Preview only show first 10 pages with watermark. For full document please download

Tutorial 9




Column Operations 1 Column Operations © 2000 AEA Technology plc - All Rights Reserved. Chem 5_4.pdf  1 2 Column Operations Workshop In this module, you will simulate an Ethanol Plant. You will get more practice with the Column unit operation of HYSYS by:  mod modeli eling ng colum columns ns with side side draws draws • add adding ing a colu column mn with real real tray trays. s. Typically an ethanol f ermentation process produces mainly ethanol plus several by-products in small quantities: methanol, 1-propanol, 2propanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-pentanol, acetic acid, and CO2. The CO2 produced in the fermentation vessel carries some ethanol. This CO2 stream is washed with water in a vessel (CO2 (CO2 Wash) Wash) to recover the ethanol, which is recycled to the fermenter. The ethanol rich product stream from the fermenter is sent to a concentration (Conc (Conc)) tower. An absorber with a side vapour draw can be used to represent this tower. tower. This vapour draw is taken from Stage 2 so as to have an azeotropic ethanol product with less methanol contamination. The top vapour is fed to a light purification tower (Lights) Lights) where most of the remaining CO2 and some methanol is vented. The feed to the Rectifier (Rect (Rect)) is the bottoms product of the Lights purification tower and the vapour draw from the concentration tower. The Rectifier is operated as a conventional distillation tower. tower. Methanol concentrates towards the top stages, so a small distillate draw is provided at the condenser. Also, a small vent for CO 2 is provided at the condenser.  Another interesting point is the concentration of heavy alcohols in the interior of the Rectifier. Rectifier. These alcohols are normally referred to as Fusel oils. Fusel oils are a mixture of propanols, butanols and pentanols, with a potential value superior to that of ethanol. Accumulation of fusel oils in the Rectification Tower Tower can cause the formation of a second liquid phase and subsequent deterioration of performance for these trays, so small side liquid draws of fusel oils are installed on the rectifier to avoid this problem. 2 Column Operations 3 Learning Objectives Once you have completed this section, you will be able to: • Model Model a distil distillati lation on colum column n with side side draw draws s • Add specifi specificat cations ions to a colu column mn • Add Add effic efficie ienc ncie ies s to a col colum umn n Prerequisites Before beginning this section, you need to be able to: • Add strea streams, ms, oper operatio ations ns and and colum columns. ns. 3     w     e      i     v     r     e     v      O     s     s     e     c     o     r      P Column Operations 5 Column Overviews CO2 Wash Concentrator Lights 5 6 Column Operations Rectifier 6 Column Operations 7 Building the Simulation Defining the Simulation Basis  Any activity model (except Wilson, which cannot predict two liquid phases) can be used to solve this problem. 1. Start tart a new new case ase and and sel select ect NRTL as the Property Package. 2. Use the the foll follo owing wing com compone ponent nts: s: Ethanol, H2O, CO2, Methanol,  Acetic Acid, 1-Propanol, 2-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 3-M-1-C4ol, 2Pentanol and Glycerol. 3. On the Binary Coeffs tab of the Fluid Package use UNIFAC VLE and press the Unknowns Only button Only button to estimate the missing  interaction parameters. parameters. Adding Streams and Unit Operations Input the material streams required for the flowsheet: In This Cell... Enter... Conditions Stream Name Wash H2O Temperature 25°C ( 77° F) Pressure 102 kPa (15 psia) Mass Flow 2340 kg/h (5165 lb/hr) Composition - Mass Fraction H2O 100% 7 8 Column Operations Conditions Stream Name FromFerm Temperature 30°C ( 86° F) Pressure 102 kPa (15 psia) Mass Flow 46 720 kg/h (1.03e+05 lb/hr) Composition - Mass Fraction Ethanol 0.0637 H2O 0.8759 CO2 0.0601 Methanol 4.433e-5 Acetic Acid 1.026e-5 1-Propanol 2.802e-5 2-Propanol 2.808e-5 1-Butanol 2.505e-5 3-M-1-C4ol 9.727e-5 2-Pentanol 2.457e-5 Glycerol 3.141e-5 Conditions Stream Name Steam A   Temperature 140°C (284°F) Pressure 102 kPa (15 psia) Mass Flow 11 000 kg/h (24,250 lb/hr) Composition - Mass Fraction H2O 8 100% Column Operations 9 CO2 Vent Separator  The CO2 Vent Separator separates products from the Fermentor. Fermentor. The liquid bottoms of the separator are sent to the distillation section of the plant (Concentrator T Tower), ower), while the overhead vapour goes to the CO2Wash Tower. Install a Separator and make the connections shown here: In This Cell... Enter... Conditions Name CO2 Vent