Preview only show first 10 pages with watermark. For full document please download

Urban Design Vocabulary




CONTENTS: Thoughtful terms: 1. Acculturation 2. Agoraphobia 3. Anthropology 4. Block level studies 5. Building Use 6. Central Business District 7. City Beautiful 8. City Center  9. Density 10. Development Plan 11. Diagram 12. Economic Base 13. Edges 14. Entourage 15. Figure-ground Studies 16. Fringe 17. FSI / FAR (Floor Space Index / Floor Area Ratio) 18. Garden City 19. Gentrification 20. Heritage 21. Hypothesis 22. Land Use 23. Landmarks 24. Landscape Grain 25. Morphology 26. Neighbourhood 27. Nodes 28. Palimpsest 29. Pedestrianisation 30. Perspective Plan 31. Public Place 32. Public Realm 33. Public Space 34. Revitalization 35. Schema 36. Spatiality 37. Structure Plan 38. TDR (Transfer of Development Developmen t Rights) 39. Theory 40. Tissue 41. Traditional and Vernacular  42. Travel-time Grid 43. Typology and Type T ype 44. Urban 45. Urban Block 46. Urban Conservation 47. Urban Design 48. Urban Ecology 49. Urban Form 50. Urban Grain 51. Urban Insert 52. Urban Renewal 53. Urban Transformation T ransformation 54. Urbanism 55. Urbanist 56. Urbanity 57. Urbanization 58. Zoning 59. New Urbanism 60. Post modern urbanism 61.Urban village 62. Necropolis 1. ACCULTURATION 1. The modification of the culture of a group or individual as a result of  contact with a different culture. 2. The process by which the culture of a particular society is instilled in a human from infancy onward. The Oxford English Dictionary states that acculturation means to assimilate or cause to assimilate a different culture, typically the dominant one. It could also be defined as the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure. The old and the new additional definitions have a boundary that blurs in modern multicultural societies, where a child of an immigrant family might be encouraged to acculturate both the dominant also well as the ancestral culture, either of which may be considered "foreign", but in fact, they are both integral parts of the child's development. The process is asymmetrical and the result is the (usually partial) absorption of one culture into the other. The usage of the term dates from the late 19th century. Culture changes result from contact among various societies over time. Contact may have distinct results, such as the borrowing of certain traits by one culture from another, or the relative fusion of separate cultures. Interactions with other peoples have, in fact, always been a significant feature of social life. Early studies of contact called attention to resulting social and individual psychological disturbances. Studies today often call attention to the development of one complex world system, in which some societies dominate others economically, politically, and socially. Many cultural theorists also observe the ways in which cultural groups resist domination, often working against acculturation in the process.  All culture is learned. learned. No one one is born born with a particular particular culture imprinted on on his or her soul. Acculturation is the process by which an individual or group changes their cultural patterns by adapting to or borrowing from another culture. Four basic styles of acculturation can be spoken of: Assimilation : Characterized by a high degree of participation in the new culture and a rejection of the original cultural identity Integration : Characterized by a high degree of participation in the new culture while maintaining the original cultural identity Separation : Characterized by a low degree of participation in the new culture and maintenance of the original cultural identity. Marginalization : Characterized by a low degree of participation in the new culture and rejection of the original cultural identity. Readings: - Hobson, Archie; Oxford English Dictionary of Difficult Words; Oxford University Press; New York; 2002. - Internet Sources: (Wikipedia), (, (Merriam-webster online), ( 1. ACCULTURATION 1. The modification of the culture of a group or individual as a result of  contact with a different culture. 2. The process by which the culture of a particular society is instilled in a human from infancy onward. The Oxford English Dictionary states that acculturation means to assimilate or cause to assimilate a different culture, typically the dominant one. It could also be defined as the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure. The old and the new additional definitions have a boundary that blurs in modern multicultural societies, where a child of an immigrant family might be encouraged to acculturate both the dominant also well as the ancestral culture, either of which may be considered "foreign", but in fact, they are both integral parts of the child's development. The process is asymmetrical and the result is the (usually partial) absorption of one culture into the other. The usage of the term dates from the late 19th century. Culture changes result from contact among various societies over time. Contact may have distinct results, such as the borrowing of certain traits by one culture from another, or the relative fusion of separate cultures. Interactions with other peoples have, in fact, always been a significant feature of social life. Early studies of contact called attention to resulting social and individual psychological disturbances. Studies today often call attention to the development of one complex world system, in which some societies dominate others economically, politically, and socially. Many cultural theorists also observe the ways in which cultural groups resist domination, often working against acculturation in the process.  All culture is learned. learned. No one one is born born with a particular particular culture imprinted on on his or her soul. Acculturation is the process by which an individual or group changes their cultural patterns by adapting to or borrowing from another culture. Four basic styles of acculturation can be spoken of: Assimilation : Characterized by a high degree of participation in the new culture and a rejection of the original cultural identity Integration : Characterized by a high degree of participation in the new culture while maintaining the original cultural identity Separation : Characterized by a low degree of participation in the new culture and maintenance of the original cultural identity. Marginalization : Characterized by a low degree of participation in the new culture and rejection of the original cultural identity. Readings: - Hobson, Archie; Oxford English Dictionary of Difficult Words; Oxford University Press; New York; 2002. - Internet Sources: (Wikipedia), (, (Merriam-webster online), ( 2. AGORAPHOBIA  Agoraphobia  Agoraphobia has long been understood to be the fear of “open spaces”. However, recent studies attest the incompleteness and the misconception associated with the same definition. Agoraphobics are not necessarily afraid of  „open spaces‟. They are primarily driven by internal anxiet ies, which may begin, to surface in the form of panic behaviour at places that may not essentially be „open‟ but are nonetheless „public‟. The behaviour is largely „avoidant‟ and with increased „attacks‟, the sufferers begin to remain at home and not necessarily communicate or engage in meetings with others in places, which are „crowded‟ or are atleast „open to public‟. In Europe, the medical practitioners associate the same with the fear of  entering shops, crowds, and public places, or of travelling alone in trains, buses, or planes. Although the severity of the anxiety and the extent of avoidance behaviour are variable, this is the most incapacitating of the phobic disorders and some sufferers become completely housebound; while many are terrified by the thought of collapsing and being left helpless in public. 3. ANTHROPOLOGY  Anthropology  Anthropology is composed composed of of the Latin words „anthropos‟ „anthropos‟ which means man and „logos‟ which means science.  Anthropology  Anthropology is defined defined by the Oxford Oxford English English Dictionary Dictionary as the the study of  humankind in particular. Simply stated, anthropology is the study of man and his cultures; or of man in his totality. This is a modern and relatively new discipline. It also shares its objectives with other physical and social sciences.  Anthropology  Anthropology could could be broadly broadly classified classified as: Physical anthropology : where man is viewed as a biological organism. Cultural anthropology : where man is viewed as an animal of culture. In this regard, studies of archaeology, linguistics and ethnology comprise cultural anthropology. Ethnology : where the racial and cultural distributions of man are studies. Applied Anthropology : where applications of the findings of the study are applied.  Also, a classificati classification on of anthropolog anthropology y known known as Urban Anthropology  exists. Studies in this field began shortly before World War 2.  According  According to this division division of academics, academics, cities are important important research research locales. locales.  Anthropology  Anthropology is able to make make important important methodological methodological and and theoretical theoretical contributions to the study of urban places. Urban anthropology  is of three varieties: Anthropology of urbanism : This has a holistic approach and a crosscultural perspective. Robert Redfield (1941): as folk communities evolved into urban societies, they changed from small, self-contained, isolated, highly personalized, religious and traditional social locales into large, heterogeneous, impersonal, scalar and innovative social milieus. Urban anthropologists investigate the cultural roles played by cities on their societies, and they crossculturally analyze cities with distinctive physical forms and internal social organization. Anthropology of urban poverty : This line of urban research maintains greater continuity with traditional anthropological methods than does the anthropology of urbanism. Study of ghetto populations, urban ethnic sub cultures, and poverty-induced urban social adaptations allows the traditional intensive and small-scale methods of tribal or peasant anthropology to be redefined in a city context. This anthropology sees the city reflected through the ghetto and views urban man mirrored in the customs of the poor. However, this urban anthropology studies the city via the ghetto and often never moves beyond the poverty or ethnic enclave. Anthropology of urbanization : This form of urban anthropology comes from the contemporary large scale physical movement of rural peoples to cities and the adaptations of these immigrant populations to the new urban environment. Here, the city represents a distinct arena of social arrangements and lifestyles to which the immigrant must accommodate at least so long as he interacts within the urban sphere, this anthropology of urbanization emphasizes the altered social structure, interpersonal ties, associational life, and ethnic or tribal identity that develop as tribesman or peasant becomes urbanite. These studies also most often continue the nature of anthropology‟s traditional methods and units of  study.  A complete complete urban anthropol anthropology ogy requires requires a combination combination of the urbanism, urbanism, urban poverty and urbanization approaches into a general framework for the analysis of cities. Readings: - Haviland, William A.; Anthropology; Holt, Rinehart & Wilson; New York; 1979. Majumdar, D.N.; Introduction to Social Anthropology; National Publishing House; New Delhi; 1990 - Fox, Richard G.; Urban Anthropology: Cities in Their Cultural Settings; Prentice Hall International Ltd.; 1977. - Evans, Pritchard; Social Anthropology; Cohen & West Co.; London; 1962. Bock, Philip K.; Modern Cultural Anthropology: An Introduction; Alfred A. Knopf  Inc.; New York; 1969. - Vidyarthi, L.P.; Aspects of Social Anthropology In India; Classical Publishing House; New Delhi; 1980. - Levi-Strauss, Claude; Structural Anthropology; Penguin Books Ltd.; London; 1986. - Narayanan, Shriram; Indian Anthropology; Gian Publishing House; Delhi; 1988.  Adam Southall; Southall; Urban Urban Anthropology Anthropology:: Cross-Cultural Cross-Cultural Studies Studies of Urbanizati Urbanization; on; Oxford University Press; New York; 1974. - Donald Hardesty; Ecological Anthropology; John Wiley & Sons; New York; 1977. - Stein & Rowe; Physical Anthropology; McGraw Hill Publishers; New York; 1974. Hobson, Archie; Oxford English Dictionary of Difficult Words; Oxford University Press; New York; 2002. 4. BLOCK LEVEL STUDIES The study of urban form in terms of relationship between building blocks and streets is defined as Block level studies . This differs from the tissue level studies as it involves relationship between building and street. While plans and sections are useful at tissue level, axonometric, isometric and bird‟s eye perspective are useful for block level studies. 5. BUILDING USE The categorization of building as per its activities i.e.: residential, commercial, institutional, industrial and mixed types such as residential  – commercial, commercial – industrial, residential – institutional, etc. This gives a more detailed and better understanding of urban activities pertaining to individual buildings. Hence the building plans can be coded likewise. Unlike the system of  landuse, based on zoning, in which a single carpet coloring denotes the activities. This system of landuse is more superficial, and denotes activity areas at a larger scale such as that of the entire city. It does not also take into consideration the stacking of various floors in a building, wherein multiple activities can be accommodated. Therefore at an urban design level it is more critical to use the term „building use‟ rather than „landuse‟. 