit may be recognised as a salient feature of the mediaeval Saint-poets as a whole. In connection with the analysis of the different lines of heterodoxy in the religious history of India we pointed out that elements of love and devotion have often inspired heterodoxy in the religious schools and that these elements of love and devotion influenced the revolutionary spirit of the mediaeval saints to a great extent.1To begin with, we may consider the religious views of Kabir as expressed in his poems, songs and couplets- At least one-third of the literature of Kabir (which is fairly large) is devoted* to criticism against the orthodox Hindus and Muslims. As a religious apostle Kabir was neither a Hindu nor a Muslim and criticised both the com munities unreservedly. He says,—“The Hindus have died  by worshipping the gods and the Turks have died by going on pilgrimage ; the yogins have died by matting hair,—none of them have got at the truth.” 2Against caste system 1 Vide supra , Ch. III. 2   Kabtr-granthaoali . Ed. by SySm-sundar-dls, Nsgarl-praclrin! Grantha* msli. No. 33, p. 195. APPENDIX ( a ) 401 Kabir says,—“ If thou thinkest, penalties for deeds,—born a Sudra, you die a Sudra,—it is only in the world of illusion that you assume the sacred thread. If birth from Brahmin mother makes you Brahmin, why did you not come by another way? If birth from a Turk mother makes you Turk, why were you not circumcised in the womb ? If you milk black and yellow cows together, will you be able to distinguish their milk ? ”1Against metaphysi cal erudition and the recital of the sacred scriptures the criticism of Kablr whs equally strong. He says that people read the four Vedas, but none makes any enquiry about the Lord ; the truth has teen discovered by Kablr, and the Pundits are searching the field in vain.2The world is dying of reading books,—yet none have beconjp the real Pundit,— if a single letter of the Dear One be learnt, a man becomes a really learned one.!! Again it is said   ,—“  O brother, thou art misled believing in the six Darshanas; wrapped in the garb of Pakhanda. They came and destroyed the soul and life; the four Vedas are wise and clever, but dumb. The Jainis know not the mystery of Dharma : they pluck leaves and come to God’s temple The divine knowledge is outside this way: though it seems near, yet it is far off. To him who knows it is near, for all beings it pervades.” 4 1   The Bijak of Kabir   by Ahmad Shah, Ramainls,   No. 62. 2 Kabir-granthaValt/p.  36 8 lbfd,   p. 39. 4 The Bijak. of Kabir. Hamaims , No. 30. Cf,   also: — “The Smriti made known three qualities: and the pathf* of sin and meiit were   laid down. From reading Ihe Smriti and the Vedas disputings arose: conceit is prac tised in thf* garb of Pakhanda. One reads the Vedas and takes honour to himself;   for him knot of doubt is not yet unloosed. He reads the Vedas and then he destroys   lives: and offers their severfcd he/ids to images. Says Kabir, through Pakhanda   they troubled many lives. The inwaid light is not revealed: no one in this life has   seen himself.*’ (Ramaint   No. 31.) *' Some go on pilgrimage, some have thehr heads ; others make discourse on Pakhandas, illusion and mantras. Reading the   sciences and the Vedas they are swollen with pride, at the end they fill their mouth   with ashes.’* (Sabdas,   No. 21.) 51-14118 402 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Kabir says that roaming about on pilgrimage and bathing in the sacred rivers are absolutely futile so long as the mind is not purified through the sincere love of the Lord. The world is tired of going on pilgrimage and bathing in sacred, rivers; people settle near the city of Benares and drink transparent water,—but no salvation is there without the name of Hari (the Saviour).1Some go to Muttra, some to Dvaraka, some to Puri to see Jagannatha,—but without the association of the saints, and sincere devotion to the Saviour nothing avails at all.2Nothing avails'in putting on the robe of a yogin or a mendicant or a saint,—that is nothing  but self-delusion ; nothing- can be gained by such hypocrisy. “ There is a roof of falsehood, it spreads over earth and sky. In all ten regions its noose is set: it has beset the soul. Devo tion., sacrifice and rosary, piety, pilgrimage, fastings and alms,—nine Bhaktis, Vedas, the Book, all these are cloaks of falsehood.” 3What is the good of counting beads if the mind is not controlled ?4What •is the good of shaving the head if the superstitions and the desire are not removed from the mind ?5What is the good of becoming a Vaisnava if  1 tirath kari   foirr  jag muva dumghai patpm nhai   I rarpmahi rarpm japarptadam    fea/ ghasityarp jai    II kast komfhaim ghar k^raim pivaim nirmal riir    I muhati nahirp harinarpv bin yaurp hahai das kabir   II Kabtr-granthavali,  p. 37. 2  Ibid  . Sadha Kau Atpg,  p. 49. Cf.  also:— “ What profit is there by bathing if the mind is full of filth? A fish lives ever   in water, yet it never loses its sme^l. The world perished in visiting the tirthas, in   fasting and in bathing in cold water. Through each knowledge of the True Name   death has drowned all the ages. Two go to the tirath,—the mind is restless and the   heart covetous. Not one sin was blotted out, but ten maunds burden more was   loaded. Millions of tiraths visited, millions of temples built; but so long as a Sant   goes unserved, all works are fruitless/* (The Bijak of Kabir  , pp. 21-22.) 3 The Bijak of  Kabir . Sabdas,   No. 113, pp. 148-149. 4 kar pakarairp arpguri ginairp man dhavai cakurp cor   I  j&hi phirarpydm hari milai  sq bhaya k&ft  1 kj ihaur   II msla paharai man~mufi tSthairp kochu na hoi  I man maid kourp pheratarp jug ujiydrS soi  ||  Kabtr-granthaoah, Bhesa Kau Arpg,   p, 45, &  keaorp kaha bigadiya je mumdai aat i  bar  I  man kwrp   fcfi/ie na  murndie jamairp bisai bil^ar   II  Ibid  , p. 46. APPENDIX ( a ) 40$ true discriminative knowledge is not acquired,—the paintings and the frontal marks are only to deceive people. Everyone is engaged in practices of physical yoga, none is after the union of the mind (with God).J It will be seen from the above and host of such other criticisms made by Kabir that the tone of Kabir is harmoniously tuned with that of the earlier Sahajiyas. The resemblance is not only in spirit, but often also in language and imagery. Like Saraha-pada2Kabir also says,—“ What are the naked,—whfat are the mendicants with skins, if they do not know the true nature of the self ? If one becomes a yogin by roaming about naked, why should not the deer of the forest be liberated ? If perfection can be attained by shaving head, why should not the sheep „enter heaven ? . . . . Says Kabir, hear O brother,—none have attained salvation without the name of Rama.8The Pundits know the Agamas, all sciences and grammars,—Tantra, Mantra and Medicine they know,—yet they die at the end. The yogins, the ascetics, the observers of penances and the Sannyasins wander about in many a sacred place; those, who are with their hair plucked out, with shaven heads, the silent ones and those with plaited hair—all these die at the end. They have pondered much and given serious consideration to the  problems of the world,—but in no way will they be spared. Says Kabir, take refuge in the Lord and birth and death 1 Kablr-granthSvalt,  p. 46, 2 Vide supra,  Ch. III. 3 ka narpgetp barpdhe camm  I  jau nahim cinhasi alam-ramm  II nagem phiretp jog je hoi  I ban k<* rnrga mukati gaya  fcoi II murpd murpdayairp jau sidhi hot   I sVarga hi bhed na pahumtl  II * * » « kahai kflbir sunahu re bhai  I ramm narpm bin  fo’n tiddhi pai  II  Kabtr-granthavafi, Padavati  No. 132. 404 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS will be stopped.1“ If by worshipping stones one can find God, 1shall worship a mountain. If by immersion in the water salvation be obtained, the frogs bathe continually. As the frogs, so are these men, again and again they fall into the womb.”2 The revolutionary lead that was thus given by Kabir in the early middle period of the vernacular literature was vigorously carried out by a host of poets that followed, and the current still flows on. Dadu of the sixteenth century may  be said to have been the worthiest successor of Kablr. He says,—“ The Pundits have bound the world by the net-work of illusion and Karma (various activities); a good preceptor is rarely found, who can show the real path. They speak of the sinful path,, believe in illusion and Karma,—none  points to the perfectly pure One (Niranjana) who is very near to us.”3Worship by love is the real worship,—that is the  best kind of prayer; such love involves no activities whatso ever, neither should there be any fixed time and place for it; throughout the whole life—in all moments we may worship the Lord through our incessant flow of love. Dadu says,— “ For decency’s sake people (the Muslims) fast, invite others for prayer and offer prayer ; the business of Dadu is with the Lord (Sahib), in what path should he walk ? Why this grief, O Dadu,—stand before the Lord every day and every moment, and let your invocation (azan)  be there where the Lord is in His true naturfe.”' The Muslims cut the throat of others and compel them to profess their religion; five times daily do they offer their prayer, but there is no sincere faith 1 Kabir-granthavali PadaVdh  No. 248. 4 * Kabir and the Kabir Panth , by Rev. G. H. Westcott, M.A. For many such   other criticisms of Kablr see pp. 56-70 of the same book. See also the  Nirguna School of Hindi Poetry,  by Dr. P. D. Barthwal, M.A.,   D.Litt., Ch. II. 3 The Anthology of Dadu, collected and edited by Ksitimohan Sen,    Vi6va-bh&ratl-granthalay, Calcutta, p. 216. 4/bid,, p. 273. APPENDIX ( a ) 405 in their heart for truth. They do never kill their ego,—but go to kill others; but Dadu says,—how can one attain Khuda (God) without annihilating the self ? He, who destroys the body and mind and unites with the Lord, and controls himself through the divine realisation, is the teal Awliya Pir (i.e., preceptor of the Muslim Awliya sect).1Like Kabir Dadu also repudiated communalism and sectarianism in the strongest possible words. He says,—“The Hindus say,— ‘mine is the real path.’ The Turks say—‘ mine.’ Say, where the path for the Alekha (Skt. ala^sya  = invisible) may at all be,—He has been realised without a path. Says Dadu, both are mistaken,—both are rustic in their view,—know only that to be the truth which transcends  both. In innumerable sects the Great One has been divided into parts; O Dadu, they have left the perfect Lord and are bound by the complexes of illusion.2The earth and the sky—to what sect do they belong ? Water, air, day and night, the sun and the moon, and others—to what sect do they belong ?8Without belonging to any  particular sect they are serving the Lord incessantly. Pomp and peasantry, erudition and scholasticism can give man no  peace,—vain is the pride of literacy, vain is the glory of scriptural knowledge. “I have composed a few verses,—and a few Sakhls,4and there arises the conviction in me that 1am wise in the world. May be, listening to the discourses on knowledge some Sabdas  and Sahis  are mastered;—and simultaneously arises the conviction that there is no match for me. What is the good of composing verses and reciting Sakhts  if the truth of the Lord,—the ultimate reality—is not 1 Kabir-granthavah,   p. 274. 2 lbid.% pp, 275-276. 3 ye sab hai    /visfee  pamth mem dharit aru asman  I  pant paoan din tatka carpd $ur rahiman  II  Ibid.,   p. 276. See also pp. 387-388. *Sakhls are verses which bear testimony to some truth (from Skt. Sakfi)* 406 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS realised ?” 1“Hear, O Pundits, sons of Brahma {i.e.,  the Brahmins),”—“ Empty is your pot,—and you are not taking cognizance of it; you are talking all about Agama and  Nigama, but in your house there is going on the dance of ghosts (or the five bhutas  or material elements). Merely by reading you will never reach the ultimate state,—by reading you will never cross to the other shore; by reading creatures do not reach the goal;—O Dadu, call Him aloud through the  pangs of your heart. Vain is the knowledge without the name (of the Lord), by explaining the Vedas and the Puranas they only become relieved of the burden on their head. Thoroughly have I pondered pver all that are in the Vedas and the Kuran,—the‘land, where Niranjana is available, is not far off from me. Tired are the Pundits by reading on and on,—but none has crossed ashore; 1do not know why the whole world is running on with faith in ink and paper. How many Vedas and Kurans have perished only staining heaps of paper,—O Dadu, a real saint is he, who has read a single letter of love.”2“They serve pebbles and stone and the quintessence of the self is lost to them. When the invisible Lord is residing within, why should we roam about in other  places ? They wash stone with water which they drink,— the soul worships stone ! The soul thus becomes stone,— and many have sunk down thus. They are gathering pebbles in the skirt and are believing them to be bits of diamond; when at the end Hari, the jeweller, will test them, the whole life will be lost.”3All rites and ceremonies, talking and  preaching appear repulsive without Rama,—vain are all knowledge, yoga and meditation. Wise men there are many,—many are the Pundits, heroes and the bounteous; innumerable are the ways of outward show;—rare is a man who is absorbed in the Lord. All make innumerable outward  1 Kablr-granthaVali,  p. 278, 2 Ibid.,  p. 281. Also see p. 514. 3  Ibid.,  p. 283. show  3  and carry on propaganda and self-advertisement ;—  but Hari is available only through self-abnegation—none  proceeds towards that path.1Great is the difference between a real saint and a hypocrite who makes parade of outward show,—their difference is just as much as the difference  between the earth and the sky. The saint is absorbed in Rama, the hopes of the hypocrite, fond of show, lie all in the outward world. Innumerable are such hypocrites in the world, rare are the saints; diamond is available in far off lands, but  pebbles everywhese.2Through illusion have you got your head shaven,—but this is no yoga (union with God) at all;  but with the ultimate Lord you have no acquaintance;— the hypocrite never succeed. Without love, goodwill and affection, in vain is all toilet ; if the soul be not attached to the Lord, why should he recognise you?. . . O, Dadu, the yogin, the Jamgama (a Saivite ascetic), the Sevada (a Jaina saint), the Buddhist monk and the Muslim mendicant, and the six systems of philosophy—all are outward show of hypocrites without Rama, the Supreme Lord.8Whether you make outward dress, get your body pierced with a saw, or remain with your face upwards, or go on pilgrimage,—the Lord will not be found without truth.4Illusion has thickened within,— yet outwardly they are assuming the air of one who has renounced all,—they put on a cover of thatched cloth and move in a gay mood. They are controlling the body, but the mind moves on all quarters,—they talk of the dear one,—but make nothing but self-advertisement.6 1 ' Kabtr-granthavati,  p. 308. 