Inlets FromFerm Vapour Outlet Liquid Outlet To CO2 Wash Beer 9 10 Column Operations The Column Operation Column SubFlowsheet  A SubFlowsheet contains equipment and streams and exchanges information with the Parent Flowsheet Flowsheet through the connected streams. From the Main Environment, the Column appears as a single, multifeed multi-product operation. In many cases, you can treat the column in exactly that manner. Parent Simulation Environment button  You can enter the Column SubFlowsheet by pressing the Column Environment button Environment button on the Column Property View. Once inside the Column Environment you can return to the Parent Environment Environment by  pressing either the Parent Environment button Environment button on the Column Runner view or the Parent Simulation Environment button Environment button in the Button Bar. The Column SubFlowsheet provides a number of advantages: Independent Fluid Package  HYSYS allows you to specify a unique Fluid Package for the Column SubFlowsheet, SubFlowsheet, as the Fluid Package in the Main Flowsheet may not necessarily be the best one in which to run the Column. That is the case if a Column does not use all the components of the Main Flowsheet, or if different Interaction Parameters are best suited to the Column conditions. Isolation of Column Solver   When you are in the Column runner, the main simulation can be “checked” by unchecking the Update Outlets box. All aspects of the Main Environment downstream of the Column will be paused until you are satisfied with the behaviour of the Column. To update the rest of the Flowsheet, check the box again. This allows you to make changes and focus on the Column without re-calculating the entire Flowsheet. Once  you have made the necessary changes, simply run the Column again to produce a new converged solution. In the Column runner, you are free to view profiles, stage summaries, and other data, as well as make changes to Column Specifications, parameters, equipment, efficiencies, reactions, and so on. 10 Column Operations 11 Use of Simultaneous Solution Algorithm  The Column SubFlowsheet does not use the standard non-sequential solver, solver, but a simultaneous one whereby all operations within the SubFlowsheet SubFlowsheet are solved simultaneously . The simultaneous solver permits in particular the user to install multiple unit operations within the SubFlowsheet without the need for Recycle blocks. Once a Column is converged, if changes are made to the parent Flowsheet, the Column will automatically be up-dated and re-run. Column Types HYSYS has several basic Column Templates Templates (pre-constructed column configurations) which may be used fo r installing a new Column, allowing HYSYS to model several different separation processes. This module will introduce the Absorber. Absorber. Subsequent modules will present different columns so that, by the end o f this course, most types of columns will have been used. Initial Estimates  In order to calculate, the Column solver in HYSYS requires usersupplied estimates ranging from condition parameters to feed and draw locations. These data can be supplied in several ways. The first interface when you select a Column requires values for the Number of  Trays, Reflux, Pressure, and so on. In the Column Solver, on the Work  the Work  Sheet tab, Conditions page, data can also be supplied. On the Design tab, Specs page, HYSYS allows you to choose from a library of  specifications gathered in the Column Specification Specification Types window, ypes window, activated when you press the Add  the Add button. button. Specification Types can be supplied as Estimates or as Active as Active specifications. Only  Active  Active specifications fill the Degree of Freedom of the Column which must be zero for the solver to calculate. Inactive Inactive specifications (Estimates) are used only as initial estimates f or the convergence algorithm and never use a degree of freedom. Alternatively, Alternatively, Estimates can be supplied on the Estimates page under the Parameters tab. However, they will not appear on the Monitor, Monitor, and hence cannot be set as Active specifications. If the user does not have initial estimates HYSYS generates them. However However for chemical systems, it is recommended to use the HYSYS Estimate Generator tool. In the Column Environment, on the Parameters tab, Solver page, there is the Initial Estimate Generator 11 12 Column Operations Parameters box. By checking the box, the IEG will perform iterative flash calculations to provide the initial estimates for the temperature and composition profiles. No user estimates are required when the Iterative IEG check box is activated. CO2 Wash Tower  The CO2 Rejection Tower is a simple Absorber simple Absorber.. Water is used to strip any ethanol entrained in the off gas mixture, this produces an overhead of virtually pure CO 2. The bottoms product from the tower is recycled to the Fermentor (however the recycle is not a concern in this example). The Input Expert will guide you through the installation of the column. 