6 and 8. CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT and CITY CENTRE Central business district (CBD) and downtown are terms referring to the commercial heart of a city. Downtown is the usual term in North America. In the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand the term "central business district" is used by geographers and sometimes by others, but the term city centre is much more common in colloquial usage. In the United Kingdom,  Australia, South Africa and New Zealand, the term is often just shortened to the single word "city" in general conversation among residents of a city, giving rise to the phrase "going to the city". Some cities have a mixed-use district known as uptown near the downtown area (in Minneapolis, for example, Uptown is a district nearly adjacent to downtown, centered around the Uptown Theater on the intersection of Lagoon St. and Hennepin Ave.) The CBD or downtown is the central district of a city, usually typified by a concentration of retail and commercial buildings. Although applicable to any city, both terms usually refer to larger cities. The term city centre (or center city) is similar to CBD or downtown in that both serve the same purpose for the city, and both are seen by a higher-thanusual urban density as well as the often having the tallest buildings in a city. City centre differs from downtown in that downtown can be geographically located anywhere in a city, while city centre is located near the geogOlphic heart of the city. Examples of a city centre can be found in Philadelphia, Houston, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Boston, London, Toronto, Sydney, and other cities. London effectively has two city centers rolled into one, namely the Roman City of  London, and the medieval City of Westminster.  A CBD is likely to have many of the following characteristics: . It has a distinct land use pattern that can be delimited from the rest of the settlement. . It is the geographical center of the settlement . It contains the settlement's main public buildings . It contains the major retail outlets (though this is becoming less often the case, especially in the United States) . Similar activities within it are concentrated in certain areas (functional zoning) . It features vertical zoning . It has the greatest concentration and number of pedestrians and traffic in general . It is a focal point for transport . It contains the greatest proportion of the settlement's offices · It has the highest land values of the region · It attracts people from outside its sphere of influence to work and spend money inside · It is advancing into new areas (assimilation) and/or losing old commercial functions (discard) References INTERNET SOURCES: (Wikipedia), (Encyclopedia. com), (Merriam-webster online), 1300"5 Concept plan: Sub CBD Shahdara (CEPT, library, no details of publisher available, UD 711.40954 K.R.C, 13259) Unpublished Thesis Negi Vidya B. Marketing of Bandra-Kurla complex as an alternative CBD for Metropolis (School of Planning, CEPT) Deshpande Dnyanesh H, Urban design guidelines for proposed CBD at SUSMhalunge, Pune (School of Urban design, CEPT) 7. THE CITY BEAUTIFUL (1890 to the Great Depression)  A certain wave towards an improvement in the „civic planning‟ and for the „beautification‟ of the city had swept America in the late 19 th century. The driving force being “…a new hope and a fresh image for our cities, …Far nobler than the nobler towns of our many farming regions, …Influential enough to displace the ugliness of our large industrial towns” The movement was thus, primarily concerned with the creation of  „handsome works of civic art‟ underlined with deeper and more rooted social concerns. The first widespread exposition towards the objectives was seen in the Chicago World Fair and its “White City” in the year 1893. The visitors witnessed „orderly, articulated plan with generous open spaces, regular cornice lines, trees, canals, and other bodies of water”: all in all, a representation which was indicative of the manner in which a „city could be re -planned‟.  A more emphatic move in this direction was however, made in 1901 when the American Institute of Architects (AIA) held a national conference on „city beautification‟ in Washington D.C. A group (Macmillan Commission) was formed to prepare a plan for the improvement of Central Washington, and the same was constituted by country‟s foremost artists including Daniel Burnham, Augustus St. Gaudens and Frederick Law Olmstead. Inspiration was largely the more „orderly‟ European towns dotted with classical design imprints complete with „directional axes, malls, focal points, and reflectiv e pools‟. Unfortunately the „City Beautiful Movement‟ failed to markedly change the civic structure of great many American towns primarily because it failed to gain substantial political patronage. It, however, left its most expansive mark in the town of Washington D.C where the centralized government supported the „urban visions‟ of the Macmillan Commission. Elsewhere the movement intervened in the open „fragments‟ of the city…public parks, boulevards, parkways, waterfronts, civic centers and „civic ornaments‟ like approach bridges and entrances. In other  words, it was strictly in the „public domain that the movement could exert any influence‟. Readings: - Kostof, Spiro, The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings through History , Thames and Hudson, London, 1991. - Spreiregen, Paul, Urban Design: Architecture of Towns and Cities, Mc GrawHill  Book Company , New York, 1965. - Whattick, Arcnold Ed., Encyclopaedia of Urban Planning , Mc GrawHill Inc., New York, 1974. 9. DENSITY In the case of residential development, a measurement of either the number of habitat rooms per hectare or number of dwelling per hector constitutes density. Dwelling Unit: A House or part of house occupied as the living quarters of  one family or household. It mayor may not be equipped with individual facilities for bathing or toilet. The total number of person to be accommodates in the housing area; divided by the area in acres. It is expressed as person per acre. Housing area denseness or number of persons per unit of built up area or  room. It is expressed as person per habitable room or floor space in square meter of feet. Floor Space Rate:The ratio of floor space to the number of inhabitants in a dwelling units or group of dwelling units. It is expressed as square meter or  square feet. 'Of floor space per person. Floor Space:The total floor area of dwelling unites measured inside the external and party wall, excluding common stairs, internal stairs, landings, external corridor, ottas, veranda, Etc. Housing Area Ratio:The total space with in the housing area divided by the housing in square mt. It is expressed to two pJaces of decimals. Readings: - RA-TH-0019, (Density And Its Living Condition). Thakore Valmik M. (1970 A.D.) Google search (Density) wikipedia dictionary. 10. DEVELOPMENT PLAN Document (a structure or a local plan) that seats out in writing and/or in maps and diagrams a local planning authority's policies and proposals for the development and use of land and buildings in the authority's area. Development Plan: I) As soon as may be after the constitution of an area development authority for  any development are a under section-5, after the declaration of such area as a development area or within such time as the State Government may, form time to time, extend, prepare and submit to the state Government, a draft development plan for the whole or any part of development area in accordance with the provisions of this act. 2) In draft development plan is not prepared and submitted to the state Government, by any area development authority with in the period specified in sub-sec. or with in the period extended under that sub-section, an offer appointed by the state Government in this behalf may prepare and submit to State Government in the prescribed manner a draft development plan and recover the cost there of from such area development authority out of its funds. Manner of preparation of draft development plan: The draft development plan shall be on a scale not lower then eight meters to a centimeter and shall show in distinguish prescribed colors the area or site and the use to which they are proposed for. Readings: Gujarat town planning and urban development Act, 976. Google search, (Development plan) wikipedia dictionary. 11. DIAGRAM Diagram: integrating form of notation, a formal abstraction of given complex reality, elusive abstract form that generates and structures the design, conceptual input-output device. B. Lootsma Diagrams: set of operative information with relevant information describing context forces, boundary conditions, site conditions, activity patterns, traffic flow, etc., information prepared for diagrammatic approach to urban design, Stan Allen Diagrammatic approach: design method based on diagrams, allowing integrating different information and multiple orders into process of  developing new ideas. Diagrammatic practice multiplies signifying processes of design. Thinking with diagrams in Urban design Diagrams are "primary forms of representation"  in design. In the early design processes, designers draw diagrams and sketches to explore ideas and solutions and communicate their thinking through the "act of drawing". Design drawing is thus an iterative and interactive act involving recording ideas, recognizing functions and meanings in the drawings, and thereby finding new forms and adapting them into the design. Design diagrams convey configurations, connections, topology, shape, size, position, and orientations of physical elements. They also present symbolic representations and forces that the designer must consider. The symbols typically convey spatial characteristics. Hence even the most abstract design diagrams are early efforts to explore and resolve spatial layout concerns. For example, a 'bubble diagram' represents functional spaces in a floor plan with rough sizes, adjacencies, and connections. Diagrams are an important tool in the process of urban design and act as means for design development. The ability to "diagram" a context depends on designers' knowledge of related issues in a setting. Diagramming can be used to explore variations of design problems and it allows our mind to "see, comprehend and respond" to more visual information than we can remember from verbal notes. Diagrams transform verbal notation to an abstract graphic representation. "Graphic Thinking" is a guide to making drawings for working out problems, and communicating with others. A "diagram" thus acts as an abstract graphic language. They are a means to express functions, the relationships between functions, and the hierarchy of those functions. · Diagrams are drawn to focus design knowledge and present points of concern. · According to Rowe diagrams are used to establish guidelines or rules that help the designer plan andprepare for subsequent exploration, for example, placing vertical elements to define the street plaza. Diagrams are also used to explore, analyze and synthesize ideas. He describes a diagram as an analytic statement that may be a "composite of  graphic marks and written notes." A diagram thus governs and transforms the meanings of verbal statement into a graphic context to solve design problems. He also argues that drawings are more than just a convenient strategy for  solving design problems and that they are "the designer's principal means of  thinking".  According to Ervin, a diagram deals with organizing principles and relations between physical elements. He argued that the use of diagram in designing is a sequence of refinement. For example, the urban design begins with a diagram of elements of urban forms such as plaza, building blocks and streets and with their topological relations, then adds details: such as size, shape and tone and using design "rules" to develop the design. According to Christopher Alexander diagram is the "starting point of synthesis," and the end product is "a tree of diagrams." He describes design as matching program requirements with corresponding diagrams argue "any pattern which, by being abstracted from a real situation, conveys the physical influence of certain demands or forces is a diagram" Readings: - Use of diagram by Christopher Alexander  Designing the City: Towards a More Sustainable Urban Form, Hildebrand W Frey - Political Science - 1999 - 176 pages Urban & Regional Planning by Peter Geoffrey Hall - Political Science - 2002 248 pages Maps & diagrams by Ruther F.J * City as a diagram 12. ECONOMIC BASE Information about an area's future population is incomplete without a parallel understanding of the local economy that largely shapes its future. Definition: Economic Base can be defined as a theory for understanding the local economy that breaks that economy into a basic and a non-basic sector. Basic Sector. This sector is made up of local businesses (Firms) that are entirely dependent upon external factors. E.g. builds and sells large airplanes to companies and countries located throughout the world. Manufacturing and local resource-oriented firms (like logging or mining) are usually considered to be basic sector firms because their fortunes depend largely upon non-local factors; they usually export their goods. Non-basic Sector. The non-basic sector, in contrast, is composed of those firms that depend largely upon local business conditions. E. g A local grocery store sells its goods to local households, businesses, and individuals. Its clientele is locally based and, therefore, its products are consumed locally. Almost all local services (like drycleaners, restaurants, and drug stores) are identified as nonbasic because they depend almost entirely on local factors. If the local economy is strong, as it has been in the Seattle Metropolitan  Area for the past several years, population growth is usually fast. In times of  economic trouble, though, an area often will experience a loss in population- a direct result of a stagnant economy. Economic Base asserts that the means of strengthening and growing the local economy is to develop and enhance the basic sector. The basic sector is therefore identified as the "engine" of the local economy. Cities are extremely complex mechanisms, generated by many diverse factors. Looking at them from one hand, they are the outcome of economic and fiscal forces continuously at work in the society. Hence, considerations of  economical factors are paramount in the evolution of strong urban design. There is a competition prevailing between the countries that are seeking to get a larger piece from the global economy. Therefore the quality of the built environment is the key factor that significantly affects local, regional and international image of countries and sets the stage for all economic activity. There is strong relationship between technological changes in the economic production and structural changes in the quality and production of  urban spaces. In this context, urban design is an effective tool that advances the quality of the urban environment. There has been major alteration in the land use and the Ownership patterns owing to the manifestation of new economic forces. These have initiated and provided for lifestyle changes and a new urban environment. References - "Mechanics of the Urban Economic Base Andrews, Richard B. 1953: Historical Development of the Base Concept." Land Economics  29: 161-167. - "The Urban Economic Base Reconsidered." Tiebout, Charles M. 1956a. Land  Economics  31: 9599. - - "The Economic Base of American Cities" Ullman, Edward L., Michael H. Dacey, and Harold Brodsky. 