2  Ibid.,  p. 310. 3  Ibid.,  pp. 311-312. 4 sacu bin safni na milai bhavai bhehh banai  I bhavai karavata uradhamukhi bhavai tirath jdi  II  Ibid.,  p. 313. Sec also the questions and answers (No. 5,  Ibid., p,  587), which are alto found in Kabir with slight alterations. 5  Ibid., p> 337, APPENDIX (A) 407 408 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Sundar-das, the great disciple of Dadu, echoed tbe voice of his preceptor throughout the volumes of his poems. Like Kabir, Dadu and a host of other poets Sundar also criticised severely the orthodox rituals and religious practices of both the Hindus and the Mahomadans.1Sundar says that he has seen the six systems of Hindu Philosophy, he has seen the Sufis and the Sekh,—but none of the sects could satisfy his spiritual demand and it is therefore that he has had recourse to the most natural path.2In the SarVanga-yoga-pradtpika   Sundar criticises the various religious sects of India severely and exhaustively.3Similar criticism has been made by Sundar- das in the chapter on  Bhrawa-vidhoamsa Astaka  where his criticism has been levelled against both the orthodox Hindus and the Muslims.4The lifeless orthodoxy and the formalism even of the contemporary Santa-sects, yogic sects and Sufi sects were also criticised by him.5  Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, also echoed the same spirit a3 is found in Kabir, Dado and others. He also criticised the orthodox sects of both the Hindu and the Muslim communities. He says,—  “ (Make) kindness the mosque, sincerity the prayer carpet, rectitude (equity) the lawful (food) according to the Kuran. Modesty circumcision, good conduct fasting, (thus) thou  becomest a Musalman.” c On going to pilgrimage and bathing in the sacred rivers  Nanak says,—“ I bathe at a Tirtha, if I please him; without 1See  Atha Sahajafianda  in the Sundar-granthaoali,  edited by Purohita HarinSrfiyana Sarmi and published by the Rajasthan Research Society (Serial No. 1) Verses (2-5). 2 See  Aiha Paiica PrabhaVa. Ibid   , p. 189 3Vol. I, pp. 88-94. *  Ibid.,  Vol. I, pp. 235-238. See also Savaiya, Camqak kp Amg ♦  Ibid., Vol., il» pp. 455-463; Sasi Camnak ko Amgt Ibid.,  Vol. II, p. 385. 6  Ibid.,  Vol II, p. 385. 6 The  Adi-grantha,  translated from the original Guru-mufehi to English by Dr. Ernest Trumpp. (Printed by order of the Secretary of State for India in Council.) p. 194, vii. APPENDIX (A) 409  pleasing him, what shall 1do with bathing?” 1Against scholasticism, Brahminism and philosophical erudition  Nanak holds the same view as his predecessors. 3In a fine poem Nanak says that it is ridiculous to perform  A rati 8  before the Lord in a temple,—for the whole universe is  performing  Arati  before Him. The sun and the moon are the lamps on the plate of the sky, the constellation of stars is the pearl; the wind is carrying incense, the forests in flower are supplying lustre, the spontaneous sound is serving as the drum—and thus is being performed the  Arati  of the Lord.4 1 Kablr-granthaVah, Japu  6; also Cf. Japu  21. Cf.  also: —  tirath kflti  feie isnan die bahu dan maha brata dhare  I des phirio foro bhes tapo dhan  A>es dhare na mile hari pi are  || 3  Ban k<>t kflre aaafamg dhare bahu niyas hare mukh kflre  I dm daial aal bhaje bin amta  fco amta  fee dham sidhare  II Anthology of Nanak’s poems. Published by BhaiparatSp Simha Prltam Siipha, Amritsar; p. 132, Cf.  also :-Ibid,  p. 116, 120, 127, pp. 241-42, etc.  Adi-grantha , p. 934. Cf.  "Reading and reading the Pandit explains the Veda, (but) the infatuation of the Maya lulls him to sleep, (/bid., p. 117.) The Pandit, reading and reading cries aloud, but in him is the infatuation of the Maya and love (to her). (Ibid,  p. 118.) In going through the six Shastras, in knowing them by heart, in worship, in (applying) the Tilak, in bathing at a Tirtha, in the practice of  purity, in the eightyfour ascetic postures tranquillity is not obtained, O dear !** (Ibid.,  p, 136.) “ He (i.e., the Pandit) explains the Smriti, Shastras and the Veda;  but being led astray by error he does not know the truth (the Deity).*' (Ibid.,    p. 158, cf.  also p. 326, ix.) It will appear from the verses and songs of Ninak; that his strongest note was against the Smrti-6astra of the orthodox Hindus, and scholastic Brahmanism was made the object of scathing criticism. (See  Ibid.t   pp. 333-334, iv. v. xxii, xxiii.) 3Waving light or incense before an idol. * gagan mai thalu ravi-cand dtpak bane tarikft mandala janak moti  I dhupumal analo pavanu cavaro bare sagal banarai phulamta joti  II kaisl arati hoi   I bhav khana«? II gagan mamdal rabi-sasi doi tfira, ulafi humci lagt h.ivara  I kohai kablr bhai ujiyara, patrtca mari ek rahyau nindra  II  Ibid  , PadaVaft,  No. 171, p. 145. Cf.  also—  jis karani tati tlrathi jamkim, ratan padarath ghat him marrihirp  I  Ibidt PadaVali    No, 42, p. 102. 1  Dddut   ed. by K. Sen, p, 211, 2 lbidt   pf 273, 3  Ibid,  p, 284; also  p, 294, m OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the body plays the vital force, within it is Nirvana; within is the service,—‘-withift pours the incessant flow (of nectar); in the body are arts,—in it the One Being; in it the glow of love and in it the company of the Lord; in it blooms the lotus, and resides the bee; in it the manifestation, in it resides the seer.”1  Nanak also says,—  “For whose sake they go to the bank of a Tirtha. (That) exquisite jewel is even in the heart. The Pandit, having read and read, discusses an argument, (But) does not know the'thing that is within.”2 Again he says,—“The nine regions of the earth are contained in this (human) body; every moment 1pay reverence (to it).”3 Again,—  “Why do you wander about searching ? search should be made in this mind. Who dwells with thee, O Lord, why should he wander  from forest to forest ?”4 1  Ibid,  pp. 601 “602. Sundar-das says in a song,— “Jn this body ( ghata)   are Visnu. Maheia, Brahma and other gods and the sage N&rada, in it are Indra and JCubera,—in it is the mount Sumeru; within the body iBthe sun and the moon, and the seven seas, nine lacs of stars, and the flow of the Ganges and the God&bari; in it the enjoyer of worldly bliss and also the Gorakh yogin; in it the assembly of the Siddhas, in it resides the soul in her loneliness. Within the body are Muttra and Benares,—in it the householder and the ascetic of the forest, in it the bathing in the Tirthas; within the body are all dancing and singing and the playing on of the flute: in it the red powder (  phag ) of the spring, in it the husband and the wife; within it are heaven and the netherlands, in it the decay of time ; in it the beings are living for ages and in it they drink nectar to be immortal. When the mystery of the body is known, death and decay (kflla)  will not befall anybody, and Sundar says that this mystery can never be fathomed without the help of the right preceptor. ghat bhitari bisnu maheaa  etc., Sundar-granthavali,  p. 886. *  Adi-graniha,  translated by Trumpp, pp. 213-214, iv. 3  Ibid  , p. 298. *  Ibid,  p. 369, APPENDIX (A) 417 The conception of Sahaja of the mediaeval poets also shows striking similarity with that of the earlier Sahajiyas. As in the case of the Bauls of Bengal, the conception of the ultimate reality of these mediaeval Hindi poets represents a synthesis between the conception of the reality held by the earlier Sahajiya school and that of the Supreme Beloved held in Sufl-ism and the then prevalent other devotional schools of India. The ultimate reality being thus conceived as the Supreme Beloved, Sahaja has often been identified with Rama, where Rama stands for the Divine Personality as the indwelling principle, with whom it is possible to have relations of love. The Santa-poets flourished mostly before the Bauls of Bengal; historically, therefore, it seertls that the synthesis  between the Sahajiya movement and the Sufi-movement was  brought about first by the poets of Northern and Upper India. The same contingency that was responsible for bringing about such a synthesis in Northern and Upper India was responsible for effecting a similar synthesis also in Bengal. Speaking about Sahaja Kabir says,—“All speak of the Sahaja,—but none knows what Sahaja actually is. That is really Sahaja, through which a man leaves off all his objects of desire,—that is called Sahaja, which keeps the five (senses) well-controlled,—that is really Sahaja, in which the son, the wife, all wealth and desire remain merged together, and in which Kabir becomes the maid of Rama; that is really Sahaja, through which the Lord is realised in a natural way.M1 Like their predecessors the mediaeval poets also emphasised the unspeakable nature of Sahaja, which is the Lord (Sami)  or Rama with them. Though Kabir, Dadu, Nanak and other Hindi poets of the Nirguna-school often speak of the Lord or of R?ma and Krsna and frequently conceive themselves as the maid of the Lord (and as a matter of fact 1 Kabir.gran thuvali,  pp.  41-42. 53—141 IB (io) The conception of Sahaja 418 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS there is a considerable number of such poems in Kabir, Dado and even in the Sikh poet Nanak who preached the religion of the  Alefyh),  it will be a mistake to think that these poets  believed in any particular incarnation of God; it has been repeatedly declared by these poets that the Lord or Rama or Krsna is no historical being,—neither is he the incarnation of God; He is the Divine Being, the ultimate formless reality— the non-dual all pervading reality, conceived more as imma nent than as transcendent,—and that is the Sahaja of these  poets. The ultimate state of bliss is frequently described by Kabir as the Sahaja-samadhi  just like the Buddhist Sahajiyas.1 This state of Sahaja is to be attained through the final arrest of the functions of the mind,2—and this Sahaja is the state of vacuity and hence it is often called the sum sahaja .8This Sahaja is a non-dual state of supreme bliss (sulpha or    mahasukha).4 The same description of Sahaja is to be found in the  poems of Dadu. It is to be observed that the element of yoga-practices is comparatively less in Dadu than in Kabir,— the sole emphasis of Dadu seems to be on the intensity of devotion and love through which mind attains the perfect state of unity and non-duality and this state is what he calls 1  Ibid,  p. 89, p. 137, p. 217 etc. 8  Ibid,  p. 159. 3 Cf. kflhai kablr soi jogesvar, sahaj atlrpni lyau Idgai  Ii  Ibid, Padavali No.  69, p. 109. sahaj suipni mairji jirii ras cafya,  etc.  Ibid,  p. 111.  [aryau farai na aVai jai, sahaj sumni mai rahyau samdi  II  Ibid  , p. 199. Also p. 269. sunna sahaj mahi bunata hamdri  I  Ibid,  p. 272. 4 Cf. hai koi samt sahaj sukh upajai  etc.  Ibid,  p. 138. feaft sakati sib sahaj pragdsyo ekfli ek samana  I kahi kabir guru bhefi mahasukh bhramata rahe man manarp  II #  Ibid, p.  316. tana mahi hoti kpfi upadhi  I ulafi bhai sukh sohaji samadhi  II ««»»#»»  kahu hflbir sukh sahaj samao dpi no $aro na avar dardo   I etc.  Ibid,  p, 318 APPENDIX ( a ) 410 the state of Sahaja. Dadu speaks of the Lord (Sami  or Rama) more frequently than Kabir; but the Lord is none  but the formless non-dual ultimate Beloved and that ultimate Beloved is the Sahaja.1It is through self-abnegation or  , ’Sir  the merging of the self in the absolute or, in the language of the Sufis, passing away in the Divine Personality in Fana   that Sahaja can be realised.8It is to be realised not through any austere practice, but through a state of passing away or deep immers'ion through the intensity of supreme love and devotion.^ About Sahaja Dadu says in a poem,—  ‘ ‘ .When the mind reached the Sahaja state all waves of duality vanished away,—hot and cold became the same,—- everything became one.”'1“Bereft of the ‘two’ is Sahaja.—there joy and sorrow becogie one; that Sahaja neither dies nor lives,—it is the state of complete Nirvana ....... Hold your mind in the Sahaja vacuity amidst all duality, and  by attaining the final state of arrest drink nectar,—and there is no fear of hala  (time or death).” 5“ O Dadu, let us proceed to that land of Sahaja where none dies or lives,—there is no fear of the whirl of coming and going,—one realisation for all time. Let us proceed, O Dadu, to the land where neither the sun nor the moon can go,—where there is no access for day and night,—everything remains merged in Sahaja.”6When the mind becomes absorbed in Sahaja, 1 Cf. 8ukhima sahaj na &ujhai nirakar niradhaY   II „ * * * * **# * * * * bhitari ram dikhai  II etc. Dadu, edited by K. Sen, p. 313. See also the verse in p. 347. 2  Ibid,  p. 259. 3 Cf. surati sada sanmukh rahai jaham taham lava tin  i sahaj rup sumiran karai nikarama dadu din  II  Ibid,  p. 424. See also the verse in p. 422. Also,  prem hhagati jav vpajai nihacal sahaj samadh  I 4  Ibid,  p* 347. 6  Ibid,  verses in pp. 382-383. 6 calu dadu taharp jaiye jaham marai na jivai koi  1 aVagaVana bhay ko nahirp sada ek ras hoi  II calu dadu taharp jaiye jaharp carpd sur nahim jai  t rati  divas kJ gami nahirp nahirp sahajairp rahyS samSi   il  Ibid,    p. 384* 420 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULtS one can see without eyes, feel without the body and mutter the name of Brahman without the tongue, one can hear without the ears, walk without the legs and may have consciousness without the mind,—this is really the nature of Sahaja. 1According to Dadu also this Sahaja is vacuity (sunya)  and is pervading the whole universe as the ultimate reality behind all phenomena. “In every place, in every  body ( ghata ) and in everything else Sahaja vacuity lies  pervading,—there dwells the Stainless One, no quality has any access there.”2“One and indivisible is the lake, immeasurable is water,—swans are bathing in that lake; void is the lake of Sahaja where the swans (the mind of the saints and the yogins) are sporting.” 3 * *A tender plant is the self, where blooms the flower of Sahaja; in a Sahaja (natural and easy) process true preceptor gives advice about it,  but rare are persons who can understand.” 1All diversity is but the sporting of Sahaja itself. “That vital power (prana),   that body (pyanda )—that flesh and blood,—those ears and that nose—all ard playing wonderful play in Sahaja.” 5 Sundar-das in his poems on Sahajananda  says that after the preceptor had explained to him the nature of Sahaja, he has given up all religious ceremonialism and yogic  practices and has been trying to approach Sahaja (the ultimate truth) in a Sahaja (natural and easy) way. This Sahaja is the Brahman, the unified cosmic principle.0As a matter of  1 nairt bin dekhiba amg bin pekhiba   rasan bin boliba brahma seti  I araVan bin auniba caran bin caliba citta bin cityaba sahaj eti  II  Ibid,  p. 416. 