1.  Absorber button 12 Add an Absorber with the information shown here on the first Connections page. Column Operations 13 2. On the Pressure Profile page, enter the following values. If using  field units, the values for the Top and Bottom stage pressures will be 14 and 15 psia , respectively. 3. Press the Done button Done button to complete the column installation. 4. Press the Run button on the co lumn property view to converge the column. Save your case! 13 14 Column Operations Concentrator  This tower removes most of the Methanol from the Fermentor products. The Concentrator is an Absorber an Absorber with  with a side vapour draw. draw. In This Cell... Enter... Connections Column Name Conc No. of Stages 17 Feed Beer ( Top Stage) Steam A (Bottom Stage) Ovhd Vapour To Light Bottoms Liquid Stillage A  Vapour Side Draw Rect Feed, Stage 6 Pressure Top Stage Pressure 100 kPa (14.5 psia) Bottom Stage Pressure 102 kPa (15 psia) Temperatures Stage 1 Temp Estimate 90°C ( 195°F) Stage 17 Temp Estimate 110°C (230°F) By default, whenever a side draw stream is added to a column, HYSYS automatically creates a Draw Rate specification for that stream. This eliminates the additional DOF that adding the side draw stream would normally produce. However, However, in this case, we do not need a Draw Rate specification for this stream; therefore, therefore, we need to replace the Draw Rate specification that HYSYS added automatically with one that we will define to meet our simulation needs. 14 Column Operations 15 1. Go to the Specs page on the Design tab of the column property  view. 2. Press the Add button  Add button in the Column Specifications group to create a new specification. 3. Select Select the the spec specific ificatio ation n you want want from from the the list list that that appea appears rs.In .In this this case, we want to add a Column Component Recovery  specification. 4. Press the Add Spec(s) button. 15 16 Column Operations 5. Compl Complete ete the the specif specificat ication ion’’s prope property rty view view as as shown shown belo below w. This specification will set the ratio of ethanol recovered in the specified stream compared compared to the amount of ethanol fed to the column. Here, we have set this ratio at 0.95, meaning that 95% of the ethanol supplied to the column is recovered in the Rect Feed stream.  We  We are not concerned about where the other 5% goes, although it must exit the column in one of the other product streams. 6. With With the column column’’s DOF DOF (degr (degrees ees of of freed freedom) om) at at 0, and and we we need need to set which specifications should be active and which HYSYS can use as estimates o nly. nly. On the Monitor page of the Design tab, ensure that the Ethanol Recovery specification Recovery specification is active and that all others are inactive. 7. We can can no now w start start the column column runner runner and and all allow ow HYSY HYSYS S to find find a solution for this column. Press the Run button now to begin the column solver. 8. Save your case. Save your case! 16 Column Operations 17 Lights  The Lights Tower is a purification tower.  Add the Refluxed Absorber column and enter the following data. Refluxed Absorber button In this cell... Enter... Connections (Input Expert Page 1) Column Name Lights No. of Stages 5 Bottom Stage Inlet To Light Condenser Type Partial Bottoms Liquid To Rect Condenser Energy CondDuty  Overhead Outlets Light Vent, 2nd EtOH Pressure (Input Expert Page 2) Delta P 0 kPa (0 psi) Condenser Pressure 97 kPa (14 psia) Bottom Stage Pressure 100 kPa (14.5 psia) Temperatures Temperatures (Input Expert Page 3) Not Required Specifications (Input Expert Page 4) Vapour Flow Reflux Ratio 1.6 kgmole/h (3.5 lbmole/hr) 5 17 18 Column Operations The Lights column requires 1 more specification; currently the DOF = 0, but we do not want to use these specifications to converge the column. The Reflux Ratio of 5 is only an estimate, and we will need to add another specifications that HYSYS will use to solve the column.  Add a Column Component Fraction specification with the following  information: In this Cell... Enter... Name Ethanol Purity   Stage Condenser Flow Basis Mass Fraction P ha s e Liquid (default) Spec Value 0.88 Component Ethan ol The Active specifications for this column should be changed to: • Vap Prod Prod Rate Rate • Etha Ethano noll Puri Purity ty So, deactivate deactivate the Reflux Ratio specification and activate the Ethanol Purity specification. Press the Run button to converge the column. 