1971. Rev. ed. Seattle: University  of Washington  Press. "The Economic Base of a Community." Blumenfeld, Hans. 1955. Journal  of  the American Institute  of Planners  21: 114:132. 13. EDGES “Edges are linear elements not used or considered as paths by the observer. They are lateral references rather than coordinate axis: Lynch Kevin. Edges may also define boundaries between two domains or entities. E.g. River  edge, street edge etc. Such edges maybe a barrier more or less penetrable, which closes one region from another, or they may be seam lines along the two domains. ” When it is properly made, such an edge is a realm between the realm s. It increases the connection between the inside and the outside, encourages the formation of the groups which cross the boundary, encourage movement which starts on one side and ends on the other and allow activity to be either on or in the boundary itself. A very fundamental notion…” – Christopher Alexander. 14. ENTOURAGE The dictionary defines „entourage‟ as a group of people accompanying an important or famous person. In urban design this word can be used in association with an important or famous building vis-à-vis its surroundings; where surrounding refers to context and important activities it caters to. 15. FIGURE GROUND STUDIES  An effectively designed map is one in which the intended message is clearly communicated to the percipient, or  map user. By employing the concept of figure-ground , a viewer can easily distinguish between the main figure on a map and the background information. Several concepts that are key to developing good figure-ground in any cartographic design are differentiation, closed form, centrality, articulation and good contour. In addition, by considering the intended intellectual hierarchy, or the order of importance of each map element, the author can develop a visual hierarchy on the map that corresponds appropriately. Figure-Ground Cartographic Elements Differentiation is described as the ability to easily discriminate the main figure from the ground. This can be accomplished by designing the desired figure as visually heterogeneous and reducing the level of distraction caused by the ground. By adding surface patterns or textures to the figure, visual differentiation will lead to figure definition (Dent, 1972). Incorporation of closure on a map is important because percipients interpret the figure to be the object or objects in the map that are closed (Robinson et al, 1995). Additionally, there is a tendency for the percipient to complete or close unfinished objects. The location and shape of central figures on a map can be adjusted by varying the scale, projection,and format (Dent, 1972). The figure of emphasis should be centrally located and surrounded by areas of a different character with contrast that lessens ground importance visually and emphasized the main figure. Both alignment and centering can be achieved through measurement or through visual approximation (Slocumet aI.,2005).The concept of centrality is important because the object located in the center of a map is most often assumed to be the figure. Other map elements can be centered in the remaining visual space after the figure has been centered.  Articulation utilizes texture to differentiate figure from ground. One common example of using articulation on a map is differentiating a continent from the ocean. The ocean, in most cases, will be the ground and the continent will be the figure (Dent, 1972). By adding fine-textured shading to water, the continent pops out visually as the figure (Head, 1972). Another method that can be employed for articulation called is vignetting, or the inclusion of brightness gradients at the land-water edge. Good contour on the map can be described as the viewer's ability to continue the line throughout the map. The figure is formed by contour, the common boundary between the figure and ground, usually through a brightness contrast (MacEachren and Mistrick.1992)~If a figure is not separated entirely from the ground, a simple black contour line can be drawn around the figure enclosing it and thus differentiating it from the ground (Dent, 1972). Intellectual hierarchy, also known as a scale of concepts (Monmonier, 1993), refers to the idea that some map features are more important than others. The placement on a map or the ordering of information will convey relative importance of map features to the percipient. If developed on the map correctly, the intellectual hierarchy will correspond to the visual hierarchy established- on the map. By developing a visual hierarchy, the percipient can distinguish relative importance to map objects, drawing attention to the most important objects first (Dent, 1972). By emphasizing the colors of important figures and fading out the colors on less important figures, the perceived distance between the two is increased. Also by employing color contrasts, contour sharpness is can be adjusted (Dent, 1972). Research in Figure-Ground Relationships Fields other than cartography, such as psvchologv, neurology, and computer science, have studied differentiation of figure from ground. Many studies have employed different experiments, varying the shades, textures, and orientations of test pictures to determine the best method for figure-ground design with mixed results. A current application of figure-ground research is the development of computer vision for robots. By studying the way humans perceive figure and ground, methods can be developed to improve computer programmed machine vision (Nordlund, 1998). 16. FRINGE Fringe areas could be discussed as areas that lie beyond some natural or  man-made boundaries, temporarily limiting the growth of the town. However, with changes in social, demographic, and economic structure, the same too go through phases of change, identified as the following: Fixation (Conzen‟s fixation lines): A significant barrier, similar to Lynch‟s edges, that creates a marked discontinuity in land that must be overcome for  the development of the city to go beyond. Examples include, the city wall, the railway lines, natural ravines, gorges etc. Expansion: Wherein the „uses within the fringe -belt‟ expand into the surrounding areas, not yet desired for residential use. Consolidation: Wherein the fringe is engulfed by the surrounding proliferating growth of residential and other nature (Conzen op. cit. Rofe, 1995)    Thus, the fringes to any city mark significant changes in the mixture of new land-use types. Interestingly, because the „institutions‟ are less dependent on accessibility, many of them tend to locate themselves in these „fringe -belts‟. In other words, the aforementioned changes manifest themselves in terms of not ordinary residential accretions, but first by institutions, public utilities, open spaces and country houses. Readings: Petruccioli, Attilio, Continuity and Disruption in the Typological Process of the  Islamic Mediterranean Building Landscape , Research Paper, Polytechnic of  Bari, Italy, 2000. Barnow, Finn, City of Divine King: Urban Systems and Urban Architecture in  Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, Nepal, and China , Royal Danish Academy of Fine  Arts, School of Architecture, Copenhagen, 2001. Balsavar, Durganand, An Understanding of the City, A Human Construct, As  A Process In Time , Undergraduate Published Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, June 1992. Conzen, M.R.G., The morphology of towns in Britain during the Industrial Era:  The urban landscape, its historical development and management , Academic Press, New York, 1981. Derasari, Snehal, City  – An Expression of Human Domain , Undergraduate Unpublished Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, 1999.      17. FSI/ FAR (Floor Space Index and Floor Area Ratio) 18. GARDEN CITY Few communities in the United States were planned as a model towns from its beginning. In 1869 Alexander T Steward, one of New York's leading merchants, bought a track of over 7,000 acres of the Hempsted plain with the idea of creating a 'garden city', a term adopted later by an English city planner Sir  Ebenezer Howard .He visualized his 'garden city‟, the Town County magnet as a town in the countryside. The town would be a closely-knit center for 30,000 people, which in turn would be encompassed by a permanent greenbelt of  agriculture with farms and parks inhabiting 2,000 people. The town would accommodate the residential and cultural activities. In 1903,the first Garden city was established on Howard‟s plan 35 miles from London. Within the town, functional zoning is basic. Howard‟s garden city was to be industrial and commercial with a balanced mixture of all social groups and levels of income. The town is divided into wards. The central space is laid out into a beautiful garden and surrounding this all around are situated majestically the large public buildings. Surrounding the park is the Crystal Palace where manufactured goods are kept for sale and most other shopping is done. Further  outward was to be the Grand Avenue, 420 ft. wide and forming an internal greenbelt. This splendid avenue would have public school and their playgrounds and churches. The outermost ring constituted all the warehouses and factories.  All opening out in front of the railway line that connected with national railway. The houses have been accommodated in the outer internal space, all have individual gardens, and all are within easy reach of factories, shops, schools and the open countryside. The city is the healthiest in the nation. A low density, a series of wide tree shaded avenues and homes surrounded by greenery. The garden city proper, is surrounded by an agricultural belt which is reserved for farms and forests. This zone plays an important role in the economy of the garden city. The 2000 farmers who live there supply the town with the bulk of its food. Because the food is produced there itself, transport, expenses are minimal, the farmers receives a good price. The agriculture also prevents the town from the expansion out into countryside and ensures that the citizens enjoy both the compact urban center and ample open countryside-all within easy reach. References: - Green belt cities; Fredric J. Osborn - Cities of vision; Rolf Jensen - The city in cultural context; John Agnew,John Mercer,david Sopher  - The Town Planning Movement; Sir Ebenezer Howard Britannica Encyclopedia. 19. GENTRIFICATION  A process by which dilapidated subdivided dwellings or slum neighborhoods are taken over by the wealthy or their agents through purchase, the non renewal of lease or occasionally, the harassment of tenants, and then reconverted to expensive single-family housing. It occurs within the inner city because the wealthy wish to live near central city job and recreational 'opportunities. Gentrification is a reversal of the normal FILTERING PROCESS, for it involves old substantial dwelling that usually filter down the social hierarchy but in this case get colonized and filtered back up. Readings: City Reader; Richard T. Legates and Federic Stout Urban Future; Peter hall and Ulrich Pfeiftor  Urban Studies; vol. 40,12 Nov. 2003. 20. HERITAGE Heritage itself is conceptualized as the meaning attached in the present to the past and is regarded as a knowledge defined within social, political and cultural context. It is capable of being interpreted differently within anyone culture at anyone time, as well as between cultures and trough time. Heritage does not engage directly with the study of the past. Instead it is concerned with the ways in which very selective material artifacts, mythologies, memories and traditions become resources for present. The context, interpretations and representations of the resource are selected according to the demands of the present. It follows, therefore, that, if  heritage is the contemporary use of the past and if it's meaning are defined in present, then we create the heritage that we require and man age if for a range of purpose defined by the needs and demands of our present societies. It is best learnt from the living oral traditions, buildings, and other artifacts still useful in the contemporary context. Readings: - Heritage as knowledge: capital or culture? Urban studies, vol. 39, nos 56, pg. no. 1003-1017,2002. - K.L.Bhowmik, PROTECTION AND Preservation of heritage. Inter-India Publications. - Dr.V.Raghavan, the Indian Heritage, an Anthology of Sanskrit Literature, the Indian Institute of World Culture. - Humayun Kabir , The Indian Heritage, Asia Publishing House. - Lewis Mumford, The City in History, Its Origin, Its transformation. 