2    Ibid,   p. 459. 3  Ibid,   p. 461. *  Ibid,  p. 484. 5  Ibid, p.  596. 6 Sundar says,—14That perfectly pure Sahaja is in everything, and with that Sahaja all religious people gather together. Sankara began his Sadhana in this Sahaj?(and in the Sahaja way),—Sukdeva, Sanaka and others- also followed this Sahaja way. Devotees like SojS, Plpa, Sena and Dhana all have drunk of this Sahaja-  bliss in the natural way, —Raidfis was also a Sadhaka of Sahaja and Guru Dsdfi also realised infinite bliss in this Sahaja path. Sundar-granthaVall,  pp. 303-306. APPENDIX ( a ) 421 fact it will be seen that almost all the mystic poets of the mediaeval period were advocates of Sahaja. Even the Sikh  poet Nanak spoke of the Sahaja in the same sense as did Kabir, Dadu and others. With him also not only the ultimate reality, it is at the same time the Lord—the ultimate Beloved.' (e) Similarity in the Literary Form and Language It may be observed in this connection that not only in ideology, but also in the poetic representation, there is a general similarity between the poetry of the Santa and the Sufi poets and that of the Buddhist Sahajiyas. Often similar imageries, similar phrases and even ..similar lines are to be found. Thus, for example, Santi-pada in a Carya song says  ,—alakhha lafykha na jai, i.e.,  “ the imperceptible cannot be perceived ’ ’ ; the same line is to be found in Kabir several times.2We have seen that the highest state of realisation has often been spoken of by Kabir as vacuity or the sky {Sunya  or gagana)  and the ultimate reality—the Sahaja—is also spoken of as void. In a poem Kabir says,— “There is the sky or the void in the beginning,—void at the end and void also in the middle,8—and this indes tructible void never comes and goes,4neither does any entity come and go in it. When the mind is placed in this vacuity, death bows down its head before a man.® These lines instantaneously remind one of the Carya songs studied before. We have seen that Bhusuka>pada 1  jahjai antar baaai prabhu apt   I ninak   te  fan aahaji aamatt   II Anthology of Ninak, (Amritsar edition), pf*367. 2 Kabir-granthdoatu  p. 35, p 229, p. 230, p. 328. »  Ibid  , p. 103. i Ibid,  p 103. 5 gagrni maqtfal oaan kiya, k&l 8 dal , k&pal melhl  II man kamjar jai baft bilarpvya, satgur bahi beti  I  Ibid, Padavali,  No. 163, p. 142, APPENDIX ( a ) 423 granthaoall  (edited by Mr. Syama-sundar Das), can very well be compared with some of the Carya-padas describing the ecstatic realisation of the Sahaja bliss.1The next verse of Kabir (Appendix, Song No. 63) on the illusory nature of the phenomenal world—and the unreality of all duality also offers striking similarity in idea and represen tation to some of the Carya-padas dealing with the same idea. There are some other analogies, such as the analogy of the mute in connection with the realisation of the Sahaja, the analogy of mill’s being merged in Sahaja just as salt in the water of the sea, etc.; but they are inherited by all these sects from earlier common sources. Saraha-pada says in another Doha that those who do not enjoy (with the perfectly  purified mind) the perfectly purified objects of enjoyment (viewing them and realising them all* as Sahaja in nature) and only hover in the voidness, will have to return to objects (of enjoyment) like a crow,, which leaves the mast and hovers over the sea and then turns to the mast once again.2 The imagery is found in Dadu where he says that the mind must be made firmly fixed in Sahaja which is the mast in the ocean of existence. ‘The crow,’ he says, ‘sat on the mast and took its journey in the ocean; it hovered round and round and got tired and then sat still on the mast of the ship.FIn another Doha Saraha says,—“Don’t repress the desires for objects,—for see the cases of fish, insects, the elephant, black-bees and the deer” (i.e., they 1The poem of Kablr runs thus: —  susaman nari sahaj samani pwai pivan hara  II atiadhfi mera man mataVUra  I unmad cad ha ras cakhya tribhatian bhayS ujiyara  |J dui pur jori rasai bhathi p'tu maharas bhari  I kam krodh dui kiye jale ta chuti gai samsari  ||  pragat pragas jfian guru gammita sati guru te audhi pat   I da fobir tasu mad-mat a ucakf na kabahu jai  II Kabir-granthdvati, p.  282/ 8  Dohakosa  of Saraha, No. 70 (Dr. Bagchi’s edition). 3  Dadu,  edited by K. Sen, p. 319. 424 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS themselves bring about their death by the instinctive attachment towards taste, sight, touch, smell and sound respectively).1Almost similar Dohas are found in Tulsidas. Ravidas, Dadu and others.8 Another important point of similarity between the Buddhist Sahajiya literature and the literature of the mediaeval vernaculars is the enigmatic style used in describing the secret doctrines of these cults. With this we shall deal in appendix (E). 1 Vi$aSaatti ma bandha haru are bad ha sarahem vutta   I mlna paangama kari bhamara pekhaha harinaha jutta   II Dohako^a    of Saraha, Verse No. 71. 2 Cf. ali patanga mrga mm gaj iyamkb ekjai &mc  1 tuhi yako kya gat  ,  yak  o  piche pamc   I!  DohaVah,  edited by U. N. Mukherjee. The deer, the fish, the black-bee, the moth, the elephant are (all) destroyed by one (and the same) fault. In whom are the five incurable faults, how much hope has he ?—Ravidas,  Adi-grantha  (translated by Trumpp), p. 666.  H  Cf  . also :—bhavamra lubadhl vaska mohya nad kuramg   I yaum dadu ks man rSm saurp jyorp dlpak jyoti patamg   il  Dads,  p. 505. APPENDIX (B) G eneral  I nformations   about   the  L iterature   of    the  N ath  C ult .1 The Nath literature of Bengal consists mainly of longer narrative poems and stray songs. Thanks are due to the scholarly enthusiasnf and literary taste of Dr. Grierson, who, when a civilian in the district of Rangpur in North-Bengal, collected for the first time some versions of the songs concern ing Manik-candra and his son Gopl-candra or Govinda-candra. In course of the narration of the eventful stories of the royal family the poets described the supernatural power attained by some of the Naths, who are generally spoken of as th e Siddhas  or yogins who have attained perfection. The first  publication of these narrative poems in the  Journal of the    Asiatic Society of Bengal  in 1878 under the caption of  Manik-candra Rajar Gan  (song of king Manik-candra) readily attracted the notice of the Bengali scholars to such narrative  poems, generally sung by the illiterate villagers in the interiors of Bengal and different versions of the song were soon discovered in different parts of North-Bengal as well as of East-Bengal.1 1Mr. 3ivnath Sil discovered a manuscript of one version of the song ascribed to the authorship of Durllabh Mailik and it was published in 1902 under the caption of Govinda-candra Git   and in the sub-heading the text was described by the editor as embodying the doctrine of the Tantric Buddhists. Mr. ViSveSvar Bhattacarya soon collected a rather complete version of the song of Msnik-candra and Gopl-candra from the district of Rangpur. Some manuscripts of some versions of the poem composed by Bhavani*das were discovered in the districts of Tippera and Chittagong and a version of the poem composed by the Mahomadan  poet Sukura Mamud was discovered in North Bengal. Dr. N. K. BhaifaSSlt has a'so edited a version of the song, which was published under the caption of  MaynSmatlr    Gan  under the auspices of the Sfihitya-pariaat of Dacca. The  Manik-candra Rajar Gan,  collected and published by Dr. Grierson and the versions of the song collected by Mr. BhattgcSrya are substantially the same and the 54—HUB * Besides the different versions of the ballads concerning king Manik-candra, his wife Mayanamatl, and his son Gopl- candra or Govinda-candra, the other important discovery is the different versions of the songs on Goraksa-nath (popularly known as Gorakh-nath), mainly based on the story of the down-fall of the great yogin Matsyendra-nath or Mina-nath as a result of the curse of goddess Durga, and the rescue of the  preceptor by his worthy disciple Gorakh-nath through his yogic strength.1 4  (  jOpl-candrer Git   edited by Mr. Sll is rather a concise version of the same song with omissions and additions here and there. All the songs on Manik-candra, Mayan&mat! and GopT-candra have been published by the University of Calcutta under the joint editorship of Messrs. VigveSvar Bhattacarya, D. C. Sen and Baaanta Rafijan Rfiy in two volumes 1A version of the sonj ascribed to SyamdSs Sen was edited by Dr, N. K. Bhattalalf (published under the auspices of the Dacca Sfihitya-parisat) under the caption of Mlna-cetana.   Many versions of the song, which, in spite of the difference in details, are substantially the same, have been discovered in different parts of the Chittagong Division of East-Bengal. In the manuscripts four names are found for the author of the song, viz.,  KavTndra-d5s, Sekh Fayzulla, Bhim-das and SySm-dSs Sen. A version of the song has been edited by Munsi Abdul Karim Sfihitya- vi&Srada. He has prepared the text by comparing the available manuscripts (the alternative readings, omissions and additions being noted in the foot-notes and the appendix). The text has been published by the Vanglya Sahitya-parisat under the heading of Gorak§a-vijaya. In the  Dharma-mangala  of Sahadev CakravartT the story of the fall of Mlna-n5th and his rescue by Gorakh-nath has been incorporated within the general story of the Dharma-maftgalas. There we find that the consort of Siva once became desirous of knowing the truth behind the world and entreated the lord to explain all secrets to her. Siva agreed and went with her to the bank of the sacred river Vallakfi, where he instructed her in all the secrets of the physical and spiritual life. Mina-nath heard these instructions from the womb of a fish; then follow Mina-nfiths uncharitable remarks on Gauri (the consort of Siva),—her curse on him-his fall in the land of Kadall-patan and transformation into a sheep through the charm of the women of that country-his rescue by Gorakh—the meeting of the five Naths, viz.,  Kslupg, Hsdipfi, Mina-nath, Goraksa-nSth and Caurangl-nSth - their obeisance to Hara-Gaurl and the installation of Minanfith as a king in Mahfinada (vide  B SP P., B.S 1304,  p. 286). The secret of the Natha cult has best been explained (of course enigmati cally) in the text Gorak$<*-vijay.  There are, however, some other unpublished yogic texts dealing with the general tenets of yoga akin to thAt of the Nffth cult, and of these mention may be made of the  A nSdi-purana  or the  A nadi-caritra, Hada-mala-   grantha, Y ogi-tantra-k<*la  and Veda-mala-grantha. (Vide,  BS.PP., B.S. |33|.  No. 2, and B,S.f,P„ B.S. 1341, No. 4). 426 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS APPENDIX (  b ) 427 The literature of the Nath cult of Bengal, like most other types of literature of Bengal, consists practically of songs.- All the big and small versions of the poems on Gopi-candra and Gorakh-nath were, and still are sung mainly by the Yogi-sects and also hy the Sufl-istic Muslims iri North-Bengal and East-Bengal. The Yogi-castes of Bengal1somehow associate themselves with the Nath sect that spread almost throughout the whole length and breadth of India sometime during the tenth to twelfth century A.C.; and in fact, though the Yogis of Bengal are now being gradually assimilated within the composite fold of Hinduism, they retain some old social customs as the characteristic features of their caste. The Yogis (or rather the  Jugis ) generally sing these songs in accompaniment with a musical instrument known as the Gopi-yantra,  which is a simple instrument made with the  bottle-gourd, a bamboo stick and a string attached to them. 2 These songs, particularly the songs of Mina-nath and Gorakh- nath, are very popular also among the Muslims of East-Bengal and some of the versions of the story of Mina-nath and Gorakh-nath have been collected from them.8The currency and popularity of such versified stories among the Muslims of Bengal has historical reasons behind it. The Muslims of  1The Yogis of Bengal are about four and a half lac in number and they reside mostly in East-Bengal and North-Bengal. As a caste they bear the title  Nath   with their name, and are mostly weavers, and sometimes dealers in betel-leaves and lime and sometimes cultivators. The Yogis generally bury the dead (though now-a-days they are adopting the purely Hindu process of cremating the dead with the Hindu ceremonials) and are in some places untouchables to the Caste Hindus. 2This is, however, a very popular musical instrument of Bengal. At tha suggestion of Sister Nivedita Dr. D. C. Sen was convinced of the fact that this Gopi-yantra  owes its name to king Gopi-candra of the ballads; but we are not quite sure of the fact. Even at the present time the BSuls and other Vaisnava beggars of Bengal sing songs from door to door in accompaniment with this instrument. 