18 Column Operations 19 Rectifier  The primary product from a plant such as this would be the azeotropic mixture of ethanol and water. The Rectifier serves to co ncentrate the  water/ethanol mixture to near azeotropic composition. The Rectifier is operated as a conventional distillation tower. It contains a partial condenser as well as a reboiler. reboiler. Distillation column button  Add a Distillation Column and enter the data shown here. In This Cell... Enter... Connections Column Name Rect No. of Stages 59 Inlet Streams ToRect, Stage 38 RectFeed, Stage 44 Condenser Type Partial Overhead Vapour RectVap Overhead Liquid RectDist Bottoms Liquid Stillage B Condenser Energy RectCond Q Reboiler Energy Rect Reb Q Optional Side Draws Stream 1st Prod, Type L, Stage 2 Fusel, Type L, Stage 37 Pressures Condenser 100 kPa (14.5 psia) Reboiler 105 kPa (15 psia) Specifications Reflux Ratio 7100 Ovhd Vap Rate 4.3 kg/h (9.5 lb/hr) Distillate Rate 2.0 kg/h (4.4 lb/hr) 19 20 Column Operations Adding Additional Specifications  This column will require 5 active specifications in order to solve. We need to add at least two more; however, however, we will add three, with the third one acting only as an estimate.  We  We will add two Column Draw Rate specifications and one Component Fraction specification. 1. Remem Remember ber that that when when we we added added the two side side draw draw str stream eamss to the column, HYSYS automatically created Draw Rate specifications for those streams. On the Monitor page, enter the following  values for these two Draw Rate specifications. Specification 1 Specification 2 Name 1st Prod Rate Fusel Rate Spec Value 3000 kg/h 2 kg/h (5 lb/hr) (6500 lb/hr) 2. Add one Column Component Fraction specification with the following information: In This Cell... Enter... Name Product Purity   Target Type Stream (radio button) Draw 1st Prod Basis Mass Fraction Spec Value 0.95 Component Ethan ol 3. Make Ma ke foll followi owing ng spec specific ificati ations ons active active and all others others inacti inactive: ve: • • • • • 20 Reflux Ratio tio Ovh Ovhd Vap Rate Rate Dist Distil illa late te Rate Rate Fusel Rate Prod Produc uctt Pur Purit ity y Column Operations The stage efficiencies for all   feed and product stages must  remain at 1. The HYSYS  column solver is not able to handle non-ideal feed and  draw stages at this time. 21 4. On the Efficiencies page of the Parameters tab, add Stage of 0.55 for all the stages except feed and product Efficiencies of 0.55 stages (2, 37, 38, 44, and 59), where it must remain at 1. You can save time during this step by entering the value (0.55) in the Eff. Multi. Spec cell, selecting a number of cells on the right, and pressing the Specify button. Specify button. 5. On the Solver page of the Parameters tab, set the Damping to Adaptive and ensure that the Azeotropic the Azeotropic check box is Factor to Adaptive checked. Due to the azeotropic nature of ethanol and water, we need to have this box checked so that HYSYS is able to handle this situation. Setting the damping factor at adaptive allows HYSYS to adjust this parameter to help ensure that the solver can reach a solution. 6. Press the Run button to converge the column. If the column does not converge quickly, stop the solver and increase the Fusel draw  rate spec value to 10 kg/h (20 lb/hr), and try again. Once the column has converge, the Fusel draw rate can be returned to its original level. What is the mass fraction of Ethanol in the "1st Prod"  stream when the column is converged? ____________ Draw Stream Location Theoretical trays assume that the liquid and vapour products are in thermodynamic equilibrium. In reality, reality, columns can n ever achieve this perfect mixing and separation. There are two ways of accounting for less than ideal stages in HYSYS. An overall efficiency can be applied  when setting up the column or efficiencies can be specified for specific trays in the column. Due to the fact that HYSYS  calculation of non-ideal trays  does not take into account  side-streams, efficiencies on stages with feeds, draws  (reboilers and condensers  included) and equipment  connected to columns, have to be left at their default value of  1.0 .  Applying an overall efficiency is the most straightforward, and in most situations, the recommended approach for modelling any tower. Simply taking the actual number of trays and multiplying by the efficiency less than 1.0 generates the theoretical stages. Feed, draws and equipment must be located appropriately. appropriately. In HYSYS, efficiencies are defaulted to 1.0. They can be user-modified in the appropriate tab of th e Column Property view. view. Efficiencies are applied to i ndividual stages calculation using Murphree’ Murphree’s formula. 