21. HYPOTHESIS Something supposed or taken for granted, with the object of following out of its consequences. The concepts involved in the hypothesis need not themselves refer to observable objects. But the initial condition should be able to be observed or to be produced experimentally, and the deduced facts should be able to be observed. While a hypothesis can be partially confirmed by showing that what is deducted from it with certain initial conditions is actually found under  those conditions, it cannot be completely proved in this way. If the predictions derived from the hypothesis are not found to be true, the hypothesis may have to be given up or modified. Readings: - Paul k. Asabere and Peter F.Colwell, the relative lot size hypothesis: an empirical note, urban studies (1985)22, pg. nO.355-357. - Kevin lynch, what time is this place? MIT press Cambridge. - Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 12, William Benton publisher. - The world book encyclopedia- vol. 7, field enterprises educational corporation. 22. LAND USE The term land use refers to cultural use of land. Land use is a pattern of construction and activity used in the urban context, land use refers to location of activities like industries, hosing, recreation, trade and commerce etc. Urban land use planning focuses the location of these activities and their  spatial relationships with one another In the non-urban context land use assumes a resource -use context. This refers to non urban activities like agriculture, fisheries, and mining etc the focus of land use planning here is on the natural productive attributes of land like fertility mineral content etc. Land use is 'often confused with land cover. The latter describes the actual material present on surface of the earth e.g. land cover of forested area may be a certain species of trees while the primary use may be recreation. Patterns of land use arise naturally in a culture through a customs and practices, but zoning may also regulate land use. Readings: Bimal patel, Keywords in planning, school of planning CEPT, 1992 23. LANDMARKS Landmarks are the points of reference, which are experienced at a distance. They are three-dimensional sculptural objects in contrast to nodes, which are places to entered and experienced from within. Land marks become more easily identifiable, more likely to be chosen as significant if they have clear form, if they contrast with their background, and if  there is some prominence of spatial location. Some understand them as outstanding physical object with dominant architectonic physical characteristic while according to them they are manifested as buildings, towers, bridges, obelisks, flyovers etc. The activity associated with an element also makes it a landmark. Readings: Lynch Kevin, Image of the city ,MIT press S.murugnandam, Landmark in the urban fabric: The physical and associational qualities, In Indian context, school of architecture, undergraduate thesis, CEPT 24. LANDSCAPE GRAIN 25. MORPHOLOGY Morphology or „Urban Morphology‟ is defined by Carlo Aynomino as “the study of the built form considered from the point of view of its production in relation to the urban structure”. The term essentially relates to the study of the form and structure of an urban set-up or a complex whole wherein the component parts are expectedly interrelated and interconnected. It is to be noted here that importance to „urban from‟ is the result of its capacity to enable an „urban‟ system to be „read‟ and „analyzed‟ through the following: a. A morphological analysis wherein the urban form is defined by three fundamental physical elements: the street, the block and the plot. b. A morphological analysis wherein the urban form is made to understand at different levels of resolution corresponding to the city, the street, the block, and the building form. c. A morphological analysis wherein the urban form is understood historically since the aforementioned elements undergo change, although at different rates (the building/land use being most vulnerable while the street layout being the most resistant). The most noteworthy schools of „Urban Morphology‟ are the ones started by M.R.G. Conzen (Urban Morphology Research Group at the University of  Birmingham), Saverio Muratori (the Italian School) and most recently the French School at Versailles founded by Philippe Panerai and Jean Castex. Interstingly, the Italian morphological tradition has always looked at tradition and innovation at par with each other. The relation between tradition and innovation and hence a pre-industrial and modern approach to „urban form‟ finds applic ation in the „typological studies‟. Specifically, the typological approach is distinguished from all other Italian contributions by its classical concept of architecture as a tectonic system legitimized by its derivation of principles and rules from the practice of  building and according to a strong integration of structural, distributional and volumetric aspects. Hence, the levels of resolution and specificity towards a more responsible „urban form‟ making. Readings: Rasmussen, Steen Eiler, Towns and Buildings: described in drawings and  words , The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1951. Rossi, Aldo, The Architecture of the City , The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1982. Cataldi, Giancarlo; Maffei, Gian Luigi, and Vaccaro, Paolo, Saverio Muratori  and the Italian Planning Theory , Urban Morphology 6 (1), 2002. Gauthiez, Bernard, The history of urban morphology , Urban Morphology 8(1), 2004. Gosling, David, and Maitland, B., Concepts of Urban Design , Academy Editions, London, 1984. Hall, A.C., Dealing with Incremental Change: An Application of Urban  Morphology to Design Control , Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1997.            Kristjansdottir, Sigriour, The integration of architectural and geographical  concepts in urban morphology: preliminary thoughts , Urban Morphology Research Group, University of Birmingham, UK, 2002. Kropf, Karl, M.R.G.Conzen, Gianfranco Caniggia, Oscar Wilde and Aesop: or  why urban morphology may be right but not popular , Urban Morphology 8(1), 2004. Moudon, Anne Vernez, Urban Morphology as an emerging interdisciplinary  field , Urban Morphology 1, 3-10, 1997. Nanda, Vivek, Urban Morphology and the concept of type: a thematic and a  comparative study of the urban tissue , Undergraduate Published Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, 1989. Koster, Elwin Alexander, Urban Morphology: A taste of a form-oriented  approach to the history of urban development , Published Doctoral Student Thesis, University of Birmingham, 2001. 26. NEIGHBORHOOD/ NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT:  An integrated, planned, urban area related to the larger community of  which it is a part and consisting of residential districts, a school or schools, shopping facilities, religious buildings, open spaces and perhaps a degree of  service industry.  An early exponent of the neighborhood theory was Clarence Arthur Perry who contributed a memorandum on the neighborhood unit to volume VII of the Regional Survey of New York and its Environs (New York 1929). Among the features of this scheme was the provision of an elementary school and other  institutions required by the residents , provision of one or more shopping districts on the periphery of the unit, preferably near the traffic junctions and adjacent to shops in other neighborhood, a street system designed to facilitate circulation within the unit but to discourage through traffic and arterial roads at the boundaries to facilitate bypassing of the unit. These principles influenced the preparation of plans for cities and towns during and immediately after the Second World War, Sir Patrick Abercrombie and l H Forshow in the County of London Plan, 1943, advocated the neighborhood as a valuable unit in the planning of communities. They decided that: The elementary school should be the determining factor in the size and organization of the subsidiary or neighborhood units and those communities in which large scale reconstruction is proposed. The desirable scholar capacity of the elementary school and the desirability of fixing a maximum walking distance from home to school make the latter the one suitable building on which base the size and arrangement of the neighborhood units.  According to the authors, a population for neighborhood units of between 6,000 and 10,000 persons. It was the intention that the children living in the neighborhood should not cross the main road. Each neighborhood would have a center, preferably near the school as well as local shops, community buildings and smaller amenity open spaces.  A neighborhood geographically localized community located within a larger city or suburb. Traditionally, a neighborhood is small enough that the neighbors are all able to know each other. Real estate definition: An area of a municipality that is identifiable by a common use, a common atmosphere or a common business area. It will be seen that the neighborhood unit is a persistent them of modem planning, a theme subject to many variations that provide a rewarding field of  study. Readings: 1. Whittick, Arnold, Encyclopedia of Urban Planning, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1974 Website: 27. NODES 28. PALIMPSEST Palimpsest as a word is used for an object or a place whose older layers or aspects are apparent beneath its surface. Palimpsest is from Latin palimpsestus, from Greek palimpsestos, scraped or  rubbed again, from palin, again + psen, to rub (away). The word is often referred to historic and archeological sites. Sometimes it is possible to make out the traces of several previous incarnations lying behind the one that survives today. In a historic landscape it may be possible to 'read' a whole series of past uses written over each other. Sites can therefore be studied archaeologically, by analyzing the way in which features relate to each other. They provide evidence of past people and their relationship with the environment, as well as providing the context for individual sites and monuments. This characteristic is often referred to as a 'palimpsest'.  According to Daniel Cooper, author of The Aztec Palimpsest, "Palimpsest" serves as a useful term for the ongoing process of the construction of cultural identity through layering of partial erasures and of partial superimpositions upon previous cultural realities. . Theorist Aldo Rossi considers it indispensable to study the persistence of  traces from the past in the city of the present. He believes that each urban fact has a complex individuality: a singular quality arising from the successive marks that history's changes have left in its space over time. The architecture of the city comes to be the testimony par excellence of daily life because in its fixity the vicissitudes of humankind are registered throughout time. This idea of the city as a palimpsest where traces of heterogeneous times accumulate gives rise to images of great plasticity, as described in the beginning of U The Architecture of  the City". Walter Benjamin is another theorist who backs the idea of -City as Palimpsest. In a review on a book of walks through Berlin (Spazieren in Berlin), Benjamin wonders how the obsolete, nineteenth-century figure of the Baudelairean has managed to be so belatedly reincarnated by the book's author, Franz Hessel. Benjamin concluded that a phenomenon is better perceived the closer it is to disappearing. In his book Hessel strolls through the new Berlin seeking the trail of its old inhabitants precisely because the current architecture and city planning do not favor a way of life that leaves traces, as Benjamin states: "The coming architecture is dominated by the idea of transparency ['..J Only a man in whom modernity has already announced its presence, however  quietly, can cast such an original and "early glance" at what has only just become old. Rome as we find it is a supreme palimpsest. The ruins of pagan temples have become the foundation of Christian churches, ancient theaters have been made into medieval family fortresses, and Corinthian columns have become part of new walls. Layers of the ages exist, one on top of the other. Readings: - Rossi, Aldo, The Architecture of the City, translated by Diane Ghirardo and Joan Ockman (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The MIT Press, 1984). - Benjamin, Walter, Selected Writings, Vol. 2 (1927-'1934) (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England:The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999). - Benjamin, Walter, The Arcades Project, translated by Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999). - Rilke, Rainer Maria, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, translated by M. D. Herter Norton (New York:W.W. Norton Company, Inc., 1964) - Rodolfo, Machado, Old Buildings as Palimpsest, (Progressive Architecture November1976). - Cooper, Daniel , The Aztec Palimpsest! Mexico in the Modem Imagination, (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1997). - Beery, A.Q. and Brown, Erosion on Archaeological Earthworks: Its Prevention, Control and Repair, (Clwyd County Council, 1994) · Macinnes, L, and Wickham-Jones, All Natural Things: Archaeology and the Green Debate, (Oxbow Monograph 21,1992) · Constantin, Goagea, About specters as Poetical periphery of the existence - Art . Dictlonuy - - 29. PEDESTRIANIZATION Efforts are underway by pedestrian advocacy groups to restore pedestrian access to new developments, especially to counteract newer developments where 20 to 30 percent do not include sidewalks. Some activists advocate large auto-free zones where pedestrians only or  pedestrians and some non-motorized vehicles are allowed. Many urbanists have extolled the virtues of pedestrian streets in urban areas. Many urban streets in the USA lack street lighting (lamp poles), based on the reasoning that cars have headlights to illuminate their own way. This policy severely restricts or effectively prohibits pedestrian traffic and contributes to excessive car use on short distance trips. In contrast pedestrian traffic is officially encouraged in some parts of the European Union and construction or separation of dedicated walking routes receives a high priority in most large European city centers, often in conjunction with public transport enhancements. In Copenhagen the world's longest pedestrian shopping area, the Stroget, has been developed over the last 40 years principally due to the work of Danish architect Jan Gehl. Pedestrian  A person traveling on foot, a walker.  