3In the United Provinces the yogi singers are generally called Bhartharls or Bhartriharis. They sing the song of GopI-cSnd and Maigan-nath and the teachings of Bhartrhari. No Hindu domestic festival is complete unless these Bhartharls come and sing their songs. They use ochre coloured clothes of the Sannyasins. But they are by religion Mahomedans. They seem to be the descendants of their yogi forefathers and have inherited their yogi songs as Well. 428 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Bengal are mainly converts from the people of Bengal (both Hindu and non-Hindu), and formerly constituted an integral  part, of the Bengalees both racially and culturally. The stories of Gorakh-nath and Gopi-cand, at least the skeleton of such stories, had been, in all probability, current in Bengal (and not only in Bengal, but in many other parts of India)  before the time of the conquest of Bengal by the Muslims in the thirteenth century. Such stories were, therefore, common heritage of the Muslims and the non-Muslims of Bengal. The gradual revival of Hinduism in, Bengal, however, introduced Sanskritic and Puranic stories among the public, and the mind of the Caste ■Hindus readily responded to this Sanskritic and Puranic influence. As a result the popular vernacular stories were naturally pushed in the corner, and were preserved only by the Muslims and the low-class Hindus, who did not come directly under the pale of the Sanskritic and Puranic influence of revived Hinduism. Moreover, the Caitanya-movement.of Bengal over-flooded the soil of the province with innumerable Radha-Krsna songs and soon it became proverbial in Bengal that there is no song without Kanu (i.e., Krsna). So strong was this Vaisnava movement in Bengal and so immense was the lyrical appeal of the Radha-Krsna songs that its influence was felt even by the low-class illiterate section of the Hindus. It is for all these reasons that the indigenous vernacular songs of Bengal, such as the songs of the Nath literature, practically became obsolete among the Hindus and they are preserved as an ancient heritage largely by the Bengali Muslims and sometimes by the people of the lower substrata of the Hindu community. It may also be noted in this connection that the Nath cult and the Nath literature of Bengal with its salient features have inspired the Muslims more than the Hindus in composing a large number of yOga-literature in Bengali. To such a type belong the  jMna-sagara  of Ali Raja,  Jnana-pradipa  and  Jnana-cautisS   of Syed Sultan,  Nur  - APPENDIX (  b ) 429 Kandilaoi  Mohammad Safi, Vara-masya, Yoga-Kalandar    and Satya-jHana-pradlpa  of Mursid.1These texts represent a popular mixture cf th? different kinds of yoga, the yoga of the Sahajiyas and of the Naths and the Sufi-istic yogic system. In the course of its evolution Indian Sufl-ism was variously influenced by the different yoga systems of India,2 and it was for this reason that Sufi-istic Islam of India could easily compromise, or rather harmonise itself with the minor religious sects of India which have largely influenced the growth of moderji Indian literatures. The Muslim yogic literature of Bengal is but the out-come of such a compromise. Besides the stories of Gorakh-nath and Gopl-cand, stray songs of the Natha-gurus, emphasising the vanity of life and the pernicious effect of worldly enjoyment and stressing side by side the importance of yoga as the only  path for escaping death and decay and for attaining liberation, are found among, the Yogis and the Muslims of North-Bengal and East-Bengal. Munshi Abdul Karim quotes a poem as a specimen in his introduction to the Goraksa-vijaya.  The present writer had occasions to listen to such songs in the interior of the district of Baker- gunge, and such songs are invariably couched in an unintelligible enigmatic style, which generally characterises yogic songs in all the vernaculars of India. The enigmatic song in the Dharma-mangala of Sahadev Cakravarti 8 is a typical song of this class. The Naths became gods or demi-gods in later times in Bengal as well as in other parts of India, and such is specially the case with Gorakh-nath. There are many popular beliefs in the divinity of Gorakt- nath. A typical tale of this nature is associated with a custom of East-Bengal, which is known as the “paying off the debt of Gorakh.” Gorakh is here depicted as 1 Vide  introduction to Gorafea-vijaya  by Munshi Abdul Karim. 2 See Vafige SvTtphi-prabhaVa    by Dr. Enamul Haq. 3 Vide,  B.S.PP, B.S. 1304. 430 OBsCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS the cattle-god and Manik-plr is his disciple. The ceremony consists in offering milk-made sweetmeats to Gorakh and Manik. A song is sung in this connection, in which we find that Manik-plr, the Fakir (or the mendicant), comes to the house of Kalu-ghos with his usual cry of Vam, Vam   (which is the general custom' with the yogi-mendicants); at the sound of Vam, Vam  Kalu-ghos’s mother understands that the Fakir has come to beg for something,—and in consul* tation with the daughter of Beku Banu she offers the Fakir five pice .(in the name of the five Fakirs, or rather the five Plrs of the Muslims). Manik refuses to accept cash-payment and asks for milk curd ; but out of her foolishness Kalu’s mother deceives the Fakir and disappoints him. As a result thereof all the cows, calves and even the milk-maid of Kalu-ghos die within a very short time. Kalu’s mother realises her folly, solicits the mercy of the Fakir,—and the Fakir takes pity on her? strikes his stick against the ground with the usual sound of Vam, Vam  and everything  becomes all right instantaneously.1In some places of North- Bengal Goraksa-nath is taken to be the god of the cow and songs are sung of him in an annual festival.2In this transformation of Goraksa-nath to a cow-god the word goraksa  was popularly confused to mean what the word go-raksaka  (i.e. the protector of the cows) means and hence was probably the deification of Goraksa-nath to a god associated with the cow, as Mina-nath was with fish. The confused etymological meaning of the word goraksa  seems to be responsible also for the tradition that Goraksa-nath was the son of Siva by a cow.8There are the Punjabi and  Nepalese traditions of Gorakh-nath’s being born in cow- 1  Bamlar Sakti*  vol. iii., No. 3. Cf.  also:—   Rajsahlr Sona-pirer Gan  by Mr. S. N. Das, Vanga-laksml   Bai&kh, 1347. 2 See Gorak^adar Gita—PraVasl,  B. S. 1329. 3   Vide  Briggrt Goraknath And The Kanphata Yogis,  p. 163. APPENDIX (B) 431 dung or upon the dunghill.1According to some Tibetan tradition Goraksa-nath was a cowherd. In the Vaisnava love-lyrics of Bengal we find occasional references to the yogins of the Gorakh order. In a well- known poem of Govinda-das we find that Krsna once disguised himself as a Kanaphat yogin to propitiate Radha who had got angry with him. He went as a yogin to Radha’s house exclaiming the name of Gorakh  and blow ing the horn (as is the general custom with such yogins).2 We also find occasional references to Radha’s expressing the desire to assume the form of a  yogirii  with shaven head and rings in the ears (just like the  yogiriis  of the Kanaphat order) and to wander from place to place in quest of her lover Krsna.8 It will not be out of place to say a few words about the time and authorship of the long narrative poems that cons titute the main portion of Bengali Nath literature. As for the time of composition of'these poems what we can at most say is that the skeleton of the stories may be <§s old as the eleventh or the twelfth century; but surely the versions of the songs, which are available to us either in manuscript, or in the oral reproduction of the singers, are not very old. There is sometimes a tendency, however, to take account of the linguistic evidence in this connection ; 1  Ibid,   pp. 182-183. gorakh jag&i  jafila bhikha ani dei  1 etc.   Srt-sri-pada-kalpa-taru , edited by S. Roy, Song No. 398, e g. mudava mathar   fees  yadi soi piya nahi aila  ! * geruya basanaahgeie pariva #   yoginJr bese  yava sei deie  etc. Vaimava-padaValt,   Vasumatl edition, p. 234.  Also:— keha bale cala ghare dvare agni diya  I kane pari kandal caliva yogi haiia  II Caitanya-bhagavata, Madhya  —Ch. xxvii, 432 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  but in the examination of the linguistic evidence provin cialism is more often than not confused with archaism. It is difficult to determine at this late period of the history of our literature who the original composers of the songs of Gorakh-nath and Gopl-cand wpre ; but it seems that these songs were handed down from singer to singer from sometimes near about the twelfth century A.D. In course of such transmission the skeleton of the story was supplied with new flesh and blood by different singers and  poets in different times and localities. Munehi Abdul Karim in his introduction to the Goraksa-Vijaya    argues from the frequency and the prominence' of the name of Sekh Fayjulla in the colophons, and also from the evidence of some £ufl- istic Islamic influence in the version of the Goraksa-Vijaya,   that Sekh Fayjulla is the original poet of the Goraksa-Vijaya.   But it seems that all the poets, including Sekh Fayjulla himself, received some versions' of the poem from earlier sources and to the version they fteceived they made sufficient additions and alterations. The Nath literature of Bengal, far from being an isolated  phenomenon, is closely connected with the history of the  Nath literature of most of the Indo-Aiyan vernaculars, v iz.,   Panjabi, Marathi, Midland Hindi and Eastern Hindi and also Odiya. Besides the vernacular texts on Gorakh-nath and those ascribed to the authorship of Gorakh-nath there are as many as thirty Sanskrit texts on yoga, ascribed to the authorship of Gorakh.’ Besides these Sanskrit texts Gorakh- 1Of these mention may be made of the following (1)  AmaraughaJasana,   (2)  Amara-natha-samvada,  (3) Goraksa-siddhanta-samgraha,  (4) CaturaSity-asana , (5)  Jnanamrta,  (6) Yoga-cintamani , (7) Yoga-mahima,  (8) Yoga-martanda , (9) Yoga-siddhanta-paddhati,  (10) Viveka-martanda,  fl 1) Siddha-siddhanta-paddhati, (12) Gorak§a-8cimhitat   (13) Gorak?a4ataka  or  Jmna4ataka* (14) Gcrak$a-k(dpa,  (15) Goraksa-gita , (16)  Natha-hlatnfia,  (17) Gorak$opani§ad,  (18) Kaya-bddha , (19) Yoga - Vlja  , (20)  Amanaskfrvivarana,  (21) Siddha siddhanta-samgraha,  etc. Vide Gorak&hanath arid Mediaeval Hindu Mysticism , by Dr. Mohan Singh, and Gorafyhnath and The Kanphafa Yogis,  by G. W. Briggs, Ch. Xlf. APPENDIX (B) 433 nath is claimed to have been an early writer of Hindi poetry and he is further claimed to h?ve been the first known Hindi (or Panjabi) prose-writer.1Dr. Mohan Singh gives the list of as many as twenty-five Hindi works about Gorakh-nath and his cult mentioned in the State Library, Jodhpur.2He also gives illustrations from other poetical works embodying the sayings of Gorakh and of these the Gorakh-bodh, which is taken to be a Hindi work of the fourteenth century, deserves special mention. There are poetical works with the Gopi- cand legend in old Panjabi, of which mention may be made of the Udas'Gopt-cand  .3The Gopi-cand legend is very popular also in the Marathi literature, particularly in the folk-lore. The Marathi legends on the Naths (including Gopi-cand) can  be gathered from the concluding portions of the  Jiianesoart    of Sri-jnanesvara and also from the widely mythical accounts given in the Yogi-sampradayaviskrti 6. There is a Hindi version of the Gopi-cand song .by  Lasana-dasa .° Even at the present day dramas are composed in Marathi and Hindi with the legend of Gopi-cand, and it is also a popular story 1 Vide Gorakhandth and Mediaeval Hindu Mysticism , «by Dr. Mohan Singh. Also,  History of Panjabi Literature  by Dr. Mohan Singh. 2 The list is as follows :—Gan Bodh, Gorakh-Ganesh Gosthi ,  MahadeV•   Gorakh-samvad, Gorakh-Datt Gosthi , Kanthad-bodh, Asht-Mudra , Panchmatri fog,    Abhai Matra, Daya-bodh, Narve-bodh ,  Ankalishalokt Kafar-vodh, Gorakhnath Ki   Satra-Kala, Atam-bodh, Pran Sankhi, Cyan Chdutisi, Sankhya Darshan ,  Rahras,    Nathji Ki Tithali, Battris Lecchan, Granth Homavari, Chhand Gorakhnath Ji  fett, Kisan Astuti-Kari, Siddh lkbis Gorakh, Sfat Praman Granth . Besides these ‘the following texts are also said to belong to the sect; e.g., Tattva-sara, Brahma-jfi&na,   Svarbpa-jftana,  etc., attributed to Gorakh-n&th,  Asanga-vaklJa  of Bsla-nfith,  Mahayoga-Vakya  of M&ncluki-pava,  Mukti-sarala-vakya  of Vakra-nfith,  Amfta-    prayoga  of Hslika-pava, etc. 3 The MS. of the text is preserved in the Library of the University of the Punjab (No. 374). Dr. Singh in his work on Gorakh-n&th quotes some portions of tbe text. * A Marathi commentary on the Git& by  JiiSnelvara. 5 A Hindi work said to be a translation by Candra-nath yogi, and published  by Siva-nSth SSstri, Ahmedabad. • B. S. P. P., B.S., 1928, No. 1. 55—141 IB 434 OBSCURE fcELIGlOUS CULTS of modern Hindi cinema. Dr. D. C. Sen quotes in his Typical Selections From Old Bengali Literature  a  version of the Gopi-cand song (in a mixed Odiya-Bengali dialect) from the yogis of Mayurbhanj.1Stray songs on Gopi-cand and Gorakh-nath are popular even at the present day among the yogis of the Punjab, Bombay and Maratha. Songs of Gopi- cand, similar to those that are found in Bengal, are current as popular folk-lore also in Magahi and in the Bhoj-puri dialect.2 The historical reason for this wide-spread popularity of the Nath literature throughout India is that the Nath move ment was, and still is, an all-Indian movement. The followers of this sect, who are now best known as the Kanphat yogins (because of the peculiar custom of having the ears pierced through before being initiated into the order and also of wearing ear-rings) are found widely scattered all over India. They are occasionally met with separately as wandering mendicants in towns and villages and also in groups in their headquarters. Such Yogins are found abundantly in the  Northern Deccan, in the Central Provinces, in Gujrat and Maratha, in U. P., Bihar and Bengal, and also in some Himalayan regions, particularly in Nepal. Even at the present day the Kanphat yogins have their quarters and sacred places of pilgrimage all over India, the head quarters of Tilla in the Punjab and that of Gorakhpur and Dinodar being the most important.3Whoever might 1Mr. G, C, Haider, M.A., has given a short sketch of the Panjabi, Hindustani, Gujrati, Marathi and Bengali versions of the story of GopI-cSnd under the caption of The Legend   o/  Raja Gopi-cand   in a paper read in the sixth Oriental Conference. ( Vide Proceedings of the Sixth Oriental Conference). « Vide  J. A. S. B., Vol. liv f Part I. 1886. Also, J. A. S. B., Vol. Iii, 1883, Folk-lore from Eastern Gorakhpur   by Fraser. 