1 The side liquid draw, Fusel, Fusel, is added at stage 37 of Rect. To To determine if  this is an appropriate stage to recover the heavy alcohols, you can view  1. Murphree, Murphree, E.V., E.V., Ind. Eng. Chem., 17, 747, 1925. 21 22 Column Operations the stage by stage composition profile: 1. Move to the Performance tab in the Column Runner. Runner. 2. Go to the Profiles page. Highlight Composition in the Tray by  Tray Properties group 3. Press the View Graph button. In this view we can see the compositions on each tray.  We  We wish to view the 1-Propanol composition on Tray 37. The initial graph will not contain this component. To To modify the components in this view, you must press the Properties button. Properties button. This will open the Properties View : 1. Check the 1-Propanol box in the Components group. 2. Clos Close e this this vie view w to to ret retur urn n to to the the gra grap ph. Stage 37 has the highest co ncentration of 1-Propanol of 1-Propanol (which has the greatest concentration among the heavy alcohols). Therefore, we have selected the appropriate stage for the Fusel draw. Save your case! 22 Column Operations 23 Optional Challenge Replacing the Kettle Reboiler with a Thermosyphon Reboiler In this portion of the module, we will replace the default kettle type reboiler on the Rectifier column with a "Thermosyphon" type reboiler. reboiler. Thermosyphon reboilers are commonly used in this type of  application, and it is often desired to use HYSYS to simulate the operation of the column with this type of reboiler as it will provide a more accurate simulation of the actual physical set-up of the equipment. In order to change the kettle reboiler to a thermosyphon, we will have to add one additional stage to the column. This additional stage functions as a liquid sump that allows liquid to be drawn from the column and liquid to be fed to the column from the reboiler. With thermosyphon reboilers, both liquid and vapour are returned to the column rather than just the vapour that is returned to the column with standard kettle reboilers. Following Following the steps below will allow you to replace the standard kettle reboiler with a thermosyphon type reboiler. 1. Chan Change ge the the num numbe berr of of sta stage gess in in the the col colum umn n to to 60. 60. This value can be accessed from the Connections page of the column’s property  viewer. 2. Ente Enterr tthe he Col Colum umn n Envi Enviro ronm nmen entt b by y pre press ssin ing g the the Column Environment button Environment button on the property viewer. 3. Discon Disconnec nectt the "Stil "Stillag lage e B" str stream eam from from the the reboi reboiler ler and and reat reattac tach h it as a material withdraw stream from stage 60. 4. Discon Disconnec nectt the the "Boil "Boilup" up" stream stream from from stag stage e 60 and reatta reattach ch it it to stage 59. You will need to expand the trays shown by the column icon in order to attach the stream to this tray. Right-click on the tray section, and select Show Trays. Trays. Use the Radio button to select Full Expansion, Expansion, or scroll down and check to Show box for stage 59. 5. Attach Attach the the reboi reboiler ler’’s liquid liquid prod product uct outl outlet et (form (formerl erly y the loca locatio tion n of "Stillage B" stream) to the inlet point on stage 60. 23 24 Column Operations 6. The The reb reboi oile lerr shoul should d now now be be set setup up as fol follo lows ws:: 7. Addin Adding g anothe anotherr Side Side Dra Draw w to the column column (Still (Stillage age B) mean meanss that that HYSYS has created another Draw Rate specification and the DOF remains at 0. 8. Add a Column Vapour Fraction specification to the column with the following information: In This Cell... Enter... Name Reboiler V.F. Stage Reboiler Spec Value 0.9 9. Activ Activate ate this this new new speci specifica fication tion,, and and deact deactiva ivate te the the Draw Draw Rate Rate specification that HYSYS created. The column should resolve automatically; if it does not, press the Run button to allow the column to converge. Save your case! Note that adding the additional stage and modifying the reboiler has not changed the operating behaviour of the column. The bottom stage of the column (#60) does not function like a true equilibrium stage (there is no contacting vapour from the bottom). The boil-up provided by the thermosyphon reboiler will be the same as for the kettle reboiler. This is independent of the reboiler type. 24