Adj. 1. Of, relating to, or made for pedestrians: a pedestrian bridge. 2. Going or performed on foot: a pedestrian journey. 3. Undistinguished; ordinary: pedestrian prose. [From Latin pedester, pedestr-, going on foot, from pedes, a pedestrian, from pes, ped-, foot.]  A pedestrian is a person traveling on foot, whether walking or running. In modern times, the term mostly refers to someone walking on a road but this was not the case historically. During the 18th and19th centuries, pedestrianism was a popular spectator  sport. Since the nineteenth century, interest in pedestrianism has dropped.  Although it is still an Olympic sport, it fails to catch public attention in the way that it used to. However, pedestrians are still carrying out major walking feats such as the popular Land's End to John 0' Groats walk, in the United Kingdom, or  traversal of North America from coast to coast. These feats are often tied to charitable fundraising and have been achieved by celebrities such as Sir Jimmy Savile or Ian Botham as well as by people not otherwise in the public eye. Nowadays, roads often have a designated footpath attached especially for  pedestrian traffic, called the sidewalk in American English and the pavement in British English. There are also footpaths not associated with a road, which are used purely by pedestrians, particularly ramblers, hikers or hill-walkers, and there are roads not associated with a footpath. Such footpaths in mountainous or  forested areas are called trails. On some of the latter, pedestrians share the road with horses and vehicles whilst on others they are forbidden from using the road altogether. Also some shopping streets are for pedestrians only. Some roads have special pedestrian crossings. A bridge solely for  pedestrians is a footbridge. References: - Houghton Mufflin Company Dictionary, - ( ) - ( ) - ( 30. PERSPECTIVE PLAN 31. PUBLIC PLACE  A public place is a destination and a purpose built stage for rituals and interactions. The reference is to places we all are free to use. They are themselves often defined by the private architecture of surrounding buildings. But the distinction of purpose holds the fact that in public places we act in ways we cannot or do not in the private realm. Two aspects can be attributed to the concept of public places. One is a familiar and chance encounter. The charter of public spaces here is freedom of  action and the right to stay inactive. The second aspect is a ritual one. Public places host structured or communal activities - festivals, riots, celebrations, public executions. The fundamental aim of the public place is to ensconce community and to arbitrate social conflict. Hence the concept of public places can be destinations, which have been custom built to promote human contact as settings for functions, gatherings and rituals. Readings: Spiro Kostoff. 1992. The city assembled. London: Thames and Hudson limited. Manish Sachdeva. 1999. Urban public realm: a methodology for analysis. CEPT publications. 32. PUBLIC REALM In simple tenns public realm can be defined as 'an unrestricted field or  sphere, open to all persons of, in or characteristic of cities. ' Although public areas/spaces have always existed in any kind of human settlement, the concept of "public realm" gains importance in urban situations as apart from a place for  gathering and exchange. It is in this realm that a range of activities takes place involving human interactions and social relations. It is a realm where, questions of ethnicity, religion, economics and politics between individuals and groups are raised and multiplicity of intentions, actions and associations are revealed. The public realm has physical (space) and social (activity) dimensions. The public realm is understood here to mean the spaces and settings- publicly or  privately owned - that support or facilitate public life and social interaction. Defined as the sites and settings of public life and including some notion of  'public space' the public realm ideally functions as a forum for political action and representation, as a neutral or common ground for social interaction, intenningling and communication and a stage for social learning, personal development and infonnation exchange.  Although these functions are rarely wholly attained in practice, their definition provides a measure of the degree to which 'real' public realms fall short of the ideal state. Readings: - Mathew Carmona, Tim Health, Taner 0 C and Steven Tiesdell. 2003. public places urban spaces. Architectural Press, Burlington. - Manish Sachdeva. 1999. Urban public realm: a methodology for analysis. CEPT publications. 33. PUBLIC SPACE In general, the definition of "public space", has traditionally meant streets, squares, and parks in an urban context, We see public space as the common ground where people carry out the functional & ritual activities that bind a community, whether the normal routines of  daily life or in periodic festivities. The notion of the public space has been changing. Before 18th century it was designed as honorific place celebrating power of aristocracy where as the great political revolutions of the 18th & 19th century transformed this ritual conception into the democratic public sphere, meaning places of public debate & gatherings where rational voice of the people could be heard. Public space should entail a continuous urban topography, a spatial structure that covers both rich & poor places, honorific & humble monuments, permanent & short-lived forms, and should include places for public assemblage & public debate as well as private memory walks & personal retreats. Public space is a place where anyone has a right to come without being excluded because economic or social conditions (fees, paying an entrance, being poor ...). It also does not impose any time limitations. Readings: - (Carr S., Francis M., Rivlin L., Stone A., Public space, Cambridge university press) - (Boyer, Christine, The city of collective memory, Its historical & Architectural perspective, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London.) 34. REVITALIZATION The heart of the word "r evitalization" is "vita," the Latin word for „life. Generally referred as urban revitalization means bringing back life or „vitality‟ into areas of the city, that might have lost such life. The term „revitalization‟ (or in American English „revitalization‟) is used in many fields dealing with urban structures development: town planning, sociology, geography, monuments‟ conservation. Its appearance was preceded by many terms of a close but not identical meaning, like: renewal, rebuild, restructurion, regenerating and rehabilitation. Revitalization is often described as a process of stimulating city spatial modifications/transitions  – mainly of the functional and economic character   – aiming at reversing degradation process and increasing city competitiveness. „Revitalization – the process of spatial, social and economical transitions, which goal is to bring the revitalized area out of the crisis state and leading to its development, including improvement of local community living conditions”. Revitalisation of city central areas can be characterized as a process of structural changes increasing activity and attractiveness of its space due to the coordinated strategies of private and public sectors Readings: - (Anna Wojnarowska,Spatial aspects of the revitalization process - Integrated Revitalization Programme PROREVITA for Lodz central areas) 35. SCHEMA i) ii) A diagrammatic representation; an outline or model The word schema comes from the Greek word “skhēma” that means shape or more generally plan. While a scheme refers to a loosely described plan, a schema usually refers to specific, well documented, and consistent plans. In English literature, both schemas and schemata are used as the plural form of "schema". We define a “schema” a typical stereotyped reactio n to a situation that is as a typical attitude or a characteristic coherence system of intentional poles. We understand that the schemata are formed during socialization, and their  importance is so great that may almost put a sign of equality between schema and perception. Generally we perceive properties which may not be present, and discover that our perception is wrong, as we usually are not conscious of our  schemata. When we discover that our reaction is unsatisfactory, that the schema does not allow a sufficient intentional depth, we are forced to revise it. Thus schematization therefore is a process which never comes to close. Readings: - - Norberg Schulz Christian: Intension in architecture  – George Allen & Unwin ltd. London 1963 36. SPATIALITY i) Of, relating to, involving, or having the nature of space, any property relating to or occupying space ii) Spatial scale provides a "shorthand" form for discussing relative lengths, areas, distances and sizes. A microclimate, for instance, is one which might occur in a mountain valley or near a lakeshore, whereas a mega trend is one which involves the whole planet Readings: 37. STRUCTURE PLAN 38. TDR: TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS  A mechanism by which the development rights of a property are separated from the property and can be exercised and can be exercised else where. In the case of Bombay it is a mechanism by which development rights are given as compensation to a plot owner whose land has been acquired. The owner can utilize the development rights himself on some other plot or can sell them to someone else. This is a way to eliminate the pressure of development on the parcel, which could then be put to other social, but not necessarily the most economical use. Thus the owner of the plot is not deprived of the economical benefit of his property. The rule hence solves the dilemma of individual rights against community. In this mechanism the development rights are separated from the plot, where development is to be discouraged and is allowed to be used on a plot, where development is desirable. The aim of the system is to encourage desirable social objective. It purposes varying from Acquisition of private land for public purpose. Conserving landmark by discouraging demolition. Presence of  environmentally sensitive areas the receiving areas were demarcated after  considering the market demand for development and the areas capability to support the additional density in terms of infrastructure. Readings: - Chavooshian Budd B.Norman Thomas, Nieswand H.George, Transfer of  Development of Rights; A new concept in land use management. - Davin - Drabkin Hain Land Policy and Urban Growth. - GIHED ; Bombay's Development Plan- New Dimension of Urban Development. - Mehta Jaswant: Transport of Development Rights: A vital instrument of Town Planning {Ambuja Lecture Series 1994}. - Pizor Peter.J: Making Transfer of Development of Rights work: a study or  programme implementation. - Lukachan, Biju, School of planning postgraduate thesis: Transfer of  development rights: an enabling mechanism for urban planning and management. 39. THEORY 40. TISSUE LEVEL STUDIES Tissue-level studies essentially expose the components of an urban ensemble, to indicate the inherent organization and the inter-relatedness of the same with the delineated environs. They hold immense significance in reading and illustrating the inside-outside relationship; representative of the varying degrees of public intrusion or private revelry. In fact „urban tissue‟ remains the most central element in the morphological analysis, wherein the same is looked at as an organic whole, whose overall form is seen in the light of three distinct levels of resolution: At the level of streets and blocks At the level of plots in the identified urban blocks. At the level of building forms within the identified plots. The concept of „tissue‟ thus evokes ideas of interweaving and of connections between parts, together with a capacity for adaptation. The „urban tissue‟, which    is the superimposition of several structures acting at different scales, but which appear as a system with linkages in each part of the city, can be defined as the culminating point of three systems: Roads as movement corridors and distributaries Plot sub-divisions and the respective ownerships Buildings and their uses.    Readings: Rossi, Aldo, The Architecture of the City , The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1982. Hall, A.C., Dealing with Incremental Change: An Application of Urban  Morphology to Design Control , Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1997. Petruccioli, Attilio Ed., Typological Process and Design Theory , Proceedings of the International symposium sponsored by the Aga Khan Program for  Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the MIT, Cambridge, March 1995. Panerai, Phillipe ; Castex, Jean; Depaule, Charles Jean; Samuels, Ivor, Urban Forms: the Death and Life of the Urban Block , Architectural Press, Oford, 2004.     41. TRADITIONAL AND VERNACULAR TRADITION:  A tradition is a series of cultures or industries, which appear to develop on from one another over a period of time. Tradition means any long established custom, practice or belief, which are handed down from generation to generation. It is not synonymous with stagnation. Tradition and art are intertwined. Tradition must be perpetuated for the realization of art. . Tradition patterns are responses to forces that exerted themselves over a long period of time. To most, including architects, tradition involves the maintenance of past social structures and past architectural patterns rather than the use of past processes of change. Tradition is something that is not static, but is ever changing. It is in the process, whether conscious or unconscious, by which elements are continuously transformed and readopted. References: - Lang,John; Desai,Miki & Desai, Mdhavi, 'Architecture And Independence' ,1997,Oxford Univ. Press,New Delhi, - Venturi,Robert, 'Complexity And Con tradition In Architecture.', 1966, Newyork: Museum Of Modern Art. VERNACULAR:  A built environment belonging to a particular group of people can be termed as vernacular, when the individuals are not just owners or buyers but are also participants in the building process which has been evolved over a long period of time, and are to an extend capable of building on their own. Vernacular dwellings and settlements are expressions of a complex interaction of potentialities of available materials, cultural skills, climatic conditions and economic levels of a place arrived at through a process of trial and error over a long period of time.  