3For the numerical strength of the Kfinphat yogins in the different provinces of India and for their sects, sub-sects, vows, customs, quarters and sacred places of pilgrimage see the work of Mr. Briggs. As Mr. Briggs has dealt with these things in detail, the present writer does not propose to enter into the details of' the question here, ' APPENDIX (  b ) 435 have been the original exponent of the cult, Gorakh-nath, of all the Natha, enjoys the most widespread celebrity and  popularity, and it will be very clear from the heaps of traditions and legends that have gathered round the figure of this great Yogin that, wherever might have been the  birth-place of Gorakh-nath, the Held of his activities spread from die Frontier Provinces in the west to Bengal in the east including the Himalayan regions. It is for this reason that literary accounts of Gorakh-nath *s life and activities are found in almost all parts of India. Another point to note is that, though the Kanphat Yogins have their quarters and headquarters, where they generally reside in groups, the custom of going on long pilgrimage to the sacred  places scattered all over the country is very popular among them, and it is natural that with thehr long wanderings they have spread the legends and traditions of their sect to all  parts of the country, and this may be recognised as a plausi  ble exaplanation for the inter-mingling of the stories and and traditions. In spite of the legendary and mythical nature of the story of king Gopi-cand, we have reasons to believe that he was a historical parson and that his native land was Bengal;1but it is because of the reasons stated above that this story of Gopi-cand plays a very important part in the folk-literature of the different vernaculars. There is a large number of yrandering yogins belonging to the Kanphat sect, who beg from door to door, from one part of India to ' the other part, singing songs on Gorakh-nath and Gopi-cand. In Bengal we occasionally find such a class of Hindu Yogins and Muslim Fakirs still singing songs of the Naths. We have given before an exposition of the religious  background of the Nith literature of Bengal and some other-  problems, which are associated with the origin and develop ment of the cult. Now we shall give a short sketch of the I 1 Vide Infra,  Appendix (c), 436 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS stories with which the Nath literature of Bengal flourished. The story of Gorakh-nath runs as follows :—  At the time of the creation of the universe Siva came out of the mouth of the primordial Lord in the form of a Yogin with matted hair and ear-rings; Mina-nith was  born as a Siddha and from the bone ( hada ) of the Lord was  bom Hadiphfi (i.e., Jalandharipa); from the ear (Jjarna) of the Lord was born KanphiS, and Gorakh-nath with his long hanging bag of mystic importance ( siddha-jhuli ) and his outer garment of patched cloth {pantha)  came from the matted hair of the Lord. A beautiful girl of the name of Gauri was the mother ©f the world. The Lord then asked some one of the Yogins (including Siva, who here represents none but Adi-nath, traditionally said to be the original Nath of the Nith cult) to accept Gauri as his wife, to which all bent their heads in disapproval. At the sugges tion of the Lord then Siva or. Hara accepted Gauri and came down on earth with her, and all the Siddhas followed them. Mina-nath and Hadipha became attendants of (i.e., disci  ples of) Hara-Gauri, Gorakh became the attendant of Mina-nath and Kanphi of Hadipha, and all of these began to practise austere yoga. Then Gauri wanted to know from her Lord the supreme truth ( tattoa ). For this purpose  both the Lord and his consort repaired to the Ksiroda sea where there was a small beautiful castle xaised on the surface of water ( tangi ). There the Lord began to explain to his consort all the secret truths, but the goddess fell asleep. Mina-nath, however, in the form of a fish (mina) lay beneath the castle and heard all truth from the mouth of the ’Lord. The Lord came to know of it and cursed Mina-nith saying that there would be a time when he would forget all Tattva. Thereafter once in Kailasa the goddess proposed to Siva that the Siddhas should marry and lead a domestic life;  but the 1 .ord replied that the Siddhas were perfect yogins APPENDIX (  b ) 437 and above all worldly emotions. The goddess then proposed to put the Siddhas to a test in the form of a beautiful damsel. All the Siddhas, excepting Gorakh, fell victims to the amorous charm of the goddess and every one except Gorakh felt within a desire to enjoy her,—and the desire of the Siddhas was all approved of by her.1Mina-nath, as he desired, was destined for the land of Kadall, where he would keep company to the amorous girls of the land; Hadipha was destined for the country of MayanamafI, where he would serve as a sweeper and enjoy the company of Mayanamati, the queenrand Kanpha was destined for the city of Dihuka. Consequently Mina-nath, the great yogin, went to the country of Kadall, where he got enamoured with six hundred women and was passing his days with them in erotic dalliances.2Gorakh-nath,"however, came to know of the sad and shameful plight of his Guru and entered the city of Kadali as a dancing girl. In course of his dancing and singing Gorakh rebuked the preceptor in enigmatic words (so that the women of the country could make no sense out of them) and also explained to him the importance and  1Here we find that the goddess adopted all the vilest means to seduce Gorakh hut was sadly defeated in all her attempts. Similar legends are also found in the Dharma-mangalas, where the goddess tries to captivate the mind of the hero Lfiusen by her charm of body in the form of a beautiful woman; but Llusen, like Gorakh, could put the goddess to shame by the strength of his character. 2 In the Dharma-mangalas also we find mention of such a country inhabited mainly by women full of carnal desire and it was only through the grace o Lord Dharma that the hero LSusen could get the upper hand over all the allurements. The country is called in the Nath literature the Kadatir DeSa.   Various attempts have been made to identify this land of Kadall, the general tendency being to identify itr with Kama-rupa, which is noted as one of the original centres of Tantricism, and the  yoni-p!tha  of the Goddess But we should also consider another fact in this connection. In the Sanskrit dramas we find occasional reference to the Kadalbgfha (i.e.,  a house in the plantain garden) of the kings for love-making with women other than the married ones. The tradition is also continued in the Bengali Madgala-kSvyas, where ordinary women, ‘assemble<3on the occasion of any marriage ceremony get enamoured with the  beauty of the bridegroom and wishes to hav? him allured in the Kofttokm (plantain garden). May the name Kadati  for the country where Mlna-nfth got allured "by vile women have something to do with the above fact ? 436 OBSCURE RELKUOUS CULTS the processes of yoga* The preceptor gradually came to his senses, recollected his own history and came out of the land with his worthy disciple Gorakh and once more engaged himself in austere practices of yoga. The other story, Viz.,   the story of Gopi-cand (or Gopl- candra, Govi-candra, or Govinda-candra), which in its complete version includes also the story of his father Manik-candra, runs as follows (the differences in the different versions being here ignored)—  Manik-candra was a renowned and pious king of Bengal. He had many wives, including Mayanamaii, the daughter of Tilak-candra. To avoid family quarrels Mayana was decreed to live separately in the city of Pherusa away from the royal family. In the reign of the pious king the happiness and  prosperity of the people knew no bounds; but unfortunately a tyrant with a long beard hailed from East-Bengal and occupied the post of Minister for Revenue. His oppression soon led the subjects to join together in worshipping Dharma with mystic religious rites with a view to putting the king to death. The attempt of the people became fruitful and the , future longevity of the king was reduced from eighteen years to six months. Citra Govinda (i.e., Citra-gupta, the record- keeper of the king of death and also something like a personal assistant) opened his record-book and issued summons to the king and Goda-yama was sent to bring the life (pmna)   of the king. Mayans came to know of the mishap and hastened to the king. She requested the king to get himself initiated into the great mystic wisdom ( maha-jnana ) of yoga, so that he might be able to challenge the decree of .Death; but the king felt it beneath his dignity to be initiated by his wife and refused the proposal indignantly; as a result death befell the king and he was brought to the city of the dead. But Mayani at once seized the city of the dead through her mystic power and inflicted all sorts of torment on the ‘officers. The king in charge of the dead was in a fix; but Gorakh-nath, who was the Guru of Mayana, brought about some compromise and accordingly Mayana was endowed with the  boon of a son to be born to her. Mayans came to learn that the life-span of the child was destined to be only eighteen years ; she grumbled and it was arranged that the son would be immortal, if he would accept Hidi-siddhl as his Guru and attend upon him. The corpse of the king was then cremated in a truly royal manner; Mayana became Sati  by placing herself on the funeral pyre by the side of her husband ; but she came back unburnt and in due time gave C  _   birth to a son, who was the king Gopi-cand in question. The  prince grew in age and married Aduna, the daughter of king Hari£candra, at the age of twelve (according to some versions at the age of nine), and received his other daughter Paduni as present.1The prince ascended the throne and hegan to enjoy his life to his heart’s content in company of the young wives. Mayana felt that if Gopi-cand was thus allowed to  plunge into worldly enjoyment he would soon die at the age of eighteen. She proposed the king’s renunciation of all wealth and beauty, and the acceptance of Hadipa as his Guru after taking the vow of a yogin. The king first refused the proposal stoutly and indignantly, and he even went so far as to suspect the character of his mother in connection with Hadipa. The mother was shocked and Gorakh, her Guru, cursed Gopi-cand for uttering such calumny against his mother and decreed afflictions during the period of his Sannydsa.  The queen-mother, however, made fresh attempts to convince her son of the vanity of the world and-the excellence of the immortal life, which can be attained only through renunciation and yoga. The son was convinced;  but when he entered the harem he was once more tutored  1According to the version of BhavSnl-dfs Gopi-cand had four qileeiiS, Aduna, Paduni, Ratan-m&ls and Kafica-aonS (Klncan-mgls?). See Gopi-canc/rer Gan, Part II, C. U.f p. 332). According to Sukur Mahmmad the four queens were Aduni, PadunS, CandanS and Phandani. 1 APPENDIX (  b ) 439 440 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  by the queens and instigated against the mother. The king at the instance of the wives asked his mother to demonstrate her yogic power by standing the ordeals to which she would  be put, and the mother agreed. She was put into fire and drowned into water, she was given poison to swallow and made to walk on the edge of a knife and was put under various other direful ordeals of the type; but she came out successful in all ca&es. According to some of the versions the king, at the instance of the queens, dug a hole under the floor-of the stabje where Hadipa was buried alive; the Siddha resorted to his yogic power and remained absorbed in yogic meditation for a long time and wa3 later on rescued by his disciple Kanupa.1Mayana also asked the Hadi-siddha to demon strate his supernatural power of yoga before her son and the Siddha performed urfbelievable miracles and thereby commanded respect and obeisance from the king. The king ultimately accepted Hadipa as his preceptor, renounced the world at the age of eighteen, 2got his head shaved and ears split, bore the beggar’s  Jhuli  and the patched outer garment (k&ntha)  and took to the vow of the yogin. The Guru, however, put the disciple under various trials and tribulations through his magical power, and the worst of all was that the new yogin was sold to a prostitute of the name of Hlra, who compelled him (the king) to serve her as the humblest menial as a punishment for his refusal to yield to her amorous desires. However, the king bore all these trials with infinite patience and implicit obedience towards the Guru. MayanS eventually came to know of the sad plight of her son, rebuked Hadipa for this maltreatment of her son 1Such is the tradition also in the Marathi versions of the story. See Yogi-   sampradaya Viskrti. 2 In the Udaa Gopt-cand,  a Panjabi version of the story of GopI-cSnd, we find that Gopi-cfind was made a king at the age of twelve and took «SannySsa  at the age of sixteen {solo barisi  fea  jogi haa),  and that Gorakh-nath, and not HltjipS, was his Gum. See some portions of the text of Udaa Gopl-cand   quoted from a MS. at the end of the work of Dr* Mohan Singh. APPENDFX (B) 441 and demanded the release of her son at once. After long twelve years Hadipa came back to the king, cursed the  prostitute and all her female attendants to be transformed instantaneously into bats, and conferred the secret wisdom on the king. The king then returned home. He could not first be recognised by the queens; .but when recognised, he was welcomed by all and the king began to lead a happy life once more. 56—14HB APPENDIX (C) A n  A ccount   of    the  P rominent  F igures   in   the    N ath  L iterature   of   B engal In the Nath literature of Bengal the most important figures are (1) Mina-nath, (2) Gorakh-nath, (3) Jalan- dharipa, (4) Kanupa, (5) Gopi-candra and (6) Mayanamati. Various accounts, mostly, legendary in nature, are found about these important personalities; let us give a brief sketch of them in the following pages. c (i) Mina-nath In all the traditions about the Naths, Mina-nath or Matsyendra-nath figures as the first of the human Gurus. In many of the standard texts on yoga Matysendra-nath has  been saluted as the Adi-guru. In the yogic texts the names of Matsyendra, Goraksa, Jalandhara, Cauranghi and others are commonly found as the stalwarts of Hatha-yoga, and some yogic practices are specially associated with the names of some of these yogins.1References to Mina-nath and Goraksa-nath and some other Nathas are also found in some of the Tantric texts.2Mina-nath and Matsyendra-nath (with all the other variants of the. name)3seem to have been identical, and they came to be two perhaps in course of time. In the Nath literature the word  Natha  (which originally 1 Cf. Matey endra-sanat Gorak§3’Saria, Ja1andhara-bandhat   etc. 2 Sylvan L^vi,  Le N6pal,  Vol. I, referred to by Dr. Bagchi. 3The popular name is  Mina-nSth in Bengali, Matsyendra in Sanskrit and Machamdar in Hindi and Panjabi (Cf.  Mocandar in Bengali). *The variants of the name found in the Kaula-jnana-nirnaya  (which is ascribed to Matsyendra-n&th) are Macchaghna-pSda, Macchendra-pada, Matsyendra-pSda, Mlna-pada, Mlna-natha, Macchendra-pSda Matsyendra, Macchindra-nStha-pSda. (See Introduction by Dr. Bagchi)* APPENDIX (c) 443 means ‘ the lord ’) has sometimes been used with an ontological significance and there is sometimes a tendency to interpret the names of the Nathas, particularly of Matsyendra and Goraksa, as some transcendental states of mind or soul attainable through the practice of yoga. Abhinava-gupta in his Tantraloka  speaks of Macchanda-vibhu and explains it as one who tears the fetters of bondage.1Prof. Tucci cites one instance from Durjaya-candra’s commentary on Catus-    pitha-tantra,  where  prajna  is spoken of as makara-mina.2 In the Hindi text Gorakh-sar   (which is a loose Hindi transla tion of the Goraksa-sataka )8Machamdara has been explained as one who has controlled his mind, who has known the truth of the six Cakras (nerve-plexus), and who shines in the unflickering lustre of his soul.4Traditionally, however, Mina-nath has variously been associated with fish, and that  perhaps because of his name (as Gorakh-nath is with the cow, Kukkun-pada with the dog, and so on). We have seen that 1 ragarunam granthi-hilava-kirmm  yo jalamatana-viiana-vrtti  I kalombhitam bahyapathe cakara stan me sa macchanda-vibhuh prasannah  II (.7) In commenting on the verse Yayaratha says —sa sakala-kula-iaBtraVatarakutaya    prasiddhah. macchah paidh samakhyatas capalai citta-Vfttay ah   f  c heditas tu yada tena macchandas tena kjrtitah  il ityady uktya pasa-khandana-svabhave macchandah , etc., p. 25. (Kashmir Series of Texts and Studie?, No. XXIII, Vol I.) Also see Introduction to Kaula-jnana-nirnaya  by Dr. P. C. Bagchi, p. 6. 