A study of vernacular form gives one an understanding of the basic human responses to the built environment. It also teaches one the link between built form and tradition, customs, social values and physical factors such as topography, materials and climate. Vernacular building shapes, floor plans, materials, construction techniques, and other characteristics are often generated from centuries-old local patterns. These patterns are continually changing, but do so slowly. An early work was Bernard Rudofsky's 1964 book "Architecture Without Architects: a short introduction to non-pedigreed architecture", based on his MoMA exhibition. The book was a gentle reminder of the legitimacy and "hard-won knowledge" inherent in vernacular buildings, from Polish salt-caves to gigantic Syrian water  wheels to Moroccan desert fortresses, although it was considered iconoclastic at the time." Christopher Alexander attempted to identify adaptive features of  traditional architecture that apply across cultures in his book A Pattern Language. Howard Davis's book The Culture of Building details the culture that enabled several vernacular traditions. The term "commercial vernacular", popularized in the late 1960s by the publication of Robert Venturi's "Learning from Las Vegas", refers to 20th century  American suburban tract and commercial architecture. Unlike traditional vernacular, however, the design and construction of these types of buildings is remote from their eventual users, and they do not represent long cultural traditions; those who study traditional vernacular architecture hold that these characteristics define a more useful and fundamental partition of architecture into vernacular and non-vernacular than whether or not a kind of architecture is accepted within academia. Readings: - Alexander,Christopher, 'Timeless Way Of Building', 1979,Oxford Univ. Press. - Rudofsky ,Bernard, 'Architecture Without Architects - A Short Introduction To Non-Pedigreed Architecture', 1965, New York: Museum Of Modern Art. - Alexander,Christopher And Others, 'Pattern Language: Towns,Buildings, Construction', 1977, New York: Oxford Univ. Press. 42. TRAVEL TIME GRID 43. TYPOLOGY AND TYPE The earliest reference to „type‟ dates back to the time of Plato, Aristotle, and Epicurius when the writings on philosophy and psychology ideated the term „typos‟, describing a set of characteristics present in a group of concrete individuals. However, it was in France that „type‟ as a theory took a definitive footing; as a reaction to the perceived decline of the Baroque and the Rococo. Quatremere de Quincy, at the end of the eighteenth century, brought forth a completely new understanding of „type‟, until then regarded as a „model‟, and based it on history, nature and use. Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, however, elaborated the understanding of the „type‟, substituting it by the term „genre‟ and deviating from Quicy‟s pre occupation of the same with stylistic categorixation, to developing a principle-led following categorization: Historical (Egyptial Temples, Roman Palaces, Moorish details); Functional (Theatres, Markets, Hospitals); Round Temples (From considered as a distinctive feature of a building). „Type‟ could thus be regarded as a „set of common formal characteristics, presenting less the image of a thing to copy than the idea of an element, which ought to serve as rule. Hence while all is precise and given in a model; all is more or less vague and subject to variation in the type‟ (Encyclopedia Methodique, Paris, 1825). Readings: Anderson, Stanford, Types and Conventions in Time: Towards a History of  Duration and Change of Artifacts , Perspecta 18, 1982. Aymonimo, Carlo, Ten Opinions on the Type , Casabella 509/510, 1985. Aymonimo, Carlo, Type and Typology , AD 55 5/6, London, 1985. Braham, William, After Typology: The suffering of diagrams , Architectural Design, Vol. 70, No. 3, May-June, 2000. Burelli, Augusto Romano, Unearthing the Type , AD 55 5/6, London, 1985. Colquhoun, Alan, Typology and Design Method , Arena, The Journal of the  Architectural Association, June 1967; Republished in Charles Jencks and George Baird, Meaning in Architecture, London, 1969. De Carlo, Giancarlo, Notes on the uncontrolled ascent of Typology , Casabella 509/510, 1985. De Mauro, Tullio, Typology , Casabella 509/510, 1985. Ellis, W.,Type and Context in Urbanism: Colin Rowe Contextualism , Oppositions no. 18, 1979, p. 2-27. Findley, R.J. (1983) Rob Krier: Urban Projects 1968-1982 , Progressive  Architecture, vol. 64, 1983, p.231. Frampton, Kenneth, Modern Architecture: A Critical History , 1980. Goode, Terrance, Typological Theory in the United States: The Consumption  of Architectural “Authenticity” , Journal of Architectural Education, September  1992. Madrazo, Leandro, Durand and the Science of Architecture , Journal of   Architectural Education, September 1994. Moneo, Raphael, On Typology , Oppositions 13, 1978. Nanda, Vivek, Urban Morphology and the concept of type: a thematic and a  comparative study of the urban tissue , Undergraduate Published Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, 1989. Petruccioli, Attilio Ed., Typological Process and Design Theory , Proceedings of the International symposium sponsored by the Aga Khan Program for  Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the MIT, Cambridge, March 1995. Polesello, Gianugo, Typology and Composition in Architecture , Type and Typology, AD 55 5/6, London, 1985. Scolari, Massimo, The Typological Commitment , Casabella 509/510, 1985.                      The Luck of Aldo Rossi: Notes on the critical success of his works  ,  Architecture + Urbanism No. 65, 1976. Vidler, A., The Third Typology , Oppositions, N. 7, 1978. Vidler, Anthony, Dictionnaire Historique de l’Architecture , Oppositions 8, Spring 1977. 44. URBAN Interestingly, there have been several ideologies pertaining to the under standing of settlements with respect to their „urban‟ and „rural‟ designations, all essentially discussing in the light of the pre-industrial era, when every settlement thriving on agriculture was seen as rural. Thus in rural societies, lands were a collective possession, and agriculture, a singular force representative of  collective behaviour and control. Apportioning of land, emergence of a class of  landowners, land becoming a subject of transaction, the resultant emergence of  a mixed group of people and the subsequent diversity in occupation: all, on the other hand, shaping up the beginnings of an „urban system‟ (Barnow, 2001). There is however, another ideology, which goes beyond this simplistic differentiation and imparts urban status to settlements that gradually arise as commercial magnets, notwithstanding their agricultural predominance or the relatively controlled homogeneous densities (Thapar, 1984). The theory outrightly regards the basic phenomenon of migration of population to safer riverine hinterlands as the most primitive type of „urbanization‟ giving rise to most rudimentary urban centres. Urban civilizations are thus recognized as those that were linked by river traffic, what with the expansion of trade, allowing for the intensification of the urban culture, and the choice of site, and the subsequent establishment of an economic and political base then becoming a criterion for the coveted designation (Thapar, 1984). Interestingly thus, the qualitative difference between „urban‟ and „rural‟ i s made synonymous with the planned efforts of the settlement dwellers towards the laying of basic infrastructure, drainage and soakage pits, as also wells for  availability of water, and the act of erecting a solid and relatively impermeable fortification for defense: (fortifications being sharp reminders of the several layers of separation between the Royal Court from the townspeople, as well as the urban from the rural).  Add to this, the size of the settlement also contributed to the status of an „urban‟ set-up. Hence, the hierarchies  – Fortified settlements ( Pura ) Market settlements ( Nigamas ) Town (Nagara ) Large Town ( Mahanagara ) Township ( Qasba ) City (Shahr )       Completely abandoning, however, this concept of separation between the town and country, emerges yet another perspective that acknowledges the inseparability of the town from the larger social environment and „regards towns as sites in which the history of the larger social systems  – states, societies, modes of production, world economies  – is partially but crucially worked out (Champakalakshmi, 1999). Infact urban sociologists treat towns as „fields of  social realization of power, stressing upon the continuity of social stratification between the town and the country‟. To conclude, plurality in the ownership of land, its control and use (Barnow, 2000) as well as the coexistence of agricultural and commercial base, trade, and a sense of permanence attested by a political and a military structure: all become the determinants for regarding a settlement formation, „urban‟. As Kostoff (1991) neatly puts it: An entity which has a positive ecological base, A site favourable for trade, A sense of technology which improves the agricultural base, A complex social organization, A strong political structure.      Readings: Barnow, Finn, City of Divine King: Urban Systems and Urban Architecture in  Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, Nepal, and China , Royal Danish Academy of Fine  Arts, School of Architecture, Copenhagen, 2001. Thapar, Romila, From lineage to State: Social formations in the mid-first  millennium BC in the Ganga Valley , Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1984. Kostoff, Spiro, The City Shaped: Urban Pattern and Meanings Through  History , Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, 1991. Champakalakshmi, R., Trade, Ideology and Urbanization in Southern India:  300 BC to AD 1300 , Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1999.     45. URBAN BLOCK The „Urban Block‟ is essentially a typological element in the overall urban composition. It primarily refers to an entity which is defined on all sides by a network of traffic routes: planned or unplanned, and which remains constituted by building types that may (ideally) or may not (necessarily) contribute towards its edge definition. „The „Urban Block‟, in other words, may also be referred to as the „built mass‟ of the city that constitutes an agglomeration of buildings. Its form is defined by the peripheral conditions of the open-spaces that either generate the block or  are generated by the articulation of the block. In the traditional cities, the urban block was essentially formed by a single and continuous built mass that represented the extent of the block and in turn gave the street a certain definition. Today, however, the block is the result of individual and isolated buildings that stand in space but not necessarily establish coherence‟. (Gothoskar, Vineeta, An  Enquiry into the aspects of Urban Edge as an element of participation , Undergraduate Unpublished Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, 1988). The „urban block‟ thus emerges as a part of the urban area „isolated‟ from the neighboring parts if the larger territory by streets. It is in this respect not an architectural form but a group of interdependent building plots. It has a meaning only in relation with the network of streets that define its boundary. Readings: Panerai, Phillipe; Castex, Jean; Depaule, Charles Jean; Samuels, Ivor, Urban  Forms: the Death and Life of the Urban Block , Architectural Press, Oford, 2004. Gothoskar, Vineeta, An Enquiry into the aspects of Urban Edge as an  element of participation , Undergraduate Unpublished Thesis, School of   Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, 1988.   46. URBAN CONSERVATION 47. URBAN DESIGN “Urban designing involves the planned intervention in the marketplace and in the legal processes of allocating and designing the combination of land and building uses and building configurations that constitute the three-dimensional physical nature of human settlements. Such a planned intervention is based on a model of the human being, an image of an ideal world, a model of the environment, and a set of values. These models and values are seldom clear  and almost never stated explicitly. Urban design is concerned with the built environment of cities (and other  human settlements) and the public welfare. Urban design is always both a public and a political act” - Jon Lang "The science of city planning and the art of city design, in real life for real cities, must become the science and art of catalyzing and nourishing these closegrained working relationships. These are conditions required for generating useful great city diversity" - Jane Jacobs "There is an art of relationship just as there is an art of architecture. Its purpose is to take all the elements that go to create the environment: buildings, trees, nature, water, traffic advertisements and so on, and to weave then together in such a way that drama is released. The aim is not to dictate the shape of the town or environment, but is a modest one: simply to manipulate within the tolerances" - Gordon Cullen "Urban design is Architecture and not a separate entity mediating between planning and building. It is the physical expression of society's hopes and intentions and a means of using and developing human and architectural potential, involving areas of concern which do not recognize boundaries between public and private domains. Urban design should integrate physical design with the power of policy-making to shape the large-scale public/private environment and manage its growth and change." - Michael Wilford. "We propose a discipline of urban design which is different, entirely, from the one known today. We believe that the task of creating wholeness in the city can only be dealt with as a process. IT cannot be solved by design alone, but only when the process by which the city gets its form is fundamentally changed. Thus, in our view it is the process above all which is responsible for wholeness, not merely the form. If we might create a suitable process there is some hope that the city might become whole again. If we do not change the process, there is no hope at all." - Christopher Alexander  Readings: - Lang, Jon, Urban Design: The American Experience, Van Nostrand, New York, 1994 - Jacobs, Jane, Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Failure Of Town Planning, Vintage, New York, 1961 - Cullen, Gordon, Townscapes, Architectural Press, London, 1961 - Alexander, Christopher, A New Theory Of Urban Design, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987 48. URBAN ECOLOGY, ECOLOGY, ARCOLOGY. „Ecology is essentially a term of Greek origin, from Oikos , meaning a house or a dwelling place, and Lagos , meaning the study of life habits of over a million different kinds of plants and animals, including the manners of influences and interaction among them‟. Ecology as a discipline of study extends itself to not only the life sciences but also to others like archaeology, chemistry, anthropology, geography, as well as the entire natural and social sciences. Interestingly, the traditionalists‟ idea of  ecology pertaining to the natural and geographic settings has witnessed a tremendous change in the recent times in both meaning and vision, what with the „urbanization‟ assuming the role of the most significant phenomenon of the post-industrial era: a world where the „natural settings and the built environment have begun to constitute distinctive variables‟ of a larger urban ecological setting. Hence the emergence of a new discipline, urban ecology , which concerns itself with as much as the structure of the cities, as much as its location in a particular eco-system, the impact on the neighbourhood, the existence of  concentric environments: internal and external, and the impact of urbanization on the „ecological field‟ of the city. In other words, the same se es the urban built environment in conjunction with various values of the space context (economic, social, ethnic, and environmental). Interestingly, in response to the increasing divide between the natural and the built environment, there were worldwide concerns, but one idea which evolved from conception to actual realization is the concept of  Arcology  by Paolo Soleri. „The concept is essentially that of a structure called Arcology or an ecological architecture, which would take the place of the natural landscape in as much it would constitute the new topography to be dealt with‟: an organism which lives and lets live, consumes only requisite resources but in turn also contributes to the enrichment of the ecology. Readings: Croall, Stephen and Rankin, William, Ecology for beginners , Icon Books Ltd., Cambridge, 1992.         Dendrinos, Diminos and Mullaly, Henri, Urban Evolution: Studies in  Mathematical Ecologies of Cities , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1985. Gilpin, Alan, Dictionary of Environmental Terms , Routledge and Kegan Paul, London and Henley, 1976. Kormondy, Edward J., Concept of Ecology , New Delhi Prentice Hall, 1971. Leutsher, Alfred, Ecology of Towns , Franklin Walts Ltd., London, 1975. Simonds, John Ormsbee, Landscape Architecture , Illefe Books Ltd., London, 1961. Sinha, Dr. S.P., Urban Environment and Cotemporary Ecology , The Indian Publications, Ambala Cantt, 1986. Soleri, Paolo, Arcology: The City in the Image of Man , The MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1981. 49. URBAN FORM Exploring the links between the concrete physicality of the built form and the complex social, economic, political processes through which the physical urban form is produced and consumed. Physical form and spatial structure of the city gives it its form. The pattern of development in an urban area, including aspects such as urban density; the use of land (residential, commercial, industrial or institutional); the existence of denser “nodes”, centers or corridors; and the degree to which urban development is contiguous or fragmented at the fringes. Typo morphological studies use building types to explain urban form and the process of shaping the fabric of cities. References: Lang, Jon, Urban Design: The American Experience, Van Nostrand, New York, 1994 50. URBAN FABRIC The urban fabric is the physical form of towns and cities. The habitual use of the singular - „the‟ urban fabric - implies that there is only one per urban area, however it may locally be contorted or riven. The urban fabric, like urban structures and spaces, also embodies the concept of continuity, in contrast to built form, which could easily be regarded as being a collection of freestanding objects. The urban fabric is also differentiated from urban structure, whose name connotes conscious and incremental construction, as urban fabric is often cast as a passive entity to which things are done. In this sense the urban fabric may therefore be seen as representing the idea of a pre-existing, primal form, the urban landscape as found. Just as the surface of the earth is as a thin skin over the global mass, the urban fabric may be likened to a cloak overlaying this skin, forming a new surface. Perhaps the urban fabric is always conceptually „what was there before‟ at a given point in time, something that may be cut or disrupted - and healed once more - by new interventions, rather than being a unitary construct, deliberately assembled as such. It is no coincidence that the term „urban fabric‟ has a garment -like resonance, it is not truly two-dimensional, as it incorporates the vertical dimension of built form: the urban fabric may be said to be „torn apart‟ even when the street plan on the ground remains largely intact. Neither is the urban fabric fully three-dimensional, as its significance is associated with the concave street spaces occupied by people as they move through „it‟. The system of streets, which binds the built form into the urban structure of the road network, creates a continuous urban fabric and in a sense confirms the coherence of urbanity. Readings: - Alexander C. A City is Not a Tree,  Architectural Forum, Thames and Hudson, London, 1966. Alexander C. A Pattern Language: Towns, buildings, construction. Oxford  University Press, New York, 1977. Bacon, E.N. Design of Cities , Thames and Hudson, London, 1967. Website: 51. URBAN INSERT The urban fabric of a city which is usually conceived as „what was there before‟ at a given point of time and is subject to change whether it be in terms of  it being cut or disrupted or modified and healed once more, by new interventions is considered as an urban insert. The conventional plan is to drive a new imposed order, “a better  environment” through congested and unsanitary areas which is quite unsparing to the old homes and to the neighborhood life of the area, leaves fewer homes and the large population expelled would again as usual be driven into creating worse congestion in other quarters. If the original inhabitants have been shifted then the new spaces thus formed from their removal will have newer inhabitants and different functions as compared to the previous order. If cavernous squares and heroic avenues are proposed they will upset the subtle spatial play between small buildings and large, monumental nodes and the standard tissue that gives these monuments their status, their impressiveness, and, such planning is also never innocent of political or social ends “Urban planning” that was actually implemented bears faithful testimony to a concentration of authority. Much of the planning we recognize today in ancient, medieval or renaissance cities was the work of kings, princes, prelates, aristocrats or oligarchies, each powerful enough to define the urban order. Haussmann, the “ demolition artist ” as he was called by many of his detractors, was the great precursor of pitiless massive urban surgery causing the destruction of entire sections of a city, which was condoned to make room for the public theatres of Napoleons regime. Urban inserts in more modern times are undertaken to “relieve congestion” and “restore decorum” and create a “better environment”. Readings: - Ward V Stephen, Planning the Twentieth Century City: the  advanced  capitalist world , London UK, 2002. - Mum ford Lewis, The Culture of Cities , USA, 1970. - Tyrwhit Jacqueline, Patrick Geddes in India , Great Britain, 1947 - Spiro Kostof, The City Shaped: Urban Patterns And Meanings Through  History , Canada 1991. - Function and Metaphor, Design Quarterly, Article by Spiro Kostof: His  majesty the Pick: The Aesthetics of Demolition , Minneapolis, 1982. 52. URBAN RENEWAL Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in British English) is a movement in urban planning that reached its peak in the United States from the late 1 940s through the early 1970s. Urban renewal is controversial, as it often imples the use of eminent domain law to enforce reclaiming private property for  civic projects. And while envisionoo as a way to redevelop residential slums and blightoo commercial areas, "renewal" often resulted in the creation of urb,m sprawl-vast areas being demolishoo and replaced by fTeeways and expressways, housing projects, and vacant lots-some of which remained vacant at the beginning of the 21st centUlY. Urban Renewal physically takes things and turns them to new uses. It essentially means rehabilitation of impoverished urban neighborhoods by largescale renovation or reconstruction of housing and public works. Homes are destroyed or rehabilitated; new structures rise or the uses of old structures are changed; streets and community facilities are rearranged. Urban renewal is not a goal, but a tool. It is a method whereby a great variety of ends could be served. In some places, renewal has meant erecting a civic monument in a downtown plaza; in others, rehabilitating sound but decaying homes to improve living conditions for residents; in others, getting 'Undesirables' out of 'Desirable' neighborhoods by spot clearance; in others, stabilizing blighted(diseased) neighborhoods and encouraging residents to improve their properties; in others, developing land that will attract new businesses into the community or clearing land that will get unpopular businesses out of the community. Bibliography: - Wilson James, Urban Renewal: the record and controversy; M.LT. Press, Cambridge, 1968. - Gavin McCrone, Urban Renewal: Scottish Experience, Urban Studies, voL28, December 1991. - David Smith, Urban Renewal in Asian context: A case study in HongKong, Urban Studies, January 1 976, vo1. 13, October 1976. - P. R. Mehta, Urban Renewal, A+D, Augustl998. 53. URBAN TRANSFORMATION The term Transformations predominantly means 'change'. Cities are in constant evolution and where the main changes in our society take place. Economic, social and cultural progress today takes place in large cities and relates directly to the modification of the physical space involved and the living conditions of the people. The consequences of the process of transformation often differ in the various parts of a city. Urban Transformation is a process and a tool of intervention, which should become a commonly used urban design method to attain historical and spatial quality for urban spaces. There are two most prominent modes of Urban growth of a city namely: 1. Growth by Extension- characterized by the urbanization of open areas around the peripheries of the city 2. Growth by substitution- involving the demolition of  existing Urban elements and their replacement by new elements. The second aspect deals with the issue of Urban Transformation, wherein a generator brings about a change in the existing conditions (social, economic, cultural), which thereby influences a change in the urban fabric. These transformations need to be guided to derive a coherent and 'transformed' urban environment, after having addressed the inherent growth pressures and the generators of such a condition. Readings: - Rodrigo Perez De Arce, Urban Transformations and the Architecture of   Additions, Archit(;.'Ctural Association, London; 1990. - Leon Krier, Urban Transformations, Architectural Design, vol. 48, April 1978. - Lewis Mumford, City: its origin, its transfonnations and its prospects, Seeker  & Warburg, London,1963. - Smith Michael Peter Ed., Cities in Transfonnation : class, capital and state, no.26;Urban Affairs Annual Reviews, Sage publication, London, 1984. 54 and 56. URBANITY and URBANISM Urbanity refers to the relation between the urban environment and the city dweller. It is the expression of a built-form to form a physical as well as a social setting for the city‟s dwellers – where the street space is not simply a public open space but can be used freely by the pedestrians without having been invited or  inhibited any one. (Gothoskar, Vineeta, An Enquiry into the aspects of Urban  Edge as an element of participation , Undergraduate Unpublished Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, 1988).  Also, the term „urbanism‟ is referred to a „holistic consideration of the built environment within its physical, historical and social contexts‟. One of the e arliest reference to the term dates back to 1938, when it first appeared in the essay by Louis Wirth in order to mean „the way of life of the city dwellers‟. Giurgola, on the other hand, defined the term „urbanism‟ as an art and discipline whose “aim is an architectural synthesis of all those values, which represent the urban aggregate in the broadest sense of the word…besides denoting the material act of  planning”. Readings: Tafuri, Manfred, Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development , Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT, 1973. Goodman, Paul, Growing up absurd , Random House, New York, 1956. Giurgola, Ronaldo, Architecture in Change , Marcus Whiffin, 1966. Chermayeff, Serge and Alexander, Cristopher, Community and Privacy:  Towards a new architecture of humanism , Doubleday, New York, 1963. Scully, Vincent, American Architecture and Urbanism , Henry Holt, New York, 1969. Ellin, Nan, Postmodern Urbanism , Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 1999. Desai, Monika, Morphology of the Urban Block: A Study , Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, Nanda, Vivek, Urban Morphology and the Concept of Type: A Thematic and  Comparative Study of the Urban Tissue, Published Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad, 1990. Rao, Dinesh, Building Typology and Urban Morphology: A Study, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, CEPT,  Ahmedabad, 1989.          