2 Kaula-jhana-nirnaya.  Introduction by Dr. Bagchi, p. 7. 3MS. preserved in the Library of the MahSraja of Benares and accessible to the writer through the courtesy of the royal family. 4MS. No. 300, p. 1(a). Cf.  also :—  lakh caurast raba paravarai  I sol kartm iG ei* k^rai  II gorakh soi gyamn gami gahai  I * mahadev  so? man ki lahai  il sidha sot jo sadhai  iti I nath sot jo tri-bhpvana jiti  II Kabtr-granthsvali, Paddvali,  No. 32?. 444 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS Mma-nith received instructions on yoga from Adi-nath in. the form of a fish.1In another legend Matsyendra is said to have come out as a boy from the mouth of a fish.2 Mina-nath is known also by another name, Viz.,  Macchaghna8 which means *a killer of the fish ’ and as a matter of fact he has' been spoken of as a Kaivarta or a fisherman by caste.4 According ’to the Kaula-jnana-nirnaya  Matsyendra, though originally a Brahmin by caste, came to be known as  Matsyaghna  as he acted like a fisherman in Candra-dvipa first by killing a big fish and discovering the text containing the sacred knowledge from the belly of the fish and by once more rescuing it (the text) by killing the fish that had once more eaten it up. This tradition is also responsible for the location of Mina-nath in Candra-dvipa, which is generally taken by scholars to b*e some coastal region of East-Bengal.' In the pictorial representations of the Siddhacaryas, available in Tibet and Nepal, Mina-n$th is always associated with the fish,6and somewhere he is found eating the intestines of a fish.7 1The sheat-fish according to the Bengali tradition C/. mattya-rup dhari tatha m'ma mocandar   I  fangir lamate rahe bogal sundar   II Gorak$a~vijayat   p. 13. 2 Vide Yogi-sampradayaViskTti , Ch. II. 3 Cf. Mavchgnda  of Abhinava-gupta. It seems to be a confusion with some colloquial variant of the name Matsyendra. 4 Kaula-jnana-nirnaya. Patala  xvi (22-37). See also introduction, pp. 8-9, 6 MM. H. P. Sastri identifies this Candra-dvipa with the Candra-dvipa of the district of Bakergunj. Dr. Bagchi is disposed to identify it with the Sundwip in the district of Noakhali. (See B. S. P. P., B. S. 1329, $4o. 1; also Introduction to Katila-jfiana-nirnaya  by Dr, Bagchi, pp. 29-32). 6 See B. S. P. P., B. S., 1329, No. 2; also Kalyana , Yogankfl. 7The Tibetan synonyms for Matsyendra*nath (or Lui-pS with whom he ia generally identified) can be restituted in Sanskrit as mat&yodara  or matsy&ntrada (" the eater of the intestines of a fish,” L6vi,  Le Nipal,  I, p. 355, referred to by Dr. Bagchi). Lui-pS is also described in the Pag sam jon  ztfrts as a Buddhist sage sprung from the fisherman caste, who was a disciple of £avari-pa. In the same work Machendra is said to be the incarnation of Mahideva as a fisherman in the womb of a fish,at KamarPpa (Vide  Dr. Bagchi, pp. 22-23). APPENDIX (c) 445 According to all the traditions Gorakh-nath is the disciple of Matsyendra-path. In Bengali Nath literature we find occasional reference to another disciple of Matsyendra of the name of Gabhur-siddha.1We have discussed before the Bengali legend of the down-fall of the great yogin Mina-nath  being seduced by the women of the country of Kadali. The 'm story has its variant in the story of Matsyendra-nath being captivated by the two queens of Ceylon ( Sangal).  The yogin was leading a domestic life in the company of the queens and was ultimately dispovcred by his disciple Gorakh, who entered the palace as a fly.2Matsyendra then left Ceylon, but took with him the two sons, viz.,  Paros-nath and Nim-nath, who were born to them, and the two sons became the founders of the Jain religion. 3According to the Nepalese and Tibetan traditions, as we have noted before, Matsyendra-nath is identified with Lui-pa, who is regarded as the Adi-guru among the Buddhist Siddhacaryas. As S. Levi describes in his Le  Nepal,  Matsyendra is identified with Avalokitesvara Padma-pani. There is the legend that Goraksa once came to  Nepal in search of his Guru Matsyendra; but as the mountain was difficult of access he had recourse to the stratagem of binding the nine nagas  # under a turtle  and sat on them. Consequently, the sky becoming cloudless, there was drought in the valley for long twelve years. Then Bandhu-datta, the Guru of Narendra-deva, the then King of  Nepal, went to mount Kapotala with the king to bring Avalokitesvara or Matsyendra. They propitiated Matsyendra with worship. Avalokitesvara was then cleverly brought to  Nepal, imprisoned in the form of a black bee and installed  1 Cf. ek sisya yache mor jati gorakhat   1 ara sisya ache mor gabhur siddhai  II Gorak&a-vijaya,  p0130. Agnin, *mithu kale na dekhilam gabhur sidhar mukh  II  Ibid,  p. 116. 2 In the Bengali legend he entered the city of Kadah as a dancing girl. 3 Vide  Dr. Bagchi’s Introduction io Kaula-jnana~nirnayat   p. 15; Briggs, p. 233. For details and variants of the story see Briggs, pp. 72-73, ^ 446 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS in pomp in a place called Bugama. There then followed rain in abundance and thus the country was saved. The Brahminical version, however, narrates the story somewhat differently. Once Goraksa-nath went to Nepal, but he got offended with the people of the country as he was not warmly received. He imprisoned the clouds and put them under his seat for twelve years ; consequently there was drought and famine. Fortunately Matsyendra chanced to come to  Nepal at the time and, while the Guru was passing by, Goraksa stood up to show him respect and thus the clouds were let loose and there was rain in abundance, which saved the whole country. Matsyendra thus in the form of Avalokitesvara Padma-pani commands universal respect in  Nepal still to the present time and is still worshipped in the land with much reverence. 1  There is the celebrated annual  procession oj  Ratha yatra  (a procession with Matsyendra as Avalokitesvara on a decorated chariot) in honour of this  popular god. 2  Matsyendra has, however, been deified in later times in many other places and the images of Matsyendra andlhis favourite disciple Goraksa are found in some shrines of the Nathists,—and the foot-print of these two demi-gods are also worshipped in some places by the Kanphat yogins. The* peculiar custom of having the ears split is also sometimes traditionally believed to have been introduced by Matsyendra-nath and many are the legends that are associated with such a tradition. There is another tradition which makes Matsyendra-nath the founder of Kama- rupa-mahapltha of tfie so-called Arddha-trayambaka-matha, which represents the fourth or Kaula order of Tantric worship. Again there is a legend recorded in the Goraksa-imaya-sara,   which makes Matsyendra-nath identical with Maha Visnu 1According to the Nepalese tradition Mina-nath is the younger brother of Matsyendra and is worshipped almost with equal pomp. 2 For a detailed description of this procession and other religious functions in  Nepal in honour of Matsyendra see Briggs, pp. 144-145, pp. 23!* et seq . APPENDIX (c) 447 Sanga, whom some scholars are inclined to identify (though on insufficient ground) with the old Visnu-svamL Attempts have been made to fix up the approximate time of Matsyendra. The time of his advent has been held in the  Nepalese tradition synchronous with the reign of Narendra- deva, who flourished in the seventh century A.D., but as the alleged synchronism cannot be historically relied upon  because of the extremely mythical nature of the whole tradi tion, the time of Matsyendra cannot be fixed up with reference to it. Dr. P. C. Bagchi, however, has attempted to fix the date sometime in the tenth century with reference to the date of the manuscript of the Kaula-jnana-nirnaya.  The mention of Matsyendra (as Macchanda) by Abhinava-gupta, who lived towards the beginning of the eleventh century approximately confirms this date. Again the tradition of the identity of Matsyendra with Lui-pa (who flourished in the terith century )1 will also put Matsyendra to the same century. The time of Gopi-cand will also ascribe some such time to Matsyendra .2   Many of the traditions taken together will strengthen the  belief that Matsyendra, the first Nath Guru flourished at the latest in the tenth century A.C., perhaps earlier. (if) Gorakh-nath i Though Mina-nath or Matsyendra-nath was the first of the Nath Gurus, the most celebrated Nath Guru was Goraksa-nath. All Indian traditions of later days make him the incarnation of Siva, who is the 'divine source of all yoga. It is believed, and there seems to be a considerable amount of truth in the belief, that it was Gorakh, who  popularised, if not introduced, the principles and practice of yoga throughout the4ength and breadth of India. As in the case of Mina-nath, the name Goraksa-nath has frequently been 1 Supra,  pp. 227.228, s  Infra,  pp. 457-459. 448 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS explained docetically. Thus in the hymn of Goraksa-nath by Srikrsna in the  Raja-guhya  it has been said,—“ By the letter ‘ga* is implied the qualified nature, ‘ra’ indicates the form and beauty, by ‘ksa’ is implied his nature as imperishable Brahman,—salute be to that Sri-goraksa .”1  He is the supreme Brahman of the Brahmans, the gem on the crown of Rudra and others,— and the three worlds are made by him. He is the totality of all the qualities,—he is at the same time the absence of all the qualities,—he resides in qualities in his unqualified nature,—he is both formless and with form. He is worshipped by the gods (in heaven), by men on earth, and  by the Nagas in the nether land. He is all alone, eternal and free from the fetters of existence, he is the supreme Brahman and the imperishable divine lustre. The sky is his temple decked with various gems, and the all-good lord is there with boons of safety and security. He is saluted by Brahma, Visnu and other gods,—by the sages and other ordinary people and also by all the Siddhas, who are of the essence of knowledge .”2  Such docetic descrip tions of Goraksa-nath are also found in the $ri-gorasa-   sahasra-nama-stotra  (hymns of the thousand names of Sri- goraksa) of the Kalpa-druma-tantra  and also in the  Brahmanda-purana.  ’ Bengali literary traditions make him the purest and strongest of all the yogins. The erotic charm even of goddess Durga herself was repeatedly put to shame  by the purity and strength of his character. Most of the renowned mediaeval saints, who composed songs in vernaculars, paid homage to . this great Yogin along with Matsyendra, Carpata, Bhartr, Gopi-cand and others. Kabir refers to Gorakh several times in his poems and there ga-haro guna-samyukto ra-kflro rupa-1ak$anak   1 k§a-karenak^oyom brahmfl irbgorak$a namo’stti  te  II*• Quoted in the Gorak*a-siddhanta~8arpgraha ,  p. 42. 2 Goraksa-siddhanta-samgraha,    p. 42. 3  Ibid.,   p. 43. APPENDIX (c) 449 goes the tradition in the Hindi work Gorakh-nSth-ki-   gosthi  that Kabir met Gorakh and held religious discourse with him. A similar tradition is found in the  Janam   S&khi  of Babs-Nanak, where it is said that Nsnak met Gorakh-nath and Matsyendra-nath and held religious discourse with them. It is further said that when, in course of his long wanderings as a Yogin, Nanak went to Ceylon he was mistaken for Gorakh-nath .1  Dadu refers to Gorakh and the doctrine of the innumerable Siddhas. Gahinl-nSth of the twelfth or thirteenth century acknowledges Gorakh to be the great teacher of Plpa; Guzrati poets also mention Gorakh with reverence. Krsna-das, a Guzrati poet, sings of Mucchandra and Goraksa as two Jaina saints .8  Rajjabjl, a Rajputana saint of the nineteenth century, mentions Gorakh with reverence. If we take account of the literature of Nathism in all parts of India, we shall find that every where traditions hold Gorakh to have been the supreme of all the Gurus. So widely popular has been the great saint Gorakh-nath among many of the Yogi-sects of India, for a long time comprising a decade of centuries, that countless traditions have grown round the figure of the great yogin, and Mr. Briggs has taken the trouble of collecting many of these traditions in his work on Gorakh-nath and The Kanphat    Yogis of India*  From these heaps of wild legends, which are often contradictory to one another, and which have grown more with a belief in the divinity of Gorakh, it is now impossible to construct any historical account of the life and teachings of the saint. Traditions generally agree to hold him to be the- disciple of Matsyendra* Matsyendra, we have seen, was most probably a saint of the tenth century A. C.; Goraksa then must also be placed  • * 1 See  Janam Sakhi , Trumpp’s translation. * Dr. Mohan Singh, op. cit   p. 8. 3 See also the worl- of Dr, Mohan Singh, 57-141 IB 450 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS sometime in the tenth century, or at least in the Brat half of the eleventh century. Traditionally Gorakh is regarded  by the orthodox K&nphat yogins to be unborn and death less ; he is the immortal saint, believed to be living still now in some hilly region of the Himalayas. Gorakh has sometimes been held to be the Guru even of the triad, viz.,   Brahma, Visnu and Siva, and there is the story of Visnu’s creating the world in the primordial water from a handful of ashes from the eternal fire (  dhuni ) of Gorakh in the netherworld (  Patala).   There are also storiejs of Gorakh’s fighting with many goddesses in different &akta centres and the goddesses in every case had to bend their heads  before the mighty Yogin .1  Various are the legends even about his birth in the human form. jWe have seen that in the Bengali work Goral&a-vijaya   he is said to have come of the matted hair of Mahadeva .8  There is also the story of his being born on a dung-hill from a quantity of ashes, which was given by Mahadeva to a barren lady to swallow in order to have a child, and which was thrown away in disregard on a dung-hill. Yet another legend would make him born of a cow by Mahadeva. Apart from these legendary accounts traditions would show that he was born in some low caste family. There are controversial legends about the birth place of Gorakh. The mythical account says that he lived in the Punjab at Peshwar (?) in the Satya (kfta)  yuga, at Gorakhpur in the Treta yuga, at Hurmy beyond Dwarak& in the DvSpara yuga and at Gorakhmari (Gorakhmandi) in Kathiawar in the Kali yuga. It is also said that Gorakh appeared in the Kali yuga in the form of the 6 e§a Naga. According to the  Nepalese tradition Gorakh lived at Gorakh in 'Western  Nepal in.a cave. The cave and the town are said to have 1  For many such stories see Yogi-sampradaydviskrti . 2 Cj.  jafa bhedi nihalila jati gorakh-nSiha  I  $id4ha jhuli siddha katha tahSr galatq  IJ APPENDIX (c) 451 obtained their name from Gorakh-nath, and even the national name Gurkha  is sometimes explained with reference to Gorakh. Others would again make Gorakh-nath the ori ginal inhabitant of Gorakhpur in U. P., and the name of the city is also explained with reference to the name of the saint. As a matter of fact Gorakhpur is one of the most important centres of the Kanphat Yogis even to the present day. Some  Nepalese tradition would again hold that Gorakh came to Kathmundu from the Punjab. He is again claimed as a saint of Oudh. The monks of Gorakhpur hold that he came to the United Provinces from the Punjab, and that his chief seat was at Tilla, in Jhelum. Traditions in Kacch (Sindh) would have him in the Punjab. Yogis at Nasik hold that Gorakh went from Nepal to the Punjab and thence to other parts of India. Dr. Mohan Singh holds that Gorakh was an original inhabitant of some place round the area of Peshwar. But from the preponderance of traditions and from the importance which all the Kanphat Yogis attach to Tilla in Jhelum of the Punjab, it will appear that Gorakh was an original inhabitant of the Punjab, at least a considerable  portion of his life-time was spent in the province. But at the same time it seems that Gorakh travelled throughout the whole of India and legends associate his life and activities with Afganistan, Beluchistan, the Punjab, North-Western Provinces, Sind, Guzrat and Maratha in the west, north and south, and with Ceylon in the extreme south, with U. P. in the middle, and with Nepal, Assam and Bengal in the east. In the Nath literature of Bengal Gorakh-nath figures  prominently as the disciple of Mina-nath and the preceptor of queen Mayanamatl, mother of king Gopi-cand. But in the literature of the other vernaculars “ Gorakh is said to have  been the teacher of Pur an, son of Salbahan of Sialkot; of Bharthrihari, Step brother of Vikramaditya of Ujjain; of Raja Gopi Chand of Ujjain, Rangpur, Dharanagri, or Kanchanpur; of queen Lunan Chamari and queen Sundran 452 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS of Assam (or Orissa?); of Ranjha of Jhang; of Gugga Pir of Rajputna; of Baba Ratan of Peshwar; of Dharmanath, who migrated to Western India; of king Ajaipal and Venapal; of Kapila muni and Balnath; of the holy Prophet Muhammad; of Madar; of Luharipa; of Ismail, a Siddha; of Ratan Sain, the hero of Padumavati by Jayasi.” 1  The tradition of Gorakh’s holding religious discourse with Kablr and Nanak, the most important poets of the Santas and the Sikhs respectively, have already been mentioned. All these tradi tions convince one only of the extent of popularity which Gorakh has been enjoying in the religious history of a vast country like India. (Hi) Jalandhari-pa So far as the Gopi-^and legend is concerned, Jalandhari-pa figures as the most important as he was the Guru of Gopi-cand himself. Jalandhar! and Matsyendra were direct disciples of Adi-nath and ds Matsyendra was destined by goddess Durga to be snared by the women of Kadali, Jalandharl-pa was destined, as desired by him, to lead the life of a sweeper (which was the work of a Hadi) and enjoy the company of queen Mayanamati. In the Nath literature of Bengal Jalandharl-pa is better known as Hadi-pa .2  It may be noticed in this connection that while Mina or Matsyendra and Goraksa generally bore the title of  Nath   with their name, Jalandhar! (or Hadi-pa) as also his disciple Kanu-pa bore the title of *pa ’8 (and seldom Nath) with their  1Dr. Mohan Singh, op. c if., p. 7, 2 In the Gorakid’Vijaya    we find that this Siddha originated from the bone [hada)    of Mahsdeva and hence the name Hfidi-pS. But the more plausible reason for the name seems to be his desire to take up the meanest profession of a Hff# (a very low class people with the general occupation of the sweeper), if, however, that would allow him a chance to enjoy a woman like goddess Durga* 3 This pa is, however, nothing but the colloquial form of the Sanskrit word p&da    commonly used as a mark of reverence with the names of the Si&dhScaryas. The use of pada    as a mark of reverence is found in many other religious sects also. The form pha    a6 in H5^i*ph5, Ksnu-pha, etc., seems to be nothing but the East Bengal dialectal aspirated form of pS   . # APPENDIX (C) 453 names. It is perhaps because of this fact that Jalandhari-pa has been traditionally held to be the introducer of the ‘ Pa ’ sect among the Kanphat Yogins. He has also been held responsible for the practice of splitting the ears. It is said that when king Bhartr was initiated by Jalandhar! into the Yogi-cult, the former asked for some distinctive mark,—and the splitting of ears and wearing long ear-rings were the distinctive marks, which he was allowed to have .1  The Augharl sect of yogins also trace their origin to Jalandhar!. According to the Tibetan tradition Jalandhar! is identical with the Buddhist Siddha Bala-pada, who was born in Sind in a rich Sudra family. He courted Buddhism and was  practising yoga in the province-of Udayana. Thence he went to Jalandhar of the Punjab and was henceforth known as Jalandhar  !.2  He travelled from Jllandhar to Nepal and thence to Avanti, where he made many disciples including' Krsna-carya. He then came, to Bengal in the guise of a Hadi, performed miracles, and was recognised by queen Mayanamati, who made her son king Gopi-cand his disciple. Gopi-cand, however, took the Siddha to be a cheat and the Siddha was buried alive and was rescued later on by his disciple Krsnacarya after twelve years .8  This legend of Jalandhar! being buried alive by king Gopi-cand (at the instance of his queens and minister) and his rescue  by Krsnacarya is found in all the traditions,—Bengali, Hindi, Marathi and Tibetan. In the Gorak$a-vijaya  we find that KanU'pa was informed of the sad plight of the Guru by Goraksa-nath. In the thirty-sixth song of the Caryapadas we find Kanhu-pada (or Krsnacarya-pada) mentioning 1Briggs, p. 9, 2 We find mention of some Jalandhar-gad in the Dharma-mangala literature (c/. Ml^ 70; Dvija Rfim-candra, MS. C. U. No. 2464, p. 2) which seems tote some native state in Bengal. 3 Vide,  a note on the Antiquity of Chittagong compiled from the Tihetan works Pag Sam Jon Zang  of Sumpa Khanpo and Kahbad Dun Den of    Lama TfiranSth by S. C Das, (J.A.S.B., 1898.) 454 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS  jalandhari-pa as his Guru. We are loathe to believe that this Jalandhari-pa and Kanhu-pS of the Buddhist fold are identical with the Nath Siddhas of the same name. Jalandhari is said to have been the Guru also of king Bhartrhari of Ujjain, whose renunciation of the royal wealth and enjoy ment to take the vow of a yogin is associated with the same popular pathos as that of king Gopi-cand. In Western India songs on Bhartr are as truly popular as those on Gopi-cand. Other traditions, however, make Bhartr the disciple of Gorakh. {it)) Kanu-pa   » Kanu-pa 1  was the worthy disciple of Hadi-pa. Like Mina-nath and Jalandhari Kanu-pa was destined for the city of Dahuka 2  in the south, where he would have the oppor tunity of enjoying a woman like Durga in her amorous guise. Though there is thus the indication of the fall also of Kanu-  pa, we do not get any account of his fall in any of the stories either relating to Gorakh-nath or Gopi-cand. On the other hand we find that Kanu-pa once met Gorakh in his way, informed him of the fall of his Guru Mina-nath in the country of Kadali and was in his turn informed by Gorakh of the sad plight of his own Guru Hadi-pa, who was buried under the floor of the stable by king Gopi-cand. Kanu-pa at once hastened to the city of Gopi-cand (in Meherkul or the city of Pstika )8  and rescued his Guru by devising various means. All the poets are, however, silent as to what happened to Kanu-pa after the rescue of the Guru. In the Gopl-cander Sannyas  by Sukur Mahammad there 1 KanU-pa is variously named as Kan up ha, Kanpba, Kahnal, Kanai, Kilupha,   Kalapha, etc., all of which are! dialectal variants of the Sanskrit name Krsna»p5da. 2 The city is also called Dfihura, Vahadi, Dsrfiv, etc. * • 5 For these cities and the controversies over their identification in different parts of East Bengal and North Bengal see the introduction to the Gopucandrer Gsn  (C, U.) by Mr VUvefivar BhaftScSrya* APPENDIX (c) 455 is, however, further indication of Kanu-p&’s trials in the city of D§huka with the curse from his own Guru Jalandhari, with whom he (Kanu-pa) played false in order to save Gopi-cand from the wrath of Jalandhar!. It was further decreed by the Guru at the supplications of Mayanamati that Kanu-pa would be rescued from his trials in the city of Dahuks by his disciple Bail Bhadai. But nothing whatsoever is heard of Kanu-pa in the literature. Those stories of the rescue of Jalandhar!  by his disciple Kanu-pa are also found in the legends of Western and Northern India.—but there Kanu-pa seems to  be more commonly known as Kanari-nath. The question as to whether the Kanu-pa of the Nath literature is identical with the Kanhu-pida, or Kjsnacarya-  pada of the Carya-songs has rightly .attracted the notice of scholars .1  We have already noticed the important fact that Kanu-pa of the Carya-songs has, at least in one place, spoken of Jalandhari-pa as hfs Guru. But inspite of this coincidence, the identity‘of the two is still now a matter of speculation. Again, even in the esoteric Buddhist field we find that many Tantric works including the important commentary on the  Hetiajra-tantra  (known as the  Hevajra-    panjika  or Yoga-ratnamala ) are ascribed to Krsnacarya, and we have nothing to be sure that the authors of all these works are the same ; on the other hand there is reason to believe that there were more than one person of the same name  belonging to the Buddhist fold. Rai S. C. Das, Bahadur in his edition of the Pag Sam Jon Zang  has given short accounts of at least three Krsnacaryas; of these one of the Krsnacaryas had his disciple inBhade, who has been included in the lists of the eighty-four Siddhas. This Bhade has un doubtedly given rise to Bail Bhadai of the Bengali Nath literature. . 1 See  Hajar Bacharvr    Ptirfifl  Bangalay Siddha Kanup&r Git    O Dorrtha by    Dr. M Shahidullah, Dacca Sihitya Parisat Granthsvall, No. 10. 456 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS (v) Gopi-candra or Govinda-candra Almost all the legends about Gopi-candra or Gopl-cand describe him as a powerful king of Bengal. But literary records of Bengal do not agree on the point of localising the kingdom of Gopl-cand. On the whole two conflicting claims are found; according to some versions of the songs the locality of the whole story of Gopi-cand is North Bengal in or near about the district of Rangpur, while in many other versions the locality is said to be in the district of Tippera. As a matter of fact the topographical references found in'some of the versions lead us to North Bengal and there are traditions in thQse parts of North Bengal of Gopl-cand’s being a king of the vicinity; but the topo graphical references in some other versions will again lead one to think that the locality must be somewhere in the district of Tippera in East Bengal .1  The fact may be that the empire of Gopi-cand extended over parts of East Bengal as well as of North Bengal and hence are the traditions in both the places. The legend of Gopl-cand has already  been described. We shall deal here very briefly with some of the questions pertaining to the probable time of his reign. He was perhaps a Gandha-banik (literally a seller of perfumes) by caste, and the tradition of his family relation with Cand Bene, the important merchant that figures in our early and mediaeval literature, will also corroborate this tradition. According to the version of Bhavanl-das Gopi- cand left no posterity; while local traditions both in Rangpur and Tippera show that he left a son Bhava-candra or Udaya- candra by name. According to the Hindi and Marathi tradition Gopi-cand had a sister of the name of Campavatl, who, after Gopl-cand had taken his vow of Sannyasa, tried to dissuade him,—but was at last herself convinced of the 1 For the discussion on the Topography see Mr. V. BhattScSrya's introduction   to C. U. edition. See also B*S,PtP.» 1328, No. 2, APPENDIX (c) 457 superiority of the yogic life .1  European scholars like Bucha nan Hamilton, Glazier and Grierson held that the family of Gopl-candra was somehow related to the family of the Pila kings of Bengal. Some hold that Msnik-candra, who was the father of Gopl-candra, was the brother of Dharma-pala, and after the death of Manik-candra there followed war  between Dharma-pala and Mayanamatl, mother of Gopi-cand, and Gopi-cand inherited the throne after Dharma-pala had  been defeated and killed; some again hold that Dharma-pida was the brother-in-4aw of Mayanamatl. Grierson, however, held that Manik-candra was not the brother, but some rival of, or native prince under the sway of king Dharma-pala. This theory of the relation of Gopi-cand or his father with Dharma-psla has been discarded by scholars, as no credible evidence on the point is available. Of the few important historical documents available on Gopi-cand we may consider first of all the rock-inscription of Tirumalai placed by Rajendra-cola of the Deccan. According to this inscription Rajendra-cola defeated Dharma-pala of Dandabhukti, Ranasura of Southern Radha, Govinda-candra of Vanga and Mahlpala of Northern Rada. We have seen that Gopl- candra is also wellknown as Govinda-candra, and Vanga would originally mean East Bengal, and there is also the tradition, as we have seen, of Gopi-cand being a king of East Bengal; associating these facts together it may  be presumed that king Gobinda-candra, referred to in the Tirumalai inscription, is the Gopi-cand of the Nath literature. Rajendra-cola flourished in the first quarter of the eleventh century; if the identity of the Govinda-candra of the inscrip tion and that of Nath literature be accepted then Gopi-cand or Govinda-candra may be taken to have flourished in the first half of the eleventh century; and this fixing of time 1 Cf. Yogi-aampradaya-viskrti*   Ch. 42. Cf.  also the Hindi version of the   Gopi-cand song, B.S.P.P., 1328 No. 2, p. 52. 