55. URBANIST Despite the confusing counter claims made upon it , the term „organic‟ suggests an amoral development process, evolving naturally with the needs of  the society as it exists. I this. In this, it contrasts sharply with another powerful tradition- the utopian or the ideal  – in which town design is closely allied to the design of the society itself. Whereas the organic town can exist only in fact, as the physical result of a multitude of small forces and actions, the ideal town can exist only in theory, as one designer‟s formulation of a possible complete solution to the design problem „town‟. The propagators of such utopian thinking are generally referred to as „Urbanists‟. Thus Urbanists like Campanella, Bacon, Fourier, Le Corbusier, Wright and Howard devised their utopian models. A second major theme explored by the social utopias, and which became increasingly urgent as the industrial revolution developed, was the relation between the city and the country. The three alternative formulations of this relationship were expressed by Wright‟s Broadacre City, Howard‟s Garden City and Le Corbusier‟s Vil le Radieuse.  After the revolution in Russia, two attitudes seem to have emerged„urbanist‟ with a capitalist attitude; and „disurbanist‟ advocating a Marxian development. Readings: - Gosling David, Concepts in Urban Design, London academy editions, 1984. - Tafuri Manfredo,Architecture and Utopia:Design and Capitalist Development, MITpress, Cambridge,Mass,1976. - 57. URBANIZATION Urbanization is the expansion of a city or metropolitan area, namely the proportion of total population or area in urban localities or areas (cities and towns), or the increase of this proportion over time. It can thus represent a level of urban population relative to total population of the area, or the rate at which the urban proportion is increasing. Both can be expressed in percentage terms, the rate of change expressed as a percentage per year, decade or period between censuses. For instance, the United States or United Kingdom have a far higher  urbanization level than China, India or Nigeria, but a far slower annual urbanization rate, since much less of the population is living in a rural area while in the process of moving to the city. The rate of urbanization over time is distinct from the rate of urban growth, which is the rate at which the urban population or area increases in a given period relative to its own size at the start of that period. The urbanization rate represents to the city. In terms of a geographical place, urbanization means increased spatial scale and/or density of settlement and/or business and other activities in the area over time. The process could occur either as natural expansion of the existing population (usually not a major factor since urban reproduction tends to be lower  than rural), the transformation of peripheral population from rural to urban, incoming migration, or a combination of these. In either case, urbanization has profound effects on the ecology of a region and on its economy. Urban sociology also observes that people's psychology and lifestyles change in an urban environment. The increase in spatial scale is often called "urban sprawl". It is frequently used as a derogatory term by opponents of large-scale urban peripheral expansion especially for low-density urban development on or beyond the city fringe. Sprawl is considered unsightly and undesirable by those critics, who point also to diseconomies in travel time and service provision and the danger of social polarization through suburbanites' remoteness from inner-city problems. 58. ZONING 59. NEW URBANISM The recent times have seen a shift from the much practiced, yet the much maligned, „use-based‟ zoning to „type -led‟ zoning primarily to govern the character of the sprawl at the edge of the cities. The type essentially being „form al‟ and hence in many a case, used primarily to recreate the old world charm through „neo-traditionalism‟. This has however, assumed a new wave of  ideational thinking and practice, popularly referred to as New Urbanism  and practiced in many a States of Northern America (the chief proponents in the field being Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyber). The solutions are however; such that they apply to all cities irrespective of regional differences (Salingaros, 2001) and presently stand in complete contrast to the principles of typomorphology that recognizes the „urban landscape‟ as not being „form -centric‟ but as a hierarchic structure with the town-plan, pattern of building forms, and pattern of urban land-use as the chief components (Conzen, 1973), each responding to the dynamics of the city through different pace of change and transformation. Readings: Panerai, Phillipe; Castex, Jean; Depaule, Charles Jean; Samuels, Ivor, Urban  Forms: the Death and Life of the Urban Block , Architectural Press, Oford, 2004. Katz, Peter, Notes on the History of the New Urbanism , in T. Bressi (ED.), The Seaside Debates, Rizzoli, New York, 2002. Katz, Peter, The New Urbanism , Mc-Graw Hill, New York, 1994. Ellin, Nan, Postmodern Urbanism , Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 1999. Salingaros, Nikos, The Future of Cities: Absurdity of Modernism, an interview  with Leon Krier , Urban Land 61, January 2002.      60. POST MODERN URBANISM Themes of Post modem Urbanism Post Modernist idea of the city emerged as reaction against modernism. In "The Condition of Post Modernity" David Harvey defines the postmodern city with the rise of historical eclecticism, (as inventing tradition by imitating the older  forms) multiculturalism, (reference with the locality and ethnicity) and spectacle. (a theater scene. commercialization of built environment) He explains the turn from "modernism" to "postmodernism" reference with the change of economic system and cultural codes. He asserts a correlation between the shift to postmodernism in the cultural sphere and the shift to "flexible accumulation" (post-war fordism) in the economic sphere. In a chapter entitled "Postmodernism in the city: architecture and urban design" Harvey demonstrates a link between Fordist methods of mass production and the international high modernism of Le Corbusier. He shows the usage of industrial methods of Ford ism as a model for  mass housing projects in response to the crises of the Great Depression and the Second World War. Harvey also indicates that when the decline in the rate of  profit forced the rigid "Fordist system" to the "flexible accumulation", there was a corresponding shift in architecture and urban design. The functional universalism of high modernism (International Style) gave way 10 new forms of particularism. (anti-universalism)  Another commentator Stuart Hall thought postmodern city as discontinuous and fragmented space self-contained 'alternative' cities, and rediscovery of the local. Collectively there is wide variety of overlapping themes in the postmodernists' vocabulary. These themes, according to ElIin, include contextualism, historicism, the search for urbanity, regionalism, anti-universalism, pluralism, collage, self-referentiality, reflexivity, preoccupation with image/decor  scenography, superficiality, depthlessness, ephemerality, fragmentation, populism, apoliticism, commercialism, loss of faith, and irony. Harvey views postrnodernism as enveloping modernism and adds "there is much more continuity than difference between modernism and postmodernism." In this sense postmodern urbanism can be seen as a more diversified and ephemeral discourse on the pre-existing structure of modern urbanism. The rising values and fields of postmodern urbanism are community participation (based on pluralism and regionalism), mixed use (associated with ecological approaches), pedestrian fiiendly design (addresses the vitality and livability) and urban design (maintained mainly by historic preservation and environmentalism). Urban Design in the Post modem Context In the beginning of our century urban planning had evolved as the branch of architecture dealing with urban design issues. During this early period design had a central role in urban planning, as best demonstrated in the modernists' Charter of Athens. (1933) However, in postmodern period the structural change in the economy, from mass production for a mass society to flexible production for a fragmented society brought about a new interest in the built environment. The center of the urban design has moved from producing good and beautiful forms to drawing inspirations from mass culture, the social context, the site and the past New attention to the qualities of built environment has been given after  1980s in response to global competition of cities and their parts. This made the role of urban design more significant in the production of the built environment. The postmodern school of thought in urban design promoted the "return to vitality" after late 1960s under the guidance of prominent designers such as Rapoport, Appleyard and Altman. They suggested that vitality could be restored by creative land use allocation and sound urban design principles by encouraging integrated and mixed land use and making these uses more pedestrian oriented. They aimed to create an intimate physical environment that supports the communal identity. However this romantic reaction against the boredom of modernist's projects failed to success due to the ignorance of the social equity and prevailing economic forces.  Another group of postmodem architects and urban designers (neoclassicists) advocated the return to vitality and the beauty of pre-industrial forms. Ingersol criticizes this new type of historicism: "pre-industrial forms and spaces are not necessarily suited to post-industrial ways of life". Then he asks, "if one proposes all kinds of nice public spaces, connected streets and figured piazzas, will there still be an audience in a highly technological society for their use?" No doubt that, the search for urbanity based on historical eclecticism may become misguided when it ignores the contemporary context. One the other hand there was some between the historicists and modernists. In their works "Collage City" Rowe and Cotter proposed a harmonization between old and new, present and past In sum, we can not mention about the single and dominant theme and approaches in postmodern urbanism. This complexity and chaos is explained as "schizophrenia" by Jencks. Urban design in postmodern urbanism, therefore. reflects wide variety of  design approaches, contexts and applications. But the current implications in urban design chiefly refer to downtown revitalization projects, historic preservation, and public space enhancement projects. (i.e. street design, traffic calming etc.) 61. URBAN VILLAGE The definition used by DDA: "Traditional rural settlements, which have been changed and merged with urban areas" Urban villages Size - small enough for all places to be within walking distance of each other and for people to know each other. Size - large enough to support a wide range of activities and facilities and to be able to stand up for itself if its interests come under threat.  A range of uses - mixed within street blocks as well as within the village as a whole.  A balance of houses and flats and workplaces - such that there is a theoretical one-to-one ratio between jobs and residents able and willing to work.  A pedestrian fiiendly environment - catering for the car without encouraging its use.  A mixture of different building types and sizes, including some degree of  mixed use with buildings.Robust building types. Mixed tenure - both for residential and employment uses. The former kind of area, typically, is one in which European immigrantsand more recently Negro and Puerto Rican ones-try to adapt their non-urban institutions and cultures to the urban milieu. Thus it may be called an urban village. Readings: - The contents and discontents of urban villages, Smriti Sachdeva - Mathew Carmona, Tim Health, Taner 0 C and Steven Tiesdell. 2003. public places urban spaces. Architectural Press, Burlington. - The urban villagers.Group and class in the life of ltalianAmericans.Herbert J. Gans. 62. NECROPOLIS  A necropolis (plural: necropolises or necropolis) is a cemetery or buryingplace, literally a " city of the dead ". Apart from the occasional application of the word to modern cemeteries outside large towns, the term is chiefly used of burial grounds near the sites of the centers of ancient civilizations. The dead were the first to have a permanent dwelling; a cavern, a mound marked by a cairn, a collective barrow. These were landmarks to which the living probably returned at intervals, to commune with or placate the ancestral spirits. The city of the dead antedates the city of the living, and in a sense is a forerunner, almost the core of every living city. Necropolises were built for many reasons. Sometimes their origin was purely religious: the Valley of the Kings in Egypt is a prime example; infact most of what is left of that great civilization is its temples and tombs. Other cultures created necropolises in response to prohibitions on burials within city limits. Roads immediately outside towns therefore came to be lined with funerary monuments, especially in the Roman Empire. Examples of this kind of necropolis can be found on the Appian Way just outside Rome and at the Alyscamps in  Arles, France.