5©—14110 458 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS approximately tallies, we have seen, with the time of Matsyendra-nath, who might have flourished in the tenth century. The discovery of three copper-plates in the districts of Faridpur and Dacca in East Bengal, containing the genealogy of some Candra-dynasty of East Bengal, has thrown a flood of light on the question of the identification of Gopi- cand. The genealogy of the Candra-dynasty, found in these inscriptions, runs as follows : —  Purna-candra Suvafna-candra . I Trailokya-candra * I Sri-candra According to Durlabh Mallik the (father and grand-father of Manik-candra were Suvarna-candra and Dhadi-candra respectively. Dr. N. K. Bhattasali has tried to explain Dhadi-candra as referring to Purna-candra. According to the Marathi and Hindi tradition Tilak-candra or Trailokya- candra was the father of Gopi-candra. Again Mayanamati herself has sometimes been spoken of as the daughter of Tilak-candra. On the whole the names of Suvarna-candra and Trailokya-candra are found common in the inscriptions and in the Nath literature and this has led scholars to suppose that Gopi-candra came out of the Candra dynasty of East Bengal. Experts have given their opinion that these copper inscriptions belong to the tenth or eleventh century A. C., and therefore Gopi-cand might have flourished some time near about this time. Another fact to be considered in this connection is that Deva-gana, grand-father of Bhadrelvara, who again was the father of Suresvara, well-known author of the Sabda-pradipa,  was the court physician of king Govinda-candra; Suresvara flourished probably in the latter  APPENDIX (c) 459 half of the eleventh century,—his great grand-father Deva- gana then flourished perhaps sometime in the second half of the tenth century or in the first half of the eleventh century. But the difficulty is that there is nothing to be sure that the Govinda-candra referred to by Suresvara in the introduction of his work is identical with the Govinda- candra or Gopi-cand in question. (oi)  Mayanamati Before we conclude the chapter we should say a few words about Mayanamati, who is important not only as the mother%of king Gopi-cand, but also as a woman well versed  in yoga and having miraculous power thereby. In some of the versions she is said to be the*daughter of some king, Tilak-cand by name, and her name in her childhood was Sisumati (and Suvadani according to another version). According to the. Tibetan tradition she was the sister of  Bhartr, the king of Malvar, mentioned above. A modern author Candra-nath yogin speaks of her as the  Dharma- bahin  of king Bhartr of Ujjain. 1  In the Hindi version of  the story of Gopi-cand she is said to be the daughter  of Gandarva-sena of Dhara-nagar. From her very childhood  she showed signs of possessing wonderful yogic capacities and this attracted the notice of the great yogin Gorakh-nath, who initiated her into the Nath cult. Gopi-cand, we have seen, once cast serious aspersions against the mother and  the legend of the curse of goddess Durga towards Hadi-pa to be enthralled in the city of Mehera-kula in the company of  queen Mayanamati, lends some support to such a suspicion;  but the suspicion of the son was stoutly denied by the mother and the poets have also very cleverly handled the £  situation. Mayanamati is depicted in the Nath literature as a Tantric Dakinl, which means the woman of mystic 1 Yogi-aampradaya-viikfti*  Ch. 39* 460 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS wisdom. As the Dakini is deified in the Tantras as the goddess of mystic wisdom, or some sort of a demi-goddess having mystic wisdom as well as supernatural powers, so Mayanamatl has also been deified in later times as some one midway between a witch and a goddess and she has also sometimes been identified with Cand! or Kali, and she is still noy worshipped in some parts of North Bengal with animal sacrifice by priests belonging to the Raja-vamsa caste. Mr. V. Bhattacarya has presented us with one of the interesting songs that are recited on the occasion of the worship of Mayana-budi. APPENDIX (D) G eneral  I nformations   about   the  D harma  L iterature of   B engal In giving an idea of the literature belonging to the Dharma cult we should first of all mention the two liturgical works available on the cult, the Sunya-purana   1  ascribed to Ramai Pandit, who is traditionally supposed to be the founder of the cult in the age of Kali, and the other, the  Dharma-puja-vidhana  which is also ascribed to Ramai Pandit, as well as to Raghu-nand&na. These liturgical texts represent popular literature of a composite nature in a very loosely versified diction, which embody topics on cosmogony, liturgy, legends about Dharma- worship, building of temples, rituals, ceremonies and indigenous practices, all centering round the godhead of Dharma. There is a great deal of controversy over the authenticity of these texts and the time of their composition and their authorship. As our present study is not primarily historical, we do not propose to enter into the details of these controversies ; for our purpose it is necessary to state  briefly the conclusions, which we have arrived at by a minute study of the data available on tlje points at issue. 1 Edited by Mr. N. N. Vasu for the first time and published from the   Sihitya Parisat and then by Mr. Charu Chandra Banerjee from the Vasumat!   Office, The name Sunya-purana  was used for the book for the first time by tho   editor Mr. N, N Vasu and the naming seems to be arbitrary»for no such name of the book is found in any *manuscript (the original manuscript of Mr. Vasu is not,   however, available to the public). In one place of the text the book is called   Agama-pwana,  and*it is also traditionally called the Hakflnda-purZna  . MM. H. P.   £*strl named it as Ramai Pan^ter Paddhati.  However, as the book became widely   known by the name of S&nya-purUna  the name was retained in the second edition by Mr. Banerjee. 462 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS As for the Sunya-purana,  which is ascribed to Ramai Pandit, there are sufficient reasons to believe that the text in its published form does not represent the contents of a single book composed at any particular point of time by any particular author. On the other hand the text seems to be a collection of versified accounts of the Dharma cult which grew during the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries among' the adherents of this cult. It will be observed that the same topics under the same heading have been intro duced thrice or even four times within the text with slightly different readings. There is no order in the arrangement,— cosmogonical, liturgical, ceremonial and legendary accounts have been introduced here and there pell-mell. Linguistic differences are also noticeable in different chapters. All « these go to prove that the text is more of the nature of a compilation than the authentic version from a single hand. With the pseudo-archaic forms introduced late in the composition of the verses the language of the Sunya-purana   in general presents no archaic character which might  justify its claim to have been composed sometime during the fourteenth or the fifteenth century. From the heaps of traditional accounts that have gathered round the figure of Ramai Pandit we are loathe to explain away the  personality of Ramai as purely fictitious. We may not, and we should not, accept all the mythical and semi-mythical accounts given in the Sri-dharma-purana  ascribed to Mayura-  bhatta ,1  or in the Yatra-siddha-rayer Paddhati 2; but never theless Ramai seems to have been a historical personage. Ramai was held in all Dharma-mangala literature to have been the founder of the Dharma cult. The fact may historically be explained in the following manner. A 1Edited by Mr. Basanta Kumar Chatterjee and published by tfie Sahitya   Parisat. 2 Portions of .the work containing the account of RSmfii Pandit are quoted   in the introduction tq the $Unya~purania  (Parisat edition) by Mr. N. N. Vasu. APPENDIX (D) 463 'mass of crude local religious ideas and practices of purely indigenous origin got mixed up with some crypto-Buddhist ideas and practices and with these again were incorporated many Hindu ideas and practices in course of time. This curiously composite whole, which" could neither be recognised as any form of Buddhism, nor any form of Hinduism, was  perhaps modified and loosely codified into a popular religious system by Ramai Pandit and henceforth Rsmsi Pandit has been enjoying the credit of being the founder of the cult. Attempts have been made by scholars to determine the time of Ramai Pandit, but it appears to us that no such convincing data are available as may warrant the fixing up of the date historically. One way of forming some idea about the time of Ramai is to trace the history of later Buddhism in Bengal, from which evolved this mixed religion among the ordinary people, and from a considera tion of the course of evolution* of later Buddhism it appears that Ramai Pandit might have appeared in or about the twelfth century A.D. As we have said, detailed accounts of Ramai Pandit and his heirs are given in the Sri-dharma-   mangala  of Mayura-bhatta, edited by Mr. B. K. Chatterjee as well as in the Paddhati  of Yatrasiddha Raya ;1  but for various reasons we are not prepared to believe in the histori city of these accounts. The accounts given there are all of an extremely legendary nature. 2  It may cursorily be 1 Vide  B. S. P. P., B. S. 1313, No. 2. 2 Thus, for instance, it has been said that at the end of the Dvfipara age   VilvanStha, a Brahmin of the city of Dvfirikfi, with his wife Kamalfi, worshipped   Vi?nu desirous of a child; long time passed without any issue and then the   couple went out on pilgrimage and observed austere penances in sacred places with   the purpose of having a son born to them,—but all was in vain; being thus sadly   disappointed they were one day about to commit suicide, but were saved by sage   Markandeya who taught them the right method of worshipping Visnu who is here   plainly ‘identified* with Dharma-r5ja. They followed Kia advice, -propitiated Vi^u   or Dharma and had a son born to them,—and as the son was born in the Rfima   Tlrtha, the son was called Ramai, It has been said in this connection that the   child was born in the white PancamI of the month of VaiS&kha on Sunday and 464 OBSCURE RELIGIOUS CULTS mentioned here that in the ritualistic texts as well as in ' the Dharma-mangalas we find occasional references to Msrkagdeya Muni in connection with the worship of Dharma, and sometimes he is depicted as the instructor of Ramai in the matter of Dharma-worship. This seems to be nothing but an attempt somehow to connect the Dharma cult with the Puranic Hindu legends. Attempts have also been made by scholars to connect the legends of the Dharma cult with those of the Nath literature and to determine the time of Ramai Pandit with the help of the  personages of the Nath literature. 1  In the $Qnya-purana   we find that king Haricandra' erected a temple of Dharma and with his chief queen Madana worshipped Dharma with  pomp and pageantry avowedly with the purpose of having a son born to them. This Haricandra has been identified with king Haricandra of Sabhar in the district of Dacca. Two daughters of Hariscandra, viz.,  Aduna and Paduna were given in marriage to the renowned king Gopi-candra or Govinda-candra, who flourished in the eleventh century. 2 The Tibetan historian Lama Taranath has also mentioned the name of Haricandra, who was. a king in Bengal in the eleventh century. But the story of Haricandra (or rather Hariicandra), found in the Dharma-mangala literature, seems to-be purely mythical, and like the story of the sage Markandeya and the fragments of many other Puranic stories, this well-known story of Haricandra or Hariicandra the Star was  Bharani (vaiSakht sit a-   pane ami nakfatra bharani   I rabivar Subha yoge    prasave brahmani   IIp. 13). The same account is found in the Paddhati   of    Yatiasiddha-raya (See introduction to the &unya-purana,   edited by Mr. N. N.   Vasu). But it has been pointed out by Dr. Shahiduilah that there cannot be any   Sunday in the month of VaUfikha with white Paiicam! and the star  Bharani   (see   introductory article of Dr- Shahiduilah in the $1inya~puranat    edited by Mr. C* C.   Banerjee, p. 35) and this speaks of the imaginary nature of the whole account. 1See an article on RSmSi Pandit by Dr. Binay Kumar Sen, M.A,t PhtD.,   in the Calcutta Review  , August, 1924. 2 *VPra,i APPENDIX (D) 465 has been interwoven with the main story of the Dharma- mangala literature. This story of Harifcandra was current in India as a very popular story from the time of the Vedas. This story is found in the  Aitareya Brahmana, Kausitaltf     Brdhmana  and in many other places of the Vedic literature. 1   The same story is told in the  Mahabharata  in a slightly different form as the story of Kama’s offering the flesh of his son to Lord Visnu, disguised as a Brahmin guest. In the Vedic literature the story of Harilcandra begins with the question of having a son by propitiating God Varuna; it is therefore, very likely that the same story was told in connection with Ranjavati’s having a son born to her 'by  propitiating Lord Dharma. We m#ay point out here that, not only king Harilcandra, but even Lord NarSyana   has in some versions of the Dharma-mangalas been held to have been the first worshipper of Dharma. 2  Moreover, 1 Vide, A History oj Indian Literature  by Winternitz. pp. 211-216; also intro duction to the Sri dharma purana  o£ Mayurabhatta by B. K. Chatter jeej pp. 44-45. 2 In the Dharma-mangalas we often find a chronology of the twelve   worshippers of Dharma According to the chronology given by Mfinik Gfinguli the   first worshipper was Lord Nfirayana on the shore of the Kslroda sea; the second   was the King of the gods (Indra?). the third was king Mahisura, the fourth was   Kuvadatta of CapSya; the fifth Haricandra, who sacrificed his son to Lord Dharma;   the sixth was Ks$i of the Rija-vamla, the seventh was Rafijffvatl, who laid herself    on spikes in order to have a aon; the eighth was Lftusen; the ninth was Jayasimha,   who worshipped Dharma on the bank of the Lak«* Tara; the tenth worship was   in Kafiura and the twelfth worship was in connection with the death of IchSi-ghos   (i Sri-dharma-mangala  , p. 225),   According to Ghana-ram the first worshipper of    Dharma was MahSraja Bhoja; the second was Dhupadatta, who erected a temple   of Dharma in Mfir^ik-dvlpa; the third was Mathura-ghos and the fourth the Brahmin   Mahimukha; the fifth was KSlu*ghos who was born from the sweat of Dharma; the   sixth was king Harilcandra the seventh was the son of Sadfi poma; the eighth was   Asfii Cart^ala; the ninth the Brahmin Mahfpfila; the tenth was Sivadatta of the   Birui caste (i.e.,  people dealing in betel-leaves); the eleventh was Harihara Bfiiti and   the twelfth was Lfiusen {&ri-dharma-mibgala   of Ghana-rfim, p. 272) According   to Rup-rfim again, the first woiship was offered by the Brahmin Harihara, to whom   Dharma appeared in the form of a Brahmaclrin; the second was made by the aon   of a cowherd (goal konSr)  who built a golden house for